Science.gov

Sample records for 3-d neutron diffusion

  1. Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model

    SciTech Connect

    Baudron, Anne-Marie; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

    2014-12-15

    In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.

  2. 3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the

  3. Initial results from new 3D neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, R.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Laidani, N.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the initial results from our second generation of 3D silicon detectors for neutrons. The devices are briefly described and the first functional characterization tests carried out in laboratory before coupling to neutron converter material are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the read-out system used for the suppression of signals induced by γ-rays, that is one of the main issues in neutron detection. Experimental results are discussed with the aid of TCAD simulations.

  4. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  5. CALTRANS: A parallel, deterministic, 3D neutronics code

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, L.; Ferguson, J.; Rogers, J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts to parallelize the deterministic solution of the neutron transport equation has culminated in a new neutronics code CALTRANS, which has full 3D capability. In this article, we describe the layout and algorithms of CALTRANS and present performance measurements of the code on a variety of platforms. Explicit implementation of the parallel algorithms of CALTRANS using both the function calls of the Parallel Virtual Machine software package (PVM 3.2) and the Meiko CS-2 tagged message passing library (based on the Intel NX/2 interface) are provided in appendices.

  6. 3-D adaptive nonlinear complex-diffusion despeckling filter.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Bernardes, Rui

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to improve the process of speckle noise reduction while preserving edges and other relevant features through filter expansion from 2-D to 3-D. Despeckling is very important for data visual inspection and as a preprocessing step for other algorithms, as they are usually notably influenced by speckle noise. To that intent, a 3-D approach is proposed for the adaptive complex-diffusion filter. This 3-D iterative filter was applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography medical imaging volumes of the human retina and a quantitative evaluation of the results was performed to allow a demonstration of the better performance of the 3-D over the 2-D filtering and to choose the best total diffusion time. In addition, we propose a fast graphical processing unit parallel implementation so that the filter can be used in a clinical setting.

  7. 1,2,3-D Diffusion Depletion Multi-Group

    SciTech Connect

    Milgram, Mike

    1992-04-20

    CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and triagonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data.

  8. Diffusive smoothing of 3D segmented medical data

    PubMed Central

    Patané, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an accurate, computationally efficient, and spectrum-free formulation of the heat diffusion smoothing on 3D shapes, represented as triangle meshes. The idea behind our approach is to apply a (r,r)-degree Padé–Chebyshev rational approximation to the solution of the heat diffusion equation. The proposed formulation is equivalent to solve r sparse, symmetric linear systems, is free of user-defined parameters, and is robust to surface discretization. We also discuss a simple criterion to select the time parameter that provides the best compromise between approximation accuracy and smoothness of the solution. Finally, our experiments on anatomical data show that the spectrum-free approach greatly reduces the computational cost and guarantees a higher approximation accuracy than previous work. PMID:26257940

  9. Interface requirements to couple thermal-hydraulic codes to 3D neutronic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Austregesilo, H.; Velkov, K.

    1997-07-01

    The present situation of thermalhydraulics codes and 3D neutronics codes is briefly described and general considerations for coupling of these codes are discussed. Two different basic approaches of coupling are identified and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The implementation of the coupling for 3D neutronics codes in the system ATHLET is presented. Meanwhile, this interface is used for coupling three different 3D neutronics codes.

  10. Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Slaybaugh, R; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Today's "grand challenge" neutron transport problems require 3-D meshes with billions of cells, hundreds of energy groups, and accurate quadratures and scattering expansions. Leadership-class computers provide platforms on which high-fidelity fluxes can be calculated. However, appropriate methods are needed that can use these machines effectively. Such methods must be able to use hundreds of thousands of cores and have good convergence properties. Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) is an eigenvalue solver that has been added to the Sn code Denovo to address convergence. Rayleigh quotient iteration is an optimal shifted inverse iteration method that should converge in fewer iterations than the more common power method and other shifted inverse iteration methods for many problems of interest. Denovo's RQI uses a new multigroup Krylov solver for the fixed source solutions inside every iteration that allows parallelization in energy in addition to space and angle. This Krylov solver has been shown to scale successfully to 200,000 cores: for example one test problem scaled from 69,120 cores to 190,080 cores with 98% efficiency. This paper shows that RQI works for some small problems. However, the Krylov method upon which it relies does not always converge because RQI creates ill-conditioned systems. This result leads to the conclusion that preconditioning is needed to allow this method to be applicable to a wider variety of problems.

  11. Neutrons Image Additive Manufactured Turbine Blade in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-29

    The video displays the Inconel 718 Turbine Blade made by Additive Manufacturing. First a gray scale neutron computed tomogram (CT) is displays with transparency in order to show the internal structure. Then the neutron CT is overlapped with the engineering drawing that was used to print the part and a comparison of external and internal structures is possible. This provides a map of the accuracy of the printed turbine (printing tolerance). Internal surface roughness can also be observed.

  12. Parallel deterministic neutronics with AMR in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, C.; Ferguson, J.; Hendrickson, C.

    1997-12-31

    AMTRAN, a three dimensional Sn neutronics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been parallelized over spatial domains and energy groups and runs on the Meiko CS-2 with MPI message passing. Block refined AMR is used with linear finite element representations for the fluxes, which allows for a straight forward interpretation of fluxes at block interfaces with zoning differences. The load balancing algorithm assumes 8 spatial domains, which minimizes idle time among processors.

