Exponential Mixing of the 3D Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations Driven by Mildly Degenerate Noises
Albeverio, Sergio; Debussche, Arnaud; Xu Lihu
2012-10-15
We prove the strong Feller property and exponential mixing for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equation driven by mildly degenerate noises (i.e. all but finitely many Fourier modes being forced) via a Kolmogorov equation approach.
On the Dynamic Programming Approach for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
Manca, Luigi
2008-06-15
The dynamic programming approach for the control of a 3D flow governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in a bounded domain is studied. By a compactness argument, existence of solutions for the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is proved. Finally, existence of an optimal control through the feedback formula and of an optimal state is discussed.
A least-squares finite element method for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Hou, Lin-Jun; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations, and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system. An additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. The flow in a half of 3D cubic cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 52 x 25 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Gortler-like vortices are observed at Re = 1,000.
Numerical solution of 3D Navier-Stokes equations with upwind implicit schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marx, Yves P.
1990-01-01
An upwind MUSCL type implicit scheme for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Comparison between different approximate Riemann solvers (Roe and Osher) are performed and the influence of the reconstructions schemes on the accuracy of the solution as well as on the convergence of the method is studied. A new limiter is introduced in order to remove the problems usually associated with non-linear upwind schemes. The implementation of a diagonal upwind implicit operator for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is also discussed. Finally the turbulence modeling is assessed. Good prediction of separated flows are demonstrated if a non-equilibrium turbulence model is used.
On Energy Cascades in the Forced 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dascaliuc, R.; Grujić, Z.
2016-02-01
We show—in the framework of physical scales and (K_1,K_2) -averages—that Kolmogorov's dissipation law combined with the smallness condition on a Taylor length scale is sufficient to guarantee energy cascades in the forced Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, in the periodic case we establish restrictive scaling laws—in terms of Grashof number—for kinetic energy, energy flux, and energy dissipation rate. These are used to improve our sufficient condition for forced cascades in physical scales.
On Energy Cascades in the Forced 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dascaliuc, R.; Grujić, Z.
2016-06-01
We show—in the framework of physical scales and (K_1,K_2)-averages—that Kolmogorov's dissipation law combined with the smallness condition on a Taylor length scale is sufficient to guarantee energy cascades in the forced Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, in the periodic case we establish restrictive scaling laws—in terms of Grashof number—for kinetic energy, energy flux, and energy dissipation rate. These are used to improve our sufficient condition for forced cascades in physical scales.
Local existence and Gevrey regularity of 3-D Navier-Stokes equations with ℓp initial data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Animikh
We obtain local existence and Gevrey regularity of 3-D periodic Navier-Stokes equations in case the sequence of Fourier coefficients of the initial data is in ℓp (p<3/2). The ℓp norm of the sequence of Fourier coefficients of the solution and its analogous Gevrey norm remains bounded on a time interval whose length depends only on the size of the body force and the ℓp norm of the Fourier coefficient sequence of the initial data. The control on the Gevrey norm produces explicit estimates on the analyticity radius of the solution as in Foias and Temam (J. Funct. Anal. 87 (1989) 359-369). The results provide an alternate approach in estimating the space-analyticity radius of solutions to Navier-Stokes equations than the one presented by Grujić and Kukavica (J. Funct. Anal. 152 (1998) 447-466).
Calculation of a simulated 3-D high speed inlet using the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, D. D.
1983-01-01
A hybrid numerical algorithm, developed to solve the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, is applied to the computation of the flowfield in a simulated three-dimensional high speed aircraft inlet at a Mach number of 2.5 and Reynolds number of 1.4 x 10 to the 7th based on inlet length. The numerical algorithm incorporates a coordinate transformation in order to handle general flow geometries, and utilizes the algebraic turbulent eddy viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax. The hybrid algorithm has been vectorized on the CDC CYBER 203 computer using the SL/1 vector programming language developed at NASA Langley. The computed results are compared with experimental measurements of the ramp and cowl static pressures, and boundary layer pitot profiles. The results are also compared with a previous two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computation of the same configuration. The agreement with the experimental data is generally good; however, additional improvements in turbulence modeling are needed.
Recent advances in Runge-Kutta schemes for solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Wedan, Bruce W.; Abid, Ridha
1989-01-01
A thin-layer Navier-Stokes has been developed for solving high Reynolds number, turbulent flows past aircraft components under transonic flow conditions. The computer code has been validated through data comparisons for flow past isolated wings, wing-body configurations, prolate spheroids and wings mounted inside wind-tunnels. The basic code employs an explicit Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme to obtain steady state solution to the unsteady governing equations. Significant gain in the efficiency of the code has been obtained by implementing a multigrid acceleration technique to achieve steady-state solutions. The improved efficiency of the code has made it feasible to conduct grid-refinement and turbulence model studies in a reasonable amount of computer time. The non-equilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King has been extended to three-dimensional flows and excellent agreement with pressure data has been obtained for transonic separated flow over a transport type of wing.
On the Helicity in 3D-Periodic Navier-Stokes Equations II: The Statistical Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foias, Ciprian; Hoang, Luan; Nicolaenko, Basil
2009-09-01
We study the asymptotic behavior of the statistical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations using the normalization map [9]. It is then applied to the study of mean energy, mean dissipation rate of energy, and mean helicity of the spatial periodic flows driven by potential body forces. The statistical distribution of the asymptotic Beltrami flows are also investigated. We connect our mathematical analysis with the empirical theory of decaying turbulence. With appropriate mathematically defined ensemble averages, the Kolmogorov universal features are shown to be transient in time. We provide an estimate for the time interval in which those features may still be present. Our collaborator and friend Basil Nicolaenko passed away in September of 2007, after this work was completed. Honoring his contribution and friendship, we dedicate this article to him.
On the Global Regularity of a Helical-Decimated Version of the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biferale, Luca; Titi, Edriss S.
2013-06-01
We study the global regularity, for all time and all initial data in H 1/2, of a recently introduced decimated version of the incompressible 3D Navier-Stokes (dNS) equations. The model is based on a projection of the dynamical evolution of Navier-Stokes (NS) equations into the subspace where helicity (the L 2-scalar product of velocity and vorticity) is sign-definite. The presence of a second (beside energy) sign-definite inviscid conserved quadratic quantity, which is equivalent to the H 1/2-Sobolev norm, allows us to demonstrate global existence and uniqueness, of space-periodic solutions, together with continuity with respect to the initial conditions, for this decimated 3D model. This is achieved thanks to the establishment of two new estimates, for this 3D model, which show that the H 1/2 and the time average of the square of the H 3/2 norms of the velocity field remain finite. Such two additional bounds are known, in the spirit of the work of H. Fujita and T. Kato (Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 16:269-315, 1964; Rend. Semin. Mat. Univ. Padova 32:243-260, 1962), to be sufficient for showing well-posedness for the 3D NS equations. Furthermore, they are directly linked to the helicity evolution for the dNS model, and therefore with a clear physical meaning and consequences.
Calculations of separated 3-D flows with a pressure-staggered Navier-Stokes equations solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.
1991-01-01
A Navier-Stokes equations solver based on a pressure correction method with a pressure-staggered mesh and calculations of separated three-dimensional flows are presented. It is shown that the velocity pressure decoupling, which occurs when various pressure correction algorithms are used for pressure-staggered meshes, is caused by the ill-conditioned discrete pressure correction equation. The use of a partial differential equation for the incremental pressure eliminates the velocity pressure decoupling mechanism by itself and yields accurate numerical results. Example flows considered are a three-dimensional lid driven cavity flow and a laminar flow through a 90 degree bend square duct. For the lid driven cavity flow, the present numerical results compare more favorably with the measured data than those obtained using a formally third order accurate quadratic upwind interpolation scheme. For the curved duct flow, the present numerical method yields a grid independent solution with a very small number of grid points. The calculated velocity profiles are in good agreement with the measured data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.; Ibraheem, S. O.
1993-01-01
The convergence characteristics of various approximate factorizations for the 3D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are examined using the von-Neumann stability analysis method. Three upwind-difference based factorizations and several central-difference based factorizations are considered for the Euler equations. In the upwind factorizations both the flux-vector splitting methods of Steger and Warming and van Leer are considered. Analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations is performed only on the Beam and Warming central-difference scheme. The range of CFL numbers over which each factorization is stable is presented for one-, two-, and three-dimensional flow. Also presented for each factorization is the CFL number at which the maximum eigenvalue is minimized, for all Fourier components, as well as for the high frequency range only. The latter is useful for predicting the effectiveness of multigrid procedures with these schemes as smoothers. Further, local mode analysis is performed to test the suitability of using a uniform flow field in the stability analysis. Some inconsistencies in the results from previous analyses are resolved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1988-01-01
An LU implicit multigrid algorithm is developed to calculate 3-D compressible viscous flows. This scheme solves the full 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation kappa-epsilon model of turbulence. The flow equations are integrated by an efficient, diagonally inverted, LU implicit multigrid scheme while the kappa-epsilon equations are solved, uncoupled from the flow equations, by a block LU implicit algorithm. The flow equations are solved within the framework of the multigrid method using a four-grid level W-cycle, while the kappa-epsilon equations are iterated only on the finest grid. This treatment of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations proves to be an efficient method for calculating 3-D compressible viscous flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1990-01-01
The development and applications of multiblock/multizone and adaptive grid methodologies for solving the three-dimensional simplified Navier-Stokes equations are described. Adaptive grid and multiblock/multizone approaches are introduced and applied to external and internal flow problems. These new implementations increase the capabilities and flexibility of the PAB3D code in solving flow problems associated with complex geometry.
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
On Bi-Grid Local Mode Analysis of Solution Techniques for 3-D Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ibraheem, S. O.; Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
A procedure is presented for utilizing a bi-grid stability analysis as a practical tool for predicting multigrid performance in a range of numerical methods for solving Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Model problems based on the convection, diffusion and Burger's equation are used to illustrate the superiority of the bi-grid analysis as a predictive tool for multigrid performance in comparison to the smoothing factor derived from conventional von Neumann analysis. For the Euler equations, bi-grid analysis is presented for three upwind difference based factorizations, namely Spatial, Eigenvalue and Combination splits, and two central difference based factorizations, namely LU and ADI methods. In the former, both the Steger-Warming and van Leer flux-vector splitting methods are considered. For the Navier-Stokes equations, only the Beam-Warming (ADI) central difference scheme is considered. In each case, estimates of multigrid convergence rates from the bi-grid analysis are compared to smoothing factors obtained from single-grid stability analysis. Effects of grid aspect ratio and flow skewness are examined. Both predictions are compared with practical multigrid convergence rates for 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions based on the Beam-Warming central scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting
2015-09-01
In this article, we consider the global well-posedness to the 3-D incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with a class of large velocity. More precisely, assuming a 0 ∈ B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) and u 0 = ( u0 h , u0 3 ) ∈ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) for p, q ∈ (1, 6) with sup ( /1 p , /1 q ) ≤ /1 3 + inf ( /1 p , /1 q ) , we prove that if C a↑0↑ B˙q1/3 q α (↑u0 3↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p/μ + 1 ) ≤ 1 , /C μ (↑u0 h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p + ↑u03↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p 1 - α ↑u0h↑ B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p α) ≤ 1 , then the system has a unique global solution a ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ q , 1 /3 q ( R 3 ) ) , u ∈ C ˜ ( [ 0 , ∞ ) ; B˙ p , 1 - 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) ∩ L 1 ( R + ; B˙ p , 1 1 + /3 p ( R 3 ) ) . It improves the recent result of M. Paicu and P. Zhang [J. Funct. Anal. 262, 3556-3584 (2012)], where the exponent form of the initial smallness condition is replaced by a polynomial form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2007-08-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuzuki, Yutaka
2015-09-01
This paper is concerned with a system of heat equations with hysteresis and Navier-Stokes equations. In Tsuzuki (J Math Anal Appl 423:877-897, 2015) an existence result is obtained for the problem in a 2-dimensional domain with the Navier-Stokes equation in a weak sense. However the result does not include uniqueness for the problem due to the low regularity for solutions. This paper establishes existence and uniqueness in 2- and 3-dimensional domains with the Navier-Stokes equation in a stronger sense. Moreover this work decides required height of regularity for the initial data by introducing the fractional power of the Stokes operator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Dandan; Ou, Yaobin
2016-08-01
In this paper, we prove the incompressible limit of all-time strong solutions to the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Here the velocity field and temperature satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition and convective boundary condition, respectively. The uniform estimates in both the Mach number {ɛin(0,overline{ɛ}]} and time {tin[0,∞)} are established by deriving a differential inequality with decay property, where {overline{ɛ} in(0,1]} is a constant. Based on these uniform estimates, the global solution of full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with "well-prepared" initial conditions converges to the one of isentropic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations as the Mach number goes to zero.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, D. L.; Tsai, C. H.; Wu, C. S.
2015-11-01
An alternative vector potential formulation is used to solve the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in 3D incompressible viscous flow problems with and without through-flow boundaries. Difficulties of the vector potential formulation include the implementation of boundary conditions for through-flow boundaries and the numerical treatment of fourth-order partial differential equations. The advantages on the other hand are the automatic satisfaction of the continuity equation; and pressure is decoupled from the velocity. The objective of this paper is to introduce the appropriate gauge and boundary conditions on the vector potential formulation by a localized meshless method. To handle the divergence-free property, a Coulomb gauge condition is enforced on the vector potential to ensure its existence and uniqueness mathematically. We further improve the algorithm to through-flow problems for the boundary conditions of vector potential by introducing the concept of Stokes' theorem. Based on this innovation, there is no need to include an additional variable to tackle the through-flow fields. This process will greatly simplify the imposition of boundary conditions by the vector potential approach. Under certain conditions, the coupled fourth-order partial differential equations can be easily solved by using this meshless local differential quadrature (LDQ) method. Due to the LDQ capability to deal with the high order differential equations, this algorithm is very attractive to solve this fourth-order vector potential formulation for the N-S equations as comparing to the conventional numerical schemes such as finite element or finite difference methods. The proposed vector potential formulation is simpler and has improved accuracy and efficiency compared to other pressure-free or pressure-coupled algorithms. This investigation can be regarded as the first complete study to obtain the N-S solutions by vector potential formulation through a LDQ method. Two classic 3D benchmark
Navier-Stokes Neutral and Plasma Fluid Modelling in 3D
Riemann, J; Borchardt, M; Schneider, R; Mutzke, A; Rognlien, T; Umansky, M
2004-05-17
The 3D finite volume transport code BoRiS is applied to a system of coupled plasma and neutral fluid equations in a slab. Demonstrating easy implementation of new equations, a new parallel BoRiS version is tested on three different models for the neutral fluid - diffusive, parallel Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes - and the results are compared to each other. Typical effects like density enhancement by ionization of recycled neutrals in front of a target plate can be seen and differences are linked to the neutral models in use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max
2016-02-01
This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Bong-Sik
Three dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes-alpha equations are considered for uniformly rotating geophysical fluid flows (large Coriolis parameter f = 2O). The Navier-Stokes-alpha equations are a nonlinear dispersive regularization of usual Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Lagrangian averaging. The focus is on the existence and global regularity of solutions of the 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations and the uniform convergence of these solutions to those of the original 3D rotating Navier-Stokes equations for large Coriolis parameters f as alpha → 0. Methods are based on fast singular oscillating limits and results are obtained for periodic boundary conditions for all domain aspect ratios, including the case of three wave resonances which yields nonlinear "2½-dimensional" limit resonant equations for f → 0. The existence and global regularity of solutions of limit resonant equations is established, uniformly in alpha. Bootstrapping from global regularity of the limit equations, the existence of a regular solution of the full 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations for large f for an infinite time is established. Then, the uniform convergence of a regular solution of the 3D rotating Navier-Stokes-alpha equations (alpha ≠ 0) to the one of the original 3D rotating NavierStokes equations (alpha = 0) for f large but fixed as alpha → 0 follows; this implies "shadowing" of trajectories of the limit dynamical systems by those of the perturbed alpha-dynamical systems. All the estimates are uniform in alpha, in contrast with previous estimates in the literature which blow up as alpha → 0. Finally, the existence of global attractors as well as exponential attractors is established for large f and the estimates are uniform in alpha.
Scaling Navier-Stokes equation in nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gǎrǎjeu, Mihail; Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe
2013-08-01
On one hand, classical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations have been very useful in the study of liquids in nanotubes, enabling a wide variety of properties to be calculated in intuitive agreement with experiments. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that the theory of continuum breaks down only at the nanometer level; consequently flows through nanotubes still can be investigated with Navier-Stokes equations if we take suitable boundary conditions into account. The aim of this paper is to study the statics and dynamics of liquids in nanotubes by using methods of nonlinear continuum mechanics. We assume that the nanotube is filled with only a liquid phase; by using a second gradient theory the static profile of the liquid density in the tube is analytically obtained and compared with the profile issued from molecular dynamics simulation. Inside the tube there are two domains: a thin layer near the solid wall where the liquid density is non-uniform and a central core where the liquid density is uniform. In the dynamic case a closed form analytic solution seems to be no more possible, but by a scaling argument it is shown that, in the tube, two distinct domains connected at their frontiers still exist. The thin inhomogeneous layer near the solid wall can be interpreted in relation with the Navier length when the liquid slips on the boundary as it is expected by experiments and molecular dynamics calculations.
About the Regularized Navier Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannone, Marco; Karch, Grzegorz
2005-03-01
The first goal of this paper is to study the large time behavior of solutions to the Cauchy problem for the 3-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes system. The Marcinkiewicz space L3,∞ is used to prove some asymptotic stability results for solutions with infinite energy. Next, this approach is applied to the analysis of two classical “regularized” Navier Stokes systems. The first one was introduced by J. Leray and consists in “mollifying” the nonlinearity. The second one was proposed by J.-L. Lions, who added the artificial hyper-viscosity (-Δ)ℓ/ 2, ℓ > 2 to the model. It is shown in the present paper that, in the whole space, solutions to those modified models converge as t → ∞ toward solutions of the original Navier Stokes system.
Navier-Stokes solutions for rotating 3-D duct flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, B. N.
1988-07-01
This paper deals with the computation of three-dimensional viscous turbulent flow in a rotating rectangular duct of low aspect ratio using thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Scalar form of an approximate factorization implicit scheme along with a modified q-omega turbulence model has been utilized for mean flow predictions. The predicted mean flow behavior has been favorably compared with the experimental data for mean axial velocity, channel pressure and cross-flow velocities at a flow Mach number of 0.05 and a rotational speed of 300 rpm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.
1994-01-01
INS3D computes steady-state solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The INS3D approach utilizes pseudo-compressibility combined with an approximate factorization scheme. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been verified on problems such as flow through a channel, flow over a backwardfacing step and flow over a circular cylinder. Three dimensional cases include flow over an ogive cylinder, flow through a rectangular duct, wind tunnel inlet flow, cylinder-wall juncture flow and flow through multiple posts mounted between two plates. INS3D uses a pseudo-compressibility approach in which a time derivative of pressure is added to the continuity equation, which together with the momentum equations form a set of four equations with pressure and velocity as the dependent variables. The equations' coordinates are transformed for general three dimensional applications. The equations are advanced in time by the implicit, non-iterative, approximately-factored, finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming. The numerical stability of the scheme depends on the use of higher-order smoothing terms to damp out higher-frequency oscillations caused by second-order central differencing. The artificial compressibility introduces pressure (sound) waves of finite speed (whereas the speed of sound would be infinite in an incompressible fluid). As the solution converges, these pressure waves die out, causing the derivation of pressure with respect to time to approach zero. Thus, continuity is satisfied for the incompressible fluid in the steady state. Computational efficiency is achieved using a diagonal algorithm. A block tri-diagonal option is also available. When a steady-state solution is reached, the modified continuity equation will satisfy the divergence-free velocity field condition. INS3D is capable of handling several different types of boundaries encountered in numerical simulations, including solid-surface, inflow and outflow, and far
Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations with Revised Maxwell's Law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yuxi; Racke, Reinhard
2016-05-01
We investigate the compressible Navier-Stokes equations where the constitutive law for the stress tensor given by Maxwell's law is revised to a system of relaxation equations for two parts of the tensor. The global well-posedness is proved as well as the compatibility with the classical compressible Navier-Stokes system in the sense that, for vanishing relaxation parameters, the solutions to the Maxwell system are shown to converge to solutions of the classical system.
INS3D: An incompressible Navier-Stokes code in generalized three-dimensional coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1987-01-01
The operation of the INS3D code, which computes steady-state solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, is described. The flow solver utilizes a pseudocompressibility approach combined with an approximate factorization scheme. This manual describes key operating features to orient new users. This includes the organization of the code, description of the input parameters, description of each subroutine, and sample problems. Details for more extended operations, including possible code modifications, are given in the appendix.
Numerical solutions of the complete Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
1986-01-01
Using ideas from the kinetic theory, the Navier-Stokes equations are modified in such a way that they can be cast as a set of first order hyperbolic equations. This is achieved by incorporating time dependent terms into the definition of the stress tensor and the heat flux vectors. The boundary conditions are then determined from the theory of characteristics. Because the resulting equations reduce to the traditional Navier-Stokes equations when the steady state is reached, the present approach provides a straightforward scheme for the determination of inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The method is validated by comparing its predictions with known exact solutions of the steady Navier-Stokes equations.
What do the Navier-Stokes equations mean?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneiderbauer, Simon; Krieger, Michael
2014-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations are nonlinear partial differential equations describing the motion of fluids. Due to their complicated mathematical form they are not part of secondary school education. A detailed discussion of fundamental physics—the conservation of mass and Newton’s second law—may, however, increase the understanding of the behaviour of fluids. Based on these principles the Navier-Stokes equations can be derived. This article attempts to make these equations available to a wider readership, especially teachers and undergraduate students. Therefore, in this article a derivation restricted to simple differential calculus is presented. Finally, we try to give answers to the questions ‘what is a fluid?’ and ‘what do the Navier-Stokes equations mean?’.
Pseudo-time algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, E.
1986-01-01
A pseudo-time method is introduced to integrate the compressible Navier-Stokes equations to a steady state. This method is a generalization of a method used by Crocco and also by Allen and Cheng. We show that for a simple heat equation that this is just a renormalization of the time. For a convection-diffusion equation the renormalization is dependent only on the viscous terms. We implement the method for the Navier-Stokes equations using a Runge-Kutta type algorithm. This permits the time step to be chosen based on the inviscid model only. We also discuss the use of residual smoothing when viscous terms are present.
Factorization of the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Thomas W.
2005-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations for a Newtonian ideal gas are examined to determine the factorizable form of the equations relevant to the construction of a factorizable relaxation scheme. The principal linearization of the equations is found by examining the relative magnitude of the terms for short-wavelength errors. The principal part of the operator is then found. Comparison of the factors of the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations differ qualitatively because of the coupling of entropy and pressure through thermal diffusion. Special cases of the factorization are considered.
Exact solutions of the generalized Navier- Stokes equations for benchmarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourchtein, Andrei
2002-08-01
The generalized Navier- Stokes equations for incompressible viscous flows through isotropic granular porous medium are studied. Some analytical classic solutions of the Navier- Stokes equations are generalized to the case of the considered equations. Obtained solutions of generalized equations reduce to classic ones as porosity effect disappears. Average velocity of generalized solutions is calculated and evaluated in two limiting regimes of flow. In the shallow conduit, the generalized flow rate approximates the free (without porous medium) flow rate and in the case of removed boundaries this approaches Darcy's law. The use of the derived exact solutions for benchmarking purposes is described. Copyright
Lattice-gas automata for the Navier-Stokes equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, U.; Hasslacher, B.; Pomeau, Y.
1986-04-01
It is shown that a class of deterministic lattice gases with discrete Boolean elements simulates the Navier-Stokes equations, and can be used to design simple, massively parallel computing machines. A hexagonal lattice gas (HLG) model consisting of a triangular lattice with hexagonal symmetry is developed, and is shown to lead to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The three-dimensional formulation is obtained by a splitting method in which the nonlinear term in the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is recasts as the sum of two terms, each containing spurious elements and each realizable on a different lattice. Freed slip and rigid boundary conditions are easily implemented. It is noted that lattice-gas models must be run at moderate Mach numbers to remain incompressible, and to avoid spurious high-order nonlinear terms. The model gives a concrete hydrodynamical example of how cellular automata can be used to simulate classical nonlinear fields.
A dual potential formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gegg, S. G.; Pletcher, R. H.; Steger, J. L.
1989-01-01
A dual potential formulation for numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations is developed and presented. The velocity field is decomposed using a scalar and vector potential. Vorticity and dilatation are used as the dependent variables in the momentum equations. Test cases in two dimensions verify the capability to solve flows using approximations from potential flow to full Navier-Stokes simulations. A three-dimensional incompressible flow formulation is also described. An interesting feature of this approach to solving the Navier-Stokes equations is the decomposition of the velocity field into a rotational part (vector potential) and an irrotational part (scalar potential). The Helmholtz decomposition theorem allows this splitting of the velocity field. This approach has had only limited use since it increases the number of dependent variables in the solution. However, it has often been used for incompressible flows where the solution scheme is known to be fast and accurate. This research extends the usage of this method to fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations by using the dilatation variable along with vorticity. A time-accurate, iterative algorithm is used for the uncoupled solution of the governing equations. Several levels of flow approximation are available within the framework of this method. Potential flow, Euler and full Navier-Stokes solutions are possible using the dual potential formulation. Solution efficiency can be enhanced in a straightforward way. For some flows, the vorticity and/or dilatation may be negligible in certain regions (e.g., far from a viscous boundary in an external flow). It is possible to drop the calculation of these variables then and optimize the solution speed. Also, efficient Poisson solvers are available for the potentials. The relative merits of non-primitive variables versus primitive variables for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are also discussed.
Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations, 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.
1989-01-01
A practically important regularization of the Navier-Stokes equations was analyzed. As a continuation of the previous work, the structure of the attractors characterizing the solutins was studied. Local as well as global invariant manifolds were found. Regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.
Symmetric approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations
Kobel'kov, G M
2002-08-31
A new method for the symmetric approximation of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations by a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya-type system is proposed. Properties of the modified problem are studied. In particular, the convergence as {epsilon}{yields}0 of the solutions of the modified problem to the solutions of the original problem on an infinite interval is established.
Symmetric approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobel'kov, G. M.
2002-08-01
A new method for the symmetric approximation of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations by a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya-type system is proposed. Properties of the modified problem are studied. In particular, the convergence as \\varepsilon\\to0 of the solutions of the modified problem to the solutions of the original problem on an infinite interval is established.
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2008-01-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [1]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow through a mechanical, bileaflet heart valve mounted in a model straight aorta with an anatomical-like triple sinus. PMID:19194533
Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2007-08-01
A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [1]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow through a mechanical, bileaflet heart valve mounted in a model straight aorta with an anatomical-like triple sinus. PMID:19194533
Finite element methods and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuvelier, C.; Segal, A.; van Steenhoven, A. A.
This book is devoted to two and three-dimensional FEM analysis of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations describing one flow of a viscous incompressible fluid. Three different approaches to the NS equations are described: a direct method, a penalty method, and a method that constructs discrete solenoidal vector fields. Subjects of current research which are important from the industrial/technological viewpoint are considered, including capillary-free boundaries, nonisothermal flows, turbulence, and non-Newtonian fluids.
Numerical simulation of jet aerodynamics using the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1996-01-01
This report presents a unified method for subsonic and supersonic jet analysis using the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D. The Navier-Stokes code was used to obtain solutions for axisymmetric jets with on-design operating conditions at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 3.0, supersonic jets containing weak shocks and Mach disks, and supersonic jets with nonaxisymmetric nozzle exit geometries. This report discusses computational methods, code implementation, computed results, and comparisons with available experimental data. Very good agreement is shown between the numerical solutions and available experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions. The Navier-Stokes method using the standard Jones-Launder two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model can accurately predict jet flow, and such predictions are made without any modification to the published constants for the turbulence model.
Optimal control of thermally coupled Navier Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, Kazufumi; Scroggs, Jeffrey S.; Tran, Hien T.
1994-01-01
The optimal boundary temperature control of the stationary thermally coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is considered. Well-posedness and existence of the optimal control and a necessary optimality condition are obtained. Optimization algorithms based on the augmented Lagrangian method with second order update are discussed. A test example motivated by control of transport process in the high pressure vapor transport (HVPT) reactor is presented to demonstrate the applicability of our theoretical results and proposed algorithm.
Numerical Solution for Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warsi, Z. U. A.; Weed, R. A.; Thompson, J. F.
1982-01-01
Carefully selected blend of computational techniques solves complete set of equations for viscous, unsteady, hypersonic flow in general curvilinear coordinates. New algorithm has tested computation of axially directed flow about blunt body having shape similar to that of such practical bodies as wide-body aircraft or artillery shells. Method offers significant computational advantages because of conservation-law form of equations and because it reduces amount of metric data required.
Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
Pokhozhaev, S I
2014-02-28
We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R{sup 3}. We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Turbulent solution of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.
1980-01-01
The unaveraged Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically in order to study the nonlinear physics of incompressible turbulent flow. Initial three dimensional cosine velocity fluctuations and periodic boundary conditions are used. No mean gradients are present. The three components of the mean square velocity fluctuations are equal for the initial conditions chosen. The resulting solution shows characteristics of turbulence, such as the nonlinear excitation of small scale fluctuations. For the higher Reynolds numbers the initially nonrandom flow develops into an apparently random turbulence.
Computation of 2D Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabartty, Sunil Kumar
Two schemes for computing two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are described and applied to laminar flow over a flat plate and viscous flow over a NACA0012 airfoil. The variation of local skin-friction coefficient with local Reynolds number is compared with the Blasius solution and that of Swanson and Turkel (1985). The effect of free-stream Mach number on the temperature profile is shown, and a comparison is made of velocity profile at M(infinity) = 0.50 and Re = 500, with no artificial viscosity used for stability. Pressure distributions, local skin friction distributions, and velocity profiles on the airfoil and wake are presented.
Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the Navier-Stokes equations
Ajmani, K.; Ng, Wing Fai ); Liou, Meng Sing )
1994-01-01
A preconditioned Krylov subspace method (GMRES) is used to solve the linear systems of equations formed at each time-integration step of the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux-split formulations. Several preconditioning techniques are investigated to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate of the implicit solver based on the GMRES algorithm. The superiority of the new solver is established by comparisons with a (LGSR). Computational test results for low-speed (incompressible flow over a backward-facing step at Mach 0.1), transonic flow (trailing edge flow in a transonic turbine cascade), and hypersonic flow (shock-on-shock interactions on a cylindrical leading edge at Mach 6.0) are presented. For the Mach 0.1 case, overall speedup factors of up to 17 (in terms of time-steps) and 15 (in terms of CPU times on a CRAY-YMP/8) are found in favor of the preconditioned GMRES solver, when compared with the LGSR solver. The corresponding speedup factors for the transonic flow cases are 17 and 23, respectively. The hypersonic flow case shows slightly lower speedup factors of 9 and 13, respectively. The study of preconditioners conducted in this research reveals that a new LUSGS-type preconditioner is much more efficient than a conventional incomplete LU-type preconditioner. 34 refs., 15 figs.
Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing
1994-01-01
A preconditioned Krylov subspace method (GMRES) is used to solve the linear systems of equations formed at each time-integration step of the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux-split formulation. Several preconditioning techniques are investigated to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate of the implicit solver based on the GMRES algorithm. The superiority of the new solver is established by comparisons with a conventional implicit solver, namely line Gauss-Seidel relaxation (LGSR). Computational test results for low-speed (incompressible flow over a backward-facing step at Mach 0.1), transonic flow (trailing edge flow in a transonic turbine cascade), and hypersonic flow (shock-on-shock interactions on a cylindrical leading edge at Mach 6.0) are presented. For the Mach 0.1 case, overall speedup factors of up to 17 (in terms of time-steps) and 15 (in terms of CPU time on a CRAY-YMP/8) are found in favor of the preconditioned GMRES solver, when compared with the LGSR solver. The corresponding speedup factors for the transonic flow case are 17 and 23, respectively. The hypersonic flow case shows slightly lower speedup factors of 9 and 13, respectively. The study of preconditioners conducted in this research reveals that a new LUSGS-type preconditioner is much more efficient than a conventional incomplete LU-type preconditioner.
Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali
2005-01-01
This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeJong, Andrew
Numerical models of fluid-structure interaction have grown in importance due to increasing interest in environmental energy harvesting, airfoil-gust interactions, and bio-inspired formation flying. Powered by increasingly powerful parallel computers, such models seek to explain the fundamental physics behind the complex, unsteady fluid-structure phenomena. To this end, a high-fidelity computational model based on the high-order spectral difference method on 3D unstructured, dynamic meshes has been developed. The spectral difference method constructs continuous solution fields within each element with a Riemann solver to compute the inviscid fluxes at the element interfaces and an averaging mechanism to compute the viscous fluxes. This method has shown promise in the past as a highly accurate, yet sufficiently fast method for solving unsteady viscous compressible flows. The solver is monolithically coupled to the equations of motion of an elastically mounted 3-degree of freedom rigid bluff body undergoing flow-induced lift, drag, and torque. The mesh is deformed using 4 methods: an analytic function, Laplace equation, biharmonic equation, and a bi-elliptic equation with variable diffusivity. This single system of equations -- fluid and structure -- is advanced through time using a 5-stage, 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Message Passing Interface is used to run the coupled system in parallel on up to 240 processors. The solver is validated against previously published numerical and experimental data for an elastically mounted cylinder. The effect of adding an upstream body and inducing wake galloping is observed.
Numerical solutions of the complete Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
1988-01-01
The physical phenomena within supersonic flows that sustain chemical reactions are investigated. An earlier study to develop accurate physical models for supersonic reacting flowfields focused on 2-D laminar shear layers. The objective is to examine the mixing and subsequent combustion within turbulent reacting shear layers. To conduct this study, a computer program has been written to solve the axisymmetric Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method uses a cell-centered finite volume approach and a Runge Kutta time stepping scheme. The Reynolds averaged equations are closed using the eddy viscosity concept. Several zero-equation models have been tested by making calculations for an H2-air nonreacting coaxial jet flow. Comparisons made with experimental data show that Cohen's eddy viscosity model provides best agreement. The finite rate chemistry model used in the study of 2-D laminar shear layers is incorporated into the computer program and data is compared from a recent experiment performed at NASA Langley.
Towards Optimal Multigrid Efficiency for the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.
2001-01-01
A fast multigrid solver for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Unlike time-marching schemes, this approach uses relaxation of the steady equations. Application of this method results in a discretization that correctly distinguishes between the advection and elliptic parts of the operator, allowing efficient smoothers to be constructed. Numerical solutions are shown for flow over a flat plate and a Karman-Trefftz airfoil. Using collective Gauss-Seidel line relaxation in both the vertical and horizontal directions, multigrid convergence behavior approaching that of O(N) methods is achieved. The computational efficiency of the numerical scheme is compared with that of a Runge-Kutta based multigrid method.
The Navier-Stokes Equations in Nonendpoint Borderline Lorentz Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phuc, Nguyen Cong
2015-12-01
It is shown both locally and globally that {L_t^{∞}(L_x^{3,q})} solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are regular provided {q≠∞}. Here {L_x^{3,q}}, {0 < q ≤∞}, is an increasing scale of Lorentz spaces containing {L^3_x}. Thus the result provides an improvement of a result by Escauriaza et al. (Uspekhi Mat Nauk 58:3-44, 2003; translation in Russ Math Surv 58, 211-250, 2003), which treated the case q = 3. A new local energy bound and a new {ɛ}-regularity criterion are combined with the backward uniqueness theory of parabolic equations to obtain the result. A weak-strong uniqueness of Leray-Hopf weak solutions in {L_t^{∞}(L_x^{3,q})}, {q≠∞}, is also obtained as a consequence.
Iterative methods for compressible Navier-Stokes and Euler equations
Tang, W.P.; Forsyth, P.A.
1996-12-31
This workshop will focus on methods for solution of compressible Navier-Stokes and Euler equations. In particular, attention will be focused on the interaction between the methods used to solve the non-linear algebraic equations (e.g. full Newton or first order Jacobian) and the resulting large sparse systems. Various types of block and incomplete LU factorization will be discussed, as well as stability issues, and the use of Newton-Krylov methods. These techniques will be demonstrated on a variety of model transonic and supersonic airfoil problems. Applications to industrial CFD problems will also be presented. Experience with the use of C++ for solution of large scale problems will also be discussed. The format for this workshop will be four fifteen minute talks, followed by a roundtable discussion.
Implementation of algebraic stress models in a general 3-D Navier-Stokes method (PAB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional multiblock Navier-Stokes code, PAB3D, which was developed for propulsion integration and general aerodynamic analysis, has been used extensively by NASA Langley and other organizations to perform both internal (exhaust) and external flow analysis of complex aircraft configurations. This code was designed to solve the simplified Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model has been used with considerable success, especially for attached flows. Accurate predicting of transonic shock wave location and pressure recovery in separated flow regions has been more difficult. Two algebraic Reynolds stress models (ASM) have been recently implemented in the code that greatly improved the code's ability to predict these difficult flow conditions. Good agreement with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for a subsonic flat plate was achieved with ASM's developed by Shih, Zhu, and Lumley and Gatski and Speziale. Good predictions were also achieved at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers for shock location and trailing edge boattail pressure recovery on a single-engine afterbody/nozzle model.
Coupling Boltzmann and Navier-Stokes equations by friction
Bourgat, J.F.; Le Tallec, P. |; Tidriri, M.D.
1996-09-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce and validate a coupled Navier-Stokes Boltzman approach for the calculation of hypersonic rarefied flows around maneuvering vehicles. The proposed strategy uses locally a kinetic model in the boundary layer coupled through wall friction forces to a global Navier-Stokes solver. Different numerical experiments illustrate the potentialities of the method. 29 refs., 24 figs.
SSME thrust chamber simulation using Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Tam, L. T.
1984-01-01
The capability of the PHOENICS fluid dynamics code in predicting two-dimensional, compressible, and reacting flow in the combustion chamber and nozzle of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) was evaluated. A non-orthogonal body fitted coordinate system was used to represent the nozzle geometry. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved for the entire nozzle with a turbulence model. The wall boundary conditions were calculated based on the wall functions which account for pressure gradients. Results of the demonstration test case reveal all expected features of the transonic nozzle flows. Of particular interest are the locations of normal and barrel shocks, and regions of highest temperature gradients. Calculated performance (global) parameters such as thrust chamber flow rate, thrust, and specific impulse are also in good agreement with available data.
Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bijl, Hester; Carpenter, Mark H.; Vatsa, Veer N.
2001-01-01
The efficiency and accuracy of several time integration schemes are investigated for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. This study focuses on the efficiency of higher-order Runge-Kutta schemes in comparison with the popular Backward Differencing Formulations. For this comparison an unsteady two-dimensional laminar flow problem is chosen, i.e., flow around a circular cylinder at Re = 1200. It is concluded that for realistic error tolerances (smaller than 10(exp -1)) fourth-and fifth-order Runge-Kutta schemes are the most efficient. For reasons of robustness and computer storage, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is recommended. The efficiency of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme exceeds that of second-order Backward Difference Formula by a factor of 2.5 at engineering error tolerance levels (10(exp -1) to 10(exp -2)). Efficiency gains are more dramatic at smaller tolerances.
A locally stabilized immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brehm, C.; Hader, C.; Fasel, H. F.
2015-08-01
A higher-order immersed boundary method for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The distinguishing feature of this new immersed boundary method is that the coefficients of the irregular finite-difference stencils in the vicinity of the immersed boundary are optimized to obtain improved numerical stability. This basic idea was introduced in a previous publication by the authors for the advection step in the projection method used to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. This paper extends the original approach to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations considering flux vector splitting schemes and viscous wall boundary conditions at the immersed geometry. In addition to the stencil optimization procedure for the convective terms, this paper discusses other key aspects of the method, such as imposing flux boundary conditions at the immersed boundary and the discretization of the viscous flux in the vicinity of the boundary. Extensive linear stability investigations of the immersed scheme confirm that a linearly stable method is obtained. The method of manufactured solutions is used to validate the expected higher-order accuracy and to study the error convergence properties of this new method. Steady and unsteady, 2D and 3D canonical test cases are used for validation of the immersed boundary approach. Finally, the method is employed to simulate the laminar to turbulent transition process of a hypersonic Mach 6 boundary layer flow over a porous wall and subsonic boundary layer flow over a three-dimensional spherical roughness element.
An Exact Mapping from Navier-Stokes Equation to Schr"odinger Equation via Riccati Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christianto, Vic; Smarandache, Florentin
2010-03-01
In the present article we argue that it is possible to write down Schr"odinger representation of Navier-Stokes equation via Riccati equation. The proposed approach, while differs appreciably from other method such as what is proposed by R. M. Kiehn, has an advantage, i.e. it enables us extend further to quaternionic and biquaternionic version of Navier-Stokes equation, for instance via Kravchenko's and Gibbon's route. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Stable boundary conditions and difference schemes for Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutt, P.
1985-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations can be viewed as an incompletely elliptic perturbation of the Euler equations. By using the entropy function for the Euler equations as a measure of energy for the Navier-Stokes equations, it was possible to obtain nonlinear energy estimates for the mixed initial boundary value problem. These estimates are used to derive boundary conditions which guarantee L2 boundedness even when the Reynolds number tends to infinity. Finally, a new difference scheme for modelling the Navier-Stokes equations in multidimensions for which it is possible to obtain discrete energy estimates exactly analogous to those we obtained for the differential equation was proposed.
Quasi-3D Navier-Stokes model for a rotating airfoil
Shen, W.Z.; Soerensen, J.N.
1999-04-10
The design of blade shapes for wind turbines is typically based on employing the blade-element momentum-theory (BEM) with lift and drag forces determined from 2D measurements. The results obtained are reasonable in the vicinity of the design point, but in stalled conditions the BEM is known to underpredict the forces acting on the blades. Here, a quasi-3D model of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference has been developed. The equations governing the flow past a rotating blade are approximated using an order of magnitude analysis on the spanwise derivatives. The model takes into account rotational effects and spanwise outflow at computing expenses in the order of what is typical for similar 2D calculations. Results are presented for both laminar and turbulent flows past blades in pure rotation. In the turbulent case the influence of small-scale turbulence is modelled by the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The computations demonstrate that the main influence of rotation is to increase the maximum lift.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan, Zhijie; Zheng, Xiaoxin
2016-09-01
We study Cauchy problem of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with hyper-dissipation. By using the Fourier localization technique, we prove that the system has a unique global solution for large initial data in a critical Fourier-Herz space. More importantly, the energy of this solution is infinite.
A multidimensional flux function with applications to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Van Leer, Bram; Roe, Philip L.
1993-01-01
In the present grid-independent approximate Riemann solver for 2D and 3D flows that are governed by the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations, fluxes on grid faces are obtained by wave decomposition; the assumption of information-propagation in the velocity-difference directions leads to a more accurate resolution of shear and shock waves, when these are are oblique to the grid. The model, which yields significantly greater accuracy in both supersonic and subsonic first-order spatially accurate computations, describes the difference in states at each grid interface by the action of five waves.
The development of a solution-adaptive 3D Navier-Stokes solver for turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, W. N.
1991-06-01
This paper describes the early stages in the development of a solution-adaptive fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations, closed with k-epsiton turbulence modeling, are discretized on an unstructured mesh formed from tetrahedral computational control volumes. At the mesh generation stage and at stages during the solution process itself, mesh refinement is carried out by flagging cells which satisfy particular critera. These criteria include geometric features such as proximity to wetted surfaces and features associated with the particular flowfield, such as fractional variation of a flow variable over cell faces. Solutions are presented for the highly three-dimensional flows associated with a truncated cylinder in a cross flow, a three-dimensional swept transonic bump, and the corner stall and secondary flow in a transonic compressor cascade.
Global smooth flows for compressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jiang; Cao, Hongmei
2016-08-01
Umeda et al. (Jpn J Appl Math 1:435-457, 1984) considered a rather general class of symmetric hyperbolic-parabolic systems: A0zt+sum_{j=1}nAjz_{xj}+Lz=sum_{j,k=1}nB^{jk}z_{xjxk} and showed optimal decay rates with certain dissipative assumptions. In their results, the dissipation matrices {L} and {B^{jk}(j,k=1,ldots,n)} are both assumed to be real symmetric. So far there are no general results in case that {L} and {B^{jk}} are not necessarily symmetric, which is left open now. In this paper, we investigate compressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell (N-S-M) equations arising in plasmas physics, which is a concrete example of hyperbolic-parabolic composite systems with non-symmetric dissipation. It is observed that the Cauchy problem for N-S-M equations admits the dissipative mechanism of regularity-loss type. Consequently, extra higher regularity is usually needed to obtain the optimal decay rate of {L1({mathbb{R}}^3)}-{L^2({mathbb{R}}^3)} type, in comparison with that for the global-in-time existence of smooth solutions. In this paper, we obtain the minimal decay regularity of global smooth solutions to N-S-M equations, with aid of {L^p({mathbb{R}}^n)}-{Lq({mathbb{R}}^n)}-{Lr({mathbb{R}}^n)} estimates. It is worth noting that the relation between decay derivative orders and the regularity index of initial data is firstly found in the optimal decay estimates.
Mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations with non standard boundary conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidriri, M. D.
1995-01-01
One of the major applications of the domain decomposition time marching algorithm is the coupling of the Navier-Stokes systems with Boltzmann equations in order to compute transitional flows. Another important application is the coupling of a global Navier-Stokes problem with a local one in order to use different modelizations and/or discretizations. Both of these applications involve a global Navier-Stokes system with nonstandard boundary conditions. The purpose of this work is to prove, using the classical Leray-Schauder theory, that these boundary conditions are admissible and lead to a well posed problem.
Single-grid spectral collocation for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon; Metivet, Brigitte
1988-01-01
The aim of the paper is to study a collocation spectral method to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations: only one grid is used, which is built from the nodes of a Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formula, either of Legendre or of Chebyshev type. The convergence is proven for the Stokes problem provided with inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions, then thoroughly analyzed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The practical implementation algorithm is presented, together with numerical results.
Attractors of three-dimensional fast-rotating Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trahe, Markus
The three-dimensional (3-D) rotating Navier-Stokes equations describe the dynamics of rotating, incompressible, viscous fluids. In this work, they are considered with smooth, time-independent forces and the original statements implied by the classical "Taylor-Proudman Theorem" of geophysics are rigorously proved. It is shown that fully developed turbulence of 3-D fast-rotating fluids is essentially characterized by turbulence of two-dimensional (2-D) fluids in terms of numbers of degrees of freedom. In this context, the 3-D nonlinear "resonant limit equations", which arise in a non-linear averaging process as the rotation frequency O → infinity, are studied and optimal (2-D-type) upper bounds for fractal box and Hausdorff dimensions of the global attractor as well as upper bounds for box dimensions of exponential attractors are determined. Then, the convergence of exponential attractors for the full 3-D rotating Navier-Stokes equations to exponential attractors for the resonant limit equations as O → infinity in the sense of full Hausdorff-metric distances is established. This provides upper and lower semi-continuity of exponential attractors with respect to the rotation frequency and implies that the number of degrees of freedom (attractor dimension) of 3-D fast-rotating fluids is close to that of 2-D fluids. Finally, the algebraic-geometric structure of the Poincare curves, which control the resonances and small divisor estimates for partial differential equations, is further investigated; the 3-D nonlinear limit resonant operators are characterized by three-wave interactions governed by these curves. A new canonical transformation between those curves is constructed; with far-reaching consequences on the density of the latter.
A Modular Approach to Model Oscillating Control Surfaces Using Navier Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Lee, Henry
2014-01-01
The use of active controls for rotorcraft is becoming more important for modern aerospace configurations. Efforts to reduce the vibrations of helicopter blades with use of active-controls are in progress. Modeling oscillating control surfaces using the linear aerodynamics theory is well established. However, higher-fidelity methods are needed to account for nonlinear effects, such as those that occur in transonic flow. The aeroelastic responses of a wing with an oscillating control surface, computed using the transonic small perturbation (TSP) theory, have been shown to cause important transonic flow effects such as a reversal of control surface effectiveness that occurs as the shock wave crosses the hinge line. In order to account for flow complexities such as blade-vortex interactions of rotor blades higher-fidelity methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations are used. Reference 6 presents a procedure that uses the Navier-Stokes equations with moving-sheared grids and demonstrates up to 8 degrees of control-surface amplitude, using a single grid. Later, this procedure was extended to accommodate larger amplitudes, based on sliding grid zones. The sheared grid method implemented in EulerlNavier-Stokes-based aeroelastic code ENS AERO was successfully applied to active control design by industry. Recently there are several papers that present results for oscillating control surface using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. References 9 and 10 report 2-D cases by filling gaps with overset grids. Reference 9 compares integrated forces with the experiment at low oscillating frequencies whereas Ref. 10 reports parametric studies but with no validation. Reference II reports results for a 3D case by modeling the gap region with a deformed grid and compares force results with the experiment only at the mid-span of flap. In Ref. II grid is deformed to match the control surface deflections at the section where the measurements are made. However, there is no
Turbomachinery blade optimization using the Navier-Stokes equations
Chand, K.K.; Lee, K.D.
1997-12-01
A method is presented to perform aerodynamic design optimization of turbomachinery blades. The method couples a Navier-Stokes flow solver with a grid generator and numerical optimization algorithm to seek improved designs for transonic turbine blades. A fast and efficient multigrid, finite-volume flow solver provides accurate performance evaluations of potential designs. Design variables consist of smooth perturbations to the blade surface. A unique elliptic-hyperbolic grid generation method is used to regenerate a Navier-Stokes grid after perturbations have been added to the geometry. Designs are sought which improve a design objective while remaining within specified constraints. The method is demonstrated with two transonic turbine blades with different types and numbers of design variables.
Exponential integrators for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Newman, Christopher K.
2004-07-01
We provide an algorithm and analysis of a high order projection scheme for time integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). The method is based on a projection onto the subspace of divergence-free (incompressible) functions interleaved with a Krylov-based exponential time integration (KBEI). These time integration methods provide a high order accurate, stable approach with many of the advantages of explicit methods, and can reduce the computational resources over conventional methods. The method is scalable in the sense that the computational costs grow linearly with problem size. Exponential integrators, used typically to solve systems of ODEs, utilize matrix vector products of the exponential of the Jacobian on a vector. For large systems, this product can be approximated efficiently by Krylov subspace methods. However, in contrast to explicit methods, KBEIs are not restricted by the time step. While implicit methods require a solution of a linear system with the Jacobian, KBEIs only require matrix vector products of the Jacobian. Furthermore, these methods are based on linearization, so there is no non-linear system solve at each time step. Differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) subject to algebraic constraints. The discretized NSE constitute a system of DAEs, where the incompressibility condition is the algebraic constraint. Exponential integrators can be extended to DAEs with linear constraints imposed via a projection onto the constraint manifold. This results in a projected ODE that is integrated by a KBEI. In this approach, the Krylov subspace satisfies the constraint, hence the solution at the advanced time step automatically satisfies the constraint as well. For the NSE, the projection onto the constraint is typically achieved by a projection induced by the L{sup 2} inner product. We examine this L{sup 2} projection and an H{sup 1} projection induced by the H{sup 1} semi-inner product. The H
Application of Aeroelastic Solvers Based on Navier Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh
2001-01-01
The propulsion element of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) initiative is directed towards increasing the overall efficiency of current aircraft engines. This effort requires an increase in the efficiency of various components, such as fans, compressors, turbines etc. Improvement in engine efficiency can be accomplished through the use of lighter materials, larger diameter fans and/or higher-pressure ratio compressors. However, each of these has the potential to result in aeroelastic problems such as flutter or forced response. To address the aeroelastic problems, the Structural Dynamics Branch of NASA Glenn has been involved in the development of numerical capabilities for analyzing the aeroelastic stability characteristics and forced response of wide chord fans, multi-stage compressors and turbines. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading is available. To obtain the steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces for the complex flows around the engine components, for the flow regimes encountered by the rotor, an advanced compressible Navier-Stokes solver is required. A finite volume based Navier-Stokes solver has been developed at Mississippi State University (MSU) for solving the flow field around multistage rotors. The focus of the current research effort, under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3- 596 was on developing an aeroelastic analysis code (entitled TURBO-AE) based on the Navier-Stokes solver developed by MSU. The TURBO-AE code has been developed for flutter analysis of turbomachine components and delivered to NASA and its industry partners. The code has been verified. validated and is being applied by NASA Glenn and by aircraft engine manufacturers to analyze the aeroelastic stability characteristics of modem fans, compressors
Airfoil design method using the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, J. B.; Narramore, J. C.; Sankar, L. N.
1991-01-01
An airfoil design procedure is described that was incorporated into an existing 2-D Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method, an iterative procedure based on a residual-correction algorithm, permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. The inverse design method and the technique used to specify target pressure distributions are described. It presents several example problems to demonstrate application of the design procedure. It shows that this inverse design method develops useful airfoil configurations with a reasonable expenditure of computer resources.
Weighted bounds for the velocity and the vorticity for the Navier Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukavica, Igor; Torres, J. J.
2006-02-01
We study decay in space and time for derivatives of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in {\\Bbb R}^{n} . The main results concern the ranges of exponents b, c and d for validity of the bounds \\[ \\begin{equation*}\\Vert |x|^{b}\\partial_\\alpha u\\Vert_{L^p} \\le \\frac{C} {(1+t)^{c}}\\end{equation*} \\] and \\[ \\begin{equation*}\\Vert |x|^{b}\\partial_\\alpha \\omega\\Vert_{L^p} \\le \\frac{C}{(1+t)^{d}},\\end{equation*} \\] where u is a solution of the Navier-Stokes equation and ω is its vorticity.
Cornetti, G.M.
1995-12-31
The 3D Navier-Stokes equations are solved via the Characteristic-Galerkin method extended to free boundary problems. A temporal discretization procedure is proposed for the case where a preferential direction to move mesh point exists, as in thin domains. Using a single layer of finite elements, the numerical results cover the so-called shallow water 2D approximation, showing the same wave propagation speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Xinghong
2016-06-01
Consider an axisymmetric suitable weak solution of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with nontrivial swirl, v =vrer +vθeθ +vzez. Let z denote the axis of symmetry and r be the distance to the z-axis. If the solution satisfies a slightly supercritical assumption (that is, | v | ≤ C(ln | ln r |)/α r for α ∈ [ 0 , 0.028 ] when r is small), then we prove that v is regular. This extends the results in [6,16,18] where regularities under critical assumptions, such as | v | ≤Cr, were proven. As a useful tool in the proof of our main result, an upper-bound estimate to the fundamental solution of the parabolic equation with a critical drift term will be given in the last part of this paper.
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one-equation
Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C.; Michalowski, Nicholas
2015-07-15
The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.
Parallel computation of 3-D Navier-Stokes flowfields for supersonic vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, James S.; Weeratunga, Sisira
1993-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft will require unprecedented capabilities of both analysis software and computer hardware. The speed and accuracy of the analysis will depend heavily on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) module which is used. A new CFD module has been developed to combine the robust accuracy of conventional codes with the ability to run on parallel architectures. This is achieved by parallelizing the ARC3D algorithm, a central-differenced Navier-Stokes method, on the Intel iPSC/860. The computed solutions are identical to those from conventional machines. Computational speed on 64 processors is comparable to the rate on one Cray Y-MP processor and will increase as new generations of parallel computers become available.
Existence and Regularity of the Pressure for the Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations
Langa, Jose A. Real, Jose Simon, Jacques
2003-10-15
We prove, on one hand, that for a convenient body force with value sin the distribution space (H{sup -1}(D)){sup d}, where D is the geometric domain of the fluid, there exist a velocity u and a pressure p solution of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in dimension 2, 3 or 4. On the other hand, we prove that, for a body force with values in the dual space V' of the divergence free subspace V of (H{sup 1}{sub 0}(D)){sup d},in general it is not possible to solve the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. More precisely, although such body forces have been considered, there is no topological space in which Navier-Stokes equations could be meaningful for them.
An adaptive-mesh finite-difference solution method for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luchini, Paolo
1987-02-01
An adjustable variable-spacing grid is presented which permits the addition or deletion of single points during iterative solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations by finite difference methods. The grid is designed for application to two-dimensional steady-flow problems which can be described by partial differential equations whose second derivatives are constrained to the Laplacian operator. An explicit Navier-Stokes equations solution technique defined for use with the grid incorporates a hybrid form of the convective terms. Three methods are developed for automatic modifications of the mesh during calculations.
Convergence analysis of WLS based solution of Navier Stokes equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosec, G.
2016-06-01
A numerical solution of a Navier-Stokes problem based on the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approximation of velocity and pressure fields is presented in this paper. The approximation function is constructed over the local support, i.e., a sub cluster of computational nodes. Besides local approximation of the fields also the pressure-velocity algorithm is constructed locally. The presented solution procedure is demonstrated on two classical fluid-flow benchmark tests, i.e., lid-driven cavity and backward-facing step problem. The method is validated through comparison against already published data on regular nodal distributions and convergence analyses. In addition the method is also tested on irregular nodal distributions. Results are presented in terms of cross-section velocity profiles and convergence plots.
Numerical study on comparison of Navier-Stokes and Burgers equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkitani, Koji; Dowker, Mark
2012-05-01
We compare freely decaying evolution of the Navier-Stokes equations with that of the 3D Burgers equations with the same kinematic viscosity and the same incompressible initial data by using direct numerical simulations. The Burgers equations are well-known to be regular by a maximum principle [A. A. Kiselev and O. A. Ladyzenskaya, "On existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the nonstationary problem for a viscous incompressible fluid," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat. 21, 655 (1957); A. A. Kiselev and O. A. Ladyzenskaya, Am. Math. Soc. Transl. 24, 79 (1957)] unlike the Navier-Stokes equations. It is found in the Burgers equations that the potential part of velocity becomes large in comparison with the solenoidal part which decays more quickly. The probability distribution of the nonlocal term -{u}\\cdot nabla p, which spoils the maximum principle, in the local energy budget is studied in detail. It is basically symmetric, i.e., it can be either positive or negative with fluctuations. Its joint probability density functions with 1/2|{u}|^2 and with 1/2|{ω }|^2 are also found to be symmetric, fluctuating at the same times as the probability density function of -{u}\\cdot nabla p. A power-law relationship is found in the mathematical bound for the enstrophy growth dfrac{dQ}{dt} + 2 ν P ∝ left(Q^a P^bright)^α , where Q and P denote the enstrophy and the palinstrophy, respectively, and the exponents a and b are determined by calculus inequalities. We propose to quantify nonlinearity depletion by the exponent α on this basis.
A gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Kun
2000-01-01
This paper presents an improved gas-kinetic scheme based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The current method extends the previous gas-kinetic Navier-Stokes solver developed by Xu and Prendergast by implementing a general nonequilibrium state to represent the gas distribution function at the beginning of each time step. As a result, the requirement in the previous scheme, such as the particle collision time being less than the time step for the validity of the BGK Navier-Stokes solution, is removed. Therefore, the applicable regime of the current method is much enlarged and the Navier-Stokes solution can be obtained accurately regardless of the ratio between the collision time and the time step. The gas-kinetic Navier-Stokes solver developed by Chou and Baganoff is the limiting case of the current method, and it is valid only under such a limiting condition. Also, in this paper, the appropriate implementation of boundary condition for the kinetic scheme, different kinetic limiting cases, and the Prandtl number fix are presented. The connection among artificial dissipative central schemes, Godunov-type schemes, and the gas-kinetic BGK method is discussed. Many numerical tests are included to validate the current method.
Random attractors for stochastic 2D-Navier-Stokes equations in some unbounded domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzeźniak, Z.; Caraballo, T.; Langa, J. A.; Li, Y.; Łukaszewicz, G.; Real, J.
We show that the stochastic flow generated by the 2-dimensional Stochastic Navier-Stokes equations with rough noise on a Poincaré-like domain has a unique random attractor. One of the technical problems associated with the rough noise is overcomed by the use of the corresponding Cameron-Martin (or reproducing kernel Hilbert) space. Our results complement the result by Brzeźniak and Li (2006) [10] who showed that the corresponding flow is asymptotically compact and also generalize Caraballo et al. (2006) [12] who proved existence of a unique attractor for the time-dependent deterministic Navier-Stokes equations.
A stable penalty method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. 1: Open boundary conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesthaven, J. S.; Gottlieb, D.
1994-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present asymptotically stable open boundary conditions for the numerical approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. The treatment uses the conservation form of the Navier-Stokes equations and utilizes linearization and localization at the boundaries based on these variables. The proposed boundary conditions are applied through a penalty procedure, thus ensuring correct behavior of the scheme as the Reynolds number tends to infinity. The versatility of this method is demonstrated for the problem of a compressible flow past a circular cylinder.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, C. P.; Leaf, G. K.; Vanrosendale, J.
1991-01-01
An algorithm is described for the solution of the laminar, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The basic algorithm is a multigrid based on a robust, box-based smoothing step. Its most important feature is the incorporation of automatic, dynamic mesh refinement. This algorithm supports generalized simple domains. The program is based on a standard staggered-grid formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for robustness and efficiency. Special grid transfer operators were introduced at grid interfaces in the multigrid algorithm to ensure discrete mass conservation. Results are presented for three models: the driven-cavity, a backward-facing step, and a sudden expansion/contraction.
Applications of the contravariant form of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katsanis, T.
1983-01-01
The contravariant Navier-Stokes equations in weak conservation form are well suited to certain fluid flow analysis problems. Three dimensional contravariant momentum equations may be used to obtain Navier-Stokes equations in weak conservation form on a nonplanar two dimensional surface with varying streamsheet thickness. Thus a three dimensional flow can be simulated with two dimensional equations to obtain a quasi-three dimensional solution for viscous flow. When the Navier-Stokes equations on the two dimensional nonplanar surface are transformed to a generalized body fitted mesh coordinate system, the resulting equations are similar to the equations for a body fitted mesh coordinate system on the Euclidean plane. Contravariant momentum components are also useful for analyzing compressible, three dimensional viscous flow through an internal duct by parabolic marching. This type of flow is efficiently analyzed by parabolic marching methods, where the streamwise momentum equation is uncoupled from the two crossflow momentum equations. This can be done, even for ducts with a large amount of turning, if the Navier-Stokes equations are written with contravariant components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Cook, C.
1988-01-01
Pressure boundary conditions satisfying the normal momentum equation at solid boundaries with second-order accuracy are developed. Implementation of these conditions in an explicit numerical procedure for the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations enables convergent and accurate solutions for the driven cavity problem provided that the integral constraint of the Neumann boundary condtions is satisfied.
The Minkowski dimension of interior singular points in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Youngwoo; Yang, Minsuk
2016-09-01
We study the possible interior singular points of suitable weak solutions to the three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We present an improved parabolic upper Minkowski dimension of the possible singular set, which is bounded by 95/63. The result also continue to hold for the three dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations without any difficulty.
Properties of the Residual Stress of the Temporally Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pruett, C. D.; Gatski, T. B.; Grosch, C. E.; Thacker, W. D.
2002-01-01
The development of a unifying framework among direct numerical simulations, large-eddy simulations, and statistically averaged formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, is of current interest. Toward that goal, the properties of the residual (subgrid-scale) stress of the temporally filtered Navier-Stokes equations are carefully examined. Causal time-domain filters, parameterized by a temporal filter width 0 less than Delta less than infinity, are considered. For several reasons, the differential forms of such filters are preferred to their corresponding integral forms; among these, storage requirements for differential forms are typically much less than for integral forms and, for some filters, are independent of Delta. The behavior of the residual stress in the limits of both vanishing and in infinite filter widths is examined. It is shown analytically that, in the limit Delta to 0, the residual stress vanishes, in which case the Navier-Stokes equations are recovered from the temporally filtered equations. Alternately, in the limit Delta to infinity, the residual stress is equivalent to the long-time averaged stress, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are recovered from the temporally filtered equations. The predicted behavior at the asymptotic limits of filter width is further validated by numerical simulations of the temporally filtered forced, viscous Burger's equation. Finally, finite filter widths are also considered, and a priori analyses of temporal similarity and temporal approximate deconvolution models of the residual stress are conducted.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-01-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi-Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
An efficient non-linear multigrid procedure for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivaloganathan, S.; Shaw, G. J.
An efficient Full Approximation multigrid scheme for finite volume discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The algorithm is applied to the driven cavity test problem. Numerical results are presented and a comparison made with PACE, a Rolls-Royce industrial code, which uses the SIMPLE pressure correction method as an iterative solver.
Solving Navier-Stokes' equation using Castillo-Grone's mimetic difference operators on GPUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouali, Mohammad; Castillo, Jose
2012-11-01
This paper discusses the performance and the accuracy of Castillo-Grone's (CG) mimetic difference operator in solving the Navier-Stokes' equation in order to simulate oceanic and atmospheric flows. The implementation is further adapted to harness the power of the many computing cores available on the Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the speedup is discussed.
Remark on boundary data for inverse boundary value problems for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imanuvilov, O. Yu; Yamamoto, M.
2015-10-01
In this note, we prove that for the Navier-Stokes equations, a pair of Dirichlet and Neumann data and pressure uniquely correspond to a pair of Dirichlet data and surface stress on the boundary. Hence the two inverse boundary value problems in Imanuvilov and Yamamoto (2015 Inverse Probl. 31 035004) and Lai et al (Arch. Rational Mech. Anal.) are the same.
An implicit flux-split algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, James L.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Walters, Robert W.; van Leer, Bram
An implicit upwind scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is described and applied to the internal flow in a dual-throat nozzle. The method is second-order accurate spatially and naturally dissipative. A spatially-split approximate factorization method is used to obtain efficient steady-state solutions on the NASA Langley VPS-32 (CYBER 205) supercomputer.
A fully vectorized numerical solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, N.
1983-01-01
A vectorizable algorithm is presented for the implicit finite difference solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations solved are in two dimension and non-conservative primitive variable form. A two-layer algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model is used to incorporate the effects of turbulence. Two momentum equations and a Poisson pressure equation, which is obtained by taking the divergence of the momentum equations and satisfying the continuity equation, are solved simultaneously at each time step. An elliptic grid generation approach is used to generate a boundary conforming coordinate system about an airfoil. The governing equations are expressed in terms of the curvilinear coordinates and are solved on a uniform rectangular computational domain. A checkerboard SOR, which can effectively utilize the computer architectural concept of vector processing, is used for iterative solution of the governing equations.
Algorithms for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.
1985-01-01
The steady state Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are considered for both compressible and incompressible flow. Methods are found for accelerating the convergence to a steady state. This acceleration is based on preconditioning the system so that it is no longer time consistent. In order that the acceleration technique be scheme-independent, this preconditioning is done at the differential equation level. Applications are presented for very slow flows and also for the incompressible equations.
Comparison of generalized Reynolds and Navier Stokes equations for flow of a power law fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mullen, R. L.; Prekwas, A.; Braun, M. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1987-01-01
This paper compares a finite element solution of a modified Reynolds equation with a finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for a power law fluid. Both the finite element and finite difference formulation are reviewed. Solutions to spiral flow in parallel and conical geometries are compared. Comparison with experimental results are also given. The effects of the assumptions used in the Reynolds equation are discussed.
Bypass Transitional Flow Calculations Using a Navier-Stokes Solver and Two-Equation Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liuo, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, L. A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Bypass transitional flows over a flat plate were simulated using a Navier-Stokes solver and two equation models. A new model for the bypass transition, which occurs in cases with high free stream turbulence intensity (TI), is described. The new transition model is developed by including an intermittency correction function to an existing two-equation turbulence model. The advantages of using Navier-Stokes equations, as opposed to boundary-layer equations, in bypass transition simulations are also illustrated. The results for two test flows over a flat plate with different levels of free stream turbulence intensity are reported. Comparisons with the experimental measurements show that the new model can capture very well both the onset and the length of bypass transition.
The Cauchy problem for the pressureless Euler/isentropic Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Young-Pil; Kwon, Bongsuk
2016-07-01
We present a new hydrodynamic model consisting of the pressureless Euler equations and the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations where the coupling of two systems is through the drag force. This coupled system can be derived, in the hydrodynamic limit, from the particle-fluid equations that are frequently used to study the medical sprays, aerosols and sedimentation problems. For the proposed system, we first construct the local-in-time classical solutions in an appropriate L2 Sobolev space. We also establish the a priori large-time behavior estimate by constructing a Lyapunov functional measuring the fluctuation of momentum and mass from the averaged quantities, and using this together with the bootstrapping argument, we obtain the global classical solution. The large-time behavior estimate asserts that the velocity functions of the pressureless Euler and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are aligned exponentially fast as time tends to infinity.
Large-time behavior for the Vlasov/compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Young-Pil
2016-07-01
We establish the large-time behavior for the coupled kinetic-fluid equations. More precisely, we consider the Vlasov equation coupled to the compressible isentropic Navier-Stokes equations through a drag forcing term. For this system, the large-time behavior shows the exponential alignment between particles and fluid velocities as time evolves. This improves the previous result by Bae et al. [Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 34, 4419-4458 (2014)] in which they considered the Vlasov/Navier-Stokes equations with nonlocal velocity alignment forces for particles. Employing a new Lyapunov functional measuring the fluctuations of momentum and mass from the averaged quantities, we refine assumptions for the large-time behavior of the solutions to that system.
Thickening oscillation of a delta wing using Navier-Stokes and Navier-displacement equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, Hsin-Kung A.; Kandil, Osama A.
1989-01-01
The problem of unsteady, supersonic, locally conical, vortical flow around a delta wing undergoing thickening oscillation is solved using the unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and the unsteady linearized Navier-displacement equations. The unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the implicit approximate-factorization finite-volume scheme to compute the conservative components of the flow vector field. With the conservative components known at any time step, the linearized, Navier-displacement equations are solved using the alternating, direction-implicit scheme to obtain the grid points displacements due to known displacement boundary conditions. A grid-displacements limiter, in the form of a low mesh Reynolds number, is used to limit grid-folding in regions of highly reversed flow.
Finite element modified method of characteristics for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allievi, Alejandro; Bermejo, Rodolfo
2000-02-01
An algorithm based on the finite element modified method of characteristics (FEMMC) is presented to solve convection-diffusion, Burgers and unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow. Solutions for these progressively more involved problems are presented so as to give numerical evidence for the robustness, good error characteristics and accuracy of our method. To solve the Navier-Stokes equations, an approach that can be conceived as a fractional step method is used. The innovative first stage of our method is a backward search and interpolation at the foot of the characteristics, which we identify as the convective step. In this particular work, this step is followed by a conjugate gradient solution of the remaining Stokes problem. Numerical results are presented for:aConvection-diffusion equation. Gaussian hill in a uniform rotating field.bBurgers equations with viscosity.
Application of the implicit MacCormack scheme to the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.
1984-01-01
MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.
Recovery of the Navier-Stokes equations using a lattice-gas Boltzmann method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Hudong; Chen, Shiyi; Matthaeus, William H.
1992-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann model is presented which gives the complete Navier-Stokes equation and may provide an efficient parallel numerical method for solving various fluid problems. The model uses the single-time relaxation approximation and a particular Maxwell-type distribution. The model eliminates exactly (1) the non-Galilean invariance caused by a density-dependent coefficient in the convection term and (2) a velocity-dependent equation of state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, De-Xiang; Xu, Zi-Li; Liu, Shi; Feng, Yong-Xin
2014-03-01
Modern least squares finite element method (LSFEM) has advantage over mixed finite element method for non-self-adjoint problem like Navier-Stokes equations, but has problem to be norm equivalent and mass conservative when using C0 type basis. In this paper, LSFEM with non-uniform B-splines (NURBS) is proposed for Navier-Stokes equations. High order continuity NURBS is used to construct the finite-dimensional spaces for both velocity and pressure. Variational form is derived from the governing equations with primitive variables and the DOFs due to additional variables are not necessary. There is a novel k-refinement which has spectral convergence of least squares functional. The method also has same advantages as isogeometric analysis like automatic mesh generation and exact geometry representation. Several benchmark problems are solved using the proposed method. The results agree well with the benchmark solutions available in literature. The results also show good performance in mass conservation.
Convergence Acceleration of Runge-Kutta Schemes for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Turkel, Eli; Rossow, C.-C.
2007-01-01
The convergence of a Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid is accelerated by preconditioning with a fully implicit operator. With the extended stability of the Runge-Kutta scheme, CFL numbers as high as 1000 can be used. The implicit preconditioner addresses the stiffness in the discrete equations associated with stretched meshes. This RK/implicit scheme is used as a smoother for multigrid. Fourier analysis is applied to determine damping properties. Numerical dissipation operators based on the Roe scheme, a matrix dissipation, and the CUSP scheme are considered in evaluating the RK/implicit scheme. In addition, the effect of the number of RK stages is examined. Both the numerical and computational efficiency of the scheme with the different dissipation operators are discussed. The RK/implicit scheme is used to solve the two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Turbulent flows over an airfoil and wing at subsonic and transonic conditions are computed. The effects of the cell aspect ratio on convergence are investigated for Reynolds numbers between 5:7 x 10(exp 6) and 100 x 10(exp 6). It is demonstrated that the implicit preconditioner can reduce the computational time of a well-tuned standard RK scheme by a factor between four and ten.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1986-01-01
Numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is known to be time consuming and expensive. Testing of the INS3D computers code, which solves these equations with the use of the pseudocompressibility method, shows this method to be an efficient way to obtain the steady state solution. The effects of the waves introduced by the pseudocompressibility method are analyzed and criteria are set and tested for the choice of the pseudocompressibility parameter which governs the artificial sound speed. The code is tested using laminar flow over a two dimensional backward-facing step, and laminar flow over a two dimensional circular cylinder. The results of the computations over the backward-facing step are in excellent agreement with experimental results. The transient solution of the flow over the cylinder impulsively started from rest is in good agreement with experimental results. However, the computed frequency of periodic shedding of vortices behind the cylinder is not in agreement with the experimental value. For a three dimensional test case, computations were conducted for a cylinder end wall junction. The saddle point separation and horseshoe vortex system appear in the computed field. The solution also shows secondary vortex filaments which wrap around the cylinder and spiral up in the wake.
Xiaodong Liu; Lijun Xuan; Hong Luo; Yidong Xia
2001-01-01
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG(P1P2)) method, originally introduced for the compressible Euler equations, is developed for the solution of the compressible Navier- Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. In this method, a piecewise quadratic polynomial solution is obtained from the underlying piecewise linear DG solution using a hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. The reconstructed quadratic polynomial solution is then used for the computation of the inviscid fluxes and the viscous fluxes using the second formulation of Bassi and Reay (Bassi-Rebay II). The developed rDG(P1P2) method is used to compute a variety of flow problems to assess its accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to achieve the designed third-order of accuracy at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, outperform the third order DG method in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements, and obtain reliable and accurate solutions to the large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent flows.
Evaluation of a Multigrid Scheme for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.
2004-01-01
A fast multigrid solver for the steady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The multigrid solver is based upon a factorizable discrete scheme for the velocity-pressure form of the Navier-Stokes equations. This scheme correctly distinguishes between the advection-diffusion and elliptic parts of the operator, allowing efficient smoothers to be constructed. To evaluate the multigrid algorithm, solutions are computed for flow over a flat plate, parabola, and a Karman-Trefftz airfoil. Both nonlifting and lifting airfoil flows are considered, with a Reynolds number range of 200 to 800. Convergence and accuracy of the algorithm are discussed. Using Gauss-Seidel line relaxation in alternating directions, multigrid convergence behavior approaching that of O(N) methods is achieved. The computational efficiency of the numerical scheme is compared with that of Runge-Kutta and implicit upwind based multigrid methods.
High-order ENO methods for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.
1991-01-01
The adaptive stencil concepts of ENO (Essentially Non-Oscillatory) methods are applied to the laminar Navier-Stokes equations to yield a high-order, time-accurate algorithm with a shock-capturing capability. The method targets problems in the areas of nonlinear acoustics, compressible transition, and turbulence which, due to the presence of shocks or complex geometries, are not easily solved by spectral methods. The present approach has been implemented and tested for the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a transformed curvilinear coordinate system. Validation results are presented for a variety of problems which verify the method's accuracy properties and shock capturing capabilities, as well as demonstrate its use as a direct simulation tool.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, S. C.; Liu, N. S.; Kim, H. D.
1992-01-01
An algorithm utilizing a first order upwind split flux technique and the diagonally dominant treatment is proposed to be the temporal operator for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. Given the limit of a five point stencil, the right hand side flux derivatives are formulated by several commonly used central and upwind schemes. Their performances are studied through a test case of free vortex convection in a uniform stream. From these results, a superior treatment for evaluating the flux term is proposed and compared with the rest. The application of the proposed algorithm to the full Navier-Stokes equations is demonstrated through a calculation of flow over a backward facing step. Results are compared against the calculation done by using the fourth order central differencing scheme with artificial damping.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, K. V.; Tobak, M.
1990-01-01
The indicial response approach is recast in a form appropriate to the study of vortex induced oscillations phenomena. An appropriate form is demonstrated for the indicial response of the velocity field which may be derived directly from the Navier-Stokes equations. On the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is demonstrated how a form of the velocity response to an arbitrary motion may be determined. To establish its connection with the previous work, the new approach is applied first to the simple situation wherein the indicial response has a time invariant equilibrium state. Results for the aerodynamic response to an arbitrary motion are shown to confirm to the form obtained previously.
Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a driven cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semeraro, B. D.; Sameh, Ahmed
1991-03-01
The flow field in a lid driven cavity is determined by integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical integration is accomplished via an operator splitting method known as the theta-scheme. This splitting separates the problem into the solution of a quasi-stokes problem and a nonlinear convection problem. Some details of solution methods used for the two subproblems and results obtained for the driven cavity are described. The schemes developed for the quasi-Stokes problem are more advanced at this stage than those for the nonlinear problem. However, the approaches used for both parts are outlined. As a model problem, a two dimensional square cavity with sides of unit length and a lid moving with unit velocity from left to right is considered. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized in space on a uniform staggered or MAC mesh. The time discretization is accomplished via the theta-scheme.
Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a driven cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semeraro, B. D.; Sameh, Ahmed
1991-01-01
The flow field in a lid driven cavity is determined by integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical integration is accomplished via an operator splitting method known as the theta-scheme. This splitting separates the problem into the solution of a quasi-stokes problem and a nonlinear convection problem. Some details of solution methods used for the two subproblems and results obtained for the driven cavity are described. The schemes developed for the quasi-Stokes problem are more advanced at this stage than those for the nonlinear problem. However, the approaches used for both parts are outlined. As a model problem, a two dimensional square cavity with sides of unit length and a lid moving with unit velocity from left to right is considered. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized in space on a uniform staggered or MAC mesh. The time discretization is accomplished via the theta-scheme.
On lower bounds for possible blow-up solutions to the periodic Navier-Stokes equation
Cortissoz, Jean C. Montero, Julio A. Pinilla, Carlos E.
2014-03-15
We show a new lower bound on the H{sup .3/2} (T{sup 3}) norm of a possible blow-up solution to the Navier-Stokes equation, and also comment on the extension of this result to the whole space. This estimate can be seen as a natural limiting result for Leray's blow-up estimates in L{sup p}(R{sup 3}), 3 < p < ∞. We also show a lower bound on the blow-up rate of a possible blow-up solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in H{sup .5/2} (T{sup 3}), and give the corresponding extension to the case of the whole space.
Application of multi-grid methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1989-01-01
The application of a class of multi-grid methods to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional laminar flow problems is discussed. The methods consist of combining the full approximation scheme-full multi-grid technique (FAS-FMG) with point-, line-, or plane-relaxation routines for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. The performance of the multi-grid methods is compared to that of several single-grid methods. The results show that much faster convergence can be procured through the use of the multi-grid approach than through the various suggestions for improving single-grid methods. The importance of the choice of relaxation scheme for the multi-grid method is illustrated.
Application of multi-grid methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1989-01-01
This paper presents the application of a class of multi-grid methods to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional laminar flow problems. The methods consists of combining the full approximation scheme-full multi-grid technique (FAS-FMG) with point-, line- or plane-relaxation routines for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. The performance of the multi-grid methods is compared to those of several single-grid methods. The results show that much faster convergence can be procured through the use of the multi-grid approach than through the various suggestions for improving single-grid methods. The importance of the choice of relaxation scheme for the multi-grid method is illustrated.
A high-order Lagrangian-decoupling method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Lee-Wing; Maday, Yvon; Patera, Anthony T.; Ronquist, Einar M.
1989-01-01
A high-order Lagrangian-decoupling method is presented for the unsteady convection-diffusion and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based upon: (1) Lagrangian variational forms that reduce the convection-diffusion equation to a symmetric initial value problem; (2) implicit high-order backward-differentiation finite-difference schemes for integration along characteristics; (3) finite element or spectral element spatial discretizations; and (4) mesh-invariance procedures and high-order explicit time-stepping schemes for deducing function values at convected space-time points. The method improves upon previous finite element characteristic methods through the systematic and efficient extension to high order accuracy, and the introduction of a simple structure-preserving characteristic-foot calculation procedure which is readily implemented on modern architectures. The new method is significantly more efficient than explicit-convection schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations due to the decoupling of the convection and Stokes operators and the attendant increase in temporal stability. Numerous numerical examples are given for the convection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations for the particular case of a spectral element spatial discretization.
Patched-grid calculations with the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations: Theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.
1986-01-01
The Rai (1984,85) patch-boundary scheme for the Euler equations is described. The integration methods used to update the interior grid points are are discussed. Stability of patch-boundary schemes and the use of these schemes in Navier-Stokes calculations are mentioned. Results for inviscid, supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast wave diffraction by ramp, and the motion of a vortex in a freestream are presented. These test cases demonstrate the quality of solutions possible with the scheme.
Accuracy of Projection Methods for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Brown, D L
2001-06-12
Numerous papers have appeared in the literature over the past thirty years discussing projection-type methods for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A recurring difficulty encountered is the choice of boundary conditions for the intermediate or predicted velocity in order to obtain at least second order convergence. A further issue is the formula for the pressure correction at each timestep. A simple overview is presented here based on recently published results by Brown, Cortez and Minion [2].
Some observations on a new numerical method for solving Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.
1981-01-01
An explicit-implicit technique for solving Navier-Stokes equations is described which, is much less complex than other implicit methods. It is used to solve a complex, two-dimensional, steady-state, supersonic-flow problem. The computational efficiency of the method and the quality of the solution obtained from it at high Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) numbers are discussed. Modifications are discussed and certain observations are made about the method which may be helpful in using it successfully.
Complete Galilean-Invariant Lattice BGK Models for the Navier-Stokes Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Qian, Yue-Hong; Zhou, Ye
1998-01-01
Galilean invariance has been an important issue in lattice-based hydrodynamics models. Previous models concentrated on the nonlinear advection term. In this paper, we take into account the nonlinear response effect in a systematic way. Using the Chapman-Enskog expansion up to second order, complete Galilean invariant lattice BGK models in one dimension (theta = 3) and two dimensions (theta = 1) for the Navier-Stokes equation have been obtained.
The energy balance relation for weak solutions of the density-dependent Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leslie, T. M.; Shvydkoy, R.
2016-09-01
We consider the incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with constant viscosity coefficient and density which is bounded and bounded away from zero. We show that the energy balance relation for this system holds for weak solutions if the velocity, density, and pressure belong to a range of Besov spaces of smoothness 1/3. A density-dependent version of the classical Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation is derived.
Generalized INF-SUP condition for Chebyshev approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon
1986-01-01
An abstract mixed problem and its approximation are studied; both are well-posed if and only if several inf-sup conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to a spectral Galerkin method for the Stokes problem in a square, when it is formulated in Chebyshev weighted Sobolev spaces. Finally, a collocation method for the Navier-Stokes equations at Chebyshev nodes is analyzed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive provably stable, polynomial-based spectral collocation methods of arbitrary order. The new methods are closely related to discontinuous Galerkin spectral collocation methods commonly known as DGFEM, but exhibit a more general entropy stability property. Although the new schemes are applicable to a broad class of linear and nonlinear conservation laws, emphasis herein is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Incomplete Augmented Lagrangian Preconditioner for Steady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun
2013-01-01
An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888
Incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun
2013-01-01
An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888
An Explicit Upwind Algorithm for Solving the Parabolized Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korte, John J.
1991-01-01
An explicit, upwind algorithm was developed for the direct (noniterative) integration of the 3-D Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations in a generalized coordinate system. The new algorithm uses upwind approximations of the numerical fluxes for the pressure and convection terms obtained by combining flux difference splittings (FDS) formed from the solution of an approximate Riemann (RP). The approximate RP is solved using an extension of the method developed by Roe for steady supersonic flow of an ideal gas. Roe's method is extended for use with the 3-D PNS equations expressed in generalized coordinates and to include Vigneron's technique of splitting the streamwise pressure gradient. The difficulty associated with applying Roe's scheme in the subsonic region is overcome. The second-order upwind differencing of the flux derivatives are obtained by adding FDS to either an original forward or backward differencing of the flux derivative. This approach is used to modify an explicit MacCormack differencing scheme into an upwind differencing scheme. The second order upwind flux approximations, applied with flux limiters, provide a method for numerically capturing shocks without the need for additional artificial damping terms which require adjustment by the user. In addition, a cubic equation is derived for determining Vegneron's pressure splitting coefficient using the updated streamwise flux vector. Decoding the streamwise flux vector with the updated value of Vigneron's pressure splitting improves the stability of the scheme. The new algorithm is applied to 2-D and 3-D supersonic and hypersonic laminar flow test cases. Results are presented for the experimental studies of Holden and of Tracy. In addition, a flow field solution is presented for a generic hypersonic aircraft at a Mach number of 24.5 and angle of attack of 1 degree. The computed results compare well to both experimental data and numerical results from other algorithms. Computational times required
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong
2015-11-01
The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.
Iterative solvers for Navier-Stokes equations: Experiments with turbulence model
Page, M.; Garon, A.
1994-12-31
In the framework of developing software for the prediction of flows in hydraulic turbine components, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with {kappa}-{omega} two-equation turbulence model are discretized by finite element method. Since the resulting matrices are large, sparse and nonsymmetric, strategies based on CG-type iterative methods must be devised. A segregated solution strategy decouples the momentum equation, the {kappa} transport equation and the {omega} transport equation. These sets of equations must be solved while satisfying constraint equations. Experiments with orthogonal projection method are presented for the imposition of essential boundary conditions in a weak sense.
A comparison of numerical flux formulas for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Leer, Bram; Thomas, James L.; Roe, Philip L.; Newsome, Richard W.
1987-01-01
Numerical flux formulas for the convection terms in the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations are analyzed with regard to their accuracy in representing steady nonlinear and linear waves (shocks and entropy/shear waves, respectively). Numerical results are obtained for a one-dimensional conical Navier-Stokes flow including both a shock and a boundary layer. Analysis and experiments indicate that for an accurate representation of both layers the flux formula must include information about all different waves by which neighboring cells interact, as in Roe's flux-difference splitting. In comparison, Van Leer's flux-vector splitting, which ignores the linear waves, badly diffuses the boundary layer. The results of MacCormack's scheme, if properly tuned, are significantly better. The use of a sufficiently detailed flux formula appears to reduce the number of cells required to resolve a boundary layer by a factor 1/2 to 1/4 and thus pays off.
A cell-vertex multigrid method for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radespiel, R.
1989-01-01
A cell-vertex scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations, which is based on central difference approximations and Runge-Kutta time stepping, is described. Using local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, a multigrid method, and carefully controlled artificial dissipative terms, very good convergence rates are obtained for a wide range of two- and three-dimensional flows over airfoils and wings. The accuracy of the code is examined by grid refinement studies and comparison with experimental data. For an accurate prediction of turbulent flows with strong separations, a modified version of the nonequilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King is introduced, which is well suited for an implementation into three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. It is shown that the solutions for three-dimensional flows with strong separations can be dramatically improved, when a nonequilibrium model of turbulence is used.
Stabilization and scalable block preconditioning for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cyr, Eric C.; Shadid, John N.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.