  13. 3D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis of MYRRHA

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2012-07-01

    The current tendency in multiphysics calculations applied to reactor physics is the use of already validated computer codes, coupled by means of an iterative approach. In this paper such an approach is explained concerning neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled analysis with MCNPX and COBRA-IV codes using a driver program and file exchange between codes. MCNPX provides the neutronic analysis of heterogeneous nuclear systems, both in critical and subcritical states, while COBRA-IV is a subchannel code that can be used for rod bundles or core thermal-hydraulics analysis. In our model, the MCNP temperature dependence of nuclear data is handled via pseudo-material approach, mixing pre-generated cross section data set to obtain the material with the desired cross section temperature. On the other hand, COBRA-IV has been updated to allow for the simulation of liquid metal cooled reactors. The coupled computational tool can be applied to any geometry and coolant, as it is the case of single fuel assembly, at pin-by-pin level, or full core simulation with the average pin of each fuel-assembly. The coupling tool has been applied to the critical core layout of the SCK-CEN MYRRHA concept, an experimental LBE cooled fast reactor presently in engineering design stage. (authors)

  14. Modeling the diffusion of phosphorus in silicon in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    The use of matrix preconditioning in semiconductor process simulation is examined. The simplified nonlinear single-species model for the diffusion of phosphorus into silicon is considered. The experimental three-dimensional simulator, PEPPER3, which uses finite differences and the numerical method of lines to implement the reaction-diffusion equation is modified to allow NSPCG to be called to solve the linear system in the inner Newton loop. Use of NSPCG allowed various accelerators such as Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) to be used in conjunction with preconditioners such as Richardson, Jacobi, and Incomplete Cholesky.

  15. 3D neutronic calculations: CAD-MCNP methodology applied to vessel activation in KOYO-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herreras, Y.; Lafuente, A.; Sordo, F.; Cabellos, O.; Perlado, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for 3D neutronic calculations suitable for complex and extensive geometries. The geometry of the system design is first fully modelled with a CAD program, and subsequently processed through a MCNP-CAD interface in order to generate an MCNP geometry file. Neutronic irradiation results are finally achieved running the MCNPX program, where the geometry input card used is directly the MCNP-CAD interface output. This methodology enables accurate neutronic calculations for complex geometries characterised by high detail levels. This procedure will be applied to the Fast Ignition Fusion Reactor KOYO-F to determine first neutron fluxes calculations along the blanket as well as the material activation in the reduced martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel vessel.

  16. 3D mapping of lithium in battery electrodes using neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, R. Gregory; Wang, Howard

    2015-08-01

    The neutron depth profiling technique based on the neutron activation reaction, 6Li (n, α) 3H, was applied with two dimensional (2D) pinhole aperture scans to spatially map lithium in 3D. The technique was used to study model LiFePO4 electrodes of rechargeable batteries for spatial heterogeneities of lithium in two cathode films that had undergone different electrochemical cycling histories. The method is useful for better understanding the functioning and failure of batteries using lithium as the active element.

  17. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.; Lizorkin, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  18. Diffusion of co-sputtered metals as bonding materials for 3D interconnects during thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S Y; Chen, H Y; Chen, K N

    2012-03-01

    Diffusion behaviors of co-sputtered metals during thermal treatments were investigated, where these co-sputtered metals can be used as bonding materials for 3D Interconnects. In this paper, we report the diffusion behaviors and discuss the diffusion mechanisms of co-sputtered metals before and after annealing. Atom and vacancy volume, vacancy formation energy, and activation energy are proposed to explain the diffusion direction and diffusion rate among different co-sputtered metals. Based on the excellent bonding performance of this method, Cu/metal co-sputtering bonding is considered as a potential candidate for advanced bonding technology.

  19. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  20. Comparison of NSTX FIDA, Charge Exchange, and Neutron Fluxes with Calculated Signals Based on CQL3D-FOW Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Kinsey, J. E.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-10-01

    Ion distribution function calculations with CQL3D have been substantially advanced through implementation of guiding-center-orbit-based Fokker-Planck Coefficients. The resulting finite-orbit-width (FOW) calculations are carried out with a fast CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW option, and in a slower but neoclassically complete (except no Er yet) CQL3D-FOW option. Good comparison between time-dependent Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA, NPA, and neutron signals resulting from neutral beaminjection(NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak have been simulated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, using only the FOW effects on QL diffusion, and particle losses, direct and CX. Comparisons are also made with recent CQL3D-FOW results, as well as between the original FIDA calculation code and a recent fortran version. Supported by USDOE Grants SC0006614, ER54744, and ER44649.

  1. Design of extended viewing zone at autostereoscopic 3D display based on diffusing optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Chang; Hwang, Yong Seok; Hong, Suk-Pyo; Kim, Eun Soo

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, to realize a non-glasses type 3D display as next step from the current glasses-typed 3D display, it is suggested that a viewing zone is designed for the 3D display using DOE (Diffusing Optical Element). Viewing zone of proposed method is larger than that of the current parallax barrier method or lenticular method. Through proposed method, it is shown to enable the expansion and adjustment of the area of viewing zone according to viewing distance.

  2. 3-D residual eddy current field characterisation: applied to diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kieran; Daducci, Alessandro; Kickler, Nils; Lazeyras, Francois; Gruetter, Rolf; Feiweier, Thorsten; Krueger, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Clinical use of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion weighted images is hampered by the geometric distortions that result from the large residual 3-D eddy current field induced. In this work, we aimed to predict, using linear response theory, the residual 3-D eddy current field required for geometric distortion correction based on phantom eddy current field measurements. The predicted 3-D eddy current field induced by the diffusion-weighting gradients was able to reduce the root mean square error of the residual eddy current field to ~1 Hz. The model's performance was tested on diffusion weighted images of four normal volunteers, following distortion correction, the quality of the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion-weighted images was found to have comparable quality to image registration based corrections (FSL) at low b-values. Unlike registration techniques the correction was not hindered by low SNR at high b-values, and results in improved image quality relative to FSL. Characterization of the 3-D eddy current field with linear response theory enables the prediction of the 3-D eddy current field required to correct eddy current induced geometric distortions for a wide range of clinical and high b-value protocols.