2012-01-01
This study compares several block-oriented preconditioners for the stabilized finite element discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. This includes standard additive Schwarz domain decomposition methods, aggressive coarsening multigrid, and three preconditioners based on an approximate block LU factorization, specifically SIMPLEC, LSC, and PCD. Robustness is considered with a particular focus on the impact that different stabilization methods have on preconditioner performance. Additionally, parallel scaling studies are undertaken. The numerical results indicate that aggressive coarsening multigrid, LSC and PCD all have good algorithmic scalability. Coupling this with the fact that block methods can be applied to systems arising from stable mixed discretizations implies that these techniques are a promising direction for developing scalable methods for Navier-Stokes.
Numerical Solution of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Using a Fractional-Step Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan
1999-01-01
A fractional step method for the solution of steady and unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is outlined. The method is based on a finite volume formulation and uses the pressure in the cell center and the mass fluxes across the faces of each cell as dependent variables. Implicit treatment of convective and viscous terms in the momentum equations enables the numerical stability restrictions to be relaxed. The linearization error in the implicit solution of momentum equations is reduced by using three subiterations in order to achieve second order temporal accuracy for time-accurate calculations. In spatial discretizations of the momentum equations, a high-order (3rd and 5th) flux-difference splitting for the convective terms and a second-order central difference for the viscous terms are used. The resulting algebraic equations are solved with a line-relaxation scheme which allows the use of large time step. A four color ZEBRA scheme is employed after the line-relaxation procedure in the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. This procedure is applied to a Couette flow problem using a distorted computational grid to show that the method minimizes grid effects. Additional benchmark cases include the unsteady laminar flow over a circular cylinder for Reynolds Numbers of 200, and a 3-D, steady, turbulent wingtip vortex wake propagation study. The solution algorithm does a very good job in resolving the vortex core when 5th-order upwind differencing and a modified production term in the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model are used with adequate grid resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fakhar, K.; Hayat, T.; Yi, Cheng; Amin, N.
2010-03-01
This note looks at the two similarity solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in polar coordinates. In the second solution an initial value problem is reduced into generalized stationary KDV and hence integrable.
On the Navier-Stokes equations with constant total temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, D.; Gustafsson, B.
1975-01-01
For various applications in fluid dynamics, it is assumed that the total temperature is constant. Therefore, the energy equation can be replaced by an algebraic relation. The resulting set of equations in the inviscid case is analyzed. It is shown that the system is strictly hyperbolic and well posed for the initial value problems. Boundary conditions are described such that the linearized system is well posed. The Hopscotch method is investigated and numerical results are presented.
Numerical Solutions of the Complete Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, David F.; Hassan, H. A.
1997-01-01
This report details the development of a new two-equation turbulence closure model based on the exact turbulent kinetic energy k and the variance of vorticity, zeta. The model, which is applicable to three dimensional flowfields, employs one set of model constants and does not use damping or wall functions, or geometric factors.
Incipient singularities in the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siggia, E. D.; Pumir, A.
1985-01-01
Infinite pointwise stretching in a finite time for general initial conditions is found in a simulation of the Biot-Savart equation for a slender vortex tube in three dimensions. Viscosity is ineffective in limiting the divergence in the vorticity as long as it remains concentrated in tubes. Stability has not been shown.
Numerical solutions of the complete Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
1993-01-01
The objective of this study is to compare the use of assumed pdf (probability density function) approaches for modeling supersonic turbulent reacting flowfields with the more elaborate approach where the pdf evolution equation is solved. Assumed pdf approaches for averaging the chemical source terms require modest increases in CPU time typically of the order of 20 percent above treating the source terms as 'laminar.' However, it is difficult to assume a form for these pdf's a priori that correctly mimics the behavior of the actual pdf governing the flow. Solving the evolution equation for the pdf is a theoretically sound approach, but because of the large dimensionality of this function, its solution requires a Monte Carlo method which is computationally expensive and slow to coverage. Preliminary results show both pdf approaches to yield similar solutions for the mean flow variables.
Direct Coupling Method for Time-Accurate Solution of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soh, Woo Y.
1992-01-01
A noniterative finite difference numerical method is presented for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with second order accuracy in time and space. Explicit treatment of convection and diffusion terms and implicit treatment of the pressure gradient give a single pressure Poisson equation when the discretized momentum and continuity equations are combined. A pressure boundary condition is not needed on solid boundaries in the staggered mesh system. The solution of the pressure Poisson equation is obtained directly by Gaussian elimination. This method is tested on flow problems in a driven cavity and a curved duct.
Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Meshes Using the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Anderson, W. Kyle
1998-01-01
A discrete adjoint method is developed and demonstrated for aerodynamic design optimization on unstructured grids. The governing equations are the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a one-equation turbulence model. A discussion of the numerical implementation of the flow and adjoint equations is presented. Both compressible and incompressible solvers are differentiated and the accuracy of the sensitivity derivatives is verified by comparing with gradients obtained using finite differences. Several simplifying approximations to the complete linearization of the residual are also presented, and the resulting accuracy of the derivatives is examined. Demonstration optimizations for both compressible and incompressible flows are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Mehmet
2005-11-01
A new semi-staggered finite volume method is presented for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on all-quadrilateral (2D)/hexahedral (3D) meshes. The velocity components are defined at element node points while the pressure term is defined at element centroids. The continuity equation is satisfied exactly within each elements. The checkerboard pressure oscillations are prevented using a special filtering matrix as a preconditioner for the saddle-point problem resulting from second-order discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The preconditioned saddle-point problem is solved using block preconditioners with GMRES solver. In order to achieve higher performance FORTRAN source code is based on highly efficient PETSc and HYPRE libraries. As test cases the 2D/3D lid-driven cavity flow problem and the 3D flow past array of circular cylinders are solved in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.
1979-01-01
An attempt is made to establish a connection between linear multistep methods for applications to ordinary differential equations and their extension (by approximate factorization) to alternating direction implicit methods for partial differential equations. An earlier implicit factored scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is generalized by innovations that (1) increase the class of temporal difference schemes to include all linear multistep methods, (2) optimize the class of unconditionally stable factored schemes by a new choice of unknown variable, and (3) improve the computational efficiency by the introduction of quasi-one-leg methods.
A Cartesian Embedded Boundary Method for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Kupiainen, M; Sjogreen, B
2008-03-21
We here generalize the embedded boundary method that was developed for boundary discretizations of the wave equation in second order formulation in [6] and for the Euler equations of compressible fluid flow in [11], to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We describe the method and we implement it on a parallel computer. The implementation is tested for accuracy and correctness. The ability of the embedded boundary technique to resolve boundary layers is investigated by computing skin-friction profiles along the surfaces of the embedded objects. The accuracy is assessed by comparing the computed skin-friction profiles with those obtained by a body fitted discretization.
On a Modified Form of Navier-Stokes Equations for Three-Dimensional Flows
Venetis, J.
2015-01-01
A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces. PMID:25918743
Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis Using a Time-Accurate Navier-Stokes Equations Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuruvila, Geojoe; Bartels, Robert E.; Hong, Moeljo S.; Bhatia, G.
2007-01-01
A method to simulate limit cycle oscillation (LCO) due to control surface freeplay using a modified CFL3D, a time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis code with structural modeling capability, is presented. This approach can be used to analyze aeroelastic response of aircraft with structural behavior characterized by nonlinearity in the force verses displacement curve. A limited validation of the method, using very low Mach number experimental data for a three-degrees-of-freedom (pitch/plunge/flap deflection) airfoil model with flap freeplay, is also presented.
Numerical algorithms for steady and unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, Mohammed; Dacles, Jennifer
1989-01-01
The numerical analysis of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are becoming important tools in the understanding of some fluid flow problems which are encountered in research as well as in industry. With the advent of the supercomputers, more realistic problems can be studied with a wider choice of numerical algorithms. An alternative formulation is presented for viscous incompressible flows. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are cast in a velocity/vorticity formulation. This formulation consists of solving the Poisson equations for the velocity components and the vorticity transport equation. Two numerical algorithms for the steady two-dimensional laminar flows are presented. The first method is based on the actual partial differential equations. This uses a finite-difference approximation of the governing equations on a staggered grid. The second method uses a finite element discretization with the vorticity transport equation approximated using a Galerkin approximation and the Poisson equations are obtained using a least squares method. The equations are solved efficiently using Newton's method and a banded direct matrix solver (LINPACK). The method is extended to steady three-dimensional laminar flows and applied to a cubic driven cavity using finite difference schemes and a staggered grid arrangement on a Cartesian mesh. The equations are solved iteratively using a plane zebra relaxation scheme. Currently, a two-dimensional, unsteady algorithm is being developed using a generalized coordinate system. The equations are discretized using a finite-volume approach. This work will then be extended to three-dimensional flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli
2006-01-01
We apply an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver for the simulation of a synthetic jet created by a single diaphragm piezoelectric actuator in quiescent air. This configuration was designated as Case 1 for the CFDVAL2004 workshop held at Williamsburg, Virginia, in March 2004. Time-averaged and instantaneous data for this case were obtained at NASA Langley Research Center, using multiple measurement techniques. Computational results for this case using one-equation Spalart-Allmaras and two-equation Menter's turbulence models are presented along with the experimental data. The effect of grid refinement, preconditioning and time-step variation are also examined in this paper.
Spectral solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the Connection Machine 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tomboulian, Sherryl; Streett, Craig; Macaraeg, Michele
1989-01-01
The issue of solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the Connection Machine 2 is addressed, for the problem of transition to turbulence of the steady flow in a channel. The spectral algorithm used serially requires O(N(4)) operations when solving the equations on an N x N x N grid; using the massive parallelism of the CM, it becomes an O(N(2)) problem. Preliminary timings of the code, written in LISP, are included and compared with a corresponding code optimized for the Cray-2 for a 128 x 128 x 101 grid.
A solution to the Navier-Stokes equations based upon the Newton Kantorovich method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, J. E.; Gabrielsen, R. E.; Mehta, U. B.
1977-01-01
An implicit finite difference scheme based on the Newton-Kantorovich technique was developed for the numerical solution of the nonsteady, incompressible, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. The algorithm was second-order-time accurate, noniterative with regard to the nonlinear terms in the vorticity transport equation except at the earliest few time steps, and spatially factored. Numerical results were obtained with the technique for a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 15. Results indicate that the technique is in excellent agreement with other numerical techniques for all geometries and Reynolds numbers investigated, and indicates a potential for significant reduction in computation time over current iterative techniques.
Stochastic Galerkin methods for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousedík, Bedřich; Elman, Howard C.
2016-07-01
We study the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations in the context of stochastic finite element discretizations. Specifically, we assume that the viscosity is a random field given in the form of a generalized polynomial chaos expansion. For the resulting stochastic problem, we formulate the model and linearization schemes using Picard and Newton iterations in the framework of the stochastic Galerkin method, and we explore properties of the resulting stochastic solutions. We also propose a preconditioner for solving the linear systems of equations arising at each step of the stochastic (Galerkin) nonlinear iteration and demonstrate its effectiveness for solving a set of benchmark problems.
Three-dimensional computational study of asymmetric flows using Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, Y. K. (Editor); Lee, J. H. W. (Editor); Leung, A. Y. T. (Editor); Wong, Tin-Chee; Kandil, Osama A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
The unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are used to obtain three-dimensional, asymmetric, vortex-flow solutions around cones and cone-cylinder configurations. The equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The computational applications cover asymmetric flows around a 5 semi-apex angle cone of unit length at various Reynolds number. Next, a cylindrical afterbody of various length is added to the conical forebody to study the effect of the length of cylindrical afterbody on the flow asymmetry. All the asymmetric flow solutions are obtained by using a short-duration side-slip disturbance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jentink, Thomas Neil; Usab, William J., Jr.
1990-01-01
An explicit, Multigrid algorithm was written to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with special consideration given to the coarse mesh boundary conditions. These are formulated in a manner consistent with the interior solution, utilizing forcing terms to prevent coarse-mesh truncation error from affecting the fine-mesh solution. A 4-Stage Hybrid Runge-Kutta Scheme is used to advance the solution in time, and Multigrid convergence is further enhanced by using local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Details of the algorithm are presented along with a description of Jameson's standard Multigrid method and a new approach to formulating the Multigrid equations.
3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romander, Ethan
2006-01-01
The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.
Theoretical study of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by the least-squares method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Loh, Ching Y.; Povinelli, Louis A.
1994-01-01
Usually the theoretical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations is conducted via the Galerkin method which leads to difficult saddle-point problems. This paper demonstrates that the least-squares method is a useful alternative tool for the theoretical study of partial differential equations since it leads to minimization problems which can often be treated by an elementary technique. The principal part of the Navier-Stokes equations in the first-order velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation consists of two div-curl systems, so the three-dimensional div-curl system is thoroughly studied at first. By introducing a dummy variable and by using the least-squares method, this paper shows that the div-curl system is properly determined and elliptic, and has a unique solution. The same technique then is employed to prove that the Stokes equations are properly determined and elliptic, and that four boundary conditions on a fixed boundary are required for three-dimensional problems. This paper also shows that under four combinations of non-standard boundary conditions the solution of the Stokes equations is unique. This paper emphasizes the application of the least-squares method and the div-curl method to derive a high-order version of differential equations and additional boundary conditions. In this paper, an elementary method (integration by parts) is used to prove Friedrichs' inequalities related to the div and curl operators which play an essential role in the analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stück, Arthur
2015-11-01
Inconsistent discrete expressions in the boundary treatment of Navier-Stokes solvers and in the definition of force objective functionals can lead to discrete-adjoint boundary treatments that are not a valid representation of the boundary conditions to the corresponding adjoint partial differential equations. The underlying problem is studied for an elementary 1D advection-diffusion problem first using a node-centred finite-volume discretisation. The defect of the boundary operators in the inconsistently defined discrete-adjoint problem leads to oscillations and becomes evident with the additional insight of the continuous-adjoint approach. A homogenisation of the discretisations for the primal boundary treatment and the force objective functional yields second-order functional accuracy and eliminates the defect in the discrete-adjoint boundary treatment. Subsequently, the issue is studied for aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes problems in conjunction with a standard finite-volume discretisation on median-dual grids and a strong implementation of noslip walls, found in many unstructured general-purpose flow solvers. Going out from a base-line discretisation of force objective functionals which is independent of the boundary treatment in the flow solver, two improved flux-consistent schemes are presented; based on either body wall-defined or farfield-defined control-volumes they resolve the dual inconsistency. The behaviour of the schemes is investigated on a sequence of grids in 2D and 3D.
Decay rates to viscous contact waves for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Shixiang; Wang, Jing
2016-02-01
In this paper, we study the large-time asymptotic behavior of contact wave for the Cauchy problem of one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations with zero viscosity. When the Riemann problem for the Euler system admits a contact discontinuity solution, we can construct a contact wave, which approximates the contact discontinuity on any finite-time interval for small heat conduction and then runs away from it for large time, and proves that it is nonlinearly stable provided that the strength of the contact discontinuity and the perturbation of the initial data are suitably small.
On the supnorm form of Leray's problem for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schütz, Lineia; Zingano, Janaína P.; Zingano, Paulo R.
2015-07-01
We show that t3/4 ↑u(ṡ,t)↑ L∞ (R3) → 0 as t → ∞ for all Leray-Hopf's global weak solutions u(ṡ, t) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in ℝ3. It is also shown that t ↑u(ṡ,t) - eΔt u0↑ L∞ (R3) → 0 as t → ∞, where eΔt is the heat semigroup, as well as other fundamental new results. In spite of the complexity of the questions, our approach is elementary and is based on standard tools like conventional Fourier and energy methods.
Upwind differencing and LU factorization for chemical non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuen, Jian-Shun
1992-01-01
By means of either the Roe or the Van Leer flux-splittings for inviscid terms, in conjunction with central differencing for viscous terms in the explicit operator and the Steger-Warming splitting and lower-upper approximate factorization for the implicit operator, the present, robust upwind method for solving the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations yields formulas for finite-volume discretization in general coordinates. Numerical tests in the illustrative cases of a hypersonic blunt body, a ramped duct, divergent nozzle flows, and shock wave/boundary layer interactions, establish the method's efficiency.
Fischer, P.F.
1996-12-31
Efficient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in complex domains is dependent upon the availability of fast solvers for sparse linear systems. For unsteady incompressible flows, the pressure operator is the leading contributor to stiffness, as the characteristic propagation speed is infinite. In the context of operator splitting formulations, it is the pressure solve which is the most computationally challenging, despite its elliptic origins. We seek to improve existing spectral element iterative methods for the pressure solve in order to overcome the slow convergence frequently observed in the presence of highly refined grids or high-aspect ratio elements.
Large Scale Flutter Data for Design of Rotating Blades Using Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.
2012-01-01
A procedure to compute flutter boundaries of rotating blades is presented; a) Navier-Stokes equations. b) Frequency domain method compatible with industry practice. Procedure is initially validated: a) Unsteady loads with flapping wing experiment. b) Flutter boundary with fixed wing experiment. Large scale flutter computation is demonstrated for rotating blade: a) Single job submission script. b) Flutter boundary in 24 hour wall clock time with 100 cores. c) Linearly scalable with number of cores. Tested with 1000 cores that produced data in 25 hrs for 10 flutter boundaries. Further wall-clock speed-up is possible by performing parallel computations within each case.
From Petrov-Einstein-Dilaton-Axion to Navier-Stokes equation in anisotropic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wen-Jian; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning
2016-01-01
In this paper we generalize the previous works to the case that the near-horizon dynamics of the Einstein-Dilaton-Axion theory can be governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation via imposing the Petrov-like boundary condition on hypersurfaces in the non-relativistic and near-horizon limit. The dynamical shear viscosity η of such dual horizon fluid in our scenario, which isotropically saturates the Kovtun-Son-Starinet (KSS) bound, is independent of both the dilaton field and axion field in that limit.
Propulsion-related flowfields using the preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, S.; Weiss, J. M.; Merkle, C. L.; Choi, Y.-H.
1992-01-01
A previous time-derivative preconditioning procedure for solving the Navier-Stokes is extended to the chemical species equations. The scheme is implemented using both the implicit ADI and the explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms. A new definition for time-step is proposed to enable grid-independent convergence. Several examples of both reacting and non-reacting propulsion-related flowfields are considered. In all cases, convergence that is superior to conventional methods is demonstrated. Accuracy is verified using the example of a backward facing step. These results demonstrate that preconditioning can enhance the capability of density-based methods over a wide range of Mach and Reynolds numbers.
A multistage time-stepping scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, E.
1985-01-01
A class of explicit multistage time-stepping schemes is used to construct an algorithm for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flexibility in treating arbitrary geometries is obtained with a finite-volume formulation. Numerical efficiency is achieved by employing techniques for accelerating convergence to steady state. Computer processing is enhanced through vectorization of the algorithm. The scheme is evaluated by solving laminar and turbulent flows over a flat plate and an NACA 0012 airfoil. Numerical results are compared with theoretical solutions or other numerical solutions and/or experimental data.
Compressible Navier-Stokes equations: A study of leading edge effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Karbhari, P. R.
1987-01-01
A computational method is developed that allows numerical calculations of the time dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations.The current results concern a study of flow past a semi-infinite flat plate.Flow develops from given inflow conditions upstream and passes over the flat plate to leave the computational domain without reflecting at the downstream boundary. Leading edge effects are included in this paper. In addition, specification of a heated region which gets convected with the flow is considered. The time history of this convection is obtained, and it exhibits a wave phenomena.
An investigation of cell centered and cell vertex multigrid schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radespiel, R.; Swanson, R. C.
1989-01-01
Two efficient and robust finite-volume multigrid schemes for solving the Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. These schemes employ either a cell centered or a cell vertex discretization technique. An explicit Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to advance the solution in time. Acceleration techniques are applied to obtain faster steady-state convergence. Accuracy and convergence of the schemes are examined. Computational results for transonic airfoil flows are essentially the same, even for a coarse mesh. Both schemes exhibit good convergence rates for a broad range of artificial dissipation coefficients.
Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.; Walker, H.F.
1997-02-01
The solution of the governing steady transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer in flowing fluids can be very difficult. These difficulties arise from the nonlinear, coupled, nonsymmetric nature of the system of algebraic equations that results from spatial discretization of the PDEs. In this manuscript the authors focus on evaluating a proposed nonlinear solution method based on an inexact Newton method with backtracking. In this context they use a particular spatial discretization based on a pressure stabilized Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation of the low Mach number Navier-Stokes equations with heat and mass transport. The discussion considers computational efficiency, robustness and some implementation issues related to the proposed nonlinear solution scheme. Computational results are presented for several challenging CFD benchmark problems as well as two large scale 3D flow simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouhi, Mohammad; Oñate, Eugenio
2015-07-01
A new implicit stabilized formulation for the numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The method is based on the finite calculus (FIC) scheme using the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) on triangular grids. Via the FIC formulation, two stabilization terms, called streamline term and transverse term, are added to the original conservation equations in the space-time domain. The non-linear system of equations resulting from the spatial discretization is solved implicitly using a damped Newton method benefiting from the exact Jacobian matrix. The matrix system is solved at each iteration with a preconditioned GMRES method. The efficiency of the proposed stabilization technique is checked out in the solution of 2D inviscid and laminar viscous flow problems where appropriate solutions are obtained especially near the boundary layer and shock waves. The work presented here can be considered as a follow up of a previous work of the authors Kouhi, Oñate (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 74:872-897, 2014). In that paper, the stabilized Galerkin FEM based on the FIC formulation was derived for the Euler equations together with an explicit scheme. In the present paper, the extension of this work to the Navier-Stokes equations using an implicit scheme is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel
2014-11-01
By using the second-law of thermodynamics and the Onsager reciprocal method for irreversible processes, we have developed a set of physically consistent multicomponent compressible generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CGCHNS) equations from basic thermodynamics. The new equations can describe not only flows with pure miscible and pure immiscible materials but also complex flows in which mass diffusion and surface tension or Korteweg stresses effects may coexist. Furthermore, for the first time, the incompressible generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (IGCHNS) equations are rigorously derived from the incompressible limit of the CGCHNS equations (as the infinite sound speed limit) and applied to the immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem. Extensive good agreements between numerical results and the linear stability theory (LST) predictions for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are achieved for a wide range of wavenumber, surface tension, and viscosity values. The late-time results indicate that the IGCHNS equations can naturally capture complex interface topological changes including merging and breaking-up and are free of singularity problems.
Fast non-symmetric iterations and efficient preconditioning for Navier-Stokes equations
Silvester, D.; Elman, H.
1994-12-31
Discretisation of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations: (u.grad)u-{nu}{del}{sup 2}u + grad p = 0; div u = 0 [1]. in some flow domain {Omega} {contained_in} IR{sup d}, (d = 2 or 3), gives a system of non-linear algebraic equations for discretised variables u (the velocity), and p (the pressure). The authors assume that appropriate boundary conditions are imposed. The non-linear equation system can be linearised using a fixed-point (Picard) iteration to give a matrix system which must be solved at every iteration. Part of this matrix is block diagonal, and consists of d convection-diffusion operators, one for each component of velocity. Two difficulties arise when solving this matrix equation. Firstly, the block diagonal part is not symmetric, although under certain conditions the symmetric part is positive definite. Secondly, the overall system is indefinite. This makes the design of fast and efficient iterative solvers for discretised Navier-Stokes operators an extremely challenging task.
Analysis of spurious oscillation modes for the shallow water and Navier-Stokes equations
Walters, R.A.; Carey, G.F.
1983-01-01
The origin and nature of spurious oscillation modes that appear in mixed finite element methods are examined. In particular, the shallow water equations are considered and a modal analysis for the one-dimensional problem is developed. From the resulting dispersion relations we find that the spurious modes in elevation are associated with zero frequency and large wave number (wavelengths of the order of the nodal spacing) and consequently are zero-velocity modes. The spurious modal behavior is the result of the finite spatial discretization. By means of an artificial compressibility and limiting argument we are able to resolve the similar problem for the Navier-Stokes equations. The relationship of this simpler analysis to alternative consistency arguments is explained. This modal approach provides an explanation of the phenomenon in question and permits us to deduce the cause of the very complex behavior of spurious modes observed in numerical experiments with the shallow water equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, this analysis is not limited to finite element formulations, but is also applicable to finite difference formulations. ?? 1983.
A unified multigrid solver for the Navier-Stokes equations on mixed element meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
A unified multigrid solution technique is presented for solving the Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes using mixed elements consisting of triangles and quadrilaterals in two dimensions, and of hexahedra, pyramids, prisms, and tetrahedra in three dimensions. While the use of mixed elements is by no means a novel idea, the contribution of the paper lies in the formulation of a complete solution technique which can handle structured grids, block structured grids, and unstructured grids of tetrahedra or mixed elements without any modification. This is achieved by discretizing the full Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral elements, and the thin layer version of these equations on other types of elements, while using a single edge-based data-structure to construct the discretization over all element types. An agglomeration multigrid algorithm, which naturally handles meshes of any types of elements, is employed to accelerate convergence. An automatic algorithm which reduces the complexity of a given triangular or tetrahedral mesh by merging candidate triangular or tetrahedral elements into quadrilateral or prismatic elements is also described. The gains in computational efficiency afforded by the use of non-simplicial meshes over fully tetrahedral meshes are demonstrated through several examples.
Discontinuous Galerkin solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on deformable domains
Persson, P.-O.; Bonet, J.; Peraire, J.
2009-01-13
We describe a method for computing time-dependent solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on variable geometries. We introduce a continuous mapping between a fixed reference configuration and the time varying domain, By writing the Navier-Stokes equations as a conservation law for the independent variables in the reference configuration, the complexity introduced by variable geometry is reduced to solving a transformed conservation law in a fixed reference configuration, The spatial discretization is carried out using the Discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured meshes of triangles, while the time integration is performed using an explicit Runge-Kutta method, For general domain changes, the standard scheme fails to preserve exactly the free-stream solution which leads to some accuracy degradation, especially for low order approximations. This situation is remedied by adding an additional equation for the time evolution of the transformation Jacobian to the original conservation law and correcting for the accumulated metric integration errors. A number of results are shown to illustrate the flexibility of the approach to handle high order approximations on complex geometries.
A Galerkin-free model reduction approach for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinde, Vilas; Longatte, Elisabeth; Baj, Franck; Hoarau, Yannick; Braza, Marianna
2016-03-01
Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) basis is predominantly used for model reduction in fluid dynamics. The robustness for changing operating conditions, numerical stability in long-term transient behavior and the pressure-term consideration are generally the main concerns of the Galerkin Reduced-Order Models (ROM). In this article, we present a novel procedure to construct an off-reference solution state by using an interpolated POD reduced basis. A linear interpolation of the POD reduced basis is performed by using two reference solution states. The POD basis functions are optimal in capturing the averaged flow energy. The energy dominant POD modes and corresponding base flow are interpolated according to the change in operating parameter. The solution state is readily built without performing the Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations on the reduced POD space modes as well as the following time-integration of the resulted Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) to obtain the POD time coefficients. The proposed interpolation based approach is thus immune from the numerical issues associated with a standard POD-Galerkin ROM. In addition, a posteriori error estimate and a stability analysis of the obtained ROM solution are formulated. A detailed case study of the flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds numbers is considered for the demonstration of proposed method. The ROM results show good agreement with the high fidelity numerical flow simulation.
Solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungwoo; Yoo, Jung Yul
2007-11-01
Discontinuous Galerkin method is a finite element method that allows discontinuities at inter-element boundaries. The discontinuities in the method are treated by approximate Riemann solvers. One important feature of the method is that it obtains high-order accuracy for unstructured mesh with no difficulty. Due to this feature, it can be useful for various practical applications to turbulence and aeroacoustics, but there are few problems to be solved before the method is applicable to practical flow problems. Due to discontinuous approximations in discontinuous Galerkin method, the treatments of viscous terms are complicated and expensive. Moreover, careful treatments of source terms in turbulence model equations are necessary for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to prevent blow-up of high-order-accurate simulations. In this study, we compare high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method with different viscous treatments and stabilization of source terms for compressible Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Spalart-Allmaras or k-φ model is used for turbulence model. To compare the implemented formulations, steady turbulent flow over a flat plate and unsteady turbulent flow over cavity are solved.
Further Development of a New, Flux-Conserving Newton Scheme for the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.
1996-01-01
This paper is one of a series of papers describing the development of a new numerical approach for solving the steady Navier-Stokes equations. The key features in the current development are (1) the discrete representation of the dependent variables by way of high order polynomial expansions, (2) the retention of all derivatives in the expansions as unknowns to be explicitly solved for, (3) the automatic balancing of fluxes at cell interfaces, and (4) the discrete simulation of both the integral and differential forms of the governing equations. The main purpose of this paper is, first, to provide a systematic and rigorous derivation of the conditions that are used to simulate the differential form of the Navier-Stokes equations, and second, to extend our previously-presented internal flow scheme to external flows and nonuniform grids. Numerical results are presented for high Reynolds number flow (Re = 100,000) around a finite flat plate, and detailed comparisons are made with the Blasius flat plate solution and Goldstein wake solution. It is shown that the error in the streamwise velocity decreases like r(sup alpha)(Delta)y(exp 2), where alpha approx. 0.25 and r = delta(y)/delta(x) is the grid aspect ratio.
Navier-Stokes turbine heat transfer predictions using two-equation turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.; Arnone, Andrea
1992-01-01
Navier-Stokes calculations were carried out in order to predict the heat transfer rates on turbine blades. The calculations were performed using TRAF2D which is a two-dimensional, explicit, finite volume mass-averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Turbulence was modeled using q-omega and k-epsilon two-equation models and the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model. The model equations along with the flow equations were solved explicitly on a non-periodic C grid. Implicit residual smoothing (IRS) or a combination of multigrid technique and IRS was applied to enhance convergence rates. Calculations were performed to predict the Stanton number distributions on the first stage vane and blade row as well as the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbine. The comparison with the experimental results, although generally favorable, serves to highlight the weaknesses of the turbulence models and the possible areas of improving these models for use in turbomachinery heat transfer calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan
1989-01-01
A numerical method is developed for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the concept of pseudocompressibility. A lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel implicit scheme is developed for three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow computations. The present algorithm offers additional advantages when solving the flow equations with source terms. Complete vectorizability of the algorithm on oblique planes of sweep in three-dimensions is accomplished in a new flow solver, INS3D-LU code. Spatial differencing is a second-order accurate semi-discrete finite-volume method augmented by a third-order accurate numerical dissipation model which is based on spectral-radii. Comparison of numerical solutions for a curved duct with experimental data shows good agreement. The method is applied to calculate the inducer flow of the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopump.
Implementation of wall boundary conditions for transpiration in F3D thin-layer Navier-Stokes code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandula, M.; Martin, F. W., Jr.
1991-01-01
Numerical boundary conditions for mass injection/suction at the wall are incorporated in the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, F3D. The accuracy of the boundary conditions and the code is assessed by a detailed comparison of the predictions of velocity distributions and skin-friction coefficients with exact similarity solutions for laminar flow over a flat plate with variable blowing/suction, and measurements for turbulent flow past a flat plate with uniform blowing. In laminar flow, F3D predictions for friction coefficient compare well with exact similarity solution with and without suction, but produces large errors at moderate-to-large values of blowing. A slight Mach number dependence of skin-friction coefficient due to blowing in turbulent flow is computed by F3D code. Predicted surface pressures for turbulent flow past an airfoil with mass injection are in qualitative agreement with measurements for a flat plate.
Tetrahedral finite-volume solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations on complex configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frink, N. T.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.
1999-09-01
A review of the algorithmic features and capabilities of the unstructured-grid flow solver USM3Dns is presented. This code, along with the tetrahedral grid generator, VGRIDns, is being extensively used throughout the USA for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on complex aerodynamic problems. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a tetrahedral cell-centered finite-volume formulation using Roe's upwind flux difference splitting. The fluxes are limited by either a Superbee or MinMod limiter. Solution reconstruction within the tetrahedral cells is accomplished with a simple, but novel, multidimensional analytical formula. Time is advanced by an implicit backward-Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the near-wall region of the boundary layer. The issues of accuracy and robustness of USM3Dns Navier-Stokes capabilities are addressed for a flat-plate boundary layer, and a full F-16 aircraft with external stores at transonic speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jee, SolKeun; Moser, Robert D.
2012-08-01
This study provides a simple moving-grid scheme which is based on a modified conservative form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for flow around a moving rigid body. The modified integral form is conservative and seeks the solution of the absolute velocity. This approach is different from previous conservative differential forms [1-3] whose reference frame is not inertial. Keeping the reference frame being inertial results in simpler mathematical derivation to the governing equation which includes one dyadic product of velocity vectors in the convective term, whereas the previous [2,3] needs to obtain the time derivative with respect to non-inertial frames causing an additional dyadic product in the convective term. The scheme is implemented in a second-order accurate Navier-Stokes solver and maintains the order of the accuracy. After this verification, the scheme is validated for a pitching airfoil with very high frequencies. The simulation results match very well with the experimental results [4,5], including vorticity fields and a net thrust force. This airfoil simulation also provides detailed vortical structures near the trailing edge and time-evolving aerodynamic forces that are used to investigate the mechanism of the thrust force generation and the effects of the trailing edge shape. The developed moving-grid scheme demonstrates its validity for a rapid oscillating motion.
Tetrahedral Finite-Volume Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations on Complex Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
1998-01-01
A review of the algorithmic features and capabilities of the unstructured-grid flow solver USM3Dns is presented. This code, along with the tetrahedral grid generator, VGRIDns, is being extensively used throughout the U.S. for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on complex aerodynamic problems. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a tetrahedral cell-centered finite-volume formulation using Roe's upwind flux difference splitting. The fluxes are limited by either a Superbee or MinMod limiter. Solution reconstruction within the tetrahedral cells is accomplished with a simple, but novel, multidimensional analytical formula. Time is advanced by an implicit backward-Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the near-wall region of the boundary layer. The issues of accuracy and robustness of USM3Dns Navier-Stokes capabilities are addressed for a flat-plate boundary layer, and a full F-16 aircraft with external stores at transonic speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samtaney, Ravi; Mohamed, Mamdouh; Hirani, Anil
2015-11-01
We present examples of numerical solutions of incompressible flow on 2D curved domains. The Navier-Stokes equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. A conservative discretization of Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). The discretization is then carried out by substituting the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. By construction, the method is conservative in that both the discrete divergence and circulation are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step. Numerical examples include Taylor vortices on a sphere, Stuart vortices on a sphere, and flow past a cylinder on domains with varying curvature. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1401-01.
Turbulent solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for uniform shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.
1981-01-01
To study the nonlinear physics of uniform turbulent shear flow, the unaveraged Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. This extends our previous work in which mean gradients were absent. For initial conditions, modified three-dimensional-cosine velocity fluctuations are used. The boundary conditions are modified periodic conditions on a stationary three-dimensional numerical grid. A uniform mean shear is superimposed on the initial and boundary conditions. The three components of the mean-square velocity fluctuations are initially equal for the conditions chosen. As in the case of no shear the initially nonrandom flow develops into an apparently random turbulence at higher Reynolds number. Thus, randomness or turbulence can apparently arise as a consequence of the structure of the Navier-Stokes equations. Except for an initial period of adjustment, all fluctuating components grow with time. The initial equality of the three intensity components is destroyed by the shear, the transverse components becoming smaller than the longitudinal one, in agreement with experiment. Also, the shear creates a small-scale structure in the turbulence. The nonlinear solutions are compared with linearized ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, NaiFu; Guan, Hui; Wu, ChuiJie
2016-04-01
In this paper, the theory of constructing optimal dynamical systems based on weighted residual presented by Wu & Sha is applied to three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, and the optimal dynamical system modeling equations are derived. Then the multiscale global optimization method based on coarse graining analysis is presented, by which a set of approximate global optimal bases is directly obtained from Navier-Stokes equations and the construction of optimal dynamical systems is realized. The optimal bases show good properties, such as showing the physical properties of complex flows and the turbulent vortex structures, being intrinsic to real physical problem and dynamical systems, and having scaling symmetry in mathematics, etc.. In conclusion, using fewer terms of optimal bases will approach the exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations, and the dynamical systems based on them show the most optimal behavior.
Probabilistic Aspects of Equation of Motion of Forced Burgers and Navier-Stokes Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakazawa, H.
1980-11-01
Physical requirements and limitations on the force terms of the equations of motion for forced Burgers turbulence and for a class of forced, incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence are discussed from probabilistic point of view. A basic problem, to determine the appropriate normalization of equations of motion, is answered. The normalization and the physical requirements are shown to stipulate that the force terms must bear Gaussian and white character for their time dependence as an exclusive consequence of the central limit theorem of Rosenblatt. A range of physical phenomena is thus pointed out to substantialize Kraichnan-Wyld-Edwards type of equations of motion for turbulence. A problem is found in the definition, as stochastic partial differential equations, of such equations with Gaussian-white-noise forces in the inviscid limit, and a possible way to circumvent the difficulty is shown to be inherent in the central limit theorem itself.
A new nonlinear turbulence model based on Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.; Cai, C.; Liu, S. H.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) Model was recognized as a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to direct numerical simulation (DNS) bridging method. PANS model was purported for any filter width-from RANS to DNS. PANS method also shared some similarities with the currently popular URANS (unsteady RANS) method. In this paper, a new PANS model was proposed, which was based on RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Standard and RNG k-ε turbulence model were both isotropic models, as well as PANS models. The sheer stress in those PANS models was solved by linear equation. The linear hypothesis was not accurate in the simulation of complex flow, such as stall phenomenon. The sheer stress here was solved by nonlinear method proposed by Ehrhard. Then, the nonlinear PANS model was set up. The pressure coefficient of the suction side of the NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted. The result of pressure coefficient agrees well with experimental result, which proves that the nonlinear PANS model can capture the high pressure gradient flow. A low specific centrifugal pump was used to verify the capacity of the nonlinear PANS model. The comparison between the simulation results of the centrifugal pump and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) results proves that the nonlinear PANS model can be used in the prediction of complex flow field.
Dynamics and Control of a Reduced Order System of the 2-d Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaoui, Nejib; Zribi, Mohamed
2014-11-01
The dynamics and control problem of a reduced order system of the 2-d Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is analyzed. First, a seventh order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE) which approximates the dynamical behavior of the 2-d N-S equations is obtained by using the Fourier Galerkin method. We show that the dynamics of this ODE system transforms from periodic solutions to chaotic attractors through a sequence of bifurcations including a period doubling scenarios. Then three Lyapunov based controllers are designed to either control the system of ODEs to a desired fixed point or to synchronize two ODE systems obtained from the truncation of the 2-d N-S equations under different conditions. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. This research was supported and funded by the Research Sector, Kuwait University under Grant No. SM02/14.
Dynamics and Control of the 2-d Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaoui, Nejib; Zribi, Mohamed
2013-11-01
The control problem of the dynamics of the two-dimensional (2-d) Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations with spatially periodic and temporally steady forcing is studied. First, we devise a dynamical system of several nonlinear differential equations by a truncation of the 2-d N-S equations. Then, we study the dynamics of the obtained Galerkin system by analyzing the system's attractors for different values of the Reynolds number, Re. By applying the symmetry of the equation on one of the system's attractors, a symmetric limit trajectory that is part of the dynamics is obtained. Next, a control strategy to drive the dynamics from one attractor to another attractor for a given Re is designed. Finally, numerical simulations are undertaken to validate the theoretical developments. This work was supported and funded by Kuwait University Research Grant No. SM02/13.
Analytic solutions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barna, I. F.; Mátyás, L.
2014-10-01
We investigate the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) and the continuity equations in Cartesian coordinates for Newtonian fluids. The problem has an importance in different fields of science and engineering like fluid, aerospace dynamics or transfer processes. Finding an analytic solution may bring considerable progress in understanding the transport phenomena and in the design of different equipments where the NS equation is applicable. For solving the equation the polytropic equation of state is used as a closing condition. The key idea is the three-dimensional generalization of the well-known self-similar ansatz which was already used for non-compressible viscous flow in our former study. The geometrical interpretations of the trial function is also discussed. We compared our recent results to the former non-compressible ones.
Numerical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for a Butler wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1987-01-01
The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for the Mach number 3.5 and Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The simulation is done by integrating the viscous Navier-Stokes equations. These equations govern the unsteady, viscous, compressible and heat conducting flow of an ideal gas. The equations are written in curvilinear coordinates so that the wing surface is represented accurately. O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and results are compared. The governing equations are solved by the McCormack time-split method, and the results are compared with other theoretical and experimental results. The codes are written in FORTRAN, vectorized and currently run on the CDC Vector Processing System (VPS-32) computer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skalák, Zdeněk
2014-12-01
We present a regularity criterion for the solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations based on the gradient of one velocity component. Starting with the method developed by Cao and Titi ["Global regularity criterion for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations involving one entry of the velocity gradient tensor," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 202, 919-932 (2011)] for the case of one entry of the velocity gradient and using further some inequalities concerning the anisotropic Sobolev spaces, we show as a main result that a weak solution u is regular on (0, T), T > 0, provided that ∇u3 ∈ Lt(0, T; Ls), where 2/t + 3/s = 3/2 + 3/(4s) and s ∈ (3/2, 2). It improves the known results for s ∈ (3/2, 15/8).
An, Hongli; Yuen, Manwai
2014-05-15
In this paper, we investigate the analytical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with dependent-density viscosity. By using the characteristic method, we successfully obtain a class of drifting solutions with elliptic symmetry for the Navier-Stokes model wherein the velocity components are governed by a generalized Emden dynamical system. In particular, when the viscosity variables are taken the same as Yuen [M. W. Yuen, “Analytical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations,” J. Math. Phys. 49, 113102 (2008)], our solutions constitute a generalization of that obtained by Yuen. Interestingly, numerical simulations show that the analytical solutions can be used to explain the drifting phenomena of the propagation wave like Tsunamis in oceans.
Discrete sensitivity derivatives of the Navier-Stokes equations with a parallel Krylov solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajmani, Kumud; Taylor, Arthur C., III
1994-01-01
This paper solves an 'incremental' form of the sensitivity equations derived by differentiating the discretized thin-layer Navier Stokes equations with respect to certain design variables of interest. The equations are solved with a parallel, preconditioned Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) solver on a distributed-memory architecture. The 'serial' sensitivity analysis code is parallelized by using the Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) programming model, domain decomposition techniques, and message-passing tools. Sensitivity derivatives are computed for low and high Reynolds number flows over a NACA 1406 airfoil on a 32-processor Intel Hypercube, and found to be identical to those computed on a single-processor Cray Y-MP. It is estimated that the parallel sensitivity analysis code has to be run on 40-50 processors of the Intel Hypercube in order to match the single-processor processing time of a Cray Y-MP.
Calculation of steady and unsteady airfoil flow fields via the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shamroth, S. J.
1985-01-01
A compressible time-dependent procedure for the two-dimensional ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been applied to the isolated airfoil problem in steady and unsteady flows. The procedure solves the governing equations via the linearized block implicit technique. Turbulence is modeled either via a mixing length or turbulence energy approach. The equations are solved in general non-orthogonal form with no-slip boundary conditions applied at the airfoil surface. Results are presented for airfoils at constant incidence, an airfoil in ramp motion and an airfoil oscillating through a dynamic stall loop. In general, steady converged solutions are obtained within 70 time steps over the range of Mach numbers considered. Comparisons with measured data show good agreement between computation and measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bart, Timothy J.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Chapter 1 briefly reviews several related topics associated with the symmetrization of systems of conservation laws and quasi-conservation laws: (1) Basic Entropy Symmetrization Theory; (2) Symmetrization and eigenvector scaling; (3) Symmetrization of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations; and (4) Symmetrization of the quasi-conservative form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Chapter 2 describes one of the best known tools employed in the study of differential equations, the maximum principle: any function f(x) which satisfies the inequality f(double prime)>0 on the interval [a,b] attains its maximum value at one of the endpoints on the interval. Chapter three examines the upwind finite volume schemes for scalar and system conservation laws. The basic tasks in the upwind finite volume approach have already been presented: reconstruction, flux evaluation, and evolution. By far, the most difficult task in this process is the reconstruction step.
Accuracy of least-squares methods for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bochev, Pavel B.; Gunzburger, Max D.