  3. Single-view 3D reconstruction of correlated gamma-neutron sources

    DOE PAGES

    Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-01-05

    We describe a new method of 3D image reconstruction of neutron sources that emit correlated gammas (e.g. Cf- 252, Am-Be). This category includes a vast majority of neutron sources important in nuclear threat search, safeguards and non-proliferation. Rather than requiring multiple views of the source this technique relies on the source’s intrinsic property of coincidence gamma and neutron emission. As a result only a single-view measurement of the source is required to perform the 3D reconstruction. In principle, any scatter camera sensitive to gammas and neutrons with adequate timing and interaction location resolution can perform this reconstruction. Using a neutronmore » double scatter technique, we can calculate a conical surface of possible source locations. By including the time to a correlated gamma we further constrain the source location in three-dimensions by solving for the source-to-detector distance along the surface of said cone. As a proof of concept we applied these reconstruction techniques on measurements taken with the the Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders (MINER). Two Cf-252 sources measured at 50 and 60 cm from the center of the detector were resolved in their varying depth with average radial distance relative resolution of 26%. To demonstrate the technique’s potential with an optimized system we simulated the measurement in MCNPX-PoliMi assuming timing resolution of 200 ps (from 2 ns in the current system) and source interaction location resolution of 5 mm (from 3 cm). Furthermore, these simulated improvements in scatter camera performance resulted in radial distance relative resolution decreasing to an average of 11%.« less

  4. Comparing GPU Implementations of Bilateral and Anisotropic Diffusion Filters for 3D Biomedical Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark

    2010-05-06

    We compare the performance of hand-tuned CUDA implementations of bilateral and anisotropic diffusion filters for denoising 3D MRI datasets. Our tests sweep comparable parameters for the two filters and measure total runtime, memory bandwidth, computational throughput, and mean squared errors relative to a noiseless reference dataset.

  5. 3D MHD Simulations of accreting neutron stars: evidence of QPO emission from the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bachetti, Matteo; Burderi, Luciano; Romanova, Marina M.; Kulkarni, Akshay; Salvo, Tiziana di

    2010-07-15

    3D Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that when matter accretes onto neutron stars, in particular if the misalignment angle is small, it does not constantly fall at a fixed spot. Instead, the location at which matter reaches the star moves. These moving hot spots can be produced both during stable accretion, where matter falls near the magnetic poles of the star, and unstable accretion, characterized by the presence of several tongues of matter which fall on the star near the equator, due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Precise modeling with Monte Carlo simulations shows that those movements could be observed as high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations. We performed a number of new simulation runs with a much wider set of parameters, focusing on neutron stars with a small misalignment angle. In most cases we observe oscillations whose frequency is correlated with the mass accretion rate M. Moreover, in some cases double QPOs appear, each of them showing the same correlation with M.

  6. Verification and Validation of Neutronic/Thermalhydraulic 3D-Time Dependent Model for Treatment of Super-critical States of Light water Research Reactors Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Khaled, S.M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Verification and testing both the neutronic and thermal-hydraulics response of the positive reactivity-initiated power excursion accidents in small light water research reactors. Some research reactors have to build its own severe accidents code system. In this sense, a 3D space-time-dependent neutron diffusion models with thermal hydraulic feedback have been introduced, compared and tested both experimentally at criticality 14-cent and theoretically up to 1.5 $ with a number of similar codes. The results shows that no expected core failure or moderator boiling. (author)

  7. High-resolution DTI of a localized volume using 3D single-shot diffusion-weighted STimulated echo-planar imaging (3D ss-DWSTEPI).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-Kee; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Parker, Dennis L

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) using conventional single-shot (SS) 2D diffusion-weighted (DW)-EPI is subject to severe susceptibility artifacts. Multishot DW imaging (DWI) techniques can reduce these distortions, but they generally suffer from artifacts caused by motion-induced phase errors. Parallel imaging can also reduce the distortions if the sensitivity profiles of the receiver coils allow a sufficiently high reduction factor for the desired field of view (FOV). A novel 3D DTI technique, termed 3D single-shot STimulated EPI (3D ss-STEPI), was developed to acquire high-resolution DW images of a localized region. The new technique completes k-space acquisition of a limited 3D volume after a single diffusion preparation. Because the DW magnetization is stored in the longitudinal direction until readout, it undergoes T(1) rather than T(2) decay. Inner volume imaging (IVI) is used to limit the imaging volume. This reduces the time required for EPI readout of each complete k(x)-k(y) plane, and hence reduces T(2)(*) decay during the readout and T(1) decay between the readout of each k(z). 3D ss-STEPI images appear to be free of severe susceptibility and motion artifacts. 3D ss-STEPI allows high-resolution DTI of limited volumes of interest, such as localized brain regions, cervical spinal cord, optic nerve, and other extracranial organs.

  8. Anisotropy-resolving models for predicting separation in 3--D asymmetric diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Durbin, Paul

    2011-11-01

    All linear eddy-viscosity models are qualitatively incorrect in predicting separation in 3-D asymmetric diffusers. The failure to predict normal stress and shear stress anisotropy at high production-dissipation ratios is the cause. The Explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (Wallin and Johansson, 2000) predicts the mean flow field in the diffuser accurately, but not the wall pressure and Reynolds stresses. Recalibrating the coefficients of the rapid part of pressure-strain model improves the wall pressure prediction. Including the convective, diffusive, streamline curvature effects on anisotropy has not been beneficial. The model has been tested using a family of diffusers having the same nominal streamwise pressure gradient, LES data is used as a reference. Professor

  9. Multilayer Spheroids To Quantify Drug Uptake and Diffusion in 3D

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new quantitative in vitro models of drug uptake and diffusion to help assess drug toxicity/efficacy as well as new more predictive models for drug discovery. We report a three-dimensional (3D) multilayer spheroid model and a new algorithm to quantitatively study uptake and inward diffusion of fluorescent calcein via gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). When incubated with calcein-AM, a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), spheroids from a variety of cell types accumulated calcein over time. Accumulation decreased in spheroids overexpressing Pgp (HEK-MDR) and was increased in the presence of Pgp inhibitors (verapamil, loperamide, cyclosporin A). Inward diffusion of calcein was negligible in spheroids that lacked GJIC (OVCAR-3, SK-OV-3) and was reduced in the presence of an inhibitor of GJIC (carbenoxolone). In addition to inhibiting Pgp, verapamil and loperamide, but not cyclosporin A, inhibited inward diffusion of calcein, suggesting that they also inhibit GJIC. The dose response curves of verapamil’s inhibition of Pgp and GJIC were similar (IC50: 8 μM). The method is amenable to many different cell types and may serve as a quantitative 3D model that more accurately replicates in vivo barriers to drug uptake and diffusion. PMID:24641346

  10. Planar Gradient Diffusion System to Investigate Chemotaxis in a 3D Collagen Matrix.

    PubMed

    Stout, David A; Toyjanova, Jennet; Franck, Christian

    2015-06-12

    The importance of cell migration can be seen through the development of human life. When cells migrate, they generate forces and transfer these forces to their surrounding area, leading to cell movement and migration. In order to understand the mechanisms that can alter and/or affect cell migration, one can study these forces. In theory, understanding the fundamental mechanisms and forces underlying cell migration holds the promise of effective approaches for treating diseases and promoting cellular transplantation. Unfortunately, modern chemotaxis chambers that have been developed are usually restricted to two dimensions (2D) and have complex diffusion gradients that make the experiment difficult to interpret. To this end, we have developed, and describe in this paper, a direct-viewing chamber for chemotaxis studies, which allows one to overcome modern chemotaxis chamber obstacles able to measure cell forces and specific concentration within the chamber in a 3D environment to study cell 3D migration. More compelling, this approach allows one to successfully model diffusion through 3D collagen matrices and calculate the coefficient of diffusion of a chemoattractant through multiple different concentrations of collagen, while keeping the system simple and user friendly for traction force microscopy (TFM) and digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis.

  11. Multislice diffusion mapping for 3-D evolution of cerebral ischemia in a rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Hasegawa, Y; Latour, L L; Dardzinski, B J; Sotak, C H; Fisher, M

    1995-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can quantitatively demonstrate cerebral ischemia within minutes after the onset of ischemia. The use of a DWI echo-planar multislice technique in this study and the mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water, a reliable indicator of ischemic regions, allow for the detection of the three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of ischemia in a rat stroke model. We evaluated 13 time points from 5 to 180 minutes after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and monitored the 3-D spread of ischemia. Within 5 minutes after the onset of ischemia, regions with reduced ADC values occurred. The core of the lesion, with the lowest absolute ADC values, first appeared in the lateral caudoputamen and frontoparietal cortex, then spread to adjacent areas. The volume of ischemic tissue was 224 +/- 48.5 mm3 (mean +/- SEM) after 180 minutes, ranging from 92 to 320 mm3, and this correlated well with the corrected infarct volume at postmortem (194 +/- 23.1 mm3, r = 0.72, p < 0.05). This experiment demonstrated that 3-D multislice diffusion mapping can detect ischemic regions noninvasively 5 minutes after MCA occlusion and follow the development of ischemia. The distribution of changes in absolute ADC values within the ischemic region can be followed over time, giving important information about the evolution of focal ischemia.

  12. A 3D Tissue-Printing Approach for Validation of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Berry, David B; You, Shangting; Warner, John; Frank, Lawrence R; Chen, Shaochen; Ward, Samuel R

    2017-03-24

    The ability to noninvasively assess skeletal muscle microstructure, which predicts function and disease, would be of significant clinical value. One method that holds this promise is diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), which is sensitive to the microscopic diffusion of water within tissues and has become ubiquitous in neuroimaging as a way of assessing neuronal structure and damage. However, its application to the assessment of changes in muscle microstructure associated with injury, pathology, or age remains poorly defined, because it is difficult to precisely control muscle microstructural features in vivo. However, recent advances in additive manufacturing technologies allow precision-engineered diffusion phantoms with histology informed skeletal muscle geometry to be manufactured. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop skeletal muscle phantoms at relevant size scales to relate microstructural features to MRI-based diffusion measurements. A digital light projection based rapid 3D printing method was used to fabricate polyethylene glycol diacrylate based diffusion phantoms with (1) idealized muscle geometry (no geometry; fiber sizes of 30, 50, or 70 μm or fiber size of 50 μm with 40% of walls randomly deleted) or (2) histology-based geometry (normal and after 30-days of denervation) containing 20% or 50% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Mean absolute percent error (8%) of the printed phantoms indicated high conformity to templates when "fibers" were >50 μm. A multiple spin-echo echo planar imaging diffusion sequence, capable of acquiring diffusion weighted data at several echo times, was used in an attempt to combine relaxometry and diffusion techniques with the goal of separating intracellular and extracellular diffusion signals. When fiber size increased (30-70 μm) in the 20% PBS phantom, fractional anisotropy (FA) decreased (0.32-0.26) and mean diffusivity (MD) increased (0.44 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s-0.70 × 10(-3) mm

  13. [Depiction of the cranial nerves around the cavernous sinus by 3D reversed FISP with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Go; Oishi, Makoto; Jinguji, Shinya; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Sato, Mitsuya; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomy of cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus, we employed three-dimensional reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI) on 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system. After determining the proper parameters to obtain sufficient resolution of 3D PSIF-DWI, we collected imaging data of 20-side cavernous regions in 10 normal subjects. 3D PSIF-DWI provided high contrast between the cranial nerves and other soft tissues, fluid, and blood in all subjects. We also created volume-rendered images of 3D PSIF-DWI and anatomically evaluated the reliability of visualizing optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, and abducens nerves on 3D PSIF-DWI. All 20 sets of cranial nerves were visualized and 12 trochlear nerves and 6 abducens nerves were partially identified. We also presented preliminary clinical experiences in two cases with pituitary adenomas. The anatomical relationship between the tumor and cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus could be three-dimensionally comprehended by 3D PSIF-DWI and the volume-rendered images. In conclusion, 3D PSIF-DWI has great potential to provide high resolution "cranial nerve imaging", which visualizes the whole length of the cranial nerves including the parts in the blood flow as in the cavernous sinus region.