1993-01-01
Recently there has been substantial interest in least-squares finite element methods for velocity-vorticity-pressure formulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main cause for this interest is the fact that algorithms for the resulting discrete equations can be devised which require the solution of only symmetric, positive definite systems of algebraic equations. On the other hand, it is well-documented that methods using the vorticity as a primary variable often yield very poor approximations. Thus, here we study the accuracy of these methods through a series of computational experiments, and also comment on theoretical error estimates. It is found, despite the failure of standard methods for deriving error estimates, that computational evidence suggests that these methods are, at the least, nearly optimally accurate. Thus, in addition to the desirable matrix properties yielded by least-squares methods, one also obtains accurate approximations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli L.
2004-01-01
We report research experience in applying an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver for the prediction of time-dependent flows in the presence of an active flow control device. The configuration under consideration is a synthetic jet created by a single diaphragm piezoelectric actuator in quiescent air. Time-averaged and instantaneous data for this case were obtained at Langley Research Center, using multiple measurement techniques. Computational results for this case using one-equation Spalart-Allmaras and two-equation Menter s turbulence models are presented here along with comparisons with the experimental data. The effect of grid refinement, preconditioning and time-step variation are also examined.
Analysis of the Scramjet inlet flow field using two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.
1982-01-01
A computer code was developed to solve the full two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a scramjet inlet. The analysis uses a numerical coordinate transformation which generates a set of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates. The explicit finite difference algorithm of MacCormack is used to solve the governing equations. A two-layer eddy viscosity model is used for the turbulent flow. The code can analyze both inviscid and viscous flows with multiple struts in the flow field. Detailed results are presented for two model problems and two scramjet inlets with one and two struts. The application of the two dimensional analysis in the preliminary design of the actual scramjet inlet is briefly discussed.
Numerical Simulations of Homogeneous Turbulence Using Lagrangian-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohseni, Kamran; Shkoller, Steve; Kosovic, Branko; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Carati, Daniele; Wray, Alan; Rogallo, Robert
2000-01-01
The Lagrangian-averaged Navier-Stokes (LANS) equations are numerically evaluated as a turbulence closure. They are derived from a novel Lagrangian averaging procedure on the space of all volume-preserving maps and can be viewed as a numerical algorithm which removes the energy content from the small scales (smaller than some a priori fixed spatial scale alpha) using a dispersive rather than dissipative mechanism, thus maintaining the crucial features of the large scale flow. We examine the modeling capabilities of the LANS equations for decaying homogeneous turbulence, ascertain their ability to track the energy spectrum of fully resolved direct numerical simulations (DNS), compare the relative energy decay rates, and compare LANS with well-accepted large eddy simulation (LES) models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-05-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.
About the coupling of turbulence closure models with averaged Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandromme, D.; Ha Minh, H.
1986-01-01
The MacCormack implicit predictor-corrector model (1981) for numerical solution of the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows is extended to nonconservative multiequation turbulence models, as well as the inclusion of second-order Reynolds stress turbulence closure. A scalar effective pressure turbulent contribution to the pressure field is defined to approximate the effects of the Reynolds stress in strongly sheared flows. The Jacobian matrices of the transport equations are diagonalized to reduce the required computer memory and run time. Techniques are defined for including turbulence in the diagonalization. Application of the method is demonstrated with solutions generated for transonic nozzle flow and for the interaction between a supersonic flat plate boundary layer and a 12 deg compression-expansion ramp.
The dual variable method for finite element discretizations of Navier/Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, C. A.; Peterson, J. S.; Porsching, T. A.; Sledge, F. R.
1985-05-01
The dual-variable method of Amit et al. (1981) and Hall et al. (1980) is applied to the numerical solution of the transient Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional incompressible flows. The basic procedures of the method are reviewed, including determining the rank of the discrete divergence matrix, obtaining a particular solution of the discrete continuity equation, and defining the null space of the discrete divergence operator. Finite-element algorithms based on quadrilateral piecewise-bilateral-velocity/constant-pressure elements are developed and demonstrated for Poiseuille flow, a lid-driven cavity, and flow past a semicircular obstacle. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with those of a primitive-variable method, and the dual-variable approach is found to yield significant savings in dynamic memory and computation time.
Multigrid Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations at Low Speeds with Large Temperature Variations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, Peter M.
2002-01-01
Multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes equations at low speeds and large temperature variations are investigated. The compressible equations with time-derivative preconditioning and preconditioned flux-difference splitting of the inviscid terms are used. Three implicit smoothers have been incorporated into a common multigrid procedure. Both full coarsening and semi-coarsening with directional fine-grid defect correction have been studied. The resulting methods have been tested on four 2D laminar problems over a range of Reynolds numbers on both uniform and highly stretched grids. Two of the three methods show efficient and robust performance over the entire range of conditions. In addition none of the methods have any difficulty with the large temperature variations.
An implicit velocity decoupling procedure for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoungyoun; Baek, Seung-Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin
2002-01-01
An efficient numerical method to solve the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. A fully implicit time advancement is employed to avoid the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy restriction, where the Crank-Nicolson discretization is used for both the diffusion and convection terms. Based on a block LU decomposition, velocity-pressure decoupling is achieved in conjunction with the approximate factorization. The main emphasis is placed on the additional decoupling of the intermediate velocity components with only nth time step velocity. The temporal second-order accuracy is preserved with the approximate factorization without any modification of boundary conditions. Since the decoupled momentum equations are solved without iteration, the computational time is reduced significantly. The present decoupling method is validated by solving several test cases, in particular, the turbulent minimal channel flow unit. Copyright
A vertex-based finite-volume algorithm for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabartty, S. K.; Dhanalakshmi, K.
1993-07-01
A vertex-based, finite-volume algorithm has been developed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations without thin-layer approximation. An explicit, five-stage Runge-Kutta, time-stepping scheme has been used for time integration along with different acceleration techniques to reach the steady state. A code employing multi-block grid structure has been developed. This code can accept any type of grid topology. As test cases, the turbulent flow past RAE-2822 and NACA-0012 airfoils, and the laminar flow past a cropped delta wing at ten degrees angle of attack have been computed and the results compared with available numerical and experimental results. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model has been used in the case of turbulent flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Nan-Suey; Kim, Hyun Dae
1991-01-01
Presented here is an algorithm for solving the multidimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. It is based on a diagonally-dominant approximate factorization procedure. The factorization error and the timewise linearization error associated with this procedure are reduced by performing Newton-type inner iterations at each time step. The inviscid fluxes are evaluated by the fourth-order central differencing scheme amended with a numerical dissipation directly proportional to the entire dissipative part of the truncation error intrinsic to the third order biased upwind scheme. The important features of the proposed solution are elucidated by the numerical results of the convection of a vortex and the backward-facing step flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serson, D.; Meneghini, J. R.; Sherwin, S. J.
2016-07-01
This paper presents methods of including coordinate transformations into the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the velocity-correction scheme, which is commonly used in the numerical solution of unsteady incompressible flows. This is important when the transformation leads to symmetries that allow the use of more efficient numerical techniques, like employing a Fourier expansion to discretize a homogeneous direction. Two different approaches are presented: in the first approach all the influence of the mapping is treated explicitly, while in the second the mapping terms related to convection are treated explicitly, with the pressure and viscous terms treated implicitly. Through numerical results, we demonstrate how these methods maintain the accuracy of the underlying high-order method, and further apply the discretisation strategy to problems where mixed Fourier-spectral/hp element discretisations can be applied, thereby extending the usefulness of this discretisation technique.
Prediction of airfoil stall using Navier-Stokes equations in streamline coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, D. H.; Sohn, C. H.; Oh, C. S.
1992-01-01
A Navier-Stokes procedure to calculate the flow about an airfoil at incidence was developed. The parabolized equations are solved in the streamline coordinates generated for an arbitrary airfoil shape using conformal mapping. A modified k-epsilon turbulence model is applied in the entire domain, but the eddy viscosity in the laminar region is suppressed artificially to simulate the region correctly. The procedure was applied to airfoils at various angles of attack, and the results are quite satisfactory for both laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that the present choice of the coordinate system reduces the error due to numerical diffusion, and that the lift is accurately predicted for a wide range of incidence.
Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2014-01-01
Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite volume, finite difference, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.
Grid induced errors in stream function solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, P. Y.; Decher, R.; Hermanson, J. C.
1991-06-01
This paper examines the effects of the flow Reynolds number, grid stretching, and velocity gradients on the accuracy of computed solutions to the Navier-Stokes stream function equations. It is shown that second order truncation errors become small only as the flow Reynolds number approaches zero. For sufficiently high values of Reynolds number, the highly nonlinear flow solutions that result from the large velocity gradients can result in large truncation error, even for the case of nonuniform grids. These errors behave as momentum sources and sinks within the computed flow domain, causing significant error in the predictions of boundary layer separation and reattachment. The streamfunction-vorticity method is shown to be unsuitable to the modeling of viscid-inviscid interactive flows. Limitations on the use of higher order finite difference approximations are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric
2015-11-01
The Recovery discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a highly accurate approach to computing diffusion problems, which achieves up to 3p+2 convergence rates on Cartesian cells, where p is the order of the polynomial basis. Based on the construction of a unique and differentiable solution across cell interfaces, Recovery DG has mostly been investigated on periodic domains. However, whether such accuracy can be sustained for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions has not been thoroughly explored. We present boundary treatments for Recovery DG on 2D Cartesian geometry that exhibit up to 3p+2 convergence rates and are stable. We demonstrate the efficiency of Recovery DG in context with other commonly used approaches using scalar shear diffusion problems and apply it to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The extension of the method to perturbed quadrilateral cells, rather than Cartesian, will also be discussed.
A split finite element algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1979-01-01
An accurate and efficient numerical solution algorithm is established for solution of the high Reynolds number limit of the Navier-Stokes equations governing the multidimensional flow of a compressible essentially inviscid fluid. Finite element interpolation theory is used within a dissipative formulation established using Galerkin criteria within the Method of Weighted Residuals. An implicit iterative solution algorithm is developed, employing tensor product bases within a fractional steps integration procedure, that significantly enhances solution economy concurrent with sharply reduced computer hardware demands. The algorithm is evaluated for resolution of steep field gradients and coarse grid accuracy using both linear and quadratic tensor product interpolation bases. Numerical solutions for linear and nonlinear, one, two and three dimensional examples confirm and extend the linearized theoretical analyses, and results are compared to competitive finite difference derived algorithms.
On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.
1993-01-01
The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
Preconditioning for the Navier-Stokes equations with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Godfrey, Andrew G.; Walters, Robert W.; Van Leer, Bram
1993-01-01
The preconditioning procedure for generalized finite-rate chemistry and the proper preconditioning for the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are presented. Eigenvalue stiffness is resolved and convergence-rate acceleration is demonstrated over the entire Mach-number range from the incompressible to the hypersonic. Specific benefits are realized at low and transonic flow speeds. The extended preconditioning matrix accounts for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium and its implementation is explained for both explicit and implicit time marching. The effect of higher-order spatial accuracy and various flux splittings is investigated. Numerical analysis reveals the possible theoretical improvements from using proconditioning at all Mach numbers. Numerical results confirm the expectations from the numerical analysis. Representative test cases include flows with previously troublesome embedded high-condition-number regions.
A Priori Bound on the Velocity in Axially Symmetric Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Zhen; Navas, Esteban A.; Zhang, Qi S.
2016-01-01
Let v be the velocity of Leray-Hopf solutions to the axially symmetric three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Under suitable conditions for initial values, we prove the following a priori bound |v(x, t)| ≤ C |ln r|^{1/2}/r^2, qquad 0 < r ≤ 1/2, where r is the distance from x to the z axis, and C is a constant depending only on the initial value. This provides a pointwise upper bound (worst case scenario) for possible singularities, while the recent papers (Chiun-Chuan et al., Commun PDE 34(1-3):203-232, 2009; Koch et al., Acta Math 203(1):83-105, 2009) gave a lower bound. The gap is polynomial order 1 modulo a half log term.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-07-01
Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.
On the Regularity Set and Angular Integrability for the Navier-Stokes Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ancona, Piero; Lucà, Renato
2016-09-01
We investigate the size of the regular set for suitable weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation, in the sense of Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg (Commun Pure Appl Math 35:771-831, 1982). We consider initial data in weighted Lebesgue spaces with mixed radial-angular integrability, and we prove that the regular set increases if the data have higher angular integrability, invading the whole half space {\\{t > 0\\}} in an appropriate limit. In particular, we obtain that if the {L2} norm with weight {|x|^{-frac12}} of the data tends to 0, the regular set invades {\\{t > 0\\}}; this result improves Theorem D of Caffarelli et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 35:771-831, 1982).
Nonperturbative renormalization group study of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation.
Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo
2012-07-01
We study the renormalization group flow of the average action of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with power-law forcing. Using Galilean invariance, we introduce a nonperturbative approximation adapted to the zero-frequency sector of the theory in the parametric range of the Hölder exponent 4-2ε of the forcing where real-space local interactions are relevant. In any spatial dimension d, we observe the convergence of the resulting renormalization group flow to a unique fixed point which yields a kinetic energy spectrum scaling in agreement with canonical dimension analysis. Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is, thus, recovered for ε = 2 as also predicted by perturbative renormalization. At variance with the perturbative prediction, the -5/3 law emerges in the presence of a saturation in the ε dependence of the scaling dimension of the eddy diffusivity at ε = 3/2 when, according to perturbative renormalization, the velocity field becomes infrared relevant. PMID:23005533
Boergers, C.; Peskin, C.S.
1987-06-01
In the Lagrangian fractional step method introduced in this paper, the fluid velocity and pressure are defined on a collection of N fluid markers. At each time step, these markers are used to generate a Voronoi diagram, and this diagram is used to construct finite-difference operators corresponding to the divergence, gradient, and Laplacian. The splitting of the Navier--Stokes equations leads to discrete Helmholtz and Poisson problems, which we solve using a two-grid method. The nonlinear convection terms are modeled simply by the displacement of the fluid markers. We have implemented this method on a periodic domain in the plane. We describe an efficient algorithm for the numerical construction of periodic Voronoi diagrams, and we report on numerical results which indicate the the fractional step method is convergent of first order. The overall work per time step is proportional to N log N. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.
A mixed volume grid approach for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
1996-01-01
An approach for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations upon meshes composed of nearly arbitrary polyhedra is described. Each polyhedron is constructed from an arbitrary number of triangular and quadrilateral face elements, allowing the unified treatment of tetrahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and hexahedral cells, as well the general cut cells produced by Cartesian mesh approaches. The basics behind the numerical approach and the resulting data structures are described. The accuracy of the mixed volume grid approach is assessed by performing a grid refinement study upon a series of hexahedral, tetrahedral, prismatic, and Cartesian meshes for an analytic inviscid problem. A series of laminar validation cases are made, comparing the results upon differing grid topologies to each other, to theory, and experimental data. A computation upon a prismatic/tetrahedral mesh is made simulating the laminar flow over a wall/cylinder combination.
A robust low diffusive kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes/Euler equations
Moschetta, J.M.; Pullin, D.I.
1997-05-15
A new kinetic scheme based on the equilibrium flux method (EFM) and modified using Osher intermediate states is proposed. This new scheme called EFMO combines the robustness of the equilibrium flux method and the accuracy of flux-difference splitting schemes. The original EFM scheme is expressed in terms of simple wave decomposition in which only the linearly degenerate subpath is calculated from Osher numerical flux while nonlinear waves are still evaluated from the regular EFM splitting. Owing to its capability of withstanding intense nonlinear waves and yet exactly resolving contact discontinuities, EFMO is particularly well suited for the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations as demonstrated by a series of severe test cases including the high-speed viscous flow around a cone, a shock-boundary layer interaction problem, a vacuum apparition problem, the hypersonic flow around a circular cylinder at Mach 100, and the forward-facing step at Mach 3. 36 refs., 7 figs.
Numerical Simulation of Shock-stall Flutter of an Airfoil using the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isogai, K.
1993-08-01
In order to confirm qualitatively that the experimentally observed, unusual flutter phenomenon for a high-aspect-ratio (non-tailored) forward swept wing model is indeed shock-stall flutter, the aeroelastic response calculation of a two-dimensional airfoil whose vibration characteristics are similar to those of the typical section of a forward swept wing, has been performed by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. By examination of the flow pattern, pressure distribution and the behavior of the unsteady aerodynamic forces during the diverging oscillation of the airfoil, it is concluded that (i) this is a shock-stall flutter, in which the large-scale shock-induced flow separation plays a dominant role and (ii) there is a mechanism of energy input into the elastic system of the airfoil, leading to nearly a single-degree-of-freedom flutter.
Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for blunt nosed bodies in supersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warsi, Z. U. A.; Devarayalu, K.; Thompson, J. F.
1978-01-01
A time dependent, two dimensional Navier-Stokes code employing the method of body fitted coordinate technique was developed for supersonic flows past blunt bodies of arbitrary shapes. The bow shock ahead of the body is obtained as part of the solution, viz., by shock capturing. A first attempt at mesh refinement in the shock region was made by using the forcing function in the coordinate generating equations as a linear function of the density gradients. The technique displaces a few lines from the neighboring region into the shock region. Numerical calculations for Mach numbers 2 and 4.6 and Reynolds numbers from 320 to 10,000 were performed for a circular cylinder with and without a fairing. Results of Mach number 4.6 and Reynolds number 10,000 for an isothermal wall temperature of 556 K are presented in detail.
On the decay of infinite energy solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in the plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjorland, Clayton; Niche, César J.
2011-03-01
Infinite energy solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in R2 may be constructed by decomposing the initial data into a finite energy piece and an infinite energy piece, which are then treated separately. We prove that the finite energy part of such solutions is bounded for all time and decays algebraically in time when the same can be said of heat energy starting from the same data. As a consequence, we describe the asymptotic behavior of the infinite energy solutions. Specifically, we consider the solutions of Gallagher and Planchon (2002) [2] as well as solutions constructed from a “radial energy decomposition”. Our proof uses the Fourier Splitting technique of M.E. Schonbek.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novo, S.; Novotný, A.
2006-04-01
We investigate the steady compressible Navier Stokes system of equations in the isentropic regime in a domain with several conical outlets and with prescribed pressure drops. Existence of weak solutions is proved and estimate of these solutions with respect to the pressure drops is derived under the hypothesis γ > 3 where γ is the adiabatic constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Li; Guo, Zhenhua
2016-04-01
The aim of this paper is to establish the global well-posedness and large-time asymptotic behavior of the strong solution to the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations with vacuum. It is proved that if the shear viscosity {μ} is a positive constant and the bulk viscosity {λ} is the power function of the density, that is, {λ=ρ^{β}} with {β in [0,1],} then the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations admits a unique global strong solution provided that the initial data are of small total energy. This result can be regarded as the extension of the well-posedness theory of classical compressible Navier-Stokes equations [such as Huang et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 65:549-585, 2012) and Li and Xin (http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.1673) respectively]. Furthermore, the large-time behavior of the strong solution to the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional barotropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations had been also obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maccormack, R. W.
1976-01-01
A new numerical method used to drastically reduce the computation time required to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three-dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.
The space-time solution element method: A new numerical approach for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.; Chang, Sin-Chung
1995-01-01
This paper is one of a series of papers describing the development of a new numerical method for the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike conventional numerical methods, the current method concentrates on the discrete simulation of both the integral and differential forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in space-time is explicitly provided for through a rigorous enforcement of both the integral and differential forms of the governing conservation laws. Using local polynomial expansions to represent the discrete primitive variables on each cell, fluxes at cell interfaces are evaluated and balanced using exact functional expressions. No interpolation or flux limiters are required. Because of the generality of the current method, it applies equally to the steady and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper, we generalize and extend the authors' 2-D, steady state implicit scheme. A general closure methodology is presented so that all terms up through a given order in the local expansions may be retained. The scheme is also extended to nonorthogonal Cartesian grids. Numerous flow fields are computed and results are compared with known solutions. The high accuracy of the scheme is demonstrated through its ability to accurately resolve developing boundary layers on coarse grids. Finally, we discuss applications of the current method to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations.
Numerical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for a Butler wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abolhassani, J. S.; Tiwari, S. N.
1985-01-01
The flow field is simulated on the surface of a given delta wing (Butler wing) at zero incident in a uniform stream. The simulation is done by integrating a set of flow field equations. This set of equations governs the unsteady, viscous, compressible, heat conducting flow of an ideal gas. The equations are written in curvilinear coordinates so that the wing surface is represented accurately. These equations are solved by the finite difference method, and results obtained for high-speed freestream conditions are compared with theoretical and experimental results. In this study, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. These equations are unsteady, compressible, viscous, and three-dimensional without neglecting any terms. The time dependency of the governing equations allows the solution to progress naturally for an arbitrary initial initial guess to an asymptotic steady state, if one exists. The equations are transformed from physical coordinates to the computational coordinates, allowing the solution of the governing equations in a rectangular parallel-piped domain. The equations are solved by the MacCormack time-split technique which is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDC VPS 32 computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byun, Chansup; Farhangnia, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Kumar; Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Modem design requirements for an aircraft push current technologies used in the design process to their limit or sometimes require more advanced technologies to meet the requirement. New design requirements always demand to improve the operational performance. Accurate prediction of aerodynamic coefficients is essential to improve the performance. For example, in the design of an advanced subsonic civil transport, since the fluid flow at transonic regime shows strong nonlinearities, high fidelity equations, such as the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations predict flow characteristics more accurately than the linear aerodynamics, which are widely used in the current design process However, high fidelity flow equations are computationally expensive and require an order of magnitude longer time to obtain aerodynamic coefficients required in the design. Parallel computing is one possibility to cut down the computational turn-around time in using high fidelity equations so that high fidelity equations would be incorporated into the design process. By doing so, high fidelity equations would be used in the routine design process. This work will demonstrate the feasibility of using high fidelity flow equations in a design process by computing aerodynamic influence coefficients of a wing-body-empennage configuration on a multiple-instruction, multiple-data parallel computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, Moshe; Kwak, Dochan; Vinokur, Marcel
1988-01-01
A solution method based on a fractional step approach is developed for obtaining time-dependent solutions of the three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The governing equations are discretized conservatively by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The primitive variable formulation uses the volume fluxes across the faces of each computational cell as dependent variables. This procedure, combined with accurate and consistent approximations of geometric parameters, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy as well as to gain favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The discretized equations are second-order-accurate in time and space and no smoothing terms are added. An approximate-factorization scheme is implemented in solving the momentum equations. A novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two and three-dimensional solutions are compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the present method.
An iteration free backward semi-Lagrangian scheme for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piao, Xiangfan; Bu, Sunyoung; Bak, Soyoon; Kim, Philsu
2015-02-01
A backward semi-Lagrangian method based on the error correction method is designed to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The time derivative of the Stokes equation is discretized with the second order backward differentiation formula. For the induced steady Stokes equation, a projection method is used to split it into velocity and pressure. Fourth-order finite differences for partial derivatives are used to the boundary value problems for the velocity and the pressure. Also, finite linear systems for Poisson equations and Helmholtz equations are solved with a matrix-diagonalization technique. For characteristic curves satisfying highly nonlinear self-consistent initial value problems, the departure points are solved with an error correction strategy having a temporal convergence of order two. The constructed algorithm turns out to be completely iteration free. In particular, the suggested algorithm possesses a good behavior of the total energy conservation compared to existing methods. To assess the effectiveness of the method, two-dimensional lid-driven cavity problems with large different Reynolds numbers are solved. The doubly periodic shear layer flows are also used to assess the efficiency of the algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boger, David A.; Govindan, T. R.; McDonald, Henry
1997-01-01
Previous work at NASA LeRC has shown that flow distortions in aircraft engine inlet ducts can be significantly reduced by mounting vortex generators, or small wing sections, on the inside surface of the engine inlet. The placement of the vortex generators is an important factor in obtaining the optimal effect over a wide operating envelope. In this regard, the only alternative to a long and expensive test program which would search out this optimal configuration is a good prediction procedure which could narrow the field of search. Such a procedure has been developed in collaboration with NASA LeRC, and results obtained by NASA personnel indicate that it shows considerable promise for predicting the viscous turbulent flow in engine inlet ducts in the presence of vortex generators. The prediction tool is a computer code which numerically solves the reduced Navier-Stokes equations and so is commonly referred to as RNS3D. Obvious deficiencies in RNS3D have been addressed in previous work. Primarily, it is known that the predictions of the mean velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer flow approaching separation are not in good agreement with data. It was suggested that the use of an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model in RNS3D is at least partly to blame for this. Additionally, the current turbulence model includes an assumption of isotropy which will ultimately fail to capture turbulence-driven secondary flow known to exist in noncircular ducts.
A Parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur Algorithm for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osusky, Michal
Aerodynamic shape optimization and multidisciplinary optimization algorithms have the potential not only to improve conventional aircraft, but also to enable the design of novel configurations. By their very nature, these algorithms generate and analyze a large number of unique shapes, resulting in high computational costs. In order to improve their efficiency and enable their use in the early stages of the design process, a fast and robust flow solution algorithm is necessary. This thesis presents an efficient parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur flow solution algorithm for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. The algorithm employs second-order summation-by-parts (SBP) operators on multi-block structured grids with simultaneous approximation terms (SATs) to enforce block interface coupling and boundary conditions. The discrete equations are solved iteratively with an inexact-Newton method, while the linear system at each Newton iteration is solved using the flexible Krylov subspace iterative method GMRES with an approximate-Schur parallel preconditioner. The algorithm is thoroughly verified and validated, highlighting the correspondence of the current algorithm with several established flow solvers. The solution for a transonic flow over a wing on a mesh of medium density (15 million nodes) shows good agreement with experimental results. Using 128 processors, deep convergence is obtained in under 90 minutes. The solution of transonic flow over the Common Research Model wing-body geometry with grids with up to 150 million nodes exhibits the expected grid convergence behavior. This case was completed as part of the Fifth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop, with the algorithm producing solutions that compare favourably with several widely used flow solvers. The algorithm is shown to scale well on over 6000 processors. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SBP-SAT spatial discretization, which can
Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obayashi, Shigeru
1993-01-01
In the last two decades, there have been extensive developments in computational aerodynamics, which constitutes a major part of the general area of computational fluid dynamics. Such developments are essential to advance the understanding of the physics of complex flows, to complement expensive wind-tunnel tests, and to reduce the overall design cost of an aircraft, particularly in the area of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of aircraft, particularly modern aircraft, which tend to be more flexible. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur because of the interaction of the flow with flexible components. For example, an aircraft with highly swept wings may experience vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations. Also, undesirable aeroelastic phenomena due to the presence and movement of shock waves occur in the transonic range. Aeroelastically critical phenomena, such as a low transonic flutter speed, have been known to occur through limited wind-tunnel tests and flight tests. Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At Ames a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this contract is to continue the algorithm enhancements of ENSAERO and to apply the code to complicated geometries. During the last year
ARC2D - EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHODS FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biyabani, S. R.
1994-01-01
ARC2D is a computational fluid dynamics program developed at the NASA Ames Research Center specifically for airfoil computations. The program uses implicit finite-difference techniques to solve two-dimensional Euler equations and thin layer Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the Beam and Warming implicit approximate factorization algorithm in generalized coordinates. The methods are either time accurate or accelerated non-time accurate steady state schemes. The evolution of the solution through time is physically realistic; good solution accuracy is dependent on mesh spacing and boundary conditions. The mathematical development of ARC2D begins with the strong conservation law form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates, which admits shock capturing. The Navier-Stokes equations can be transformed from Cartesian coordinates to generalized curvilinear coordinates in a manner that permits one computational code to serve a wide variety of physical geometries and grid systems. ARC2D includes an algebraic mixing length model to approximate the effect of turbulence. In cases of high Reynolds number viscous flows, thin layer approximation can be applied. ARC2D allows for a variety of solutions to stability boundaries, such as those encountered in flows with shocks. The user has considerable flexibility in assigning geometry and developing grid patterns, as well as in assigning boundary conditions. However, the ARC2D model is most appropriate for attached and mildly separated boundary layers; no attempt is made to model wake regions and widely separated flows. The techniques have been successfully used for a variety of inviscid and viscous flowfield calculations. The Cray version of ARC2D is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Cray series computers and requires approximately 5Mb memory. The program is fully vectorized. The tape includes variations for the COS and UNICOS operating systems. Also included is a sample routine for CONVEX
ARC2D - EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHODS FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (CRAY VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, T. H.
1994-01-01
ARC2D is a computational fluid dynamics program developed at the NASA Ames Research Center specifically for airfoil computations. The program uses implicit finite-difference techniques to solve two-dimensional Euler equations and thin layer Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the Beam and Warming implicit approximate factorization algorithm in generalized coordinates. The methods are either time accurate or accelerated non-time accurate steady state schemes. The evolution of the solution through time is physically realistic; good solution accuracy is dependent on mesh spacing and boundary conditions. The mathematical development of ARC2D begins with the strong conservation law form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates, which admits shock capturing. The Navier-Stokes equations can be transformed from Cartesian coordinates to generalized curvilinear coordinates in a manner that permits one computational code to serve a wide variety of physical geometries and grid systems. ARC2D includes an algebraic mixing length model to approximate the effect of turbulence. In cases of high Reynolds number viscous flows, thin layer approximation can be applied. ARC2D allows for a variety of solutions to stability boundaries, such as those encountered in flows with shocks. The user has considerable flexibility in assigning geometry and developing grid patterns, as well as in assigning boundary conditions. However, the ARC2D model is most appropriate for attached and mildly separated boundary layers; no attempt is made to model wake regions and widely separated flows. The techniques have been successfully used for a variety of inviscid and viscous flowfield calculations. The Cray version of ARC2D is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Cray series computers and requires approximately 5Mb memory. The program is fully vectorized. The tape includes variations for the COS and UNICOS operating systems. Also included is a sample routine for CONVEX
Low-Storage, Explicit Runge-Kutta Schemes for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Chistopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lewis, R. Michael
1999-01-01
The derivation of storage explicit Runge-Kutta (ERK) schemes has been performed in the context of integrating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation. Optimization of ERK methods is done across the broad range of properties, such as stability and accuracy efficiency, linear and nonlinear stability, error control reliability, step change stability, and dissipation/dispersion accuracy, subject to varying degrees of memory economization. Following van der Houwen and Wray, 16 ERK pairs are presented using from two to five registers of memory per equation, per grid point and having accuracies from third- to fifth-order. Methods have been assessed using the differential equation testing code DETEST, and with the 1D wave equation. Two of the methods have been applied to the DNS of a compressible jet as well as methane-air and hydrogen-air flames. Derived 3(2) and 4(3) pairs are competitive with existing full-storage methods. Although a substantial efficiency penalty accompanies use of two- and three-register, fifth-order methods, the best contemporary full-storage methods can be pearl), matched while still saving two to three registers of memory.
Approximate factorization for incompressible flow. Ph.D. Thesis; [Navier-Stokes equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernard, R. S.
1981-01-01
For computational solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the approximate factorization (AF) algorithm is used to solve the vectorized momentum equation in delta form based on the pressure calculated in the previous time step. The newly calculated velocities are substituted into the pressure equation (obtained from a linear combination of the continuity and momentum equation), which is then solved by means of line SOR. Computational results are presented for the NACA 66 sub 3 018 airfoil at Reynolds numbers of 1000 and 40,000 and attack angles of 0 and 6 degrees. Comparison with wind tunnel data for Re = 40,000 indicates good qualitative agreement between measured and calculated pressure distributions. Quantitative agreement is only fair, however, with the calculations somewhat displaced from the measurements. Furthermore, the computed velocity profiles are unrealistically thick around the airfoil, due to the excessive amount of artificial viscosity needed for stability. Based on the performance of the algorithm with regard to stability, it is concluded that AF/SOR is suitable for calculations at Reynolds numbers less than 10,000. Speedwise, the method is faster than point SOR by at least a factor of two.
An h-adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lulu; Xu, Yan; Kuerten, J. G. M.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2016-08-01
In this article, we develop a mesh adaptation algorithm for a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization of the (non)-isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations modeling liquid-vapor flows with phase change. This work is a continuation of our previous research, where we proposed LDG discretizations for the (non)-isothermal NSK equations with a time-implicit Runge-Kutta method. To save computing time and to capture the thin interfaces more accurately, we extend the LDG discretization with a mesh adaptation method. Given the current adapted mesh, a criterion for selecting candidate elements for refinement and coarsening is adopted based on the locally largest value of the density gradient. A strategy to refine and coarsen the candidate elements is then provided. We emphasize that the adaptive LDG discretization is relatively simple and does not require additional stabilization. The use of a locally refined mesh in combination with an implicit Runge-Kutta time method is, however, non-trivial, but results in an efficient time integration method for the NSK equations. Computations, including cases with solid wall boundaries, are provided to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and capabilities of the adaptive LDG discretizations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, D. S.
1980-01-01
The full Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible turbulent flow must be solved to accurately represent all flow phenomena which occur in a high Reynolds number incompressible flow. A two layer algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model is used to represent the Reynolds stress in the primitive variable formulation. The development of the boundary-fitted coordinate systems makes the numerical solution of these equations feasible for arbitrarily shaped bodies. The nondimensional time averaged Navier-Stokes equations, including the turbulence mode, are represented by finite difference approximations in the transformed plane. The resulting coupled system of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved using a point successive over relaxation iteration. The test case considered was a NACA 64A010 airfoil section at an angle of attack of two degrees and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000.
Preconditioned implicit solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations on distributed-memory machines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ajmani, Kumud; Liou, Meng-Sing; Dyson, Rodger W.
1994-01-01
The GMRES method is parallelized, and combined with local preconditioning to construct an implicit parallel solver to obtain steady-state solutions for the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid flow on distributed-memory machines. The new implicit parallel solver is designed to preserve the convergence rate of the equivalent 'serial' solver. A static domain-decomposition is used to partition the computational domain amongst the available processing nodes of the parallel machine. The SPMD (Single-Program Multiple-Data) programming model is combined with message-passing tools to develop the parallel code on a 32-node Intel Hypercube and a 512-node Intel Delta machine. The implicit parallel solver is validated for internal and external flow problems, and is found to compare identically with flow solutions obtained on a Cray Y-MP/8. A peak computational speed of 2300 MFlops/sec has been achieved on 512 nodes of the Intel Delta machine,k for a problem size of 1024 K equations (256 K grid points).
A numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for supercritical fluid thermodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinmiller, P. J.
1971-01-01
An explicit numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is applied to the thermodynamic analysis of supercritical oxygen in the Apollo cryogenic storage system. The wave character is retained in the conservation equations which are written in the basic fluid variables for a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Control-volume cells are employed to simplify imposition of boundary conditions and to ensure strict observance of local and global conservation principles. Non-linear real-gas thermodynamic properties responsible for the pressure collapse phenomonon in supercritical fluids are represented by tabular and empirical functions relating pressure and temperature to density and internal energy. Wall boundary conditions are adjusted at one cell face to emit a prescribed mass flowrate. Scaling principles are invoked to achieve acceptable computer execution times for very low Mach number convection problems. Detailed simulations of thermal stratification and fluid mixing occurring under low acceleration in the Apollo 12 supercritical oxygen tank are presented which model the pressure decay associated with de-stratification induced by an ordinary vehicle maneuver and heater cycle operation.
Convergence of Time Averages of Weak Solutions of the Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foias, Ciprian; Rosa, Ricardo M. S.; Temam, Roger M.
2015-08-01
Using the concept of stationary statistical solution, which generalizes the notion of invariant measure, it is proved that, in a suitable sense, time averages of almost every Leray-Hopf weak solution of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations converge as the averaging time goes to infinity. This system of equations is not known to be globally well-posed, and the above result answers a long-standing problem, extending to this system a classical result from ergodic theory. It is also shown that, from a measure-theoretic point of view, the stationary statistical solution obtained from a generalized limit of time averages is independent of the choice of the generalized limit. Finally, any Borel subset of the phase space with positive measure with respect to a stationary statistical solution is such that for almost all initial conditions in that Borel set and for at least one Leray-Hopf weak solution starting with that initial condition, the corresponding orbit is recurrent to that Borel subset and its mean sojourn time within that Borel subset is strictly positive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowiz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-15
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18, 20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates—the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
Numerical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for the structure of a trailing vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, A. C.
1977-01-01
The structure and decay of a trailing vortex were analyzed during the numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady forms of the governing equations were recast in terms of circulation, vorticity, and stream function as dependent variables, and a second upwind finite difference scheme was used to integrate them with prescribed initial and boundary conditions. The boundary conditions at the outer edge and at the outflow section of the trailing vortex were considered. Different models of the flow were postulated, and solutions were obtained describing the development of the flow as integration proceeds in time. A parametric study was undertaken with a view to understanding the various phenomena that may possibly occur in the trailing vortex. Using the Hoffman and Joubert law of circulation at the inflow section, the results of this investigation were compared with experimental data for a Convair 990 wind model and a rectangular wing. With an exponentially decaying law of circulation at the inflow section and an adverse pressure gradient at the outer edge of the trailing vortex, solutions depict vortex bursting through the sudden expansion of the core and/or through the stagnation and consequent reversal of the flow on the axis. It was found that this bursting takes place at lower values of the swirl ratio as the Reynolds number increases.
A direct algorithm for solution of incompressible three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osswald, G. A.; Ghia, K. N.; Ghia, U.
1987-01-01
A direct, implicit, numerical solution algorithm, with second-order accuracy in space and time, is constructed for the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated in terms of velocity and vorticity, using generalized orthogonal coordinates to achieve the accurate solution of complex viscous flow configurations. A numerically stable, efficient, direct inversion procedure is developed for the computationally intensive divergence-curl elliptic velocity problem. This overdetermined partial differential operator is first formulated as a uniquely determined, nonsingular matrix-vector problem; this aspect of the procedure is a unique feature of the present analysis. The three-dimensional vorticity-transport equation is solved by a modified factorization technique which completely eliminates the need for any block-matrix inversions and only scalar tridiagonal matrices need to be inverted. The method is applied to the test problem of the three-dimensional flow within a shear-driven cubical box. Coherent streamwise vortex structures are observed within the steady-state flow at Re = 100.
Aspects of a high-resolution scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, E.
1993-01-01
In this paper we emphasize the importance of the form of the numerical dissipation model in computing accurate viscous flow solutions. A high-resolution scheme for viscous flows based on three-point central differencing and a matrix dissipation is considered. The various components of this scheme, including 'entropy fix', limiter function, and boundary-point dissipation are discussed. By analyzing boundary-point dissipation stencils, we confirm that with the matrix dissipation model the normal numerical dissipation terms in the streamwise momentum equation are independent of the Reynolds number. Such independence is not achieved with a scalar dissipation form. The accuracy of the central-difference scheme, with and without matrix dissipation, and the flux-difference split scheme of Roe, which is classified as a high-resolution scheme, is compared. For this comparison, three high Reynolds number laminar flows are considered. Solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for low-speed flow over a flat plate, transonic flow over an airfoil with transition near the leading edge, and hypersonic flow over a compression ramp. The emphasis of the comparison is primarily on the details of the viscous flows. The necessity of the high-resolution property is revealed.
Towards Exploratory Aerodynamic Design using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, David Tai Shun
The aerodynamic optimization framework Jetstream is applied to problems involving lift-constrained drag minimization using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A parallel Newton-Krylov algorithm is used to solve the governing equations on multiblock structured meshes; gradients are computed using the discrete-adjoint method. Geometry parameterization and mesh movement are integrated using B-spline control volumes. Drag minimization studies from past works are revisited and strategies are devised to improve optimization convergence. These strategies include linear constraints for geometric feasibility, robust flow solver parameters, and meshing with an O-O topology. The single-point and multi-point optimization of the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) wing geometry is presented. A rectangular NACA0012 wing is optimized with planform design variables, enabling significant changes in span, sweep, taper, and airfoil section. To demonstrate Jetstream's flexibility, a wing based on the B737-900 is optimized with nonplanar winglets, split-tip, and wingtip fence configurations. Finally, the box-wing optimization in subsonic flow is revisited.
Multigrid solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on highly stretched grids with defect correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sockol, Peter M.
1993-01-01
Relaxation-based multigrid solvers for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are examined to determine their computational speed and robustness. Four relaxation methods with a common discretization have been used as smoothers in a single tailored multigrid procedure. The equations are discretized on a staggered grid with first order upwind used for convection in the relaxation process on all grids and defect correction to second order central on the fine grid introduced once per multigrid cycle. A fixed W(1,1) cycle with full weighting of residuals is used in the FAS multigrid process. The resulting solvers have been applied to three 2D flow problems, over a range of Reynolds numbers, on both uniform and highly stretched grids. In all cases the L(sub 2) norm of the velocity changes is reduced to 10(exp -6) in a few 10's of fine grid sweeps. The results from this study are used to draw conclusions on the strengths and weaknesses of the individual relaxation schemes as well as those of the overall multigrid procedure when used as a solver on highly stretched grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowicz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18,20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates-the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
Fike, Jeffrey A.
2013-08-01
The construction of stable reduced order models using Galerkin projection for the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations requires a suitable choice for the inner product. The standard L2 inner product is expected to produce unstable ROMs. For the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations this means the use of an energy inner product. In this report, Galerkin projection for the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations using the L2 inner product is implemented as a first step toward constructing stable ROMs for this set of physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1980-01-01
Three-dimensional corners occur in many aerodynamic engineering situations. Supersonic flow about such geometries is characterized by strong inviscid-viscid interactions which are analyzed adequately only through the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper numerical solution for the laminar compressible Navier-Stokes equations are presented for a family of three-dimensional corners consisting of wedge-plate and wedge-cylinder intersecting boundaries. The equations of motion are transformed to a uniform rectangular computational domain. The computational technique is the MacCormack time-split algorithm vectorized and programmed to run on the CDD CYBER 203 computer. The metric data for the transformation is obtained from the 'two-boundary technique.'
Xiao, Li; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhilin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray
2014-01-01
A multi-scale framework is proposed for more realistic molecular dynamics simulations in continuum solvent models by coupling a molecular mechanics treatment of solute with a fluid mechanics treatment of solvent. This article reports our initial efforts to formulate the physical concepts necessary for coupling the two mechanics and develop a 3D numerical algorithm to simulate the solvent fluid via the Navier-Stokes equation. The numerical algorithm was validated with multiple test cases. The validation shows that the algorithm is effective and stable, with observed accuracy consistent with our design. PMID:25404761
Fast solvers for finite difference approximations for the Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations
Shin, D.
1992-01-01
The authors consider several methods for solving the linear equations arising from finite difference discretizations of the Stokes equations. The pressure equation method presented here for the first time, apparently, and the method, presented by Bramble and Pasciak, are shown to have computational effort that grows slowly with the number of grid points. The methods work with second-order accurate discretizations. Computational results are shown for both the Stokes and incompressible Navier-Stokes at low Reynolds number. The inf-sup conditions resulting from three finite difference approximations of the Stokes equations are proven. These conditions are used to prove that the Schur complement Q[sub h] of the linear system generated by each of these approximations is bounded uniformly away from zero. For the pressure equation method, this guarantees that the conjugate gradient method applied to Q[sub h] converges in a finite number of iterations which is independent of mesh size. The fact that Q[sub h] is bounded below is used to prove convergence estimates for the solutions generated by these finite difference approximations. One of the estimates is for a staggered grid and the estimate of the scheme shows that both the pressure and the velocity parts of the solution are second-order accurate. Iterative methods are compared by the use of the regularized central differencing introduced by Strikwerda. Several finite difference approximations of the Stokes equations by the SOR method are compared and the excellence of the approximations by the regularized central differencing over the other finite difference approximation is mentioned. This difference gives rise to a linear equation with a matrix which is slightly non-symmetric. The convergence of the typical steepest descent method and conjugate gradient method, which is almost as same as the typical conjugate gradient method, applied to slightly non-symmetric positive definite matrices are proven.