  14. Fractality in the neuron axonal topography of the human brain based on 3-D diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsaloulis, P.; Ghosh, A.; Philippe, A. C.; Provata, A.; Deriche, R.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the fractal architecture of the neuron axonal topography of the human brain is evaluated, as derived from 3-D diffusion MRI (dMRI) acquisitions. This is a 3D extension of work performed previously in 2D regions of interest (ROIs), where the fractal dimension of the neuron axonal topography was computed from dMRI data. A group study with 18 subjects is here conducted and the fractal dimensions D f of the entire 3-D volume of the brains is estimated via the box counting, the correlation dimension and the fractal mass dimension methods. The neuron axon data is obtained using tractography algorithms on diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. We find that all three calculations of D f give consistent results across subjects, namely, they demonstrate fractal characteristics in the short and medium length scales: different fractal exponents prevail at different length scales, an indication of multifractality. We surmise that this complexity stems as a collective property emerging when many local brain units, performing different functional tasks and having different local topologies, are recorded together.

  15. Development and preliminary verification of the 3D core neutronic code: COCO

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; Mo, K.; Li, W.; Bai, N.; Li, J.

    2012-07-01

    As the recent blooming economic growth and following environmental concerns (China)) is proactively pushing forward nuclear power development and encouraging the tapping of clean energy. Under this situation, CGNPC, as one of the largest energy enterprises in China, is planning to develop its own nuclear related technology in order to support more and more nuclear plants either under construction or being operation. This paper introduces the recent progress in software development for CGNPC. The focus is placed on the physical models and preliminary verification results during the recent development of the 3D Core Neutronic Code: COCO. In the COCO code, the non-linear Green's function method is employed to calculate the neutron flux. In order to use the discontinuity factor, the Neumann (second kind) boundary condition is utilized in the Green's function nodal method. Additionally, the COCO code also includes the necessary physical models, e.g. single-channel thermal-hydraulic module, burnup module, pin power reconstruction module and cross-section interpolation module. The preliminary verification result shows that the COCO code is sufficient for reactor core design and analysis for pressurized water reactor (PWR). (authors)

  16. 3D Neutron Transport PWR Full-core Calculation with RMC code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yishu; She, Ding; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Kan; Li, Zeguang; Liang, Jingang; Leroyer, Hadrien

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, there are more and more interests in the use of Monte Carlo codes to calculate the detailed power density distributions in full-core reactors. With the Inspur TS1000 HPC Server of Tsinghua University, several calculations have been done based on the EDF 3D Neutron Transport PWR Full-core benchmark through large-scale parallelism. To investigate and compare the results of the deterministic method and Monte Carlo method, EDF R&D and Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University are having a collaboration to make code to code verification. So in this paper, two codes are used. One is the code COCAGNE developed by the EDF R&D, a deterministic core code, and the other is the Monte Carlo code RMC developed by Department of Engineering Physics in Tsinghua University. First, the full-core model is described and a 26-group calculation was performed by these two codes using the same 26-group cross-section library provided by EDF R&D. Then the parallel and tally performance of RMC is discussed. RMC employs a novel algorithm which can cut down most of the communications. It can be seen clearly that the speedup ratio almost linearly increases with the nodes. Furthermore the cell-mapping method applied by RMC consumes little time to tally even millions of cells. The results of the codes COCAGNE and RMC are compared in three ways. The results of these two codes agree well with each other. It can be concluded that both COCAGNE and RMC are able to provide 3D-transport solutions associated with detailed power density distributions calculation in PWR full-core reactors. Finally, to investigate how many histories are needed to obtain a given standard deviation for a full 3D solution, the non-symmetrized condensed 2-group fluxes of RMC are discussed.

  17. Parametric estimation of 3D tubular structures for diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larusson, Fridrik; Anderson, Pamela G.; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Kilmer, Misha E.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Miller, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for the recovery of 3D tubular shapes representing vascular structures in breast tissue. Using a parametric level set method (PaLS) our method incorporates the connectedness of vascular structures in breast tissue to reconstruct shape and absorption values from severely limited data sets. The approach is based on a decomposition of the unknown structure into a series of two dimensional slices. Using a simplified physical model that ignores 3D effects of the complete structure, we develop a novel inter-slice regularization strategy to obtain global regularity. We report on simulated and experimental reconstructions using realistic optical contrasts where our method provides a more accurate estimate compared to an unregularized approach and a pixel based reconstruction. PMID:23411913

  18. Charactrisation of particle assemblies by 3D cross correlation light scattering and diffusing wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the structural and dynamic properties of soft materials and small particles, information on the relevant mesoscopic length scales is required. Such information is often obtained from traditional static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS) experiments in the single scattering regime. In many dense systems, however, these powerful techniques frequently fail due to strong multiple scattering of light. Here I will discuss some experimental innovations that have emerged over the last decade. New methods such as 3D static and dynamic light scattering (3D LS) as well as diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) can cover a much extended range of experimental parameters ranging from dilute polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions to extremely opaque viscoelastic emulsions.

  19. Parametric estimation of 3D tubular structures for diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Larusson, Fridrik; Anderson, Pamela G; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Kilmer, Misha E; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Miller, Eric L

    2013-02-01

    We explore the use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for the recovery of 3D tubular shapes representing vascular structures in breast tissue. Using a parametric level set method (PaLS) our method incorporates the connectedness of vascular structures in breast tissue to reconstruct shape and absorption values from severely limited data sets. The approach is based on a decomposition of the unknown structure into a series of two dimensional slices. Using a simplified physical model that ignores 3D effects of the complete structure, we develop a novel inter-slice regularization strategy to obtain global regularity. We report on simulated and experimental reconstructions using realistic optical contrasts where our method provides a more accurate estimate compared to an unregularized approach and a pixel based reconstruction.

  20. Benchmarking PET for geoscientific applications: 3D quantitative diffusion coefficient determination in clay rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Gerasch, R.; Schikora, J.; Kulenkampff, J.

    2017-04-01

    The 3D diagonal anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient of Na+, Deff=(Dxx, Dyy, Dzz), was quantified in a clay material in one single experiment/simulation. That is possible due to the combination of the non-invasive observation of Na+ diffusion in Opalinus clay by means of GeoPET method (PET: positron emission tomography) followed by quantitative 3D+t data evaluation by means of the finite element numerical modelling (FEM). The extracted anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient parallel (||) and normal (⊥) to the bedding of the clay rock, Deff=(D||, D⊥, D||) are comparable to those obtained on earlier experimental studies in the same clay material but with different methods. We consider this study as benchmark for the long-standing development of our GeoPET method, that explicitly includes a resolute and physics based attenuation and Compton scatter correction algorithm (Kulenkampff, J., M. Gründig, A. Zakhnini and J. Lippmann-Pipke (2016). "Geoscientific process monitoring with positron emission tomography (GeoPET)." Solid Earth 7: 1217-1231). We suggest GeoPET based fluid flow transport visualization combined with computer based process simulation henceforth as a qualified way for the quantification of three-dimensional, effective transport parameters in geosciences.

  1. BioFVM: an efficient, parallelized diffusive transport solver for 3-D biological simulations

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarizadeh, Ahmadreza; Friedman, Samuel H.; Macklin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Computational models of multicellular systems require solving systems of PDEs for release, uptake, decay and diffusion of multiple substrates in 3D, particularly when incorporating the impact of drugs, growth substrates and signaling factors on cell receptors and subcellular systems biology. Results: We introduce BioFVM, a diffusive transport solver tailored to biological problems. BioFVM can simulate release and uptake of many substrates by cell and bulk sources, diffusion and decay in large 3D domains. It has been parallelized with OpenMP, allowing efficient simulations on desktop workstations or single supercomputer nodes. The code is stable even for large time steps, with linear computational cost scalings. Solutions are first-order accurate in time and second-order accurate in space. The code can be run by itself or as part of a larger simulator. Availability and implementation: BioFVM is written in C ++ with parallelization in OpenMP. It is maintained and available for download at http://BioFVM.MathCancer.org and http://BioFVM.sf.net under the Apache License (v2.0). Contact: paul.macklin@usc.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26656933

  2. Comparison of 3D Orientation Distribution Functions Measured with Confocal Microscopy and Diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Kurt; Janve, Vaibhav; Gao, Yurui; Stepniewska, Iwona; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-01-01

    The ability of diffusion MRI (dMRI) fiber tractography to non-invasively map three-dimensional (3D) anatomical networks in the human brain has made it a valuable tool in both clinical and research settings. However, there are many assumptions inherent to any tractography algorithm that can limit the accuracy of the reconstructed fiber tracts. Among them is the assumption that the diffusion-weighted images accurately reflect the underlying fiber orientation distribution (FOD) in the MRI voxel. Consequently, validating dMRI’s ability to assess the underlying fiber orientation in each voxel is critical for its use as a biomedical tool. Here, using post-mortem histology and confocal microscopy, we present a method to perform histological validation of orientation functions in 3D, which has previously been limited to two-dimensional analysis of tissue sections. We demonstrate the ability to extract the 3D FOD from confocal z-stacks, and quantify the agreement between the MRI estimates of orientation information obtained using constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) and the true geometry of the fibers. We find an orientation error of approximately 6° in voxels containing nearly parallel fibers, and 10-11° in crossing fiber regions, and note that CSD was unable to resolve fibers crossing at angles below 60° in our dataset. This is the first time the 3D white matter orientation distribution is calculated from histology and compared to dMRI. Thus, this technique serves as a gold standard for dMRI validation studies - providing the ability to determine the extent to which the dMRI signal is consistent with the histological FOD, and to establish how well different dMRI models can predict the ground truth FOD. PMID:26804781

  3. 3D structure tensor analysis of light microscopy data for validating diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Cornea, Anda; Leigland, Lindsey A.; Kohama, Steven G.; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (d-MRI) is a powerful non-invasive and non-destructive technique for characterizing brain tissue on the microscopic scale. However, the lack of validation of d-MRI by independent experimental means poses an obstacle to accurate interpretation of data acquired using this method. Recently, structure tensor analysis has been applied to light microscopy images, and this technique holds promise to be a powerful validation strategy for d-MRI. Advantages of this approach include its similarity to d-MRI in terms of averaging the effects of a large number of cellular structures, and its simplicity, which enables it to be implemented in a high-throughput manner. However, a drawback of previous implementations of this technique arises from it being restricted to 2D. As a result, structure tensor analyses have been limited to tissue sectioned in a direction orthogonal to the direction of interest. Here we describe the analytical framework for extending structure tensor analysis to 3D, and utilize the results to analyze serial image “stacks” acquired with confocal microscopy of rhesus macaque hippocampal tissue. Implementation of 3D structure tensor procedures requires removal of sources of anisotropy introduced in tissue preparation and confocal imaging. This is accomplished with image processing steps to mitigate the effects of anisotropic tissue shrinkage, and the effects of anisotropy in the point spread function (PSF). In order to address the latter confound, we describe procedures for measuring the dependence of PSF anisotropy on distance from the microscope objective within tissue. Prior to microscopy, ex vivo d-MRI measurements performed on the hippocampal tissue revealed three regions of tissue with mutually orthogonal directions of least restricted diffusion that correspond to CA1, alveus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We demonstrate the ability of 3D structure tensor analysis to identify structure tensor orientations

  4. High speed and flexible PEB 3D diffusion simulation based on Sylvester equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Chen, Charlie Chung-Ping