Optimization methods, flux conserving methods for steady state Navier-Stokes equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adeyeye, John; Attia, Nauib
1995-01-01
Navier-Stokes equation as discretized by new flux conserving method proposed by Chang and Scott results in the system: vector F(vector x) = 0, where F is a vector valued function. The Optimization method we use is based on Quasi-Newton methods: given a nonlinear function vector F(vector x) = 0, we solve, Delta(vector x) = -BF(vector x), where Delta(vector x) is the correction term and B is the inverse Jacobian of F(x). Then, iteratively, vector(x(sub (i+1))) = vector(x (sub i)) + alpha.Delta(vector x(sub i)), where alpha is a line search correction term determined by a line search routine. We use the BFCG's update the Jacobian matrix B(sub k) at each iteration. It is well known that B(sub k) approaches B(*) at the solution X(*). This algorithm has several advantages over the Newton-Raphson method. For example, we do not need to calculate the Jacobian matrix at each iteration which is computationally very expensive.
Three-step H-P adaptve strategy for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
Oden, J.T.; Wu, W.; Ainsworth, M.
1995-12-31
Recently, a reliable a posteriori error estimate was developed, mainly based on the element residual method, for a class of steady state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper, using this error estimate, a three-step h-p adaptive strategy is developed to solve incompressible flow problems. The goal of developing an h-p adaptive strategy is to obtain accurate approximate solutions while minimizing computational costs. The basic idea of the three-step h-p adaptive strategy is to solve for the system on the three consecutive meshes, i.e. an initial mesh, an intermediate h-p adaptive mesh, and a final h-p adaptive mesh. Each new adaptive mesh is obtained by estimating the error on the previous mesh and executing a single h- or p- refinement procedure on the previous mesh according to the results of the adaptive strategy. Numerical results indicate that the proposed three-step adaptive strategy produces accurate solutions while keeping the total computational costs under control.
On the Dimension of the Singular Set of Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, James C.; Sadowski, Witold
2012-01-01
In this paper we prove that if a suitable weak solution u of the Navier-Stokes equations is an element of {L^w(0,T;L^s(mathbb{R}^3))}, where 1 ≤ 2/ w + 3/ s ≤ 3/2 and 3 < w, s < ∞, then the box-counting dimension of the set of space-time singularities is no greater than max{ w, s}(2/ w + 3/ s - 1). We also show that if {nabla u in L^w(0,T;L^s(Ω))} with 2 < s ≤ w < ∞, then the Hausdorff dimension of the singular set is bounded by w(2/ w + 3/ s - 2). In this way we link continuously the bounds on the dimension of the singular set that follow from the partial regularity theory of Caffarelli, Kohn, & Nirenberg (Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 35:771-831, 1982) to the regularity conditions of Serrin (Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 9:187-191, 1962) and Beirão da Veiga (Chin. Ann. Math. Ser. B 16(4):407-412, 1995).
A numerical method for solving the three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dambrosio, Domenic; Marsilio, Robert
1995-01-01
A numerical technique that solves the parabolized form of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Such a method makes it possible to obtain very detailed descriptions of the flowfield in a relatively modest CPU time. The present approach is based on a space-marching technique, uses a finite volume discretization and an upwind flux-difference splitting scheme for the evaluation of the inviscid fluxes. Second order accuracy is achieved following the guidelines of the the ENO schemes. The methodology is used to investigate three-dimensional supersonic viscous flows over symmetric corners. Primary and secondary streamwise vortical structures embedded in the boundary layer and originated by the interaction with shock waves are detected and studied. For purpose of validation, results are compared with experimental data extracted from literature. The agreement is found to be satisfactory. In conclusion, the numerical method proposed seems to be promising as it permits, at a reasonable computational expense, investigation of complex three-dimensional flowfields in great detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenshields, Christopher J.; Reese, Jason M.
2012-07-01
This paper investigates the use of Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with non-equilibrium boundary conditions (BCs) for simulation of rarefied hypersonic flows. It revisits a largely forgotten derivation of velocity slip and temperature jump by Patterson, based on Grad's moment method. Mach 10 flow around a cylinder and Mach 12.7 flow over a flat plate are simulated using both computational fluid dynamics using the temperature jump BCs of Patterson and Smoluchowski and the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method. These flows exhibit such strongly non-equilibrium behaviour that, following Patterson's analysis, they are strictly beyond the range of applicability of the BCs. Nevertheless, the results using Patterson's temperature jump BC compare quite well with the DSMC and are consistently better than those using the standard Smoluchowski temperature jump BC. One explanation for this better performance is that an assumption made by Patterson, based on the flow being only slightly non-equilibrium, introduces an additional constraint to the resulting BC model in the case of highly non-equilibrium flows.
Kinetic flux-vector splitting for the Navier-Stokes equations
Chou, S.Y.; Baganoff, D.
1997-01-15
Before a hybrid scheme can be developed combining the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and a Navier-Stokes (NS) representation, one must have access to compatible kinetic-split fluxes from the NS portion of the hybrid scheme. The kinetic theory basis is given for the development of the required fluxes from the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function for a simple gas; and these are then extended to a polyatomic gas by use of the Eucken approximation. The derived fluxes are then used to implement boundary conditions at solid surfaces that are based on concepts associated with kinetic theory and the DSMC method. This approach is shown to lead to temperature slip and velocity slip as a natural outcome of the new formulation, a requirement for use in the near-continuum regime where DSMC and NS must be joined. Several different flows, for which solid boundaries are not present, are computed using the derived fluxes, together with a second-order finite-volume scheme, and the results are shown to agree well with several established numerical schemes for the NS equations. 22 refs., 12 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.
2002-01-01
The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.
Enhancing finite differences with radial basis functions: Experiments on the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flyer, Natasha; Barnett, Gregory A.; Wicker, Louis J.
2016-07-01
Polynomials are used together with polyharmonic spline (PHS) radial basis functions (RBFs) to create local RBF-finite-difference (RBF-FD) weights on different node layouts for spatial discretizations that can be viewed as enhancements of the classical finite differences (FD). The presented method replicates the convergence properties of FD but for arbitrary node layouts. It is tested on the 2D compressible Navier-Stokes equations at low Mach number, relevant to atmospheric flows. Test cases are taken from the numerical weather prediction community and solved on bounded domains. Thus, attention is given on how to handle boundaries with the RBF-FD method, as well as a novel implementation for hyperviscosity. Comparisons are done on Cartesian, hexagonal, and quasi-uniform node layouts. Consideration and guidelines are given on PHS order, polynomial degree and stencil size. The main advantages of the present method are: 1) capturing the basic physics of the problem surprisingly well, even at very coarse resolutions, 2) high-order accuracy without the need of tuning a shape parameter, and 3) the inclusion of polynomials eliminates stagnation (saturation) errors. A MATLAB code is given to calculate the differentiation weights for this novel approach.
A time accurate finite volume high resolution scheme for three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing; Hsu, Andrew T.
1989-01-01
A time accurate, three-dimensional, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible full Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The present derivation is based on the upwind split formulas, specifically with the application of Roe's (1981) flux difference splitting. A high-order accurate (up to the third order) upwind interpolation formula for the inviscid terms is derived to account for nonuniform meshes. For the viscous terms, discretizations consistent with the finite volume concept are described. A variant of second-order time accurate method is proposed that utilizes identical procedures in both the predictor and corrector steps. Avoiding the definition of midpoint gives a consistent and easy procedure, in the framework of finite volume discretization, for treating viscous transport terms in the curvilinear coordinates. For the boundary cells, a new treatment is introduced that not only avoids the use of 'ghost cells' and the associated problems, but also satisfies the tangency conditions exactly and allows easy definition of viscous transport terms at the first interface next to the boundary cells. Numerical tests of steady and unsteady high speed flows show that the present scheme gives accurate solutions.
Late formation of singularities in solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkitani, Koji
2016-01-01
We study how late the first singularity can form in solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and estimate the size of the potentially dangerous time interval, where it can possibly appear. According to Leray (1934), its size is estimated as O({R}8) when normalized by the local existence time, for a general blowup of the enstrophy Q(t)≥slant \\frac{c{ν }3/2}{{({t}*-t)}1/2} at t={t}*. Here R={(E(0)Q(0))}1/4/ν is the Reynolds number defined with initial energy E(0) and enstrophy Q(0). Applying dynamic scaling transformations, we give a general estimate parameterized by the behaviour of the scaled enstrophy. In particular, we show that the size is reduced to O({R}4), for a class of type II blow up of the form Q(t)≥slant \\frac{{c}\\prime {ν }3/2}{{({t}*-t)}\\frac{1{2}+0}}. On the basis on the structure theorem of Leray (1934), we note that the self-similar and asymptotically self-similar blowup are ruled out for any singularities of weak solutions. We also apply the dynamic scaling to weak solutions with more than one singularities to show that the size is estimated as O({R}4) for the type II blowup above.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatsis, John
An investigation of preconditioning techniques is presented for a Newton-Krylov algorithm that is used for the computation of steady, compressible, high Reynolds number flows about airfoils. A second-order centred-difference method is used to discretize the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations that govern the fluid flow. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used. The discretized equations are solved using Newton's method and the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) Krylov subspace method is used to approximately solve the linear system. These preconditioning techniques are first applied to the solution of the discretized steady convection-diffusion equation. Various orderings, iterative block incomplete LU (BILU) preconditioning and multigrid preconditioning are explored. The baseline preconditioner is a BILU factorization of a lower-order discretization of the system matrix in the Newton linearization. An ordering based on the minimum discarded fill (MDF) ordering is developed and compared to the widely popular reverse Cuthill-McKee ordering. An evolutionary algorithm is used to investigate and enhance this ordering. For the convection-diffusion equation, the MDF-based ordering performs well and RCM is superior for the NS equations. Experiments for inviscid, laminar and turbulent cases are presented to show the effectiveness of iterative BILU preconditioning in terms of reducing the number of GMRES iterations, and hence the memory requirements of the Newton-Krylov algorithm. Multigrid preconditioning also reduces the number of GMRES iterations. The framework for the iterative BILU and BILU-smoothed multigrid preconditioning algorithms is presented in detail.
Libin, A.
2012-12-15
A linear combination of a pair of dual anisotropic decaying Beltrami flows with spatially constant amplitudes (the Trkal solutions) with the same eigenvalue of the curl operator and of a constant velocity orthogonal vector to the Beltrami pair yields a triplet solution of the force-free Navier-Stokes equation. The amplitudes slightly variable in space (large scale perturbations) yield the emergence of a time-dependent phase between the dual Beltrami flows and of the upward velocity, which are unstable at large values of the Reynolds number. They also lead to the formation of large-scale curved prisms of streamlines with edges being the strings of singular vorticity.
A new flux conserving Newton's method scheme for the two-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, James R.; Chang, Sin-Chung
1993-01-01
A new numerical method is developed for the solution of the two-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes equations. The method that is presented differs in significant ways from the established numerical methods for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The major differences are described. First, the focus of the present method is on satisfying flux conservation in an integral formulation, rather than on simulating conservation laws in their differential form. Second, the present approach provides a unified treatment of the dependent variables and their unknown derivatives. All are treated as unknowns together to be solved for through simulating local and global flux conservation. Third, fluxes are balanced at cell interfaces without the use of interpolation or flux limiters. Fourth, flux conservation is achieved through the use of discrete regions known as conservation elements and solution elements. These elements are not the same as the standard control volumes used in the finite volume method. Fifth, the discrete approximation obtained on each solution element is a functional solution of both the integral and differential form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Finally, the method that is presented is a highly localized approach in which the coupling to nearby cells is only in one direction for each spatial coordinate, and involves only the immediately adjacent cells. A general third-order formulation for the steady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented, and then a Newton's method scheme is developed for the solution of incompressible, low Reynolds number channel flow. It is shown that the Jacobian matrix is nearly block diagonal if the nonlinear system of discrete equations is arranged approximately and a proper pivoting strategy is used. Numerical results are presented for Reynolds numbers of 100, 1000, and 2000. Finally, it is shown that the present scheme can resolve the developing channel flow boundary layer using as few as six to ten cells per channel
Remarks on the Liouville type results for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in \\Bbb R^N
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Dongho
2012-05-01
In this paper, we prove Liouville type result for the stationary solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (NS) and the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson (NSP) equations and in \\Bbb R^N , N >= 2. Assuming suitable integrability and the uniform boundedness conditions for the solutions we are led to the conclusion that v = 0. In the case of (NS) we deduce that the similar integrability conditions imply v = 0 and ρ = constant on \\Bbb R^N . This shows that if we impose the the non-vacuum boundary condition at spatial infinity for (NS), v → 0 and ρ → ρ∞ > 0, then v = 0, ρ = ρ∞ are the solutions.
Global Well-Posedness for Navier-Stokes Equations with Small Initial Value in {B0_{n,∞}(Ω)}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ri, Myong-Hwan; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhifei
2016-03-01
We prove global well-posedness for instationary Navier-Stokes equations with initial data in Besov space {B0_{n,∞}(Ω)} in whole and half space, and bounded domains of Rn, {n ≥ 3}. To this end, we prove maximal {L^{∞}_{γ}} -regularity of the sectorial operators in some Banach spaces and, in particular, maximal {L^{∞}_{γ}} -regularity of the Stokes operator in little Nikolskii spaces {bs_{q,∞}(Ω)}, {s in (-1, 2)}, which are of independent significance. Then, based on the maximal regularity results and {b^{s1}_{q1,∞}-B^{s2}_{q_{2,1}}} estimates of the Stokes semigroups, we prove global well-posedness for Navier-Stokes equations under smallness condition on {u0_{B0_{n,∞}(Ω)}} via a fixed point argument using Banach fixed point theorem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cain, Michael D.
1999-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to develop an efficient and robust locally preconditioned semi-coarsening multigrid algorithm for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This thesis examines the performance of the multigrid algorithm with local preconditioning for an upwind-discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. A block Jacobi iterative scheme is used because of its high frequency error mode damping ability. At low Mach numbers, the performance of a flux preconditioner is investigated. The flux preconditioner utilizes a new limiting technique based on local information that was developed by Siu. Full-coarsening and-semi-coarsening are examined as well as the multigrid V-cycle and full multigrid. The numerical tests were performed on a NACA 0012 airfoil at a range of Mach numbers. The tests show that semi-coarsening with flux preconditioning is the most efficient and robust combination of coarsening strategy, and iterative scheme - especially at low Mach numbers.
High speed transport cruise drag. [scaling laws using Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Leonard
1992-01-01
This report provides scaling laws for the cruise aerodynamics of high speed transport wings based on the results of Navier-Stokes computations. Expressions for the various drag components are found, together with the corresponding values (L/D)(sub m) for various values of the geometric parameter s/l which allow for simple optimization of the wing configurations with respect to the span. It is found that linear theory expressions can be used for this purpose provided the coefficients of these experiments for C(sub D) and (L/D)(sub m) are available using Navier-Stokes results.
Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2014-02-15
Robin boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model slip conditions at the fluid-solid boundaries. A novel Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method is proposed for solving the Navier-Stokes equations subject to Robin boundary condition. In the CBF method, the Robin boundary condition at boundary is replaced by the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition at the boundary and a volumetric force term added to the momentum conservation equation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to solve the resulting Navier-Stokes equations. We present solutions for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in domains bounded by flat and curved boundaries subject to various forms of the Robin boundary condition. The numerical accuracy and convergence are examined through comparison of the SPH-CBF results with the solutions of finite difference or finite element method. Taken the no-slip boundary condition as a special case of slip boundary condition, we demonstrate that the SPH-CBF method describes accurately both no-slip and slip conditions.
Richter, Christiane; Kotz, Frederik; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E
2016-06-01
The fluid mechanics of microfluidics is distinctively simpler than the fluid mechanics of macroscopic systems. In macroscopic systems effects such as non-laminar flow, convection, gravity etc. need to be accounted for all of which can usually be neglected in microfluidic systems. Still, there exists only a very limited selection of channel cross-sections for which the Navier-Stokes equation for pressure-driven Poiseuille flow can be solved analytically. From these equations, velocity profiles as well as flow rates can be calculated. However, whenever a cross-section is not highly symmetric (rectangular, elliptical or circular) the Navier-Stokes equation can usually not be solved analytically. In all of these cases, numerical methods are required. However, in many instances it is not necessary to turn to complex numerical solver packages for deriving, e.g., the velocity profile of a more complex microfluidic channel cross-section. In this paper, a simple spreadsheet analysis tool (here: Microsoft Excel) will be used to implement a simple numerical scheme which allows solving the Navier-Stokes equation for arbitrary channel cross-sections. PMID:27233665
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1991-01-01
An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to Reynolds number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1991-01-01
An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to Reynolds number.
A fast Poisson solver for unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the half-staggered grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golub, G. H.; Huang, L. C.; Simon, H.; Tang, W. -P.
1995-01-01
In this paper, a fast Poisson solver for unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with finite difference methods on the non-uniform, half-staggered grid is presented. To achieve this, new algorithms for diagonalizing a semi-definite pair are developed. Our fast solver can also be extended to the three dimensional case. The motivation and related issues in using this second kind of staggered grid are also discussed. Numerical testing has indicated the effectiveness of this algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1994-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based approach for adaptively-refined solutions of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, N-sided 'cut' cells are created using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded: a gradient-limited, linear reconstruction of the primitive variables is performed, providing input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. The more robust of a series of viscous flux functions is used to provide the viscous fluxes at the cell interfaces. Adaptively-refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using the Cartesian, cell-based approach are obtained and compared to theory, experiment, and other accepted computational results for a series of low and moderate Reynolds number flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based approach for adaptively-refined solutions of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, N-sided 'cut' cells are created using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree data structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive mesh refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded: A gradient-limited, linear reconstruction of the primitive variables is performed, providing input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. The more robust of a series of viscous flux functions is used to provide the viscous fluxes at the cell interfaces. Adaptively-refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using the Cartesian, cell-based approach are obtained and compared to theory, experiment and other accepted computational results for a series of low and moderate Reynolds number flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Sanghyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Utility of the computational power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is elaborated for solutions of both incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-implicit ADI finite-volume method for integration of the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations, which are discretized on a structured arbitrary grid, is parallelized for GPU computations using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In the semi-implicit ADI finite-volume method, the nonlinear convection terms and the linear diffusion terms are integrated in time using a combination of an explicit scheme and an ADI scheme. Inversion of multiple tri-diagonal matrices is found to be the major challenge in GPU computations of the present method. Some of the algorithms for solving tri-diagonal matrices on GPUs are evaluated and optimized for GPU-acceleration of the present semi-implicit ADI computations of incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning Grant NRF-2014R1A2A1A11049599.
Wang, Z J
2012-12-06
The overriding objective for this project is to develop an efficient and accurate method for capturing strong discontinuities and fine smooth flow structures of disparate length scales with unstructured grids, and demonstrate its potentials for problems relevant to DOE. More specifically, we plan to achieve the following objectives: 1. Extend the SV method to three dimensions, and develop a fourth-order accurate SV scheme for tetrahedral grids. Optimize the SV partition by minimizing a form of the Lebesgue constant. Verify the order of accuracy using the scalar conservation laws with an analytical solution; 2. Extend the SV method to Navier-Stokes equations for the simulation of viscous flow problems. Two promising approaches to compute the viscous fluxes will be tested and analyzed; 3. Parallelize the 3D viscous SV flow solver using domain decomposition and message passing. Optimize the cache performance of the flow solver by designing data structures minimizing data access times; 4. Demonstrate the SV method with a wide range of flow problems including both discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The objectives remain the same as those outlines in the original proposal. We anticipate no technical obstacles in meeting these objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spyropoulos, John T.
This thesis extends earlier research in numerical analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain a novel finite element method for the transient, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with efficient, parallelizable algorithms to carry out an implementation of the method in such a fashion as to be useful in mainstream industrial settings. This new finite element procedure employs alternating-direction operator splittings to model problems of increasing complexity in a step-by-step and natural manner. The scheme employs a characteristic-Galerkin method for the numerical treatment of the nonlinear advection operator. Non-overlapping domain decomposition schemes are employed for the solution of linear Stokes-type subproblems and for the matching of the inviscid and viscous solutions in different subdomains. These problems are solved by Bramble-Pasciak-Schatz wirebasket domain decomposition methods in a stabilized mixed finite element method formulation. The scheme is coupled to an existing grid generator code that provides globally unstructured, but locally structured grids, within each subdomain. Numerical results obtained include incompressible viscous flows over a backward facing steps at various Reynolds numbers and show very good to excellent agreement with experiments as well as other published numerical results.
Kordilla, Jannes; Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2014-12-14
We propose a novel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization of the fully-coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Navier-Stokes (LLNS) and advection-diffusion equations. The accuracy of the SPH solution of the LLNS equations is demonstrated by comparing the scaling of velocity variance and self-diffusion coefficient with kinetic temperature and particle mass obtained from the SPH simulations and analytical solutions. The spatial covariance of pressure and velocity fluctuations are found to be in a good agreement with theoretical models. To validate the accuracy of the SPH method for the coupled LLNS and advection-diffusion equations, we simulate the interface between two miscible fluids. We study the formation of the so-called giant fluctuations of the front between light and heavy fluids with and without gravity, where the light fluid lays on the top of the heavy fluid. We find that the power spectra of the simulated concentration field is in good agreement with the experiments and analytical solutions. In the absence of gravity the the power spectra decays as the power -4 of the wave number except for small wave numbers which diverge from this power law behavior due to the effect of finite domain size. Gravity suppresses the fluctuations resulting in the much weaker dependence of the power spectra on the wave number. Finally the model is used to study the effect of thermal fluctuation on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable dynamics of the front between a heavy fluid overlying a light fluid. The front dynamics is shown to agree well with the analytical solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, Jannes; Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2014-12-01
We propose a novel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization of the fully coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Navier-Stokes (LLNS) and stochastic advection-diffusion equations. The accuracy of the SPH solution of the LLNS equations is demonstrated by comparing the scaling of velocity variance and the self-diffusion coefficient with kinetic temperature and particle mass obtained from the SPH simulations and analytical solutions. The spatial covariance of pressure and velocity fluctuations is found to be in a good agreement with theoretical models. To validate the accuracy of the SPH method for coupled LLNS and advection-diffusion equations, we simulate the interface between two miscible fluids. We study formation of the so-called "giant fluctuations" of the front between light and heavy fluids with and without gravity, where the light fluid lies on the top of the heavy fluid. We find that the power spectra of the simulated concentration field are in good agreement with the experiments and analytical solutions. In the absence of gravity, the power spectra decay as the power -4 of the wavenumber—except for small wavenumbers that diverge from this power law behavior due to the effect of finite domain size. Gravity suppresses the fluctuations, resulting in much weaker dependence of the power spectra on the wavenumber. Finally, the model is used to study the effect of thermal fluctuation on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable dynamics of the front between a heavy fluid overlaying a light fluid. The front dynamics is shown to agree well with the analytical solutions.
Kordilla, Jannes; Pan, Wenxiao Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2014-12-14
We propose a novel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization of the fully coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Navier-Stokes (LLNS) and stochastic advection-diffusion equations. The accuracy of the SPH solution of the LLNS equations is demonstrated by comparing the scaling of velocity variance and the self-diffusion coefficient with kinetic temperature and particle mass obtained from the SPH simulations and analytical solutions. The spatial covariance of pressure and velocity fluctuations is found to be in a good agreement with theoretical models. To validate the accuracy of the SPH method for coupled LLNS and advection-diffusion equations, we simulate the interface between two miscible fluids. We study formation of the so-called “giant fluctuations” of the front between light and heavy fluids with and without gravity, where the light fluid lies on the top of the heavy fluid. We find that the power spectra of the simulated concentration field are in good agreement with the experiments and analytical solutions. In the absence of gravity, the power spectra decay as the power −4 of the wavenumber—except for small wavenumbers that diverge from this power law behavior due to the effect of finite domain size. Gravity suppresses the fluctuations, resulting in much weaker dependence of the power spectra on the wavenumber. Finally, the model is used to study the effect of thermal fluctuation on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an unstable dynamics of the front between a heavy fluid overlaying a light fluid. The front dynamics is shown to agree well with the analytical solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Vimala
1993-07-01
An implicit finite volume nodal point scheme has been developed for solving the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is evolved by efficiently combining the basic ideas of the implicit finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming (1978) with those of nodal point schemes due to Hall (1985) and Ni (1982). The 2-D Navier-Stokes solver is implemented for steady, laminar/turbulent flows past airfoils by using C-type grids. Turbulence closure is achieved by employing the algebraic eddy-viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax (1978). Results are presented for the NACA-0012 and RAE-2822 airfoil sections. Comparison of the aerodynamic coefficients with experimental results for the different test cases presented here establishes the validity and efficiency of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold
1991-01-01
A multiple block multigrid method for the solution of the three dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The basic flow solver is a cell vertex method which employs central difference spatial approximations and Runge-Kutta time stepping. The use of local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, multigrid techniques and variable coefficient numerical dissipation results in an efficient and robust scheme is discussed. The multiblock strategy places the block loop within the Runge-Kutta Loop such that accuracy and convergence are not affected by block boundaries. This has been verified by comparing the results of one and two block calculations in which the two block grid is generated by splitting the one block grid. Results are presented for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations of wing/fuselage combinations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, Amrit Raj
1996-01-01
The viscous, Navier-Stokes solver for turbomachinery applications, MSUTC has been modified to include the rotating frame formulation. The three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations have been cast in a rotating Cartesian frame enabling the freezing of grid motion. This also allows the flow-field associated with an isolated rotor to be viewed as a steady-state problem. Consequently, local time stepping can be used to accelerate convergence. The formulation is validated by running NASA's Rotor 67 as the test case. results are compared between the rotating frame code and the absolute frame code. The use of the rotating frame approach greatly enhances the performance of the code with respect to savings in computing time, without degradation of the solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, Ching Y.; Himansu, Ananda; Hultgren, Lennart S.
2003-01-01
A 3-D space-time CE/SE Navier-Stokes solver using an unstructured hexahedral grid is described and applied to a circular jet screech noise computation. The present numerical results for an underexpanded jet, corresponding to a fully expanded Mach number of 1.42, capture the dominant and nonaxisymmetric 'B' screech mode and are generally in good agreement with existing experiments.
Hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin projection methods for Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueckermann, M. P.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.
2016-02-01
Schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations are formulated and derived combining the novel Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, a projection method, and Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX-RK) time-integration schemes. We employ an incremental pressure correction and develop the corresponding HDG finite element discretization including consistent edge-space fluxes for the velocity predictor and pressure correction. We then derive the proper forms of the element-local and HDG edge-space final corrections for both velocity and pressure, including the HDG rotational correction. We also find and explain a consistency relation between the HDG stability parameters of the pressure correction and velocity predictor. We discuss and illustrate the effects of the time-splitting error. We then detail how to incorporate the HDG projection method time-split within standard IMEX-RK time-stepping schemes. Our high-order HDG projection schemes are implemented for arbitrary, mixed-element unstructured grids, with both straight-sided and curved meshes. In particular, we provide a quadrature-free integration method for a nodal basis that is consistent with the HDG method. To prevent numerical oscillations, we develop a selective nodal limiting approach. Its applications show that it can stabilize high-order schemes while retaining high-order accuracy in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. We perform spatial and temporal convergence studies to evaluate the properties of our integration and selective limiting schemes and to verify that our solvers are properly formulated and implemented. To complete these studies and to illustrate a range of properties for our new schemes, we employ an unsteady tracer advection benchmark, a manufactured solution for the steady diffusion and Stokes equations, and a standard lock-exchange Boussinesq problem.
High-resolution algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations for generalized discretizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Curtis Randall
Accurate finite volume solution algorithms for the two dimensional Navier Stokes equations and the three dimensional Euler equations for both structured and unstructured grid topologies are presented. Results for two dimensional quadrilateral and triangular elements and three dimensional tetrahedral elements will be provided. Fundamental to the solution algorithm is a technique for generating multidimensional polynomials which model the spatial variation of the flow variables. Cell averaged data is used to reconstruct pointwise distributions of the dependent variables. The reconstruction errors are evaluated on triangular meshes. The implementation of the algorithm is unique in that three reconstructions are performed for each cell face in the domain. Two of the reconstructions are used to evaluate the inviscid fluxes and correspond to the right and left interface states needed for the solution of a Riemann problem. The third reconstruction is used to evaluate the viscous fluxes. The gradient terms that appear in the viscous fluxes are formed by simply differentiating the polynomial. By selecting the appropriate cell control volumes, centered, upwind and upwind-biased stencils are possible. Numerical calculations in two dimensions include solutions to elliptic boundary value problems, Ringlebs' flow, an inviscid shock reflection, a flat plate boundary layer, and a shock induced separation over a flat plate. Three dimensional results include the ONERA M6 wing. All of the unstructured grids were generated using an advancing front mesh generation procedure. Modifications to the three dimensional grid generator were necessary to discretize the surface grids for bodies with high curvature. In addition, mesh refinement algorithms were implemented to improve the surface grid integrity. Examples include a Glasair fuselage, High Speed Civil Transport, and the ONERA M6 wing. The role of reconstruction as applied to adaptive remeshing is discussed and a new first order error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael
2016-08-01
unstructured meshes allows to discretize even complex physical domains with very coarse grids in both, space and time. The proposed method is verified for approximation polynomials of degree up to four in space and time by solving a series of typical 3D test problems and by comparing the obtained numerical results with available exact analytical solutions, or with other numerical or experimental reference data. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that a space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is presented for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured tetrahedral grids.
Volume 2: Explicit, multistage upwind schemes for Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elmiligui, Alaa; Ash, Robert L.
1992-01-01
The objective of this study was to develop a high-resolution-explicit-multi-block numerical algorithm, suitable for efficient computation of the three-dimensional, time-dependent Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting algorithm has employed a finite volume approach, using monotonic upstream schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL)-type differencing to obtain state variables at cell interface. Variable interpolations were written in the k-scheme formulation. Inviscid fluxes were calculated via Roe's flux-difference splitting, and van Leer's flux-vector splitting techniques, which are considered state of the art. The viscous terms were discretized using a second-order, central-difference operator. Two classes of explicit time integration has been investigated for solving the compressible inviscid/viscous flow problems--two-state predictor-corrector schemes, and multistage time-stepping schemes. The coefficients of the multistage time-stepping schemes have been modified successfully to achieve better performance with upwind differencing. A technique was developed to optimize the coefficients for good high-frequency damping at relatively high CFL numbers. Local time-stepping, implicit residual smoothing, and multigrid procedure were added to the explicit time stepping scheme to accelerate convergence to steady-state. The developed algorithm was implemented successfully in a multi-block code, which provides complete topological and geometric flexibility. The only requirement is C degree continuity of the grid across the block interface. The algorithm has been validated on a diverse set of three-dimensional test cases of increasing complexity. The cases studied were: (1) supersonic corner flow; (2) supersonic plume flow; (3) laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate; (4) transonic flow over an ONERA M6 wing; and (5) unsteady flow of a compressible jet impinging on a ground plane (with and without cross flow). The emphasis of the test cases was validation of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, R. N.; Simmonds, A. L.
1986-01-01
Solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical nonequilibrium and multicomponent surface slip are presented along the stagnation streamline under low-density hypersonic flight conditions. The conditions analyzed are those encountered by the nose region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. A detailed comparison of the Navier-Stokes (NS) results is made with the viscous shock-layer (VSL) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) predictions. With the inclusion of surface-slip boundary conditions in NS calculations, the surface heat transfer and other flow field quantities adjacent to the surface are predicted favorably with the DSMC calculations from 75 km to 115 km in altitude. Therefore, the practical range for the applicability of Navier-Stokes solutions is much wider than previously thought. This is appealing because the continuum (NS and VSL) methods are commonly used to solve the fluid flow problems and are less demanding in terms of computer resource requirements than the noncontinuum (DSMC) methods. The NS solutions agree well with the VSL results for altitudes less than 92 km. An assessment is made of the frozen flow approximation employed in the VSL calculations.
Modeling tsunami of cosmogenic and landslide origin on the basis of Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozelkov, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
An approach to the modeling of the landslide and meteoritic origin tsunami, based on the Navier-Stokes equations for multiphase flows with a free surface, is presented. Description of the system's numerical integration, based on a fully implicit connection of velocity and pressure, is done. The connection of the continuity equation and the equations of conservation of momentum is based on account of the implicit terms of the pressure gradient and mass flow. Basic formulas for discretization of equations and the form of the coefficients, which are summarized in general associated matrix, are performed. Basic steps of the computational procedure are described. The results of proposed method's verification to the problems with experimental data (the problem of the dam collapse, a hydraulic jump and a falling of a box in the water) are presented. Results of the numerical modeling of possible hydrodynamic disturbances in the lake Chebarkul, Russia, caused by the fall of a meteorite in 2013, are presented. The numerical experiments are performed both with and without account of the lake's ice cover. Dimensions of the ice cover disruption are evaluated. Dimensions of the observable ice-hole in the place of the meteorite fall are shown to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions and the preliminary estimations. In addition, results of the numerical investigation of the influence of angle of the body's entry into the water on the characteristics of the resulting waves in the near field are presented. Dimensions of the perturbation and the regularities of changes in the parameters of the source are studied. It is shown that the greatest change in characteristics of the source occurs most rapidly in the vicinity of the angle of incidence of 20 degrees to the horizontal. The source as a separate phase representing Newtonian fluid with its density and viscosity and the surface is separated from the water and air phase is used to simulate landslide. The results of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.; Kaynak, U.; Gundy, K. L.; Flores, J.; Chaderjian, N. M.
1985-01-01
Transonic flow fields about wing geometries are computed using an Euler/Navier-Stokes approach in which the flow field is divided into several zones. The flow field immediately adjacent to the wing surface is resolved with fine grid zones and solved using a Navier-Stokes algorithm. Flow field regions removed from the wing are resolved with less finely clustered grid zones and are solved with an Euler algorithm. Computational issues associated with this zonal approach, including data base management aspects, are discussed. Solutions are obtained that are in good agreement with experiment, including cases with significant wind tunnel wall effects. Additional cases with significant shock induced separation on the upper wing surface are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, N. S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1983-01-01
The multidimensional ensemble averaged compressible time dependent Navier Stokes equations in conjunction with mixing length turbulence model and shock capturing technique were used to study the terminal shock type of flows in various flight regimes occurring in a diffuser/inlet model. The numerical scheme for solving the governing equations is based on a linearized block implicit approach and the following high Reynolds number calculations were carried out: (1) 2 D, steady, subsonic; (2) 2 D, steady, transonic with normal shock; (3) 2 D, steady, supersonic with terminal shock; (4) 2 D, transient process of shock development and (5) 3 D, steady, transonic with normal shock. The numerical results obtained for the 2 D and 3 D transonic shocked flows were compared with corresponding experimental data; the calculated wall static pressure distributions agree well with the measured data.
Curchitser, E.N.; Pelz, R.B.; Marconi, F. Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY )
1992-01-01
The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the steady, two-dimensional flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil using a 1024 node nCUBE/2 multiprocessor. Second-order, upwind-discretized difference equations are solved implicitly using ADI factorization. Parallel cyclic reduction is employed to solve the block tridiagonal systems. For realistic problems, communication times are negligible compared to calculation times. The processors are tightly synchronized, and their loads are well balanced. When the flux Jacobians flux are frozen, the wall-clock time for one implicit timestep is about equal to that of a multistage explicit scheme. 10 refs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Sonnad, Vijay
1991-01-01
A p-version of the least squares finite element method, based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation, is developed for solving steady state incompressible viscous flow problems. The resulting system of symmetric and positive definite linear equations can be solved satisfactorily with the conjugate gradient method. In conjunction with the use of rapid operator application which avoids the formation of either element of global matrices, it is possible to achieve a highly compact and efficient solution scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results are presented for two-dimensional flow over a backward facing step. The effectiveness of simple outflow boundary conditions is also demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maccormack, R. W.
1976-01-01
A fine-mesh method incorporating two new operators, which drastically reduces the computation time, has been developed for solving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers. The approach time-splits the equations into a hyperbolic part and a parabolic part, solves the hyperbolic part by a new explicit numerical method based on characteristics theory, and solves the parabolic part by a new efficient implicit parabolic method. The method has reduced the computation time by one and two orders of magnitude from that required previously to solve for the interaction of a shock wave with a boundary layer on a flat plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Huan; Li, Yongsheng; Zhai, Xiaoping
2016-04-01
In this paper, we first prove the local well-posedness of the 2-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with variable viscosity in critical Besov spaces with negative regularity indices, without smallness assumption on the variation of the density. The key is to prove for p ∈ (1 , 4) and a ∈ B˙p, 1 2/p (R2) that the solution mapping Ha : F ↦ ∇Π to the 2-D elliptic equation div ((1 + a) ∇Π) = div F is bounded on B˙p, 1 2/p - 1 (R2).
Preconditioning for the Navier-Stokes equations with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Godfrey, Andrew G.
1993-01-01
The extension of Van Leer's preconditioning procedure to generalized finite-rate chemistry is discussed. Application to viscous flow is begun with the proper preconditioning matrix for the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Eigenvalue stiffness is resolved and convergence-rate acceleration is demonstrated over the entire Mach-number range from nearly stagnant flow to hypersonic. Specific benefits are realized at the low and transonic flow speeds typical of complete propulsion-system simulations. The extended preconditioning matrix necessarily accounts for both thermal and chemical nonequilibrium. Numerical analysis reveals the possible theoretical improvements from using a preconditioner for all Mach number regimes. Numerical results confirm the expectations from the numerical analysis. Representative test cases include flows with previously troublesome embedded high-condition-number areas. Van Leer, Lee, and Roe recently developed an optimal, analytic preconditioning technique to reduce eigenvalue stiffness over the full Mach-number range. By multiplying the flux-balance residual with the preconditioning matrix, the acoustic wave speeds are scaled so that all waves propagate at the same rate, an essential property to eliminate inherent eigenvalue stiffness. This session discusses a synthesis of the thermochemical nonequilibrium flux-splitting developed by Grossman and Cinnella and the characteristic wave preconditioning of Van Leer into a powerful tool for implicitly solving two and three-dimensional flows with generalized finite-rate chemistry. For finite-rate chemistry, the state vector of unknowns is variable in length. Therefore, the preconditioning matrix extended to generalized finite-rate chemistry must accommodate a flexible system of moving waves. Fortunately, no new kind of wave appears in the system. The only existing waves are entropy and vorticity waves, which move with the fluid, and acoustic waves, which propagate in Mach number dependent
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warsi, Z. U. A.; Weed, R. A.; Thompson, J. F.
1980-01-01
A formulation of the complete Navier-Stokes problem for a viscous hypersonic flow in general curvilinear coordinates is presented. This formulation is applicable to both the axially symmetric and three dimensional flows past bodies of revolution. The equations for the case of zero angle of attack were solved past a circular cylinder with hemispherical caps by point SOR finite difference approximation. The free stream Mach number and the Reynolds number for the test case are respectively 22.04 and 168883. The whole algorithm is presented in detail along with the preliminary results for pressure, temperature, density and velocity distributions along the stagnation line.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, Richard W.; Walters, Robert W.; Thomas, James L.
1987-01-01
A previously developed upwind/relaxation algorithm for solving the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is presently modified so that the downstream influence of the subsonic part of the boundary layer in an otherwise supersonic flow is suppressed by restricting the streamwise pressure gradient. A 'parabolized' solution is then efficiently obtained by marching downstream and iterating locally in each crossflow plane until achieving convergence. This parabolized solution is an excellent final one for problems without large adverse streamwise pressure gradients.
Wathen, A.; Golub, G.
1996-12-31
A simple fixed point linearisation of the Navier-Stokes equations leads to the Oseen problem which after appropriate discretisation yields large sparse linear systems with coefficient matrices of the form (A B{sup T} B -C). Here A is non-symmetric but its symmetric part is positive definite, and C is symmetric and positive semi-definite. Such systems arise in other situations. In this talk we will describe and present some analysis for an iteration based on an indefinite and symmetric preconditioner of the form (D B{sup T} B -C).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saleem, M.; Pulliam, T.; Cheer, A. Y.
1993-01-01
Implicit difference operator spectra are presently computed by applying eigensystem analysis techniques to finite-difference formulations of 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, and attention is given to these iterative methods' convergence and stability characteristics by taking into account the effects of grid geometry, time-step, numerical viscosity, and boundary conditions. On the basis of the eigenvalue distributions for various flow configurations, the feasibility of applying such convergence-acceleration techniques as eigenvalue annihilation and relaxation is discussed. Spectrum-shifting is applied to NASA-Ames' ARC2D flow code, achieving a 20-33 percent efficiency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, S.; Wesseling, P.
1993-01-01
The performance of a linear multigrid method using four smoothing methods, called SCGS (Symmetrical Coupled GauBeta-Seidel), CLGS (Collective Line GauBeta-Seidel), SILU (Scalar ILU), and CILU (Collective ILU), is investigated for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates, in association with Galerkin coarse grid approximation. Robustness and efficiency are measured and compared by application to test problems. The numerical results show that CILU is the most robust, SILU the least, with CLGS and SCGS in between. CLGS is the best in efficiency, SCGS and CILU follow, and SILU is the worst.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Ling; Wang, Tao; Zou, Qingyang
2016-04-01
We investigate the large-time behavior of solutions to an outflow problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous and heat-conducting ideal polytropic gases in the half line. The non-degenerate stationary solution is shown to be asymptotically stable under large initial perturbation with no restriction on the adiabatic exponent, provided that the boundary strength is sufficiently small. The proofs are based on the nonlinear energy estimates and the crucial step is to obtain positive lower and upper bounds of the density and the temperature uniformly in time and space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haspot, Boris
2016-06-01
We consider the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous and barotropic fluids with density dependent viscosity. The aim is to investigate mathematical properties of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using solutions of the pressureless Navier-Stokes equations, that we call quasi solutions. This regime corresponds to the limit of highly compressible flows. In this paper we are interested in proving the announced result in Haspot (Proceedings of the 14th international conference on hyperbolic problems held in Padova, pp 667-674, 2014) concerning the existence of global weak solution for the quasi-solutions, we also observe that for some choice of initial data (irrotationnal) the quasi solutions verify the porous media, the heat equation or the fast diffusion equations in function of the structure of the viscosity coefficients. In particular it implies that it exists classical quasi-solutions in the sense that they are {C^{∞}} on {(0,T)× {R}N} for any {T > 0}. Finally we show the convergence of the global weak solution of compressible Navier-Stokes equations to the quasi solutions in the case of a vanishing pressure limit process. In particular for highly compressible equations the speed of propagation of the density is quasi finite when the viscosity corresponds to {μ(ρ)=ρ^{α}} with {α > 1}. Furthermore the density is not far from converging asymptotically in time to the Barrenblatt solution of mass the initial density {ρ0}.
Prediction of Unsteady Transitional Layers in Turbomachinery Using Navier Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Chernobrovkin, A.; Kang, D. J.