    2013-04-01

    Post exposure bake (PEB) Diffusion effect is one of the most difficult issues in modeling chemically amplified resists. These model equations result in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the time rate of change reaction and diffusion. Verifying such models are difficult, so numerical simulations are needed to solve the model equations. In this paper, we propose a high speed 3D resist image simulation algorithm based on a novel method to solve the PEB Diffusion equation. Our major discovery is that the matrix formulation of the diffusion equation under the Crank- Nicolson scheme can be derived into a special form, AX+XB=C, where the X matrix is a 3D resist image after diffusion effect, A and B matrices contain the diffusion coefficients and the space relationship between directions x, y and z. These matrices are sparse, symmetric and diagonal dominant. The C matrix is the last time-step resist image. The Sylvester equation can be reduced to another form as (I⊗A + BT⊗I) X =C, in which the operator ⊗ is the Kronecker product notation. Compared with a traditional convolution method, our method is more useful in a way that boundary conditions can be more flexible. From our experimental results, we see that the error of the convolution method can be as high as 30% at borders of the design pattern. Furthermore, since the PEB temperature may not be uniform at multi-zone PEB, the convolution method might not be directly applicable in this scenario. Our method is about 20 times faster than the convolution method for a single time step (2 seconds) as illustrated in the attached figure. To simulate 50 seconds of the flexible PEB diffusion process, our method only takes 210 seconds with a convolution set up for a 1240×1240 working area. We use the typical 45nm immersion lithography in our work. The exposure wavelength is set to 193nm; the NA is 1.3775; and the diffusion coefficient is 1.455×10-17m2/s at PEB temperature 150°C along with PEB

  5. Diffuse reflectance optical topography: location of inclusions in 3D and detectability limits

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, N. A.; Baez, G. R.; García, H. A.; Waks Serra, M. V.; Di Rocco, H. O.; Iriarte, D. I.; Pomarico, J. A.; Grosenick, D.; Macdonald, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the images of CW diffusely reflected light for a point-like source, registered by a CCD camera imaging a turbid medium containing an absorbing lesion. We show that detection of μa variations (absorption anomalies) is achieved if images are normalized to background intensity. A theoretical analysis based on the diffusion approximation is presented to investigate the sensitivity and the limitations of our proposal and a novel procedure to find the location of the inclusions in 3D is given and tested. An analysis of the noise and its influence on the detection capabilities of our proposal is provided. Experimental results on phantoms are also given, supporting the proposed approach. PMID:24876999

  6. Intra-retinal layer segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography using coarse grained diffusion map.

    PubMed

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D; Sonka, Milan

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful and noninvasive method for retinal imaging. In this paper, we introduce a fast segmentation method based on a new variant of spectral graph theory named diffusion maps. The research is performed on spectral domain (SD) OCT images depicting macular and optic nerve head appearance. The presented approach does not require edge-based image information in localizing most of boundaries and relies on regional image texture. Consequently, the proposed method demonstrates robustness in situations of low image contrast or poor layer-to-layer image gradients. Diffusion mapping applied to 2D and 3D OCT datasets is composed of two steps, one for partitioning the data into important and less important sections, and another one for localization of internal layers. In the first step, the pixels/voxels are grouped in rectangular/cubic sets to form a graph node. The weights of the graph are calculated based on geometric distances between pixels/voxels and differences of their mean intensity. The first diffusion map clusters the data into three parts, the second of which is the area of interest. The other two sections are eliminated from the remaining calculations. In the second step, the remaining area is subjected to another diffusion map assessment and the internal layers are localized based on their textural similarities. The proposed method was tested on 23 datasets from two patient groups (glaucoma and normals). The mean unsigned border positioning errors (mean ± SD) was 8.52 ± 3.13 and 7.56 ± 2.95 μm for the 2D and 3D methods, respectively.

  7. Use of albedo for neutron reflector regions in reactor core 3-D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1989-10-01

    In this paper we present two new simplified schemes for the application of the albedo concept of replacing the reflector in 3-D reactor core simulations. Both involve the numerical derivation of albedoes from the fluxes at the core- (blanket-) reflector interface obtained from sample calculations including the reflector. Diffusion theory is used for core calculations in both cases. In the first scheme a new method for "diagonalising" the albedo matrix is demonstrated. This achieves easy applicability of the albedo parameters in core simulations of a fast breeder reactor core, resulting in significant savings in computing efforts. The second scheme, applied to light water reactors, achieves better accuracy in core periphery power predictions with the use of only uniform coarse meshes throughout the core and the numerically derived albedoes.

  8. Understanding the mixing process in 3D microfluidic nozzle/diffuser systems: simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2016-11-01

    We characterise computationally and experimentally a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic passive mixer for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 100, corresponding to primary flow rates of 10-870 µl min-1. The 3D mixing channel is composed of multiple curved segments: circular arcs situated in the substrate plane and curved nozzle/diffuser elements normal to the substrate plane. Numerical simulation provides a detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism resulting from the geometrical topology of the mixer. These Comsol software-based simulations reveal the development of two secondary flows perpendicular to the primary flow: a swirling flow resulting from tangential injection of the flow into the nozzle holes and Dean vortices present in the circular arcs. These phenomena are particularly important at a Reynolds number larger than 30, where mixing occurs by chaotic advection. Experimentally, the 3D mixer is fabricated in a monolithic glass substrate by powder blasting machining, exploiting eroding powder beams at various angles of impact with respect to the substrate plane. Experimental mixing was characterised using two coloured dyes, showing nearly perfect mixing for a microfluidic footprint of the order of a few mm2, in good agreement with the simulations.

  9. 3D choroid neovascularization growth prediction based on reaction-diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuxia; Chen, Xinjian; Shi, Fei; Xiang, Dehui; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu

    2016-03-01

    Choroid neovascularization (CNV) is a kind of pathology from the choroid and CNV-related disease is one important cause of vision loss. It is desirable to predict the CNV growth rate so that appropriate treatment can be planned. In this paper, we seek to find a method to predict the growth of CNV based on 3D longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. A reaction-diffusion model is proposed for prediction. The method consists of four phases: pre-processing, meshing, CNV growth modeling and prediction. We not only apply the reaction-diffusion model to the disease region, but also take the surrounding tissues into consideration including outer retinal layer, inner retinal layer and choroid layer. The diffusion in these tissues is considered as isotropic. The finite-element-method (FEM) is used to solve the partial differential equations (PDE) in the diffusion model. The curve of CNV growth with treatment are fitted and then we can predict the CNV status in a future time point. The preliminary results demonstrated that our proposed method is accurate and the validity and feasibility of our model is obvious.