1998-01-01
The objective of the research reported in this presentation is to develop computational techniques for the prediction of unsteady transitional flows associated with the rotor stator interaction in turbomachinery. Three low-Reynolds number turbulence models are incorporated in two unsteady Navier-Stokes codes (one is pressure based and the other is time marching with Runge-Kutta time stepping) and evaluated for accuracy in predicting the onset and the end of unsteady transitional patches due to wake passing. The best model is then used for modification and improvement for the leading edge effect. An existing steady Navier-Stokes code was modified to include pseudo-time stepping, which provided acceleration from 5 to 25 times that of the original code. A systematic validation procedure was implemented to assess the effects of the grid, artificial dissipation, physical, and the pseudo-time step for an accurate prediction of transitional flows resulting from the rotor-stator interaction. The ability of the Navier-Stokes code to predict the unsteady transitional flow on a turbomachinery blade is demonstrated. The unsteady pressure and velocity fields are in good agreement with the experimental data and the prediction from the Euler/boundary layer approach. The numerical solver was able to capture all zones (wake induced transitional strip, wake induced turbulent strip, calmed region, etc.) associated with wake induced transition in a compressor cascade. Another significant step is the assessment of k-epsilon turbulence models, including the leading edge modifications. Best results were obtained from the FLB model. The LB model predicted earlier inception of the transition and shorter transition length. Modification of the k-epsilon model was found to be essential for an accurate prediction of the unsteady transitional flow in a compressor cascade. The CH model failed to predict the unsteady transitional flow. Predicted boundary layer was turbulent from the leading edge
Explicit and implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a massively parallel computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levit, Creon; Jespersen, Dennis
1988-01-01
The design, implementation, and performance of a two-dimensional time-accurate Navier-Stokes solver for the CM2 supercomputer are described. The program uses a single processor for each grid point. Two different time-stepping methods have so far been implemented: an explicit third-order Runge-Kutta method and an implicit approximation-factorization method. The CM2 results are checked against those of a mature well-vectorized Cray 2 program, both for correctness and performance. The code is found to be correct, and the performance in some cases is up to several times that of the Cray 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codina, Ramon; Blasco, Jordi; Buscaglia, Gustavo C.; Huerta, Antonio
2001-10-01
We discuss in this paper some implementation aspects of a finite element formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which allows the use of equal order velocity-pressure interpolations. The method consists in introducing the projection of the pressure gradient and adding the difference between the pressure Laplacian and the divergence of this new field to the incompressibility equation, both multiplied by suitable algorithmic parameters. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss how to deal with the new variable in the implementation of the algorithm. Obviously, it could be treated as one extra unknown, either explicitly or as a condensed variable. However, we take for granted that the only way for the algorithm to be efficient is to uncouple it from the velocity-pressure calculation in one way or another. Here we discuss some iterative schemes to perform this uncoupling of the pressure gradient projection (PGP) from the calculation of the velocity and the pressure, both for the stationary and the transient Navier-Stokes equations. In the first case, the strategies analyzed refer to the interaction of the linearization loop and the iterative segregation of the PGP, whereas in the second the main dilemma concerns the explicit or implicit treatment of the PGP. Copyright
A point implicit unstructured grid solver for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thareja, Rajiv R.; Stewart, James R.; Hassan, Obey; Morgan, Ken; Peraire, Jaime
1988-01-01
An upwind finite element technique that uses cell centered quantities and implicit and/or explicit time marching has been developed for computing hypersonic laminar viscous flows using adaptive unstructured triangular grids. A structured grid of quadrilaterals is laid out near the body surface. For inviscid flows the method is stable at Courant numbers of over 100,000. A first order basic scheme and a higher order flux corrected transport (FCT) scheme have been implemented. This technique has been applied to the problem of predicting type III and IV shock wave interactions on a cylinder, with a view of simulating the pressure and heating rate augmentation caused by an impinging shock on the leading edge of a cowl lip of an engine inlet. The predictions of wall pressure and heating rates compare very well with experimental data. The flow features are very distinctly captured with a sequence of adaptively generated grids. The adaptive mesh generator and the upwind Navier-Stokes solver are combined in a set of programs called LARCNESS, an acronym for Langley Adaptive Remeshing Code and Navier-Stokes Solver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yeping
2016-06-01
In this paper, we consider the one-dimensional (1D) compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations. We know that when the viscosity coefficient and Debye length are zero in the compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations, we have the compressible Euler equations. Under the case that the compressible Euler equations have a rarefaction wave with one-side vacuum state, we can construct a sequence of the approximation solution to the one-dimensional bipolar Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations with well-prepared initial data, which converges to the above rarefaction wave with vacuum as the viscosity and the Debye length tend to zero. Moreover, we also obtain the uniform convergence rate. The results are proved by a scaling argument and elaborate energy estimate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, J. E.
1972-01-01
Numerical solutions have been obtained for the supersonic, laminar flow over a two-dimensional compression corner. These solutions were obtained as steady-state solutions to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the finite difference method of Brailovskaya, which has second-order accuracy in the spatial coordinates. Good agreement was obtained between the computed results and wall pressure distributions measured experimentally for Mach numbers of 4 and 6.06, and respective Reynolds numbers, based on free-stream conditions and the distance from the leading edge to the corner. In those calculations, as well as in others, sufficient resolution was obtained to show the streamline pattern in the separation bubble. Upstream boundary conditions to the compression corner flow were provided by numerically solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for the flat plate flow field, beginning at the leading edge. The compression corner flow field was enclosed by a computational boundary with the unknown boundary conditions supplied by extrapolation from internally computed points.
Controlling the Dynamics of the Five-Mode Truncation System of the 2-d Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaoui, Nejib; Zribi, Mohamed
2015-11-01
The dynamics and the control problem of the two dimensional (2-d) Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations with spatially periodic and temporally steady forcing is addressed. At first, the Fourier Galerkin method is applied to the 2-d N-S equations to obtain a fifth order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE) that approximates the behavior of these equations. Simulation studies indicate that the obtained ODE system captures the behavior of the 2-d N-S equations. Then, a control law is proposed to drive the states of the ODE system to a desired fixed point. Next, a second control law is developed to synchronize two reduced order ODE models of the 2-d N-S equations having the same Reynolds number and starting from different initial conditions. Finally, simulation results are undertaken to validate the theoretical developments. This research was supported and funded by the Research Sector, Kuwait University under Grant No. SM 05/15.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1986-01-01
The method of pseudocompressibility has been shown to be an efficient method for obtaining a steady-state solution to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Recent improvements to this method include the use of a diagonal scheme for the inversion of the equations at each iteration. The necessary transformations have been derived for the pseudocompressibility equations in generalized coordinates. The diagonal algorithm reduces the computing time necessary to obtain a steady-state solution by a factor of nearly three. Implicit viscous terms are maintained in the equations, and it has become possible to use fourth-order implicit dissipation. The steady-state solution is unchanged by the approximations resulting from the diagonalization of the equations. Computed results for flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step and a three-dimensional cylinder mounted normal to a flat plate are presented for both the old and new algorithms. The accuracy and computing efficiency of these algorithms are compared.
Shadid, John Nicolas; Elman, Howard; Shuttleworth, Robert R.; Howle, Victoria E.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen
2007-04-01
In recent years, considerable effort has been placed on developing efficient and robust solution algorithms for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on preconditioned Krylov methods. These include physics-based methods, such as SIMPLE, and purely algebraic preconditioners based on the approximation of the Schur complement. All these techniques can be represented as approximate block factorization (ABF) type preconditioners. The goal is to decompose the application of the preconditioner into simplified sub-systems in which scalable multi-level type solvers can be applied. In this paper we develop a taxonomy of these ideas based on an adaptation of a generalized approximate factorization of the Navier-Stokes system first presented in [25]. This taxonomy illuminates the similarities and differences among these preconditioners and the central role played by efficient approximation of certain Schur complement operators. We then present a parallel computational study that examines the performance of these methods and compares them to an additive Schwarz domain decomposition (DD) algorithm. Results are presented for two and three-dimensional steady state problems for enclosed domains and inflow/outflow systems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The numerical experiments are performed using MPSalsa, a stabilized finite element code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1981-01-01
A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.
An efficient upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zha, Ge-Cheng; Liu, Dao-Zhi; Ma, Tie-You
1989-05-01
An efficient Euler and full Navier-Stokes solver based on a flux splitting scheme is presented. The original Van Leer flux vector splitting form is extended to arbitrary body-fitted co-ordinates in the physical domain so that it can be used with a finite volume scheme. The block matrix is inverted by Gauss-Seidel iteration. It is verified that the often used reflection boundary condition will produce incorrect flux crossing the wall and cause too large numerical dissipation if flux vector splitting is used. To remove such errors, an appropriate tretment of wall boundary conditions is suggested. Inviscid and viscous steady transonic internal flows are analyzed, including the case of shock-induced boundary layer separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, Georg
This dissertation revolves around algorithm development in the context of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with particular emphasis on unstructured meshes. Three distinct topics may be identified: Firstly, a new kinetic scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. Kinetic numerical schemes are based on the discretization of a probability density function. In the context of fluid flow such schemes have a natural basis rooted in the kinetic theory of gases. A significant advantage of kinetic schemes is that they allow a compact, completely mesh-independent discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, which makes them well suited for next-generation solvers on general unstructured meshes. The new kinetic scheme is based on the Xu-Prenderaast BGK scheme, and achieves a dramatic reduction in computational cost, while also improving and clarifying the formulation with respect to the underlying kinetic gas theory. The second topic addresses high-order numerical methods for conservation laws on unstructured meshes. High-order methods potentially produce higher accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom, compared to standard first or second order accurate schemes, while formulation for unstructured meshes makes complex computational domains amenable. The Spectral Difference Method offers a remarkably simple alternative to such high-order schemes for unstructured meshes as the Discontinuous Galerkin and Spectral Volume Methods. Significant contributions to the development of the Spectral Difference Method are presented, including stability analysis, viscous formulation, and h/p-multigrid convergence acceleration. Finally, the theory of Gibbs-complementary reconstruction is utilized in the context of high-order numerical methods for hyperbolic equations. Gibbs-complementary reconstruction makes it possible to extract pointwise high-order convergence in the spectral approximation of non
A semi-Lagrangian approximation in the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas flow around a wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaydurov, V.; Liu, Tiegang; Shchepanovskaya, G.; Yakubovich, M.
2015-10-01
In the paper, a semi-Lagrangian approximation is presented for the numerical solution of the two-dimensional time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for viscous heat-conducting gas. In each equation, a combination of three first-order derivatives describing the transfer of a corresponding substance (density, velocity components, or internal energy) along trajectories is interpreted as the "transfer derivative" in the transfer direction. The other terms of the equations are written in the Euler form. On the sought-for time level, the standard conforming finite element method is realized for them with the linear elements on triangles and the bilinear ones on rectangles. The stencil adaptation along trajectories enables us to avoid the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy upper limit which describes the dependence of the time step on the mesh-size of the space triangulation. At the end of the paper, a numerical example illustrates the implementation of the described algorithms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, C. H.; Blanchard, D. K.
1975-01-01
A finite element algorithm for solution of fluid flow problems characterized by the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations was developed. The program is intended for viscous compressible high speed flow; hence, primitive variables are utilized. The physical solution was approximated by trial functions which at a fixed time are piecewise cubic on triangular elements. The Galerkin technique was employed to determine the finite-element model equations. A leapfrog time integration is used for marching asymptotically from initial to steady state, with iterated integrals evaluated by numerical quadratures. The nonsymmetric linear systems of equations governing time transition from step-to-step are solved using a rather economical block iterative triangular decomposition scheme. The concept was applied to the numerical computation of a free shear flow. Numerical results of the finite-element method are in excellent agreement with those obtained from a finite difference solution of the same problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, Moshe; Kwak, Dochan; Vinokur, Marcel
1991-01-01
The time-dependent, three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are presently solved in generalized coordinate systems by means of a fractional-step method whose primitive variable formulation uses as dependent variables, in place of the Cartesian components of the velocity: (1) pressure (defined at the center of the computational cell), and (2) volume fluxes across the faces of the cells. The momentum equations are solved by means of an approximate factorization method. A novel 'ZEBRA' scheme incorporating four-color ordering efficiently solves the Poisson equation. Illustrative two- and three-dimensional laminar flow test cases are computed and evaluated relative to extant numerical and experimental results, and good agreement is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, W. N.
This paper describes some recent improvements made to an unstructed mesh, solution-adaptive three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver aimed at extending the range of geometric complexity which can be handled in the general context of turbomachinery. The methodology involves generation of a topologically cuboidal mesh, and then the detetion of cells which are not required to allow the formation of relatively complex geometries. This comparatively simple approach permits much of the benefits of an unstructured solution environment to be achieved with minimal complication. Solutions are presented for the highly three-dimensional flows associated with a truncated cylinder in a cross flow, a periodic array of coolant ejection holes, and the overtip leakage flow in an annular cascade of turbine blades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Hua; Sun, Mao
2012-12-01
The forward flight of a model butterfly was studied by simulation using the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model butterfly moved under the action of aerodynamic and gravitational forces, where the aerodynamic forces were generated by flapping wings which moved with the body, allowing the body oscillations of the model butterfly to be simulated. The main results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force produced by the wings is approximately perpendicular to the long-axis of body and is much larger in the downstroke than in the upstroke. In the downstroke the body pitch angle is small and the large aerodynamic force points up and slightly backward, giving the weight-supporting vertical force and a small negative horizontal force, whilst in the upstroke, the body angle is large and the relatively small aerodynamic force points forward and slightly downward, giving a positive horizontal force which overcomes the body drag and the negative horizontal force generated in the downstroke. (2) Pitching oscillation of the butterfly body plays an equivalent role of the wing-rotation of many other insects. (3) The body-massspecific power of the model butterfly is 33.3 W/kg, not very different from that of many other insects, e.g., fruitflies and dragonflies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, J. E.
1980-01-01
A second-order time-accurate and spatially factored algorithm was used in a finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of the time-dependent, incompressible, two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form using vorticity and stream function variables. The systems of equations are solved at each time step by an iterative technique. Numerical results were obtained for a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 15, and an NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at Reynolds numbers of 10 to the third and 10 to the fourth powers. The results are in agreement with another numerical technique, and the computing time required to obtain the steady state solution at the Reynolds number of 10 to the 4th power was 49.7 sec on CDC 7600 computer using a 65 x 84 computational grind.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, Harry E.; Beam, Richard M.
1991-01-01
Finite-difference approximations for steady-state compressible Navier-Stokes equations, whose two spatial dimensions are written in generalized curvilinear coordinates and strong conservation-law form, are presently solved by means of Newton's method in order to obtain a lifting-airfoil flow field under subsonic and transonnic conditions. In addition to ascertaining the computational requirements of an initial guess ensuring convergence and the degree of computational efficiency obtainable via the approximate Newton method's freezing of the Jacobian matrices, attention is given to the need for auxiliary methods assessing the temporal stability of steady-state solutions. It is demonstrated that nonunique solutions of the finite-difference equations are obtainable by Newton's method in conjunction with a continuation method.
Marsden, O; Bogey, C; Bailly, C
2014-03-01
The feasibility of using numerical simulation of fluid dynamics equations for the detailed description of long-range infrasound propagation in the atmosphere is investigated. The two dimensional (2D) Navier Stokes equations are solved via high fidelity spatial finite differences and Runge-Kutta time integration, coupled with a shock-capturing filter procedure allowing large amplitudes to be studied. The accuracy of acoustic prediction over long distances with this approach is first assessed in the linear regime thanks to two test cases featuring an acoustic source placed above a reflective ground in a homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous medium, solved for a range of grid resolutions. An atmospheric model which can account for realistic features affecting acoustic propagation is then described. A 2D study of the effect of source amplitude on signals recorded at ground level at varying distances from the source is carried out. Modifications both in terms of waveforms and arrival times are described. PMID:24606252
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.
1975-01-01
A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwon, J. H.
1977-01-01
Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for the flow about a circular cylinder, a problem arose near the wall at both stagnation points. Thus, computations with various conditions were tried to examine the problem. Also, computations with and without formulations are compared. The flow variables were computed on 37 by 40 field first, then on an 81 by 40 field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.
1999-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flows. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for two flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those of empirical formulae, theoretical results and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Calculations of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using Hybrid Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes Formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Giriamaji, Sharath S.
2008-01-01
Two multiscale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations. The first scheme is a hybrid Reynolds-averaged- Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation model using the two-equation k(epsilon) model with a Reynolds-averaged-Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier Stokes model in which the unresolved kinetic energy parameter f(sub k) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for partially averaged Navier Stokes. It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and is equal to one in the viscous sublayer and when the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the large-eddy-simulation viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide a valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared with Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes and large eddy simulation and partially averaged Navier Stokes in simulating such flow phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Ati S.; Mezić, Igor; McKeon, Beverley J.
2016-07-01
The relationship between Koopman mode decomposition, resolvent mode decomposition, and exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations is clarified. The correspondence rests upon the invariance of the system operators under symmetry operations such as spatial translation. The usual interpretation of the Koopman operator is generalized to permit combinations of such operations, in addition to translation in time. This invariance is related to the spectrum of a spatiotemporal Koopman operator, which has a traveling-wave interpretation. The relationship leads to a generalization of dynamic mode decomposition, in which symmetry operations are applied to restrict the dynamic modes to span a subspace subject to those symmetries. The resolvent is interpreted as the mapping between the Koopman modes of the Reynolds stress divergence and the velocity field. It is shown that the singular vectors of the resolvent (the resolvent modes) are the optimal basis in which to express the velocity field Koopman modes where the latter are not a priori known.
A one-parameter family of LAD methods for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittal, R. C.; Sharma, P. K.
Numerical solutions for the square driven cavity flow problem have been obtained using the Laplacian-Driver Method. The Reynolds number of the driven cavity flow was in the range 1-500 for different values of Theta, the boundary condition parameter. The steps involved in the computational procedure are described, and computed values for primary vortex strength and vorticity at the vortex center are given in a table. On the basis of the numerical results, it is found that: (1) the LAD method developed here is more stable than the method developed by Roache (1975) for steady state Navier-Stokes equations; and (2), at small Reynolds numbers the behavior of CDC and CDD is the same, but for large Reynolds numbers (greater than 20), the accuracy and stability of CDD surpass those of CDC. Computed values for the size of the downstream secondary vortex confirmed the experimental results of Pan and Archivos (1966).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Johnson, G. M.
1983-01-01
A multiple-grid algorithm for use in efficiently obtaining steady solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The convergence of the explicit MacCormack algorithm on a fine grid is accelerated by propagating transients from the domain using a sequence of successively coarser grids. Both the fine and coarse grid schemes are readily vectorizable. The combination of multiple-gridding and vectorization results in substantially reduced computational times for the numerical solution of a wide range of flow problems. Results are presented for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic inviscid flows and for subsonic attached and separated laminar viscous flows. Work reduction factors over a scalar, single-grid algorithm range as high as 76.8. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24467
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirsh, R. S.
1976-01-01
A numerical method is presented for solving the parabolic-elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure is applied to three-dimensional supersonic laminar jet flow issuing parallel with a supersonic free stream. A coordinate transformation is introduced which maps the boundaries at infinity into a finite computational domain in order to eliminate difficulties associated with the imposition of free-stream boundary conditions. Results are presented for an approximate circular jet, a square jet, varying aspect ratio rectangular jets, and interacting square jets. The solution behavior varies from axisymmetric to nearly two-dimensional in character. For cases where comparisons of the present results with those obtained from shear layer calculations could be made, agreement was good.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirsh, R. S.
1975-01-01
A numerical method is presented which is valid for integration of the parabolic-elliptic Navier-Stokes equations. The solution procedure is applied to the three-dimensional supersonic flow of a jet issuing into a supersonic free stream. Difficulties associated with the imposition of free-stream boundary conditions are noted, and a coordinate transformation, which maps the point at infinity onto a finite value, is introduced to alleviate these difficulties. Results are presented for calculations of a square jet and varying-aspect-ratio rectangular jets. The solution behavior varies from axisymmetry for the square jet to nearly two-dimensional for the high-aspect-ratio rectangle, although the computation always calculates the flow as though it were truly three-dimensional.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roisman, Ilia V.
2009-05-01
This study is devoted to a theoretical description of an unsteady laminar viscous flow in a spreading film of a Newtonian fluid. Such flow is generated by normal drop impact onto a dry substrate with high Weber and Reynolds numbers. An analytical self-similar solution for the viscous flow in the spreading drop is obtained which satisfies the full Navier-Stokes equations. The characteristic thickness of a boundary layer developed near the wall uniformly increases as a square root of time. An expression for the thickness of the boundary layer is used for the estimation of the residual film thickness formed by normal drop impact and the maximum spreading diameter. The theoretical predictions agree well with the existing experimental data. A possible explanation of the mechanism of formation of an uprising liquid sheet leading to splash is also proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maccormack, R. W.; Baldwin, B. S.
1975-01-01
A numerical method for solving the compressible form of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is described. This method was originally presented in 1970 and has since been modified during the development of computer programs at Ames for implementing models that account for the effects of turbulence in shock-induced separated flows. Although this paper does not describe the turbulence models themselves, a complete description of the basic numerical method is given with emphasis on the choice of a computational mesh for high Reynolds number flows, finite-difference approximations for mixed partial derivatives, extension of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability condition for viscous flows, mesh boundary conditions, and numerical smoothing for strong shock-wave calculations.
Pullback attractors for three-dimensional non-autonomous Navier-Stokes-Voigt equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Luengo, Julia; Marín-Rubio, Pedro; Real, José
2012-04-01
In this paper, we consider a non-autonomous Navier-Stokes-Voigt model, with which a continuous process can be associated. We study the existence and relationship between minimal pullback attractors for this process in two different frameworks, namely, for the universe of fixed bounded sets, and also for another universe given by a tempered condition. Since the model does not have a regularizing effect, obtaining asymptotic compactness for the process is a more involved task. We prove this in a relatively simple way just using an energy method. Our results simplify—and in some aspects generalize—some of those obtained previously for the autonomous and non-autonomous cases, since for example in section 4, regularity is not required for the boundary of the domain and the force may take values in V'. Under additional suitable assumptions, regularity results for these families of attractors are also obtained, via bootstrapping arguments. Finally, we also conclude some results concerning the attraction in the D(A) norm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghia, K. N.; Ghia, U.; Osswald, G. A.
1992-01-01
The phenomenon of forced unsteady separation and eruption of boundary-layer vorticity is a highly-complex, high-Reynolds number flow phenomenon, which abruptly leads to the formation of a dynamic stall vortex as demonstrated earlier by the authors for a NACA 0015 airfoil undergoing constant rate pitch-up motion. This, as well as the results of other researchers, have convincingly demonstrated a complex vortical structure within the state of unsteady separation prior to the evolution of dynamic stall. This phenomenon of vortex eruption, although observed in studying dynamic stall phenomena, is also associated with transition from laminar to turbulence flow and its generic nature has been stressed by many researchers including the present investigators. An unsteady Navier-Stokes (NS) analysis is developed for arbitrarily maneuvering bodies using velocity-vorticity variables; this formulation is nearly form-invariant under a generalized non-inertial coordinate transformation. A fully-implicit uniformly second-order accurate method is used, with the nonlinear convective terms approximated using a biased third-order upwind differencing scheme to be able to simulate higher-Re flows. No explicit artificial dissipation is added. The numerical method is fully vectorized and currently achieves a computational index of 7 micro-seconds per time step per mesh point, using a single processor on a CRAY Y-MP. The simulation results show that the energetic free shear from the leading edge is responsible for the wall viscous layer to abruptly erupt near the center of the counterclockwise rotating eddy in the unsteady boundary layer. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary vortices have been observed before the dynamic stall vortex evolves and gathers its maximum strength. This study will discuss the simulation results of Reynolds number up to Re = 45,000 and will also discuss the efforts of initial acceleration in a specific maneuver, on the evolution of the stall vortex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lampson, Alan I.; Plummer, David N.; Erkkila, John H.; Crowell, Peter G.; Helms, Charles A.
1998-05-01
This paper describes a series of analyses using the 3-d MINT Navier-Stokes and OCELOT wave optics codes to calculate beam quality in a COIL laser cavity. To make this analysis tractable, the problem was broken into two contributions to the medium quality; that associated with microscale disturbances primarily from the transverse iodine injectors, and that associated with the macroscale including boundary layers and shock-like effects. Results for both microscale and macroscale medium quality are presented for the baseline layer operating point in terms of single pass wavefront error. These results show that the microscale optical path difference effects are 1D in nature and of low spatial order. The COIL medium quality is shown to be dominated by macroscale effects; primarily pressure waves generated from flow/boundary layer interactions on the cavity shrouds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenfeld, Moshe; Kwak, Dochan; Vinokur, Marcel
1992-01-01
A fractional step method is developed for solving the time-dependent three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinate systems. The primitive variable formulation uses the pressure, defined at the center of the computational cell, and the volume fluxes across the faces of the cells as the dependent variables, instead of the Cartesian components of the velocity. This choice is equivalent to using the contravariant velocity components in a staggered grid multiplied by the volume of the computational cell. The governing equations are discretized by finite volumes using a staggered mesh system. The solution of the continuity equation is decoupled from the momentum equations by a fractional step method which enforces mass conservation by solving a Poisson equation. This procedure, combined with the consistent approximations of the geometric quantities, is done to satisfy the discretized mass conservation equation to machine accuracy, as well as to gain the favorable convergence properties of the Poisson solver. The momentum equations are solved by an approximate factorization method, and a novel ZEBRA scheme with four-color ordering is devised for the efficient solution of the Poisson equation. Several two- and three-dimensional laminar test cases are computed and compared with other numerical and experimental results to validate the solution method. Good agreement is obtained in all cases.
A 4OEC scheme for the biharmonic steady Navier-Stokes equations in non-rectangular domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Shuvam; Kalita, Jiten C.
2015-11-01
Recently the biharmonic form of the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations have been solved in various domains by using second order compact discretization. In this paper, we present a fourth order essentially compact (4OEC) finite difference scheme for the steady N-S equations in geometries beyond rectangular. As a further advancement to the earlier formulations on the classical biharmonic equation that were developed for Cartesian coordinate system, this scheme is capable of numerically solving the two-dimensional N-S equations using body fitted coordinate system. Despite the presence of extra derivative terms in the quasi-linear form of the biharmonic equation, our extended formulation continues to maintain its fourth order accuracy on a nine-point compact stencil. A spectral analysis on the scheme reveals its superior resolution properties. The formulation has been tested on fluid flow problems of varied complexities on different geometries which includes flow past an impulsively started circular cylinder and elliptic aerofoil with angles of attack. We present our numerical results and validate them with established numerical and experimental observations available in the literature; excellent comparison is obtained in all the cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devarayalu, K.
1978-01-01
The numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes Equations for viscous flows with high Mach numbers and a strong detached bow shock was obtained. Two dimensional flows around a circular cylinder, and a circular cylinder with an aft-body in the form of a fairing, were considered. The solution of the compressible N.S. equations was accomplished by the method of finite differences. An implicit scheme of solution, the S.O.R., was used with the optimum acceleration parameters determined by trial and error. The tensor notation was used in writing the N-S Equations transformed into general curvilinear coordinates. The equations for the generation of the coordinate system were solved, followed by the solution of the N.S. equations, at the end of a set of given number of time steps. "Wiggles", constituted the one major problem that needed to be overcome. These oscillations give rise to quantities such as negative temperatures, which ultimately caused the computational program to break down. Certain dissipative finite-difference schemes damped these oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blais, Bruno; Tucny, Jean-Michel; Vidal, David; Bertrand, François
2015-08-01
The volume-averaged Navier-Stokes (VANS) equations are at the basis of numerous models used to investigate flows in porous media or systems containing multiple phases, one of which is made of solid particles. Although they are traditionally solved using the finite volume, finite difference or finite element method, the lattice Boltzmann method is an interesting alternative solver for these equations since it is explicit and highly parallelizable. In this work, we first show that the most common implementation of the VANS equations in the LBM, based on a redefined collision operator, is not valid in the case of spatially varying void fractions. This is illustrated through five test cases designed using the so-called method of manufactured solutions. We then present an LBM scheme for these equations based on a novel collision operator. Using the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the same five test cases, we show that this scheme is second-order accurate, explicit and stable for large void fraction gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Ning
2000-07-01
We extend previous results obtained by Rosa (1998 Nonlinear Anal. 32 71-85) on the existence of the global attractor for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on some unbounded domains. We show that if the forcing term is in the natural space H, then the global attractor is compact not only in the L2 norm but also in the H1 norm, and it attracts all bounded sets in H in the metric of V. The proof is based on the concept of asymptotic compactness and the use of the enstrophy equation. As compared with the work of Rosa, which proved the compactness and the attraction in the L2 norm, the new difficulty comes from the fact that the nonlinear term of the Navier-Stokes equations does not disappear from the enstrophy equation, while it does disappear in the energy equation due to its antisymmetry property.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Yi-Tsann; Usab, William J., Jr.
1993-01-01
A general solution adaptive scheme based on a remeshing technique is developed for solving the two-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is formulated on an unstructured triangular mesh utilizing an edge-based pointer system which defines the edge connectivity of the mesh structure. Jameson's four-stage hybrid Runge-Kutta scheme is used to march the solution in time. The convergence rate is enhanced through the use of local time stepping and implicit residual averaging. As the solution evolves, the mesh is regenerated adaptively using flow field information. Mesh adaptation parameters are evaluated such that an estimated local numerical error is equally distributed over the whole domain. For inviscid flows, the present approach generates a complete unstructured triangular mesh using the advancing front method. For turbulent flows, the approach combines a local highly stretched structured triangular mesh in the boundary layer region with an unstructured mesh in the remaining regions to efficiently resolve the important flow features. One-equation and two-equation turbulence models are incorporated into the present unstructured approach. Results are presented for a wide range of flow problems including two-dimensional multi-element airfoils, two-dimensional cascades, and quasi-three-dimensional cascades. This approach is shown to gain flow resolution in the refined regions while achieving a great reduction in the computational effort and storage requirements since solution points are not wasted in regions where they are not required.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Yi-Tsann
1993-01-01
A general solution adaptive scheme-based on a remeshing technique is developed for solving the two-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is formulated on an unstructured triangular mesh utilizing an edge-based pointer system which defines the edge connectivity of the mesh structure. Jameson's four-stage hybrid Runge-Kutta scheme is used to march the solution in time. The convergence rate is enhanced through the use of local time stepping and implicit residual averaging. As the solution evolves, the mesh is regenerated adaptively using flow field information. Mesh adaptation parameters are evaluated such that an estimated local numerical error is equally distributed over the whole domain. For inviscid flows, the present approach generates a complete unstructured triangular mesh using the advancing front method. For turbulent flows, the approach combines a local highly stretched structured triangular mesh in the boundary layer region with an unstructured mesh in the remaining regions to efficiently resolve the important flow features. One-equation and two-equation turbulence models are incorporated into the present unstructured approach. Results are presented for a wide range of flow problems including two-dimensional multi-element airfoils, two-dimensional cascades, and quasi-three-dimensional cascades. This approach is shown to gain flow resolution in the refined regions while achieving a great reduction in the computational effort and storage requirements since solution points are not wasted in regions where they are not required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avrin, Joel
In the hyper-viscous Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flow, the operator A=- Δ is replaced by Aα, a, b≡ aAα+ bA for real numbers α, a, b with α⩾1 and b⩾0. We treat here the case a>0 and equip A (and hence Aα, a, b) with periodic boundary conditions over a rectangular solid Ω⊂R n. For initial data in L p(Ω) with α⩾ n/(2 p)+1/2 we establish local existence and uniqueness of strong solutions, generalizing a result of Giga/Miyakawa for α=1 and b=0. Specializing to the case p=2, which holds a particular physical relevance in terms of the total energy of the system, it is somewhat interesting to note that the condition α⩾ n/4+1/2 is sufficient also to establish global existence of these unique regular solutions and uniform higher-order bounds. For the borderline case α= n/4+1/2 we generalize standard existing (for n=3) "folklore" results and use energy techniques and Gronwall's inequality to obtain first a time-dependent Hα-bound, and then convert to a time-independent global exponential Hα-bound. This is to be expected, given that uniform bounds already exist for n=2, α=1 ([6, pp. 78-79]), and the folklore bounds already suggest that the α⩾ n/4+1/2 cases for n⩾3 should behave as well as the n=2 case. What is slightly less expected is that the n⩾3 cases are easier to prove and give better bounds, e.g. the uniform bound for n⩾3 depends on the square of the data in the exponential rather than the fourth power for n=2. More significantly, for α> n/4+1/2 we use our own entirely semigroup techniques to obtain uniform global bounds which bootstrap directly from the uniform L2-estimate and are algebraic in terms of the uniform L2-bounds on the initial and forcing data. The integer powers on the square of the data increase without bound as α↓ n/4+1/2, thus "anticipating" the exponential bound in the borderline case α= n/4+1/2. We prove our results for the case a=1 and b=0; the general case with a>0 and b⩾0 can be recovered by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2013-11-01
A Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method was developed for implementing Robin (Navier) boundary condition (BC) that can describe no-slip or slip conditions (slip length from zero to infinity) at the fluid-solid interface. In the CBF method the Robin BC is replaced by a homogeneous Neumann BC and an additional volumetric source term in the governing momentum equation. The formulation is derived based on an approximation of the sharp boundary with a diffuse interface of finite thickness, across which the BC is reformulated by means of a smoothed characteristic function. The CBF method is easy to be implemented in Lagrangian particle-based methods. We first implemented it in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to solve numerically the Navier-Stokes equations subject to spatial-independent or dependent Robin BC in two and three dimensions. The numerical accuracy and convergence is examined through comparisons with the corresponding finite difference or finite element solutions. The CBF method is further implemented in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a mesoscale scheme, for modeling slip flows commonly existent in micro/nano channels and microfluidic devices. The authors acknowledge the funding support by the ASCR Program of the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.
Towards A Fast High-Order Method for Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations using FR/CPR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2014-11-01
A high-order compact spectral difference method for solving the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids is currently being developed. This method employs the gGA correction of Huynh, and falls under the class of methods now refered to as Flux Reconstruction/Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. This method and the artificial compressibility method are integrated along with a dual time-integration scheme to model unsteady incompressible viscous flows. A lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme and a backward Euler scheme are used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time and physical time, respectively. We demonstrate order of accuracy with steady Taylor-Couette flow at Re = 10. We further validate the solver with steady flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at Re = 1850 and unsteady flow past a circle at Re = 100. The implicit time-integration scheme for the pseudo time derivative term is proved efficient and effective for the classical artificial compressibility treatment to achieve the divergence-free condition of the continuity equation. We greatly acknowledge financial support from The George Washington University under the Presidential Merit Fellowship.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.; Pitts, J. I.
1979-01-01
The development of a vectorized computer code for the solution of the three-dimensional viscous-compressible Navier-Stokes equations is described. The code is applied on the CDC STAR-100 vector computer which is capable of achieving high result rates when a high degree of parallelism is present in the computations. The computational technique is an explicit time-split MacCormack predictor-corrector algorithm. Since a large volume of data is processed and virtual memory utilized, a data management scheme based on interleaving is used. The program has been applied to obtain the solution of the laminar supersonic flow about a family of three-dimensional corners. The equations of motion are expressed in a generalized form relative to a uniform rectangular computational domain. The metric coefficient and boundary conditions must be supplied for the corresponding physical domain. For calculations with 30,000 grid points, a computational rate of 0.00015 seconds per grid point per time step is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawashima, Shuichi; Zhu, Peicheng
2009-10-01
This paper is concerned with the asymptotic stability towards a rarefaction wave of the solution to an outflow problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in a compressible fluid in the Eulerian coordinate in the half space. This is the second one of our series of papers on this subject. In this paper, firstly we classify completely the time-asymptotic states, according to some parameters, that is the spatial-asymptotic states and boundary conditions, for this initial boundary value problem, and some pictures for the classification of time-asymptotic states are drawn in the state space. In order to prove the stability of the rarefaction wave, we use the solution to Burgers’ equation to construct a suitably smooth approximation of the rarefaction wave and establish some time-decay estimates in L p -norm for the smoothed rarefaction wave. We then employ the L 2-energy method to prove that the rarefaction wave is non-linearly stable under a small perturbation, as time goes to infinity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashford, Gregory A.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-01-01
A method for generating high quality unstructured triangular grids for high Reynolds number Navier-Stokes calculations about complex geometries is described. Careful attention is paid in the mesh generation process to resolving efficiently the disparate length scales which arise in these flows. First the surface mesh is constructed in a way which ensures that the geometry is faithfully represented. The volume mesh generation then proceeds in two phases thus allowing the viscous and inviscid regions of the flow to be meshed optimally. A solution-adaptive remeshing procedure which allows the mesh to adapt itself to flow features is also described. The procedure for tracking wakes and refinement criteria appropriate for shock detection are described. Although at present it has only been implemented in two dimensions, the grid generation process has been designed with the extension to three dimensions in mind. An implicit, higher-order, upwind method is also presented for computing compressible turbulent flows on these meshes. Two recently developed one-equation turbulence models have been implemented to simulate the effects of the fluid turbulence. Results for flow about a RAE 2822 airfoil and a Douglas three-element airfoil are presented which clearly show the improved resolution obtainable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashford, Gregory A.; Powell, Kenneth G.
1995-10-01
A method for generating high quality unstructured triangular grids for high Reynolds number Navier-Stokes calculations about complex geometries is described. Careful attention is paid in the mesh generation process to resolving efficiently the disparate length scales which arise in these flows. First the surface mesh is constructed in a way which ensures that the geometry is faithfully represented. The volume mesh generation then proceeds in two phases thus allowing the viscous and inviscid regions of the flow to be meshed optimally. A solution-adaptive remeshing procedure which allows the mesh to adapt itself to flow features is also described. The procedure for tracking wakes and refinement criteria appropriate for shock detection are described. Although at present it has only been implemented in two dimensions, the grid generation process has been designed with the extension to three dimensions in mind. An implicit, higher-order, upwind method is also presented for computing compressible turbulent flows on these meshes. Two recently developed one-equation turbulence models have been implemented to simulate the effects of the fluid turbulence. Results for flow about a RAE 2822 airfoil and a Douglas three-element airfoil are presented which clearly show the improved resolution obtainable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guruswamy, Guru P.; MacMurdy, Dale E.; Kapania, Rakesh K.
1994-01-01
Strong interactions between flow about an aircraft wing and the wing structure can result in aeroelastic phenomena which significantly impact aircraft performance. Time-accurate methods for solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations have matured to the point where reliable results can be obtained with reasonable computational costs for complex non-linear flows with shock waves, vortices and separations. The ability to combine such a flow solver with a general finite element structural model is key to an aeroelastic analysis in these flows. Earlier work involved time-accurate integration of modal structural models based on plate elements. A finite element model was developed to handle three-dimensional wing boxes, and incorporated into the flow solver without the need for modal analysis. Static condensation is performed on the structural model to reduce the structural degrees of freedom for the aeroelastic analysis. Direct incorporation of the finite element wing-box structural model with the flow solver requires finding adequate methods for transferring aerodynamic pressures to the structural grid and returning deflections to the aerodynamic grid. Several schemes were explored for handling the grid-to-grid transfer of information. The complex, built-up nature of the wing-box complicated this transfer. Aeroelastic calculations for a sample wing in transonic flow comparing various simple transfer schemes are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debbi, Latifa
2016-03-01
In this work, we introduce and study the well-posedness of the multidimensional fractional stochastic Navier-Stokes equations on bounded domains and on the torus (briefly dD-FSNSE). For the subcritical regime, we establish thresholds for which a maximal local mild solution exists and satisfies required space and time regularities. We prove that under conditions of Beale-Kato-Majda type, these solutions are global and unique. These conditions are automatically satisfied for the 2D-FSNSE on the torus if the initial data has H 1-regularity and the diffusion term satisfies growth and Lipschitz conditions corresponding to H 1-spaces. The case of 2D-FSNSE on the torus is studied separately. In particular, we established thresholds for the global existence, uniqueness, space and time regularities of the weak (strong in probability) solutions in the subcritical regime. For the general regime, we prove the existence of a martingale solution and we establish the uniqueness under a condition of Serrin's type on the fractional Sobolev spaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Bo; Sun, Dakun; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2016-07-01
Lined ducts are extensively applied to suppress noise emission from aero-engines and other turbomachines. The complex noise/flow interaction in a lined duct possibly leads to acoustic instability in certain conditions. To investigate the instability, the full linearized Navier-Stokes equations with eddy viscosity considered are solved in frequency domain using a Galerkin finite element method to compute the sound transmission in shear flow in the lined duct as well as the flow perturbation over the impedance wall. A good agreement between the numerical predictions and the published experimental results is obtained for the sound transmission, showing that a transmission peak occurs around the resonant frequency of the acoustic liner in the presence of shear flow. The eddy viscosity is an important influential factor that plays the roles of both providing destabilizing and making coupling between the acoustic and flow motions over the acoustic liner. Moreover, it is shown from the numerical investigation that the occurrence of the sound amplification and the magnitude of transmission coefficient are closely related to the realistic velocity profile, and we find it essential that the actual variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction over the liner surface be included in the computation. The simulation results of the periodic flow patterns possess the proper features of the convective instability over the liner, as observed in Marx et al.'s experiment. A quantitative comparison between numerical and experimental results of amplitude and phase of the instability is performed. The corresponding eigenvalues achieve great agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauenhauer, Eric C.; Majdalani, Joseph
2003-06-01
This article describes a self-similarity solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar, incompressible, and time-dependent flow that develops within a channel possessing permeable, moving walls. The case considered here pertains to a channel that exhibits either injection or suction across two opposing porous walls while undergoing uniform expansion or contraction. Instances of direct application include the modeling of pulsating diaphragms, sweat cooling or heating, isotope separation, filtration, paper manufacturing, irrigation, and the grain regression during solid propellant combustion. To start, the stream function and the vorticity equation are used in concert to yield a partial differential equation that lends itself to a similarity transformation. Following this similarity transformation, the original problem is reduced to solving a fourth-order differential equation in one similarity variable η that combines both space and time dimensions. Since two of the four auxiliary conditions are of the boundary value type, a numerical solution becomes dependent upon two initial guesses. In order to achieve convergence, the governing equation is first transformed into a function of three variables: The two guesses and η. At the outset, a suitable numerical algorithm is applied by solving the resulting set of twelve first-order ordinary differential equations with two unspecified start-up conditions. In seeking the two unknown initial guesses, the rapidly converging inverse Jacobian method is applied in an iterative fashion. Numerical results are later used to ascertain a deeper understanding of the flow character. The numerical scheme enables us to extend the solution range to physical settings not considered in previous studies. Moreover, the numerical approach broadens the scope to cover both suction and injection cases occurring with simultaneous wall motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Ati S.; Moarref, Rashad; McKeon, Beverley J.; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.; Willis, Ashley P.
2016-02-01
We report that many exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for both pipe and channel flows are well represented by just a few modes of the model of McKeon and Sharma [J. Fluid Mech. 658, 336 (2010), 10.1017/S002211201000176X]. This model provides modes that act as a basis to decompose the velocity field, ordered by their amplitude of response to forcing arising from the interaction between scales. The model was originally derived from the Navier-Stokes equations to represent turbulent flows and has been used to explain coherent structure and to predict turbulent statistics. This establishes a surprising new link between the two distinct approaches to understanding turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenawa, Stefan; Hartmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
In this article we consider the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the numerical approximation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) model by Menter. This turbulence model is based on a blending of the Wilcox k-ω model used near the wall and the k-ɛ model used in the rest of the domain where the blending functions depend on the distance to the nearest wall. For the computation of the distance of each quadrature point in the domain to the nearest of the curved, piecewise polynomial wall boundaries, we propose a stabilized continuous finite element (FE) discretization of the eikonal equation. Furthermore, we propose a new wall boundary condition for the dissipation rate ω based on the projection of the analytic near-wall behavior of ω onto the discrete ansatz space of the DG discretization. Finally, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the discretization of the turbulence kinetic energy (k-)equation to suppress oscillations of k near the underresolved boundary layer edge. The wall distance computation based on the continuous FE discretization of the eikonal equation is demonstrated for an internal and three external/aerodynamic flow geometries including a three-element high-lift configuration. The DG discretization of the RANS equations with the SST model is demonstrated for turbulent flows past a flat plate and the RAE2822 airfoil (Cases 9 and 10). The results are compared to the underlying k-ω model and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borazjani, Iman; Asgharzadeh, Hafez
2015-11-01
Flow simulations involving complex geometries and moving boundaries suffer from time-step size restriction and low convergence rates with explicit and semi-implicit schemes. Implicit schemes can be used to overcome these restrictions. However, implementing implicit solver for nonlinear equations including Navier-Stokes is not straightforward. Newton-Krylov subspace methods (NKMs) are one of the most advanced iterative methods to solve non-linear equations such as implicit descritization of the Navier-Stokes equation. The efficiency of NKMs massively depends on the Jacobian formation method, e.g., automatic differentiation is very expensive, and matrix-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. Analytical Jacobian is inexpensive method, but derivation of analytical Jacobian for Navier-Stokes equation on staggered grid is challenging. The NKM with a novel analytical Jacobian was developed and validated against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend. The developed method successfully handled the complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, and immersed boundaries. It is shown that the NKM with an analytical Jacobian is 3 to 25 times faster than the fixed-point implicit Runge-Kutta method, and more than 100 times faster than automatic differentiation depending on the grid (size) and the flow problem. The developed methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80-90% on the problems tested.
Directionally adaptive finite element method for multidimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Zhiqiang; Varghese, Philip L.
1993-01-01
A directionally adaptive finite element method for multidimensional compressible flows is presented. Quadrilateral and hexahedral elements are used because they have several advantages over triangular and tetrahedral elements. Unlike traditional methods that use quadrilateral/hexahedral elements, our method allows an element to be divided in each of the three directions in 3D and two directions in 2D. Some restrictions on mesh structure are found to be necessary, especially in 3D. The refining and coarsening procedures, and the treatment of constraints are given. A new implementation of upwind schemes in the constrained finite element system is presented. Some example problems, including a Mach 10 shock interaction with the walls of a 2D channel, a 2D viscous compression corner flow, and inviscid and viscous 3D flows in square channels, are also shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Stuart E.
1990-01-01
The current work is initiated in an effort to obtain an efficient, accurate, and robust algorithm for the numerical solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional generalized curvilinear coordinates for both steady-state and time-dependent flow problems. This is accomplished with the use of the method of artificial compressibility and a high-order flux-difference splitting technique for the differencing of the convective terms. Time accuracy is obtained in the numerical solutions by subiterating the equations in psuedo-time for each physical time step. The system of equations is solved with a line-relaxation scheme which allows the use of very large pseudo-time steps leading to fast convergence for steady-state problems as well as for the subiterations of time-dependent problems. Numerous laminar test flow problems are computed and presented with a comparison against analytically known solutions or experimental results. These include the flow in a driven cavity, the flow over a backward-facing step, the steady and unsteady flow over a circular cylinder, flow over an oscillating plate, flow through a one-dimensional inviscid channel with oscillating back pressure, the steady-state flow through a square duct with a 90 degree bend, and the flow through an artificial heart configuration with moving boundaries. An adequate comparison with the analytical or experimental results is obtained in all cases. Numerical comparisons of the upwind differencing with central differencing plus artificial dissipation indicates that the upwind differencing provides a much more robust algorithm, which requires significantly less computing time. The time-dependent problems require on the order of 10 to 20 subiterations, indicating that the elliptical nature of the problem does require a substantial amount of computing effort.
A compressible Navier-Stokes solver with two-equation and Reynolds stress turbulence closure models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Joseph H.
1992-01-01
This report outlines the development of a general purpose aerodynamic solver for compressible turbulent flows. Turbulent closure is achieved using either two equation or Reynolds stress transportation equations. The applicable equation set consists of Favre-averaged conservation equations for the mass, momentum and total energy, and transport equations for the turbulent stresses and turbulent dissipation rate. In order to develop a scheme with good shock capturing capabilities, good accuracy and general geometric capabilities, a multi-block cell centered finite volume approach is used. Viscous fluxes are discretized using a finite volume representation of a central difference operator and the source terms are treated as an integral over the control volume. The methodology is validated by testing the algorithm on both two and three dimensional flows. Both the two equation and Reynolds stress models are used on a two dimensional 10 degree compression ramp at Mach 3, and the two equation model is used on the three dimensional flow over a cone at angle of attack at Mach 3.5. With the development of this algorithm, it is now possible to compute complex, compressible high speed flow fields using both two equation and Reynolds stress turbulent closure models, with the capability of eventually evaluating their predictive performance.
A modified dodge algorithm for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations and compressible duct flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, C. H.
1981-01-01
A revised version of a split-velocity method for numerical calculation of compressible duct flow was developed. The revision incorporates balancing of mass flow rates on each marching step in order to maintain front-to-back continuity during the calculation. The (checkerboard) zebra algorithm is applied to solution of the three-dimensional continuity equation in conservative form. A second-order A-stable linear multistep method is employed in effecting a marching solution of the parabolized momentum equations. A checkerboard successive overrelaxation iteration is used to solve the resulting implicit nonlinear systems of finite-difference equations which govern stepwise transition.
Adaptive parallel multigrid for Euler and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
Trottenberg, U.; Oosterlee, K.; Ritzdorf, H.
1996-12-31
The combination of (1) very efficient solution methods (Multigrid), (2) adaptivity, and (3) parallelism (distributed memory) clearly is absolutely necessary for future oriented numerics but still regarded as extremely difficult or even unsolved. We show that very nice results can be obtained for real life problems. Our approach is straightforward (based on {open_quotes}MLAT{close_quotes}). But, of course, reasonable refinement and load-balancing strategies have to be used. Our examples are 2D, but 3D is on the way.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-09-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi–Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations.
A modified Dodge algorithm for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equation and compressible duct flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, C. H.
1981-01-01
A revised version of Dodge's split-velocity method for numerical calculation of compressible duct flow was developed. The revision incorporates balancing of mass flow rates on each marching step in order to maintain front-to-back continuity during the calculation. The (checkerboard) zebra algorithm is applied to solution of the three dimensional continuity equation in conservative form. A second-order A-stable linear multistep method is employed in effecting a marching solution of the parabolized momentum equations. A checkerboard iteration is used to solve the resulting implicit nonlinear systems of finite-difference equations which govern stepwise transition. Qualitive agreement with analytical predictions and experimental results was obtained for some flows with well-known solutions.
A modified Dodge algorithm for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations and compressible duct flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooke, C. H.; Dwoyer, D. M.
1983-01-01
A revised version of Dodge's split-velocity method for numerical calculation of compressible duct flow was developed. The revision incorporates balancing of mass flow rates on each marching step in order to maintain front-to-back continuity during the calculation. The (checkerboard) zebra algorithm is applied to solution of the three dimensional continuity equation in conservative form. A second-order A-stable linear multistep method is employed in effecting a marching solution of the parabolized momentum equations. A checkerboard iteration is used to solve the resulting implicit nonlinear systems of finite-difference equations which govern stepwise transition. Qualitative agreement with analytical predictions and experimental results was obtained for some flows with well-known solutions. Previously announced in STAR as N82-16363
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Manhardt, P. D.; Orzechowski, J. A.
1979-01-01
A numerical solution algorithm is established for prediction of subsonic turbulent three-dimensional flows in aerodynamic configuration juncture regions. A turbulence closure model is established using the complete Reynolds stress. Pressure coupling is accomplished using the concepts of complementary and particular solutions to a Poisson equation. Specifications for data input juncture geometry modification are presented.
Kempka, S.N.; Strickland, J.H.; Glass, M.W.; Peery, J.S.; Ingber, M.S.
1995-04-01
formulation to satisfy velocity boundary conditions for the vorticity form of the incompressible, viscous fluid momentum equations is presented. The tangential and normal components of the velocity boundary condition are satisfied simultaneously by creating vorticity adjacent to boundaries. The newly created vorticity is determined using a kinematical formulation which is a generalization of Helmholtz` decomposition of a vector field. Though it has not been generally recognized, these formulations resolve the over-specification issue associated with creating voracity to satisfy velocity boundary conditions. The generalized decomposition has not been widely used, apparently due to a lack of a useful physical interpretation. An analysis is presented which shows that the generalized decomposition has a relatively simple physical interpretation which facilitates its numerical implementation. The implementation of the generalized decomposition is discussed in detail. As an example the flow in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity is simulated. The solution technique is based on a Lagrangian transport algorithm in the hydrocode ALEGRA. ALEGRA`s Lagrangian transport algorithm has been modified to solve the vorticity transport equation and the generalized decomposition, thus providing a new, accurate method to simulate incompressible flows. This numerical implementation and the new boundary condition formulation allow vorticity-based formulations to be used in a wider range of engineering problems.
A spectrally accurate method for overlapping grid solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrill, Brandon E.; Peet, Yulia T.; Fischer, Paul F.; Lottes, James W.
2016-02-01
An overlapping mesh methodology that is spectrally accurate in space and up to third-order accurate in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The ability to decompose a global domain into separate, but overlapping, subdomains eases mesh generation procedures and increases flexibility of modeling flows with complex geometries. The methodology employs implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet maintains the global accuracy and stability of the underlying flow solver. The overlapping mesh methodology is thoroughly validated using two-dimensional and three-dimensional benchmark problems in laminar and turbulent flows. The spatial and temporal convergence is documented and is in agreement with the nominal order of accuracy of the solver. The influence of long integration times, as well as inflow-outflow global boundary conditions on the performance of the overlapping grid solver is assessed. In a turbulent benchmark of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent statistics with the overlapping grids is validated against published available experimental and other computation data. Scaling tests are presented that show near linear strong scaling, even for moderately large processor counts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Several stabilized demoralization procedures for conservation law equations on triangulated domains will be considered. Specifically, numerical schemes based on upwind finite volume, fluctuation splitting, Galerkin least-squares, and space discontinuous Galerkin demoralization will be considered in detail. A standard energy analysis for several of these methods will be given via entropy symmetrization. Next, we will present some relatively new theoretical results concerning congruence relationships for left or right symmetrized equations. These results suggest new variants of existing FV, DG, GLS, and FS methods which are computationally more efficient while retaining the pleasant theoretical properties achieved by entropy symmetrization. In addition, the task of Jacobean linearization of these schemes for use in Newton's method is greatly simplified owing to exploitation of exact symmetries which exist in the system. The FV, FS and DG schemes also permit discrete maximum principle analysis and enforcement which greatly adds to the robustness of the methods. Discrete maximum principle theory will be presented for general finite volume approximations on unstructured meshes. Next, we consider embedding these nonlinear space discretizations into exact and inexact Newton solvers which are preconditioned using a nonoverlapping (Schur complement) domain decomposition technique. Elements of nonoverlapping domain decomposition for elliptic problems will be reviewed followed by the present extension to hyperbolic and elliptic-hyperbolic problems. Other issues of practical relevance such the meshing of geometries, code implementation, turbulence modeling, global convergence, etc, will. be addressed as needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Several stabilized discretization procedures for conservation law equations on triangulated domains will be considered. Specifically, numerical schemes based on upwind finite volume, fluctuation splitting, Galerkin least-squares, and space discontinuous Galerkin discretization will be considered in detail. A standard energy analysis for several of these methods will be given via entropy symmetrization. Next, we will present some relatively new theoretical results concerning congruence relationships for left or right symmetrized equations. These results suggest new variants of existing FV, DG, GLS and FS methods which are computationally more efficient while retaining the pleasant theoretical properties achieved by entropy symmetrization. In addition, the task of Jacobian linearization of these schemes for use in Newton's method is greatly simplified owing to exploitation of exact symmetries which exist in the system. These variants have been implemented in the "ELF" library for which example calculations will be shown. The FV, FS and DG schemes also permit discrete maximum principle analysis and enforcement which greatly adds to the robustness of the methods. Some prevalent limiting strategies will be reviewed. Next, we consider embedding these nonlinear space discretizations into exact and inexact Newton solvers which are preconditioned using a nonoverlapping (Schur complement) domain decomposition technique. Elements of nonoverlapping domain decomposition for elliptic problems will be reviewed followed by the present extension to hyperbolic and elliptic-hyperbolic problems. Other issues of practical relevance such the meshing of geometries, code implementation, turbulence modeling, global convergence, etc. will be addressed as needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gal-Chen, T.; Somerville, R. C. J.
1975-01-01
A finite difference scheme for solving the equations of fluid motion in a generalized coordinate system has been constructed. The scheme conserves mass and all the first integral moments of the motion. The scheme also advectively 'almost conserves' second moments, in that the magnitude of implicit numerical smoothing is typically about an order smaller than explicit viscosity and diffusion. Calculations with the model support the theoretical conjecture that the difference scheme is stable whenever the analogous Cartesian scheme is stable. The scheme has been used to calculate dry atmospheric convection due to differential heating between top and bottom of mountainous terrain. The general small-scale characteristics of mountain up-slope winds have been simulated. In addition, the results have demonstrated the crucial role played by the eddy diffusivities and the environmental stability, in determining both the quantitative and the qualitative features of the circulation.
Patched-grid calculations with the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations: Theory and applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.
1986-01-01
A patched-grid approach is one in which the flow region of interest is divided into subregions which are then discretized independently using existing grid generator. The equations of motion are integrated in each subregion in conjunction with patch-boundary schemes which allow proper information transfer across interfaces that separate subregions. The patched-grid approach greatly simplifies the treatment of complex geometries and also the addition of grid points to selected regions of the flow. A conservative patch-boundary condition that can be used with explicit, implicit factored and implicit relaxation schemes is described. Several example calculations that demonstrate the capabilities of the patched-grid scheme are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, Carol G.
2010-04-01
Guided by molecular dynamics simulations, we generalize the Navier-Stokes-Fourier constitutive equations and the continuum motion equations to include both transverse and longitudinal temperatures. To do so we partition the contributions of the heat transfer, the work done, and the heat flux vector between the longitudinal and transverse temperatures. With shockwave boundary conditions time-dependent solutions of these equations converge to give stationary shockwave profiles. The profiles include anisotropic temperature and can be fitted to molecular dynamics results, demonstrating the utility and simplicity of a two-temperature description of far-from-equilibrium states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabrielsen, R. E.
1981-01-01
Present approaches to solving the stationary Navier-Stokes equations are of limited value; however, there does exist an equivalent representation of the problem that has significant potential in solving such problems. This is due to the fact that the equivalent representation consists of a sequence of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, and the solving of this type of problem is very well developed. For the problem in this form, there is an excellent chance to also determine explicit error estimates, since bounded, rather than unbounded, linear operators are dealt with.
Navier Stokes Theorem in Hydrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayanan, M.
2005-12-01
In a paper presented at the 2004 AGU International Conference, the author outlined and stressed the importance of studying and teaching certain important mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. In an article entitled "Corrections to Fluid Dynamics" R. F. Streater, (Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10, 3-30, 2003.) proposes a kinetic model of a fluid in which five macroscopic fields, the mass, energy, and three components of momentum, are conserved. The dynamics is constructed using the methods of statistical dynamics, and results in a non-linear discrete-time Markov chain for random fields on a lattice. In the continuum limit he obtains a non-linear coupled parabolic system of field equations, showing a correction to the Navier-Stokes equations. In 2001, David Hoff published an article in Journees Equations aux derivees partielles. (Art. No. 7, 9 p.). His paper is entitled : Dynamics of Singularity Surfaces for Compressible Navier-Stokes Flows in Two Space Dimensions. In his paper, David Hoff proves the global existence of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, barotropic flow in two space dimensions with piecewise smooth initial data. These solutions remain piecewise smooth for all time, retaining simple jump discontinuities in the density and in the divergence of the velocity across a smooth curve, which is convected with the flow. The strengths of these discontinuities are shown to decay exponentially in time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, K. D.; Hendricks, W. L.
1978-01-01
Results of solving the Navier-Stokes equations for chemically nonequilibrium, merged stagnation shock layers on spheres and two-dimensional cylinders are presented. The effects of wall catalysis and slip are also examined. The thin shock layer assumption is not made, and the thick viscous shock is allowed to develop within the computational domain. The results show good comparison with existing data. Due to the more pronounced merging of shock layer and boundary layer for the sphere, the heating rates for spheres become higher than those for cylinders as the altitude is increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Court, Sébastien; Fournié, Michel
2015-05-01
The paper extends a stabilized fictitious domain finite element method initially developed for the Stokes problem to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a moving solid. This method presents the advantage to predict an optimal approximation of the normal stress tensor at the interface. The dynamics of the solid is governed by the Newton's laws and the interface between the fluid and the structure is materialized by a level-set which cuts the elements of the mesh. An algorithm is proposed in order to treat the time evolution of the geometry and numerical results are presented on a classical benchmark of the motion of a disk falling in a channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhilin; Xiao, Li; Cai, Qin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray
2015-09-01
In this paper, a new Navier-Stokes solver based on a finite difference approximation is proposed to solve incompressible flows on irregular domains with open, traction, and free boundary conditions, which can be applied to simulations of fluid structure interaction, implicit solvent model for biomolecular applications and other free boundary or interface problems. For some problems of this type, the projection method and the augmented immersed interface method (IIM) do not work well or does not work at all. The proposed new Navier-Stokes solver is based on the local pressure boundary method, and a semi-implicit augmented IIM. A fast Poisson solver can be used in our algorithm which gives us the potential for developing fast overall solvers in the future. The time discretization is based on a second order multi-step method. Numerical tests with exact solutions are presented to validate the accuracy of the method. Application to fluid structure interaction between an incompressible fluid and a compressible gas bubble is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balajewicz, Maciej; Tezaur, Irina; Dowell, Earl
2016-09-01
For a projection-based reduced order model (ROM) of a fluid flow to be stable and accurate, the dynamics of the truncated subspace must be taken into account. This paper proposes an approach for stabilizing and enhancing projection-based fluid ROMs in which truncated modes are accounted for a priori via a minimal rotation of the projection subspace. Attention is focused on the full non-linear compressible Navier-Stokes equations in specific volume form as a step toward a more general formulation for problems with generic non-linearities. Unlike traditional approaches, no empirical turbulence modeling terms are required, and consistency between the ROM and the Navier-Stokes equation from which the ROM is derived is maintained. Mathematically, the approach is formulated as a trace minimization problem on the Stiefel manifold. The reproductive as well as predictive capabilities of the method are evaluated on several compressible flow problems, including a problem involving laminar flow over an airfoil with a high angle of attack, and a channel-driven cavity flow problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung
1993-01-01
A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially in both concept and methodology from the well-established methods--i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element, and spectral methods. It is conceptually simple and designed to avoid several key limitations to the above traditional methods. An explicit model scheme for solving a simple 1-D unsteady convection-diffusion equation is constructed and used to illuminate major differences between the current method and those mentioned above. Unexpectedly, its amplification factors for the pure convection and pure diffusion cases are identical to those of the Leapfrog and the DuFort-Frankel schemes, respectively. Also, this explicit scheme and its Navier-Stokes extension have the unusual property that their stabilities are limited only by the CFL condition. Moreover, despite the fact that it does not use any flux-limiter or slope-limiter, the Navier-Stokes solver is capable of generating highly accurate shock tube solutions with shock discontinuities being resolved within one mesh interval. An accurate Euler solver also is constructed through another extension. It has many unusual properties, e.g., numerical diffusion at all mesh points can be controlled by a set of local parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, R. J.; Weinberg, B. C.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1985-01-01
The application of the time-dependent ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to transonic turbine cascade flow fields was examined. In particular, efforts focused on an assessment of the procedure in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model to calculate steady turbine flow fields using an O-type coordinate system. Three cascade configurations were considered. Comparisons were made between the predicted and measured surface pressures and heat transfer distributions wherever available. In general, the pressure predictions were in good agreement with the data. Heat transfer calculations also showed good agreement when an empirical transition model was used. However, further work in the development of laminar-turbulent transitional models is indicated. The calculations showed most of the known features associated with turbine cascade flow fields. These results indicate the ability of the Navier-Stokes analysis to predict, in reasonable amounts of computation time, the surface pressure distribution, heat transfer rates, and viscous flow development for turbine cascades operating at realistic conditions.
Yang, R.J.; Weinberg, B.C.; Shamroth, S.J.; Mcdonald, H.
1985-07-01
The application of the time-dependent ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to transonic turbine cascade flow fields was examined. In particular, efforts focused on an assessment of the procedure in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model to calculate steady turbine flow fields using an O-type coordinate system. Three cascade configurations were considered. Comparisons were made between the predicted and measured surface pressures and heat transfer distributions wherever available. In general, the pressure predictions were in good agreement with the data. Heat transfer calculations also showed good agreement when an empirical transition model was used. However, further work in the development of laminar-turbulent transitional models is indicated. The calculations showed most of the known features associated with turbine cascade flow fields. These results indicate the ability of the Navier-Stokes analysis to predict, in reasonable amounts of computation time, the surface pressure distribution, heat transfer rates, and viscous flow development for turbine cascades operating at realistic conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William J.; Vanleer, Bram
1991-01-01
The accuracy of various numerical flux functions for the inviscid fluxes when used for Navier-Stokes computations is studied. The flux functions are benchmarked for solutions of the viscous, hypersonic flow past a 10 degree cone at zero angle of attack using first order, upwind spatial differencing. The Harten-Lax/Roe flux is found to give a good boundary layer representation, although its robustness is an issue. Some hybrid flux formulas, where the concepts of flux-vector and flux-difference splitting are combined, are shown to give unsatisfactory pressure distributions; there is still room for improvement. Investigations of low diffusion, pure flux-vector splittings indicate that a pure flux-vector splitting can be developed that eliminates spurious diffusion across the boundary layer. The resulting first-order scheme is marginally stable and not monotone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copper, G. K.
1980-01-01
The implementation of the approximate factorization algorithm and its ability to efficiently and accurately describe transonic flow about an NACA 64A010 airfoil section is examined. The approximate factorization algorithm is developed from the nondimensional, conservative, vectorized Navier-Stokes equations expressed in curvilinear coordinates. Equations of state and transport coefficient relations appropriate to atmospheric air are appended to close the system of partial differential equations. An algebraic turbulence model is also incorporated into the equation set. This algorithm was verified by investigating the flow about an NACA 64A010 airfoil at 0, 2, and 3.5 deg angle of attack for free-stream conditions of 2,000,000 Reynolds number and 0.8 Mach number. Overall results were in good qualitative agreement with wind tunnel data sets. However, while nondimensional times of six were attained, numerical difficulties prevented any case from reaching a true steady state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudy, D. H.; Morris, D. J.
1976-01-01
An uncoupled time asymptotic alternating direction implicit method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations was tested on two laminar parallel mixing flows. A constant total temperature was assumed in order to eliminate the need to solve the full energy equation; consequently, static temperature was evaluated by using algebraic relationship. For the mixing of two supersonic streams at a Reynolds number of 1,000, convergent solutions were obtained for a time step 5 times the maximum allowable size for an explicit method. The solution diverged for a time step 10 times the explicit limit. Improved convergence was obtained when upwind differencing was used for convective terms. Larger time steps were not possible with either upwind differencing or the diagonally dominant scheme. Artificial viscosity was added to the continuity equation in order to eliminate divergence for the mixing of a subsonic stream with a supersonic stream at a Reynolds number of 1,000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackay, Kyle K.; Schilling, Oleg
2012-11-01
An implicit-in-time multicomponent, weighted essentially nonoscillatory implementation of a four-equation K- ɛ based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing at Atwood numbers ranging from 0 . 05 - 0 . 9 . The mechanical turbulence equations are coupled to modeled transport equations for the scalar variance and its dissipation rate. The predicted evolution of the mixing layer, molecular mixing and other quantities are compared to available experimental data, as well as to analytical self-similar solutions. The predictive capability of the model is evaluated, and several parametric studies are also presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, A.
1982-01-01
An implicit finite-difference algorithm is developed for the numerical solution of the incompressible three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the non-conservative primitive-variable formulation. The flow field about an airfoil spanning a wind-tunnel is computed. The coordinate system is generated by an extension of the two dimensional body-fitted coordinate generation techniques of Thompson, as well as that of Sorenson, into three dimensions. Two dimensional grids are stacked along a spanwise coordinate defined by a simple analytical function. A Poisson pressure equation for advancing the pressure in time is arrived at by performing a divergence operation on the momentum equations. The pressure at each time-step is calculated on the assumption that continuity be unconditionally satisfied. An eddy viscosity coefficient, computed according to the algebraic turbulence formulation of Baldwin and Lomax, simulates the effects of turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coirier, William John
1994-01-01
A Cartesian, cell-based scheme for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, polygonal 'cut' cells are created. The geometry of the cut cells is computed using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree data structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded, with a limited linear reconstruction of the primitive variables used to provide input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. A multi-stage time-stepping scheme is used to reach a steady-state solution. Validation of the Euler solver with benchmark numerical and exact solutions is presented. An assessment of the accuracy of the approach is made by uniform and adaptive grid refinements for a steady, transonic, exact solution to the Euler equations. The error of the approach is directly compared to a structured solver formulation. A non smooth flow is also assessed for grid convergence, comparing uniform and adaptively refined results. Several formulations of the viscous terms are assessed analytically, both for accuracy and positivity. The two best formulations are used to compute adaptively refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions are compared to each other, to experimental results and/or theory for a series of low and moderate Reynolds numbers flow fields. The most suitable viscous discretization is demonstrated for geometrically-complicated internal flows. For flows at high Reynolds numbers, both an altered grid-generation procedure and a
Time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations with multigrid acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. Duane; Atkins, Harold L.; Sanetrik, Mark D.
1993-01-01
A numerical scheme to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is described. The scheme is implemented by modifying the multigrid-multiblock version of the steady Navier-Stokes equations solver, TLNS3D. The scheme is fully implicit in time and uses TLNS3D to iteratively invert the equations at each physical time step. The design objective of the scheme is unconditional stability (at least for first- and second-order discretizations of the physical time derivatives). With unconditional stability, the choice of the time step is based on the physical phenomena to be resolved rather than limited by numerical stability which is especially important for high Reynolds number viscous flows, where the spatial variation of grid cell size can be as much as six orders of magnitude. An analysis of the iterative procedure and the implementation of this procedure in TLNS3D are discussed. Numerical results are presented to show both the capabilities of the scheme and its speed up relative to the use of global minimum time stepping. Reductions in computational times of an order of magnitude are demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodersen, Olaf
1992-06-01
A matrix dissipation model is evaluated for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical approach, a finite volume scheme with central differencing, was outlined and the necessity of artificially added dissipation was shown. The design of the dissipation term for modeling an upwind scheme is described for the one dimensional linear wave equation. Following this approach results in time consuming matrix multiplications for two dimensional and three dimensional cases. Because of a new splitting technique of the matrices found in the literature, it is now possible to use this dissipation model in a more efficient way. The basic effects were analyzed for viscous flow around the RAE 2822 airfoil. The results show a higher resolution of shocks and the boundary layer. Thus, it is possible to use coarser meshes so that CPU (Central Processing Unit) time is reduced by about a factor of three.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaisner, F.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1987-01-01
Finite element procedures for the Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variable formulation and the vorticity stream-function formulation have been implemented. For both formulations, streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin techniques are used for the discretization of the transport equations. The main problem associated with the vorticity stream-function formulation is the lack of boundary conditions for vorticity at solid surfaces. Here an implicit treatment of the vorticity at no-slip boundaries is incorporated in a predictor-multicorrector time integration scheme. For the primitive variable formulation, mixed finite-element approximations are used. A nine-node element and a four-node + bubble element have been implemented. The latter is shown to exhibit a checkerboard pressure mode and a numerical treatment for this spurious pressure mode is proposed. The two methods are compared from the points of view of simulating internal and external flows and the possibilities of extensions to three dimensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, P. A.
1978-01-01
A coordinate transformation, which can approximate many different two-dimensional and axisymmetric body shapes with an analytic function, is used as a basis for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the purpose of predicting 0 deg angle of attack supersonic flow fields. The transformation defines a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system in which coordinate lines are perpendicular to the body and the body is defined by one coordinate line. This system is mapped in to a rectangular computational domain in which the governing flow field equations are solved numerically. Advantages of this technique are that the specification of boundary conditions are simplified and, most importantly, the entire flow field can be obtained, including flow in the wake. Good agreement has been obtained with experimental data for pressure distributions, density distributions, and heat transfer over spheres and cylinders in supersonic flow. Approximations to the Viking aeroshell and to a candidate Jupiter probe are presented and flow fields over these shapes are calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, R. V.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Churakov, D. A.
2015-06-01
This paper deals with different engineering correlations for prediction of transitional hypersonic flows both for transition onset prediction and transition zone description. In spite of recent progress in simulation of stability equations and direct methods, these approaches remain main tool in everyday design practice. Very close approach is using correlations incorporated in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, e. g., γ-Reθ transition model. But this model has some limitations when applied to supersonic flows and some approaches for subduing these limitations are considered. Also, the effect of local heating/cooling on laminar-turbulent transition (LTT) on sharp cone is analyzed on the basis of both algebraic correlations and RANS models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perepelitsa, Misha
2014-06-01
We consider the Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of compressible, viscous flows in a half-space n = 2, 3, with the no-slip boundary conditions. We prove the existence of a global weak solution when the initial data are close to a static equilibrium. The density of the weak solution is uniformly bounded and does not contain a vacuum, the velocity is Hölder continuous in ( x, t) and the material acceleration is weakly differentiable. The weak solutions of this type were introduced by D. Hoff in Arch Ration Mech Anal 114(1):15-46, (1991), Commun Pure and Appl Math 55(11):1365-1407, (2002) for the initial-boundary value problem in and for the problem in with the Navier boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Oleg
2012-11-01
A multicomponent, weighted essentially nonoscillatory implementation of several four-equation K- ɛ and K- L based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models is used to simulate reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing at various Mach and Atwood numbers. One class of models is based on mechanical turbulence coupled to scalar variance and its dissipation rate, and the other is based on mechanical turbulence coupled to mass flux and the density-specific volume correlation. The predicted evolution of the mixing layer, molecular mixing and other quantities obtained from these models are systematically intercompared, as well as compared to experimental shock tube data. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the various models are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middlecoff, J. F.; Thomas, P. D.
1979-01-01
The generation of computational grids suitable for obtaining accurate numerical solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is the subject of intensive research. For a wide class of nozzle configurations, a three-dimensional grid can be constructed by a sequence of two-dimensional grids in successive cross-sectional planes. The present paper is concerned with numerical generation of two-dimensional grids. An effective method of interior grid control is presented based on a modified elliptic system containing free parameters. For a simply connected region, the free parameters are computed from the Dirichlet boundary values. The resulting interior grid point distribution is controlled entirely by a priori selection of the grid point distribution along the boundaries of the section.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordulla, W.
For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations with the explicit-implicit MacCormack algorithm the efficient use of a CRAY-1S computer is described, if the main memory is too small to handle the tackled problem. The plane concept is used for the transfer of data. Within each plane of data the code is nearly completely vectorized. To be really efficient, dedicated input/output devices are needed. Parallel input/output streams are used to speed up the transfer rates. The set up of the code allows it to handle large problems, provided sufficient memory is available in core, and if dedicated input/output devices are employed. The code is not well suited for efficient use on a CYBER vector computer because the vector strings are comparatively short.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Van Leer, Bram; Roe, Philip L.
1991-01-01
A new two-dimensional approximate Riemann solver has been developed that obtains fluxes on grid faces via wave decomposition. By utilizing information propagation in the velocity-difference directions rather than in the grid-normal directions, this flux function more appropriately interprets and hence more sharply resolves shock and shear waves when they lie oblique to the grid. The model uses five waves to describe the difference in states at a grid face. Two acoustic waves, one shear wave, and one entropy wave propagate in the direction defined by the local velocity difference vector, while the fifth wave is a shear wave that propagates at a right angle to the other four. Test cases presented include a shock reflecting off a wall, a pure shear wave, supersonic flow over an airfoil, and viscous separated airfoil flow. Results using the new model give significantly sharper shock and shear contours than a grid-aligned solver. Navier-Stokes computations over an aifoil show reduced pressure distortions in the separated region as a result of the grid-independent upwinding.
Development of advanced Navier-Stokes solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Seokkwan
1994-01-01
The objective of research was to develop and validate new computational algorithms for solving the steady and unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The end-products are new three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes codes that are faster, more reliable, more accurate, and easier to use. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible/incompressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. Convergence rates and the robustness of the codes are enhanced by the use of an implicit full approximation storage multigrid method.
Navier-Stokes Computations on Commodity Computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Faulkner, Thomas R.
1998-01-01
In this paper we discuss and demonstrate the feasibility of solving high-fidelity, nonlinear computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of practical interest on commodity machines, namely Pentium Pro PC's. Such calculations have now become possible due to the progress in computational power and memory of the off-the-shelf commodity computers, along with the growth in bandwidth and communication speeds of networks. A widely used CFD code known as TLNS3D, which was developed originally on large shared memory computers was selected for this effort. This code has recently been ported to massively parallel processor (MPP) type machines, where natural partitioning along grid blocks is adopted in which one or more blocks are distributed to each of the available processors. In this paper, a similar approach is adapted to port this code to a cluster of Pentium Pro computers. The message passing among the processors is accomplished through the use of standard message passing interface (MPI) libraries. Scaling studies indicate fairly high level of parallelism on such clusters of commodity machines, thus making solutions to Navier-Stokes equations for practical problems more affordable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Crawford F.; Podleski, Steve D.
1993-01-01
The proper use of a computational fluid dynamics code requires a good understanding of the particular code being applied. In this report the application of CFL3D, a thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, is compared with the results obtained from PARC3D, a full Navier-Stokes code. In order to gain an understanding of the use of this code, a simple problem was chosen in which several key features of the code could be exercised. The problem chosen is a cone in supersonic flow at an angle of attack. The issues of grid resolution, grid blocking, and multigridding with CFL3D are explored. The use of multigridding resulted in a significant reduction in the computational time required to solve the problem. Solutions obtained are compared with the results using the full Navier-Stokes equations solver PARC3D. The results obtained with the CFL3D code compared well with the PARC3D solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeChant, Lawrence Justin
1998-01-01
In spite of rapid advances in both scalar and parallel computational tools, the large number of variables involved in both design and inverse problems make the use of sophisticated fluid flow models impractical, With this restriction, it is concluded that an important family of methods for mathematical/computational development are reduced or approximate fluid flow models. In this study a combined perturbation/numerical modeling methodology is developed which provides a rigorously derived family of solutions. The mathematical model is computationally more efficient than classical boundary layer but provides important two-dimensional information not available using quasi-1-d approaches. An additional strength of the current methodology is its ability to locally predict static pressure fields in a manner analogous to more sophisticated parabolized Navier Stokes (PNS) formulations. To resolve singular behavior, the model utilizes classical analytical solution techniques. Hence, analytical methods have been combined with efficient numerical methods to yield an efficient hybrid fluid flow model. In particular, the main objective of this research has been to develop a system of analytical and numerical ejector/mixer nozzle models, which require minimal empirical input. A computer code, DREA Differential Reduced Ejector/mixer Analysis has been developed with the ability to run sufficiently fast so that it may be used either as a subroutine or called by an design optimization routine. Models are of direct use to the High Speed Civil Transport Program (a joint government/industry project seeking to develop an economically.viable U.S. commercial supersonic transport vehicle) and are currently being adopted by both NASA and industry. Experimental validation of these models is provided by comparison to results obtained from open literature and Limited Exclusive Right Distribution (LERD) sources, as well as dedicated experiments performed at Texas A&M. These experiments have
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin
1995-01-01
Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Hwar-Ching; Ramaswamy, Bala
1993-01-01
The new multigrid (or adaptive) pseudospectral element method was carried out for the solution of incompressible flow in terms of primitive variable formulation. The desired features of the proposed method include the following: (1) the ability to treat complex geometry; (2) high resolution adapted in the interesting areas; (3) requires minimal working space; and (4) effective in a multiprocessing environment. The approach for flow problems, complex geometry or not, is to first divide the computational domain into a number of fine-grid and coarse-grid subdomains with the inter-overlapping area. Next, it is necessary to implement the Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) to exchange the data among subdomains, where the coarse-grid correction is used to remove the high frequency error that occurs when the data interpolation from the fine-grid subdomain to the coarse-grid subdomain is conducted. The strategy behind the coarse-grid correction is to adopt the operator of the divergence of the velocity field, which intrinsically links the pressure equation, into this process. The solution of each subdomain can be efficiently solved by the direct (or iterative) eigenfunction expansion technique with the least storage requirement, i.e. O(N(exp 3)) in 3-D and O(N(exp 2)) in 2-D. Numerical results of both driven cavity and jet flow will be presented in the paper to account for the versatility of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrossian, Jacob; Masmoudi, Nader; Vicol, Vlad
2016-03-01
In this work we study the long time inviscid limit of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations near the periodic Couette flow. In particular, we confirm at the nonlinear level the qualitative behavior predicted by Kelvin's 1887 linear analysis. At high Reynolds number Re, we prove that the solution behaves qualitatively like two dimensional Euler for times {{t ≲ Re^{1/3}}}, and in particular exhibits inviscid damping (for example the vorticity weakly approaches a shear flow). For times {{t ≳ Re^{1/3}}}, which is sooner than the natural dissipative time scale O( Re), the viscosity becomes dominant and the streamwise dependence of the vorticity is rapidly eliminated by an enhanced dissipation effect. Afterwards, the remaining shear flow decays on very long time scales {{t ≳ Re}} back to the Couette flow. When properly defined, the dissipative length-scale in this setting is {{ℓ_D ˜ Re^{-1/3}}}, larger than the scale {{ℓ_D ˜ Re^{-1/2}}} predicted in classical Batchelor-Kraichnan two dimensional turbulence theory. The class of initial data we study is the sum of a sufficiently smooth function and a small (with respect to Re -1) L 2 function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vries, Martinus P.; Hamburg, Marc C.; Schutte, Harm K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldman, Arthur E. P.
2003-04-01
Surgical removal of the larynx results in radically reduced production of voice and speech. To improve voice quality a voice-producing element (VPE) is developed, based on the lip principle, called after the lips of a musician while playing a brass instrument. To optimize the VPE, a numerical model is developed. In this model, the finite element method is used to describe the mechanical behavior of the VPE. The flow is described by two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The interaction between VPE and airflow is modeled by placing the grid of the VPE model in the grid of the aerodynamical model, and requiring continuity of forces and velocities. By applying and increasing pressure to the numerical model, pulses comparable to glottal volume velocity waveforms are obtained. By variation of geometric parameters their influence can be determined. To validate this numerical model, an in vitro test with a prototype of the VPE is performed. Experimental and numerical results show an acceptable agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Z.; Lin, P.; Lowengrub, J. S.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier-Stokes equation with fluid-fluid interface when the fluids have different densities [48]. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a C0 finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with C0 finite element. A Newton method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1992-01-01
The implementation and validation of the Chien low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model in the two dimensional axisymmetric version Proteus, a compressible Navier-Stokes computer code, are presented. The set of k-epsilon equations are solved by marching in time using a coupled alternating direction implicit (ADI) solution procedure with generalized first or second order time differencing. To validate Proteus and the k-epsilon turbulence model, laminar and turbulent computations were done for several benchmark test cases: incompressible fully developed 2-D channel flow; fully developed axisymmetric pipe flow; boundary layer flow over a flat plate; and turbulent Sajben subsonic transonic diffuser flows. Proteus results from these test cases showed good agreement with analytical results and experimental data. Detailed comparisons of both mean flow and turbulent quantities showed that the Chien k-epsilon turbulence model given good results over a wider range of turbulent flow than the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in the Proteus code with no significant CPU time penalty for more complicated flow cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
An investigation of the numerical simulation with two-equation turbulence models of a three-dimensional hypersonic intersecting (SWTBL) shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow is presented. The flows are solved with an efficient implicit upwind flux-difference split Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for a flow at Mach 8.28 and Reynolds number 5.3x10(exp 6) with crossing shock-waves and expansion fans generated by two lateral 15 fins located on top of a cold-wall plate. This experiment belongs to the hypersonic database for modeling validation. Simulations show the development of two primary counter-rotating cross-flow vortices and secondary turbulent structures under the main vortices and in each corner singularity inside the turbulent boundary layer. A significant loss of total pressure is produced by the complex interaction between the main vortices and the uplifted jet stream of the boundary layer. The overall agreement between computational and experimental data is generally good. The turbulence modeling corrections show improvements in the predictions of surface heat transfer distribution and an increase in the strength of the cross-flow vortices. Accurate predictions of the outflow flowfield is found to require accurate modeling of the laminar/turbulent boundary layers on the fin walls.
Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Domino, Stefan Paul; Black, Amalia Rebecca
2005-06-01
A validation study has been conducted for a turbulence model used to close the temporally filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) equations. A turbulence model was purposely built to support fire simulations under the Accelerated Strategic Computing (ASC) program. The model was developed so that fire transients could be simulated and it has been implemented in SIERRA/Fuego. The model is validated using helium plume data acquired for the Weapon System Certification Campaign (C6) program in the Fire Laboratory for Model Accreditation and Experiments (FLAME). The helium plume experiments were chosen as the first validation problem for SIERRA/Fuego because they embody the first pair-wise coupling of scalar and momentum fields found in fire plumes. The validation study includes solution verification through grid and time step refinement studies. A formal statistical comparison is used to assess the model uncertainty. The metric uses the centerline vertical velocity of the plume. The results indicate that the simple model is within the 95% confidence interval of the data for elevations greater than 0.4 meters and is never more than twice the confidence interval from the data. The model clearly captures the dominant puffing mode in the fire but under resolves the vorticity field. Grid dependency of the model is noted.
Navier-Stokes and viscous-inviscid interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steger, Joseph L.; Vandalsem, William R.
1989-01-01
Some considerations toward developing numerical procedures for simulating viscous compressible flows are discussed. Both Navier-Stokes and boundary layer field methods are considered. Because efficient viscous-inviscid interaction methods have been difficult to extend to complex 3-D flow simulations, Navier-Stokes procedures are more frequently being utilized even though they require considerably more work per grid point. It would seem a mistake, however, not to make use of the more efficient approximate methods in those regions in which they are clearly valid. Ideally, a general purpose compressible flow solver that can optionally take advantage of approximate solution methods would suffice, both to improve accuracy and efficiency. Some potentially useful steps toward this goal are described: a generalized 3-D boundary layer formulation and the fortified Navier-Stokes procedure.
Renumbering Methods to Unleash Multi-Threaded Approaches for a General Navier-Stokes Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vezolle, Pascal; Fournier, Yvan; Tallet, Nicolas; Heymans, Jerrold; D'Amora, Bruce
2010-09-01
Our investigation leverages the general industrial Navier-Stokes open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application, Code_Saturne, developed by Électricité de France (EDF). We deal with how to take advantage of the emerging processor features such as many-cores, Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) and Thread Level Speculation (TLS), through a mixed MPI/multithreads approach. We focus here on the per-node performance improvements and present the constraints for a multithreads implementation to solve the general 3D Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume discretization into polyhedral cells. We describe a simple and efficient mesh numbering scheme allowing us to introduce OpenMP and Thread Level Speculation implementations with minimal impact to overall code structure.
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano
2009-01-01
This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abgrall, R.; De Santis, D.
2015-02-01
A robust and high order accurate Residual Distribution (RD) scheme for the discretization of the steady Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The proposed method is very flexible: it is formulated for unstructured grids, regardless the shape of the elements and the number of spatial dimensions. A continuous approximation of the solution is adopted and standard Lagrangian shape functions are used to construct the discrete space, as in Finite Element methods. The traditional technique for designing RD schemes is adopted: evaluate, for any element, a total residual, split it into nodal residuals sent to the degrees of freedom of the element, solve the non-linear system that has been assembled and then iterate up to convergence. The main issue addressed by the paper is that the technique relies in depth on the continuity of the normal flux across the element boundaries: this is no longer true since the gradient of the state solution appears in the flux, hence continuity is lost when using standard finite element approximations. Naive solution methods lead to very poor accuracy. To cope with the fact that the normal component of the gradient of the numerical solution is discontinuous across the faces of the elements, a continuous approximation of the gradient of the numerical solution is recovered at each degree of freedom of the grid and then interpolated with the same shape functions used for the solution, preserving the optimal accuracy of the method. Linear and non-linear schemes are constructed, and their accuracy is tested with the method of the manufactured solutions. The numerical method is also used for the discretization of smooth and shocked laminar flows in two and three spatial dimensions.
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aur´elia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano
2010-06-01
This manuscript illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated specific force quantities and velocity and temperature distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present.
A Pseudo-Temporal Multi-Grid Relaxation Scheme for Solving the Parabolized Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, J. A.; Morrison, J. H.
1999-01-01
A multi-grid, flux-difference-split, finite-volume code, VULCAN, is presented for solving the elliptic and parabolized form of the equations governing three-dimensional, turbulent, calorically perfect and non-equilibrium chemically reacting flows. The space marching algorithms developed to improve convergence rate and or reduce computational cost are emphasized. The algorithms presented are extensions to the class of implicit pseudo-time iterative, upwind space-marching schemes. A full approximate storage, full multi-grid scheme is also described which is used to accelerate the convergence of a Gauss-Seidel relaxation method. The multi-grid algorithm is shown to significantly improve convergence on high aspect ratio grids.
Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors Using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.
2010-01-01
Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated by using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multipoint optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.
Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.
2009-01-01
Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multi-point optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.
A Godunov-Type Scheme for Atmospheric Flows on Unstructured Grids: Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Nash'at; Boybeyi, Zafer; Löhner, Rainald; Sarma, Ananthakrishna
2007-01-01
In recent years there has been a growing interest in using Godunov-type methods for atmospheric flow problems. Godunov's unique approach to numerical modeling of fluid flow is characterized by introducing physical reasoning in the development of the numerical scheme (
On multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes Computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nosenchuck, D. M.; Krist, S. E.; Zang, T. A.
1988-01-01
The overall architecture of the multipurpose parallel-processing Navier-Stokes Computer (NSC) being developed by Princeton and NASA Langley (Nosenchuck et al., 1986) is described and illustrated with extensive diagrams, and the NSC implementation of an elementary multigrid algorithm for simulating isotropic turbulence (based on solution of the incompressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations with constant viscosity) is characterized in detail. The present NSC design concept calls for 64 nodes, each with the performance of a class VI supercomputer, linked together by a fiber-optic hypercube network and joined to a front-end computer by a global bus. In this configuration, the NSC would have a storage capacity of over 32 Gword and a peak speed of over 40 Gflops. The multigrid Navier-Stokes code discussed would give sustained operation rates of about 25 Gflops.
From Petrov-Einstein to Navier-Stokes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lysov, Vyacheslav
The fluid/gravity correspondence relates solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation to metrics which solve the Einstein equations. We propose propose two possible approaches to establish this correspondence: perturbative expansion for shear modes and large mean curvature expansion for algebraically special metrics. We show by explicit construction that for every solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in p+1 dimensions, there is an associated "dual" solution of the vacuum Einstein equations in p+2 dimensions. The dual geometry has an intrinsically flat time-like boundary segment whose extrinsic curvature is given by the stress tensor of the Navier-Stokes fluid. We consider a "near-horizon" limit in which hypersurface becomes highly accelerated. The near-horizon expansion in gravity is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the hydrodynamic expansion in fluid dynamics, and the Einstein equation reduces to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. It is shown that imposing a Petrov type I condition on the hypersurface geometry reduces the degrees of freedom in the extrinsic curvature to those of a fluid. Moreover, expanding around a limit in which the mean curvature of the embedding diverges, the leading-order Einstein constraint equations on hypersurface are shown to reduce to the non-linear incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a fluid moving in hypersurface. We extend the fluid/gravity correspondence to include the magnetohydrodynamics/gravity correspondence, which translates solutions of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (describing charged fluids) into geometries that satisfy the Einstein-Maxwell equations. We present an explicit example of this new correspondence in the context of flat Minkowski space. We show that a perturbative deformation of the Rindler wedge satisfies the Einstein-Maxwell equations provided that the parameters appearing in the expansion, which we interpret as fluid fields, satisfy the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, B. H.; Reddy, D. R.; Kapoor, K.
1993-01-01
A three-dimensional implicit Full Navier-Stokes (FNS) analysis and a 3D Reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) initial value space marching solution technique has been applied to a class of separate flow problems within a diffusing S-duct configuration characterized as vortex-liftoff. Both Full Navier-Stokes and Reduced Navier-Stokes solution techniques were able to capture the overall flow physics of vortex lift-off, however more consideration must be given to the development of turbulence models for the prediction of the locations of separation and reattachment. This accounts for some of the discrepancies in the prediction of the relevant inlet distortion descriptors, particularly circumferential distortion. The 3D RNS solution technique adequately described the topological structure of flow separation associated with vortex lift-off.
Navier-Stokes simulations of WECS airfoil flowfields
Homicz, G.F.
1994-06-01
Sandia National Laboratories has initiated an effort to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the study of WECS aerodynamics. Preliminary calculations are presented for the flow past a SAND 0018/50 airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicitly, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicit, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations. 2D steady-state calculations are presented at various angles of attack, {alpha}. Sectional lift and drag coefficient, as well as surface pressure distributions, are compared with wind tunnel data, and exhibit reasonable agreement at low to moderate angles of attack. At high {alpha}, where the airfoil is stalled, a converged solution to the steady-state equations could not be obtained. The flowfield continued to change with successive iterations, which is consistent with the fact that the actual flow is inherently transient, and requires the solution of the full unsteady form of the equations.
Time-Accurate, Unstructured-Mesh Navier-Stokes Computations with the Space-Time CESE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2006-01-01
Application of the newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to compressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. In contrast to Euler equations solvers, several issues such as boundary conditions, numerical dissipation, and grid stiffness warrant systematic investigations and validations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions applied at the truncated boundary are also investigated from the stand point of acoustic wave propagation. Validations of the numerical solutions are performed by comparing with exact solutions for steady-state as well as time-accurate viscous flow problems. The test cases cover a broad speed regime for problems ranging from acoustic wave propagation to 3D hypersonic configurations. Model problems pertinent to hypersonic configurations demonstrate the effectiveness of the CESE method in treating flows with shocks, unsteady waves, and separations. Good agreement with exact solutions suggests that the space-time CESE method provides a viable alternative for time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations of a broad range of problems.
Transonic airfoil and wing design using Navier-Stokes codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, N. J.; Campbell, R. L.
1992-01-01
An iterative design method has been implemented into 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes codes for the design of airfoils or wings with given target pressure distributions. The method begins with the analysis of an initial geometry, and obtains the analysis pressure distributions of that geometry. The differences between analysis pressures and target pressures are used to drive geometry changes through the use of a streamline curvature method. This paper describes the procedure that makes the iterative design method work for Navier-Stokes codes. Examples of 2D airfoil design, and 3D wing design are included. It is demonstrated that the method is highly effective for airfoil or wing design at flow conditions where no substantial separation occurs. Problems encountered in the airfoil design with shock induced flow separations are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, B. H.; Reddy, D. R.; Kapoor, K.
1993-01-01
A three-dimensional implicit Full Navier-Stokes (FNS) analysis and a 3D Reduced Navier Stokes (RNS) initial value space marching solution technique has been applied to a class of separated flow problems within a diffusing S-duct configuration characterized by vortex-liftoff. Both the FNS and the RNS solution technique were able to capture the overall flow physics of vortex lift-off, and gave remarkably similar results which agreed reasonably well with the experimental measured averaged performance parameters of engine face total pressure recovery and distortion. However, the Full Navier-Stokes and Reduced Navier-Stokes also consistently predicted separation further downstream in the M2129 inlet S-duct than was indicated by experimental data, thus compensating errors were present in the two Navier-Stokes analyses. The difficulties encountered in the Navier-Stokes separations analyses of the M2129 inlet S-duct center primarily on turbulence model issues, and these focused on two distinct but different phenomena, namely, (1) characterization of low skin friction adverse pressure gradient flows, and (2) description of the near wall behavior of flows characterized by vortex lift-off.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harp, J. L., Jr.; Oatway, T. P.
1975-01-01
A research effort was conducted with the goal of reducing computer time of a Navier Stokes Computer Code for prediction of viscous flow fields about lifting bodies. A two-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar, transonic computer code (STOKES) was modified to incorporate a non-uniform timestep procedure. The non-uniform time-step requires updating of a zone only as often as required by its own stability criteria or that of its immediate neighbors. In the uniform timestep scheme each zone is updated as often as required by the least stable zone of the finite difference mesh. Because of less frequent update of program variables it was expected that the nonuniform timestep would result in a reduction of execution time by a factor of five to ten. Available funding was exhausted prior to successful demonstration of the benefits to be derived from the non-uniform time-step method.
A Continuation and Bifurcation Technique for Navier-Stokes Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, J.; Marques, F.; Lopez, J. M.
2002-07-01
An efficient numerical bifurcation and continuation method for the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical geometries is presented and applied to a nontrivial fluid dynamics problem, the flow in a cylindrical container driven by differential rotation. The large systems that result from discretizing the Navier-Stokes equations, especially in regimes where inertia is important, necessitate the use of iterative solvers which in turn need preconditioners. We use incomplete lower-upper decomposition (ILU) as an effective preconditioner for such systems and show the significant gain in efficiency when an incomplete LU of the full Jacobian is used instead of using only the Stokes operator. The computational cost, in terms of CPU time, grows with the size of the system (i.e., spatial resolution) according to a power law with exponent around 1.7, which is very modest compared to direct methods, indicating the appropriateness of the schemes for large nonlinear partial differential equation problems.
Compressible Navier Stokes Model with Inflow-Outflow Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novo, Sébastien
2005-11-01
In the paper [7], author gives a definition of weak solution to the nonsteady Navier Stokes system of equations which describes compressible and isentropic flows in some bounded region Ω with influx of fluid through a part of the boundary ∂Ω. Here, we present a way for proving existence of such solutions in the same situation as in [7] under the sole hypothesis γ > 3/2 for the adiabatic constant.
Recent Analytical and Numerical Results for The Navier-Stokes-Voigt Model and Related Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss; Petersen, Mark; Wingate, Beth
2010-11-01
The equations which govern the motions of fluids are notoriously difficult to handle both mathematically and computationally. Recently, a new approach to these equations, known as the Voigt-regularization, has been investigated as both a numerical and analytical regularization for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations, the Euler equations, and related fluid models. This inviscid regularization is related to the alpha-models of turbulent flow; however, it overcomes many of the problems present in those models. I will discuss recent work on the Voigt-regularization, as well as a new criterion for the finite-time blow-up of the Euler equations based on their Voigt-regularization. Time permitting, I will discuss some numerical results, as well as applications of this technique to the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and various equations of ocean dynamics.
Chaos Synchronization in Navier-Stokes Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lalescu, Cristian; Meneveau, Charles; Eyink, Gregory
2013-03-01
Chaos synchronization (CS) has been studied for some time now (Pecora & Carroll 1990), for systems with only a few degrees of freedom as well as for systems described by partial differential equations (Boccaletti et al 2002). CS in general is said to be present in coupled dynamical systems when a specific property of each system has the same time evolution for all, even though the evolution itself is chaotic. The Navier-Stokes (NS) equations describe the velocity for a wide range of fluids, and their solutions are usually called turbulent if fluctuation amplitudes decrease as a power of their wavenumber. There have been some studies of CS for continuous systems (Kocarev et al 1997), but CS for NS turbulence seems not to have been investigated so far. We focus on the synchronization of the small scales of a turbulent flow for which the time history of large scales is prescribed. Our DNS results show that high-wavenumbers in turbulence are fully slaved to modes with wavenumbers up to a critical fraction of the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber. The motivation for our work is to study deeply sub-Kolmogorov scales in fully developed turbulence (Schumacher 2007), which we found to be recoverable even at very high Reynolds number from simulations with moderate resolutions. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation's CDI-II program, project CMMI-0941530
Design efficiency evaluation for transonic airfoil optimization - A case for Navier-Stokes design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hager, J. O.; Eyi, S.; Lee, K. D.
1993-01-01
A constrained-optimization design method which improves the aerodynamic performance of transonic airfoils is evaluated from a design-quality and design-efficiency viewpoint. Design efficiency is a measure of the performance improvement and the design time (CPU time). Total-airfoil design and upper-surface design are performed using the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with several grids, and are evaluated using the Navier-Stokes equations to determine the anticipated physical design response. Even though the cost of the Euler design is lower than Navier-Stokes design, the Navier-Stokes evaluation indicates that the Euler design does not necessarily improve the aerodynamic performance. Therefore, the design optimization should be based on an accurate flow simulation to achieve an actual performance improvement, and the design time is a secondary concern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Heng; Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Sun, Rui; Roy, Christopher J.
2015-11-01
For many practical flows, the turbulence models are the most important source of uncertainty in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions. In this work, we develop an open-box, physics-informed Bayesian framework for quantifying the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations. Uncertainties are introduced directly to the Reynolds stresses and are represented with compact parameterization accounting for empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints (e.g., realizability, smoothness, and symmetry). An iterative ensemble Kalman method is used to incorporate the prior information with available observation data in a Bayesian framework to posterior distributions of the Reynolds stresses and other quantities of interest. Two representative cases, the flow over periodic hills and the flow in a square duct, are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. Simulation results suggest that the obtained posterior mean has significantly better agreement with the benchmark data compared to the baseline simulation, even with very sparse observations. At most locations, the posterior distribution adequately represents the model-form uncertainties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overheads, and is completely automated, in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid approach, and by demonstrating grid independent convergence rates for aerodynamic problems on very large grids. Prospects for further increases in multigrid efficiency for high-Reynolds number viscous flows on highly stretched meshes are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaussee, Denny S.
1988-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics tool has been developed capable of analyzing the viscous supersonic/hypersonic flow about realistic configurations. This techniques can predict the flow in regions of canopies, wings, and canards in addition to the usual simple symmetric configurations. It also allows for interactions between aerodynamic surfaces such as the vortex interaction between canards and wings.
Navier-Stokes solution for steady two-dimensional transonic cascade flows
Kwon, O.K.
1987-01-01
A robust, time-marching Navier-Stokes solution procedure based on the explicit hopscotch method is presented for solution of steady, two-dimensional, transonic turbine cascade flows. The method is applied to the strong conservation form of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations written in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Cascade flow solutions are obtained on an orthogonal, body-conforming ''O'' grid with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Computed results are presented and compared with experimental data.
Adapting a Navier-Stokes code to the ICL-DAP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosch, C. E.
1985-01-01
The results of an experiment are reported, i.c., to adapt a Navier-Stokes code, originally developed on a serial computer, to concurrent processing on the CL Distributed Array Processor (DAP). The algorithm used in solving the Navier-Stokes equations is briefly described. The architecture of the DAP and DAP FORTRAN are also described. The modifications of the algorithm so as to fit the DAP are given and discussed. Finally, performance results are given and conclusions are drawn.
Chaos Synchronization in Navier-Stokes Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lalescu, Cristian C.; Meneveau, Charles; Eyink, Gregory L.
2012-11-01
Chaos synchronization (CS) has been studied for some time now (Pecora & Carroll 1990), for systems with only a few degrees of freedom as well as for systems described by partial differential equations (Boccaletti et al. 2002). CS in general is said to be present in a pair of coupled dynamical systems when a specific property of each system has the same time evolution for both, even though the evolution itself is chaotic. There have been some studies of CS for systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (Kocarev et al. 1997), but CS for Navier-Stokes (NS) turbulence seems not to have been investigated so far. We focus on the synchronization of the small scales of a turbulent flow for which the time history of large scales is prescribed. We present DNS results which show that high-wavenumbers in turbulence are fully slaved to modes with wavenumbers up to a critical fraction of the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber. We compare our results with related ideas of ``approximate inertial manifolds.'' The motivation for our work is to study deeply sub-Kolmogorov scales in fully developed turbulence (Schumacher 2007), which we show are recoverable even at very high Reynolds number from simulations that only resolve down to about the Kolmogorov scale. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation's CDI-II program, project CMMI-0941530.
Flux Based Surface Boundary Conditions for Navier-Stokes Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fertig, M.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.
2005-02-01
During re-entry high thermal combined with mechanical loads arise at the TPS surface of a re-entry vehicle. Due to low gas density, high Knudsen Numbers arise, which indicate rarefaction effects such as thermo-chemical non-equilibrium as well as temperature and velocity slip. With increasing altitude, local Knudsen Numbers predict the failure of continuum equations starting in the bow shock and at the surface. While local failure of the equations in the shock can be neglected for the determination of surface loads, local failure at the surface is not negligible. The validity of continuum models can be extended by emploing surface boundary equations accounting for temperature and velocity slip. A new flux based model has been developed originating on the Boltzmann Equation. Making use of the Enskog Method perturbed partition functions for a multi-component gas are determined from the Boltzmann Equation. By introduction of the moments of Boltzmann's Equation, Maxwell's Transport Equation can be obtained. Particles approaching the surface are distinguished from particles leaving the surface depending on their molecular velocities. Hence, mass, momentum and energy fluxes to the surface can be determined employing the collisional invariants. Reactive as well as scattering models can be easily introduced in order to compute the fluxes from the surface. Finally, flux differences are balanced with the continuum fluxes from the Navier-Stokes equations. Hence, the model is able to predict temperature and velocity slip at the surface of a re-entry vehicle under rarefied conditions. Moreover, it is valid in the continuum regime as well. The boundary equations are solved fully implicit and fully coupled with the non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes Code URANUS. Results are compared to DSMC simulations for the re-entry of the US Space Shuttle orbiter at high altitudes. Key words: Navier-Stokes; re-entry; slip; non-equilibrium.
Navier-Stokes analysis of radial turbine rotor performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larosiliere, L. M.
1993-01-01
An analysis of flow through a radial turbine rotor using the three-dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code RVC3D is described. The rotor is a solid version of an air-cooled metallic radial turbine having thick trailing edges, shroud clearance, and scalloped-backface clearance. Results are presented at the nominal operating condition using both a zero-clearance model and a model simulating the effects of the shroud and scalloped-backface clearance flows. A comparison with the available test data is made and details of the internal flow physics are discussed, allowing a better understanding of the complex flow distribution within the rotor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Wornom, Stephen F.
1991-01-01
Two codes which solve the 3-D Thin Layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations are used to compute the steady state flow for two test cases representing typical finite wings at transonic conditions. Several grids of C-O topology and varying point densities are used to determine the effects of grid refinement. After a description of each code and test case, standards for determining code efficiency and accuracy are defined and applied to determine the relative performance of the two codes in predicting turbulent transonic wing flows. Comparisons of computed surface pressure distributions with experimental data are made.
Transonic Navier-Stokes calculations about a 65 deg delta wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Londenberg, W. Kelly
1994-01-01
A computational study has been conducted in which the CFL3D Navier-Stokes solver coupled with an algebraic and a one-equation nonequilibrium turbulence model has been used to predict the flow over a 65 degree delta wing at transonic conditions for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord. Solutions obtained indicated that the computational method when used with the one-equation turbulence model predicts results that compare well with experiment for attached flow conditions. Comparisons with experimental pressure at separated conditions show that the computational method, even though primary flow-field features are predicted well, does not predict secondary flow features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deese, J. E.; Agarwal, R. K.
1989-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics has an increasingly important role in the design and analysis of aircraft as computer hardware becomes faster and algorithms become more efficient. Progress is being made in two directions: more complex and realistic configurations are being treated and algorithms based on higher approximations to the complete Navier-Stokes equations are being developed. The literature indicates that linear panel methods can model detailed, realistic aircraft geometries in flow regimes where this approximation is valid. As algorithms including higher approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations are developed, computer resource requirements increase rapidly. Generation of suitable grids become more difficult and the number of grid points required to resolve flow features of interest increases. Recently, the development of large vector computers has enabled researchers to attempt more complex geometries with Euler and Navier-Stokes algorithms. The results of calculations for transonic flow about a typical transport and fighter wing-body configuration using thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are described along with flow about helicopter rotor blades using both Euler/Navier-Stokes equations.
Time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations with multigrid acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melson, N. D.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Atkins, Harold L.
1993-01-01
An efficient method for calculating unsteady flows is presented, with emphasis on a modified version of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Fourier stability analysis is used to illustrate the effect of treating the source term implicitly instead of explicity, as well as to illustrate other algorithmic choices. A 2D circular cylinder (with a Reynolds number of 1200 and a Mach number of 0.3) is calculated. The present scheme requires only about 10 percent of the computer time required by global minimum time stepping.
Towards an ideal preconditioner for linearized Navier-Stokes problems
Murphy, M.F.
1996-12-31
Discretizing certain linearizations of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations gives rise to nonsymmetric linear systems with indefinite symmetric part. We show that for such systems there exists a block diagonal preconditioner which gives convergence in three GMRES steps, independent of the mesh size and viscosity parameter (Reynolds number). While this {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} preconditioner is too expensive to be used in practice, it provides a useful insight into the problem. We then consider various approximations to the ideal preconditioner, and describe the eigenvalues of the preconditioned systems. Finally, we compare these preconditioners numerically, and present our conclusions.
Automatic differentiation and Navier-Stokes.
Bischof, C.; Hovland, P.; Mohammadi, B.
1997-12-17
We describe the use of automatic differentiation (AD) to enhance a compressible Navier-Stokes model. With the solver, AD is used to accelerate convergence by more than an order of magnitude. Outside the solver, AD is used to compute the derivatives needed for optimization. We emphasize the potential for performance gains if the programmer does not treat AD as a black box, but instead utilizes high-level knowledge about the nature of the application.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1993-01-01
New turbulence modeling options recently implemented for the 3-D version of Proteus, a Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes code, are described. The implemented turbulence models include: the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model, the Chien k-epsilon model, and the Launder-Sharma k-epsilon model. Features of this turbulence modeling package include: well documented and easy to use turbulence modeling options, uniform integration of turbulence models from different classes, automatic initialization of turbulence variables for calculations using one- or two-equation turbulence models, multiple solid boundaries treatment, and fully vectorized L-U solver for one- and two-equation models. Validation test cases include the incompressible and compressible flat plate turbulent boundary layers, turbulent developing S-duct flow, and glancing shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Good agreement is obtained between the computational results and experimental data. Sensitivity of the compressible turbulent solutions with the method of y(sup +) computation, the turbulent length scale correction, and some compressibility corrections are examined in detail. The test cases show that the highly optimized one-and two-equation turbulence models can be used in routine 3-D Navier-Stokes computations with no significant increase in CPU time as compared with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
1993-01-01
New turbulence modeling options recently implemented for the 3D version of Proteus, a Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes code, are described. The implemented turbulence models include: the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, the Baldwin-Barth one-equation model, the Chien k-epsilon model, and the Launder-Sharma k-epsilon model. Features of this turbulence modeling package include: well documented and easy to use turbulence modeling options, uniform integration of turbulence models from different classes, automatic initialization of turbulence variables for calculations using one- or two-equation turbulence models, multiple solid boundaries treatment, and fully vectorized L-U solver for one- and two-equation models. Good agreements are obtained between the computational results and experimental data. Sensitivity of the compressible turbulent solutions with the method of y(+) computation, the turbulent length scale correction, and some compressibility corrections are examined in detail. Test cases show that the highly optimized one- and two-equation turbulence models can be used in routine 3D Navier-Stokes computations with no significant increase in CPU time as compared with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model.
An Evaluation of Architectural Platforms for Parallel Navier-Stokes Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jayasimha, D. N.; Hayder, M. E.; Pillay, S. K.
1996-01-01
We study the computational, communication, and scalability characteristics of a computational fluid dynamics application, which solves the time accurate flow field of a jet using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, on a variety of parallel architecture platforms. The platforms chosen for this study are a cluster of workstations (the LACE experimental testbed at NASA Lewis), a shared memory multiprocessor (the Cray YMP), and distributed memory multiprocessors with different topologies - the IBM SP and the Cray T3D. We investigate the impact of various networks connecting the cluster of workstations on the performance of the application and the overheads induced by popular message passing libraries used for parallelization. The work also highlights the importance of matching the memory bandwidth to the processor speed for good single processor performance. By studying the performance of an application on a variety of architectures, we are able to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each of the example computing platforms.
Parallelizing Navier-Stokes Computations on a Variety of Architectural Platforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jayasimha, D. N.; Hayder, M. E.; Pillay, S. K.
1997-01-01
We study the computational, communication, and scalability characteristics of a Computational Fluid Dynamics application, which solves the time accurate flow field of a jet using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, on a variety of parallel architectural platforms. The platforms chosen for this study are a cluster of workstations (the LACE experimental testbed at NASA Lewis), a shared memory multiprocessor (the Cray YMP), distributed memory multiprocessors with different topologies-the IBM SP and the Cray T3D. We investigate the impact of various networks, connecting the cluster of workstations, on the performance of the application and the overheads induced by popular message passing libraries used for parallelization. The work also highlights the importance of matching the memory bandwidth to the processor speed for good single processor performance. By studying the performance of an application on a variety of architectures, we are able to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each of the example computing platforms.
Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis of turbine passage heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.; Arnone, Andrea
1991-01-01
The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution and heat transfer rates on the endwalls and the blades of two linear turbine cascades. The TRAF3D code which has recently been developed in a joint project between researchers from the University of Florence and NASA Lewis Research Center is used. The effect of turbulence is taken into account by using the eddy viscosity hypothesis and the two-layer mixing length model of Baldwin and Lomax. Predictions of surface heat transfer are made for Langston's cascade and compared with the data obtained for that cascade by Graziani. The comparison was found to be favorable. The code is also applied to a linear transonic rotor cascade to predict the pressure distributions and heat transfer rates.
Reliability enhancement of Navier-Stokes codes through convergence acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkle, Charles L.; Dulikravich, George S.
1995-01-01
Methods for enhancing the reliability of Navier-Stokes computer codes through improving convergence characteristics are presented. The improving of these characteristics decreases the likelihood of code unreliability and user interventions in a design environment. The problem referred to as a 'stiffness' in the governing equations for propulsion-related flowfields is investigated, particularly in regard to common sources of equation stiffness that lead to convergence degradation of CFD algorithms. Von Neumann stability theory is employed as a tool to study the convergence difficulties involved. Based on the stability results, improved algorithms are devised to ensure efficient convergence in different situations. A number of test cases are considered to confirm a correlation between stability theory and numerical convergence. The examples of turbulent and reacting flow are presented, and a generalized form of the preconditioning matrix is derived to handle these problems, i.e., the problems involving additional differential equations for describing the transport of turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate and chemical species. Algorithms for unsteady computations are considered. The extension of the preconditioning techniques and algorithms derived for Navier-Stokes computations to three-dimensional flow problems is discussed. New methods to accelerate the convergence of iterative schemes for the numerical integration of systems of partial differential equtions are developed, with a special emphasis on the acceleration of convergence on highly clustered grids.
Navier-Stokes computations of separated vortical flows past prolate spheroid at incidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Tin-Chee; Kandil, Osama A.; Liu, C. H.
1989-01-01
The problem of steady incompressible viscous flow past prolate spheroids at incidence is formulated using the unsteady incompressible and compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The two sets of Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a pseudotime stepping of the implicit flux-difference splitting scheme on a curvilinear grid, which is generated by a transfinite grid generator. The Baldwin and Lomax (1978) algebraic eddy-viscosity model is used to model the turbulent flow. The computational applications cover a 6:1 prolate spheroid at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The results are compared with experimental data.
Cao, Yong; Chu, Yuchuan; He, Xiaoming; Wei, Mingzhen
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a domain decomposition method for the coupled stationary Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition in order to improve the efficiency of the finite element method. The physical interface conditions are directly utilized to construct the boundary conditions on the interface and then decouple the Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations. Newton iteration will be used to deal with the nonlinear systems. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the features of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrewsbury, George D.; Vadyak, Joseph; Schuster, David M.; Smith, Marilyn J.
1989-01-01
A computer analysis was developed for calculating steady (or unsteady) three-dimensional aircraft component flow fields. This algorithm, called ENS3D, can compute the flow field for the following configurations: diffuser duct/thrust nozzle, isolated wing, isolated fuselage, wing/fuselage with or without integrated inlet and exhaust, nacelle/inlet, nacelle (fuselage) afterbody/exhaust jet, complete transport engine installation, and multicomponent configurations using zonal grid generation technique. Solutions can be obtained for subsonic, transonic, or hypersonic freestream speeds. The algorithm can solve either the Euler equations for inviscid flow, the thin shear layer Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flow, or the full Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flow. The flow field solution is determined on a body-fitted computational grid. A fully-implicit alternating direction implicit method is employed for the solution of the finite difference equations. For viscous computations, either a two layer eddy-viscosity turbulence model or the k-epsilon two equation transport model can be used to achieve mathematical closure.
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
Navier-Stokes Aerodynamic Simulation of the V-22 Osprey on the Intel Paragon MPP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vadyak, Joseph; Shrewsbury, George E.; Narramore, Jim C.; Montry, Gary; Holst, Terry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The paper will describe the Development of a general three-dimensional multiple grid zone Navier-Stokes flowfield simulation program (ENS3D-MPP) designed for efficient execution on the Intel Paragon Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) supercomputer, and the subsequent application of this method to the prediction of the viscous flowfield about the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor vehicle. The flowfield simulation code solves the thin Layer or full Navier-Stoke's equation - for viscous flow modeling, or the Euler equations for inviscid flow modeling on a structured multi-zone mesh. In the present paper only viscous simulations will be shown. The governing difference equations are solved using a time marching implicit approximate factorization method with either TVD upwind or central differencing used for the convective terms and central differencing used for the viscous diffusion terms. Steady state or Lime accurate solutions can be calculated. The present paper will focus on steady state applications, although time accurate solution analysis is the ultimate goal of this effort. Laminar viscosity is calculated using Sutherland's law and the Baldwin-Lomax two layer algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The Simulation method uses an arbitrary block, curvilinear grid topology. An automatic grid adaption scheme is incorporated which concentrates grid points in high density gradient regions. A variety of user-specified boundary conditions are available. This paper will present the application of the scalable and superscalable versions to the steady state viscous flow analysis of the V-22 Osprey using a multiple zone global mesh. The mesh consists of a series of sheared cartesian grid blocks with polar grids embedded within to better simulate the wing tip mounted nacelle. MPP solutions will be shown in comparison to equivalent Cray C-90 results and also in comparison to experimental data. Discussions on meshing considerations, wall clock execution time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. Charles; Radespiel, Rolf; Mccormick, V. Edward
1989-01-01
The two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved for flow over a NAE CAST-10 airfoil model. Recently developed finite-volume codes that apply a multistage time stepping scheme in conjunction with steady state acceleration techniques are used to solve the equations. Two-dimensional results are shown for flow conditions uncorrected and corrected for wind tunnel wall interference effects. Predicted surface pressures from 3-D simulations are compared with those from 2-D calculations. The focus of the 3-D computations is the influence of the sidewall boundary layers. Topological features of the 3-D flow fields are indicated. Lift and drag results are compared with experimental measurements.
Navier-Stokes Dynamics by a Discrete Boltzmann Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robet
2010-01-01
This work investigates the possibility of particle-based algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations and higher order continuum approximations of the Boltzmann equation; such algorithms would generalize the well-known Pullin scheme for the Euler equations. One such method is proposed in the context of a discrete velocity model of the Boltzmann equation. Preliminary results on shock structure are consistent with the expectation that the shock should be much broader than the near discontinuity predicted by the Pullin scheme, yet narrower than the prediction of the Boltzmann equation. We discuss the extension of this essentially deterministic method to a stochastic particle method that, like DSMC, samples the distribution function rather than resolving it completely.
Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes Model for Turbulence: Implementation and Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2005-01-01
Partially-averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) is a suite of turbulence closure models of various modeled-to-resolved scale ratios ranging from Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) to Navier-Stokes (direct numerical simulations). The objective of PANS, like hybrid models, is to resolve large scale structures at reasonable computational expense. The modeled-to-resolved scale ratio or the level of physical resolution in PANS is quantified by two parameters: the unresolved-to-total ratios of kinetic energy (f(sub k)) and dissipation (f(sub epsilon)). The unresolved-scale stress is modeled with the Boussinesq approximation and modeled transport equations are solved for the unresolved kinetic energy and dissipation. In this paper, we first present a brief discussion of the PANS philosophy followed by a description of the implementation procedure and finally perform preliminary evaluation in benchmark problems.
Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dudek, Julianne C.
2011-01-01
A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.
Algorithmic Enhancements to the VULCAN Navier-Stokes Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litton, D. K.; Edwards, J. R.; White, J. A.
2003-01-01
VULCAN (Viscous Upwind aLgorithm for Complex flow ANalysis) is a cell centered, finite volume code used to solve high speed flows related to hypersonic vehicles. Two algorithms are presented for expanding the range of applications of the current Navier-Stokes solver implemented in VULCAN. The first addition is a highly implicit approach that uses subiterations to enhance block to block connectivity between adjacent subdomains. The addition of this scheme allows more efficient solution of viscous flows on highly-stretched meshes. The second algorithm addresses the shortcomings associated with density-based schemes by the addition of a time-derivative preconditioning strategy. High speed, compressible flows are typically solved with density based schemes, which show a high level of degradation in accuracy and convergence at low Mach numbers (M less than or equal to 0.1). With the addition of preconditioning and associated modifications to the numerical discretization scheme, the eigenvalues will scale with the local velocity, and the above problems will be eliminated. With these additions, VULCAN now has improved convergence behavior for multi-block, highly-stretched meshes and also can solve the Navier-Stokes equations for very low Mach numbers.
Navier-Stokes analysis of muzzle-blast-type waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baysal, O.
1986-05-01
A Navier-Stokes solution is presented as a mathematical model to muzzle-blast-type waves. The study has two novel features. First, it is a combined internal/external analysis relating barrel flow parameters to muzzle environment parameters. Second, the dissipative and dispersive effects of viscosity on the propagation phenomenon are captured. The investigation also serves as a numerical analysis of axisymmetric, high-pressure waves in an unsteady, viscous flow. Conservation-form Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by a two-step, explicit finite-difference scheme. The shocks are captured and treated by the inclusion of artificial dissipative terms. Turbulence is accounted for by an algebraic eddy-viscosity model. The internal flow is solved by a predictor-corrector method of characteristics with the shock fitted in; its results compare very well with the experimental data available. The numerical results obtained simulate the muzzle blast waves and show the effects of viscosity. Comparison with the classical spherical blast wave theory shows the deviation in propagation patterns of the axisymmetric and spherical waves.
Application of Navier-Stokes analysis to stall flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, J. C.; Srivastava, R.; Sankar, L. N.
1988-01-01
A solution procedure was developed to investigate the two-dimensional, one- or two-dimensional flutter characteristics of arbitrary airfoils. This procedure requires a simultaneous integration in time of the solid and fluid equations of motion. The fluid equations of motion are the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, solved in a body-fitted moving coordinate system using an approximate factorization scheme. The solid equations of motion are integrated in time using an Euler implicit scheme. Flutter is said to occur if small disturbances imposed on the airfoil attitude lead to divergent oscillatory motions at subsequent times. The flutter characteristics of airfoils in subsonic speed at high angles of attack and airfoils in high subsonic and transonic speeds at low angles of attack are investigated. The stall flutter characteristics are also predicted using the same procedure.
Navier-Stokes analysis of turbomachinery blade external heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorla, Rama S. R.
1991-01-01
The two-dimensional, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved numerically to obtain heat transfer rates on turbomachinery blades. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model and the q-omega low Reynolds number two-equation model were used for modeling of turbulence. For the numerical solution of the governing equations a four-stage Runge-Kutta solver was employed. The turbulence model equations were solved using an implicit scheme. Numerical solutions are presented for two-dimensional flow within two vane cascades. The heat transfer results and the pressure distributions were compared with published experimental data. The agreement between the numerical calculations and the experimental values were found to be generally favorable. The position of transition from laminar to turbulent flow was also predicted accurately.
Navier-Stokes analysis of turbomachinery blade external heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ameri, A. A.; Sockol, P. M.; Gorla, R. S. R.
1992-04-01
The two-dimensional, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved numerically to obtain heat transfer rates on turbomachinery blades. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model and the q - omega low Reynolds number, two-equation model were used for modeling of turbulence. For the numerical solution of the governing equations a four-stage Runge-Kutta solver was employed. The turbulence model equations were solved using an implicit scheme. Numerical solutions are presented for two-dimensional flow within two vane cascades. The heat transfer results and the pressure distributions were compared with published experimental data. The agreement between the numerical calculations and the experimental values were found to be generally favorable. The position of transition from laminar to turbulent flow was also predicted accurately.
Entropy density of spacetime and the Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics of null surfaces
Padmanabhan, T.
2011-02-15
It has been known for several decades that Einstein's field equations, when projected onto a null surface, exhibit a structure very similar to the nonrelativistic Navier-Stokes equation. I show that this result arises quite naturally when gravitational dynamics is viewed as an emergent phenomenon. Extremizing the spacetime entropy density associated with the null surfaces leads to a set of equations which, when viewed in the local inertial frame, becomes identical to the Navier-Stokes equation. This is in contrast to the usual description of the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation in a general coordinate system, in which there appears a Lie derivative rather than a convective derivative. I discuss this difference, its importance, and why it is more appropriate to view the equation in a local inertial frame. The viscous force on fluid, arising from the gradient of the viscous stress-tensor, involves the second derivatives of the metric and does not vanish in the local inertial frame, while the viscous stress-tensor itself vanishes so that inertial observers detect no dissipation. We thus provide an entropy extremization principle that leads to the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, which makes the hydrodynamical analogy with gravity completely natural and obvious. Several implications of these results are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, B. S.; Maccormack, R. W.; Deiwert, G. S.
1975-01-01
The time-splitting explicit numerical method of MacCormack is applied to separated turbulent boundary layer flow problems. Modifications of this basic method are developed to counter difficulties associated with complicated geometry and severe numerical resolution requirements of turbulence model equations. The accuracy of solutions is investigated by comparison with exact solutions for several simple cases. Procedures are developed for modifying the basic method to improve the accuracy. Numerical solutions of high-Reynolds-number separated flows over an airfoil and shock-separated flows over a flat plate are obtained. A simple mixing length model of turbulence is used for the transonic flow past an airfoil. A nonorthogonal mesh of arbitrary configuration facilitates the description of the flow field. For the simpler geometry associated with the flat plate, a rectangular mesh is used, and solutions are obtained based on a two-equation differential model of turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung
1995-01-01
A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new framework differs substantially in both concept and methodology from the well-established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element, and spectral methods. It is conceptually simple and designed to overcome several key limitations of the above traditional methods. A two-level scheme for solving the convection-diffusion equation is constructed and used to illuminate the major differences between the present method and those previously mentioned. This explicit scheme, referred to as the a-mu scheme, has two independent marching variables.
Incompressible Navier-Stokes computations of rotating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart
1993-01-01
Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high-pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. Flow analyses at 80-, 100-, and 120-percent of design conditions are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.
2013-01-01
In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-06-01
We report development of a high-order compact flux reconstruction method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit dual time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ Chorin's classic artificial compressibility formulation with dual time stepping to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time stepping scheme using both steady and unsteady incompressible flow problems. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. This compact high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Bin; , Satoshi, Ii; Ikebata, Akio; Xiao, Feng
2014-11-01
A robust and accurate finite volume method (FVM) is proposed for incompressible viscous fluid dynamics on triangular and tetrahedral unstructured grids. Differently from conventional FVM where the volume integrated average (VIA) value is the only computational variable, the present formulation treats both VIA and the point value (PV) as the computational variables which are updated separately at each time step. The VIA is computed from a finite volume scheme of flux form, and is thus numerically conservative. The PV is updated from the differential form of the governing equation that does not have to be conservative but can be solved in a very efficient way. Including PV as the additional variable enables us to make higher-order reconstructions over compact mesh stencil to improve the accuracy, and moreover, the resulting numerical model is more robust for unstructured grids. We present the numerical formulations in both two and three dimensions on triangular and tetrahedral mesh elements. Numerical results of several benchmark tests are also presented to verify the proposed numerical method as an accurate and robust solver for incompressible flows on unstructured grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Christopher; Liang, Chunlei; Plesniak, Michael
2015-11-01
This paper reports development of a high-order compact method for solving unsteady incompressible flow on unstructured grids with implicit time stepping. The method falls under the class of methods now referred to as flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction. The governing equations employ the classical artificial compressibility treatment, where dual time stepping is needed to solve unsteady flow problems. An implicit non-linear lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel scheme with backward Euler discretization is used to efficiently march the solution in pseudo time, while a second-order backward Euler discretization is used to march in physical time. We verify and validate implementation of the high-order method coupled with our implicit time-stepping scheme. Three-dimensional results computed on many processing elements will be presented. The high-order method is very suitable for parallel computing and can easily be extended to moving and deforming grids. The current implicit time stepping scheme is proven effective in satisfying the divergence-free constraint on the velocity field in the artificial compressibility formulation within the context of the high-order flux reconstruction method. Financial support provided under the GW Presidential Merit Fellowship.
Three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes solvers for incompressible flows past arbitrary geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, G. B.; Piquet, J.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.
1991-05-01
The computation of the three-dimensional viscous flow past several geometries is investigated. An iterative technique resting on the fully elliptic mode is applied to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations written in a nonorthogonal curvilinear body-fitted coordinate system. Results of the computation are compared with available experiments.
Perturbation of eigenvalues of preconditioned Navier-Stokes operators
Elman, H.C.
1996-12-31
We study the sensitivity of algebraic eigenvalue problems associated with matrices arising from linearization and discretization of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, for several choices of preconditioners applied to the system of discrete equations, we derive upper bounds on perturbations of eigenvalues as functions of the viscosity and discretization mesh size. The bounds suggest that the sensitivity of the eigenvalues is at worst linear in the inverse of the viscosity and quadratic in the inverse of the mesh size, and that scaling can be used to decrease the sensitivity in some cases. Experimental results supplement these results and confirm the relatively mild dependence on viscosity. They also indicate a dependence on the mesh size of magnitude smaller than the analysis suggests.
Investigation of Navier-Stokes Code Verification and Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar
2004-01-01
With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the CFD solutions be quantified over the chosen design space. The present dissertation investigates the issues related to code verification, surrogate model-based optimization and sensitivity evaluation. For Navier-Stokes (NS) CFD code verification a least square extrapolation (LSE) method is assessed. This method projects numerically computed NS solutions from multiple, coarser base grids onto a freer grid and improves solution accuracy by minimizing the residual of the discretized NS equations over the projected grid. In this dissertation, the finite volume (FV) formulation is focused on. The interplay between the xi concepts and the outcome of LSE, and the effects of solution gradients and singularities, nonlinear physics, and coupling of flow variables on the effectiveness of LSE are investigated. A CFD-based design optimization of a single element liquid rocket injector is conducted with surrogate models developed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on CFD solutions. The computational model consists of the NS equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-6 turbulence closure. With the aid of these surrogate models, sensitivity and trade-off analyses are carried out for the injector design whose geometry (hydrogen flow angle, hydrogen and oxygen flow areas and oxygen post tip thickness) is optimized to attain desirable goals in performance (combustion length) and life/survivability (the maximum temperatures on the oxidizer post tip and injector face and a combustion chamber wall temperature). A preliminary multi-objective optimization
Investigation of Navier-Stokes code verification and design optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar
With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the CFD solutions be quantified over the chosen design space. The present dissertation investigates the issues related to code verification, surrogate model-based optimization and sensitivity evaluation. For Navier-Stokes (NS) CFD code verification a least square extrapolation (LSE) method is assessed. This method projects numerically computed NS solutions from multiple, coarser base grids onto a finer grid and improves solution accuracy by minimizing the residual of the discretized NS equations over the projected grid. In this dissertation, the finite volume (FV) formulation is focused on. The interplay between the concepts and the outcome of LSE, and the effects of solution gradients and singularities, nonlinear physics, and coupling of flow variables on the effectiveness of LSE are investigated. A CFD-based design optimization of a single element liquid rocket injector is conducted with surrogate models developed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on CFD solutions. The computational model consists of the NS equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-epsilonturbulence closure. With the aid of these surrogate models, sensitivity and trade-off analyses are carried out for the injector design whose geometry (hydrogen flow angle, hydrogen and oxygen flow areas and oxygen post tip thickness) is optimized to attain desirable goals in performance (combustion length) and life/survivability (the maximum temperatures on the oxidizer post tip and injector face and a combustion chamber wall temperature). A preliminary multi
The Proteus Navier-Stokes code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, Charles E.; Bui, Trong T.; Cavicchi, Richard H.; Conley, Julianne M.; Molls, Frank B.; Schwab, John R.
1992-01-01
An effort is currently underway at NASA Lewis to develop two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes, called Proteus, for aerospace propulsion applications. The emphasis in the development of Proteus is not algorithm development or research on numerical methods, but rather the development of the code itself. The objective is to develop codes that are user-oriented, easily-modified, and well-documented. Well-proven, state-of-the-art solution algorithms are being used. Code readability, documentation (both internal and external), and validation are being emphasized. This paper is a status report on the Proteus development effort. The analysis and solution procedure are described briefly, and the various features in the code are summarized. The results from some of the validation cases that have been run are presented for both the two- and three-dimensional codes.
A Navier-Stokes solver for turbomachinery applications
Arnone, A.; Swanson, R.C. )
1993-04-01
A computer code for solving the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and applied using H- and C-type grids. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. The integration in time is based on an explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. Local time stepping, variable coefficient implicit residual smoothing, and a full multigrid method have been implemented to accelerate steady-state calculations. A grid independence analysis is presented for a transonic rotor blade. Comparisons with experimental data show that the code is an accurate viscous solver and can give very good blade-to-blade predictions for engineering applications.