  10. Magnetic Dissipation in Asymmetric Strong Guide 3D Simulations: Examples of Magnetic Diffusion and Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretations of 2D simulations of magnetic reconnection are greatly simplified by using the flux function, usually the out of plane component of the vector potential. This theoretical device is no longer available when simulations are analyzed in 3-D. We illustrate the results of determining the locale rates of flux slippage in simulations by a technique based on Maxwell's equations. The technique recovers the usual results obtained for the flux function in 2D simulations, but remains viable in 3D simulations where there is no flux function. The method has also been successfully tested for full PIC simulations where reconnection is geometrically forbiddden. While such layers possess measurable flux slippages (diffusion) their level is not as strong as recorded in known 2D PIC reconnection sites using the same methodology. This approach will be used to explore the spatial incidence and strength of flux slippages across a 3D, asymmetric, strong guide field run discussed previously in the literature. Regions of diffusive behavior are illustrated where LHDI has been previously identified out on the separatrices, while much stronger flux slippages, typical of the X-regions of 2D simulations, are shown to occur elsewhere throughout the simulation. These results suggest that reconnection requires sufficiently vigorous flux slippage to be self sustaining, while non-zero flux slippage can and does occur without being at the reconnection site. A cross check of this approach is provided by the mixing ratio of tagged simulation particles of known spatial origin discussed by Daughton et al., 2013 (this meeting); they provide an integral measure of flux slippage up to the present point in the simulation. We will discuss the correlations between our Maxwell based flux slippage rates and the inferred rates of change of this mixing ratio (as recorded in the local fluid frame).

  11. Monte carlo simulation of 3-D buffered Ca(2+) diffusion in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, A; Segura, J; Pertusa, J A; Soria, B

    2000-01-01

    Buffered Ca(2+) diffusion in the cytosol of neuroendocrine cells is a plausible explanation for the slowness and latency in the secretion of hormones. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to treat the problem of 3-D diffusion and kinetic reactions of ions and buffers. The 3-D diffusion is modeled as a random walk process that follows the path of each ion and buffer molecule, combined locally with a stochastic treatment of the first-order kinetic reactions involved. Such modeling is able to predict [Ca(2+)] and buffer concentration time courses regardless of how low the calcium influx is, and it is therefore a convenient method for dealing with physiological calcium currents and concentrations. We study the effects of the diffusional and kinetic parameters of the model on the concentration time courses as well as on the local equilibrium of buffers with calcium. An in-mobile and fast endogenous buffer as described by, Biophys. J. 72:674-690) was able to reach local equilibrium with calcium; however, the exogenous buffers considered are displaced drastically from equilibrium at the start of the calcium pulse, particularly below the pores. The versatility of the method also allows the effect of different arrangements of calcium channels on submembrane gradients to be studied, including random distribution of calcium channels and channel clusters. The simulation shows how the particular distribution of channels or clusters can be of relevance for secretion in the case where the distribution of release granules is correlated with the channels or clusters. PMID:10620270

  12. Confocal fluorometer for diffusion tracking in 3D engineered tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, D.; Zilioli, A.; Tan, N.; Buttenschoen, K.; Chikkanna, B.; Reynolds, J.; Marsden, B.; Hughes, C.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of the development of a non-contacting instrument, called fScan, based on scanning confocal fluorometry for assessing the diffusion of materials through a tissue matrix. There are many areas in healthcare diagnostics and screening where it is now widely accepted that the need for new quantitative monitoring technologies is a major pinch point in patient diagnostics and in vitro testing. With the increasing need to interpret 3D responses this commonly involves the need to track the diffusion of compounds, pharma-active species and cells through a 3D matrix of tissue. Methods are available but to support the advances that are currently only promised, this monitoring needs to be real-time, non-invasive, and economical. At the moment commercial meters tend to be invasive and usually require a sample of the medium to be removed and processed prior to testing. This methodology clearly has a number of significant disadvantages. fScan combines a fiber based optical arrangement with a compact, free space optical front end that has been integrated so that the sample's diffusion can be measured without interference. This architecture is particularly important due to the "wet" nature of the samples. fScan is designed to measure constructs located within standard well plates and a 2-D motion stage locates the required sample with respect to the measurement system. Results are presented that show how the meter has been used to evaluate movements of samples through collagen constructs in situ without disturbing their kinetic characteristics. These kinetics were little understood prior to these measurements.

  13. Implementation of 3D prostrate ring-scanning mechanism for NIR diffuse optical imaging phantom validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Pan, Min-Chun

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) providing functional information of tissues has drawn great attention for the last two decades. Near infrared (NIR) DOI systems composed of scanning bench, opt-electrical measurement module, system control, and data processing and image reconstruction schemes are developed for the screening and diagnosis of breast tumors. Mostly, the scanning bench belonging to fixed source-and-detector configuration limits computed image resolution to an extent. To cope with the issue, we propose, design and implement a 3D prostrate ring-scanning equipment for NIR DOI with flexible combinations of illumination and detection, and with the function of radial, circular and vertical movement without hard compression of breast tissue like the imaging system using or incorporating with X-ray mammographic bench. Especially, a rotation-sliding-and-moving mechanism was designed for the guidance of source- and detection-channel movement. Following the previous justification for synthesized image reconstruction, in the paper the validation using varied phantoms is further conducted and 3D image reconstruction for their absorption and scattering coefficients is illustrated through the computation of our in-house coded schemes. The source and detection NIR data are acquired to reconstruct the 3D images through the operation of scanning bench in the movement of vertical, radial and circular directions. Rather than the fixed configuration, the addressed screening/diagnosing equipment has the flexibility for optical-channel expansion with a compromise among construction cost, operation time, and spatial resolution of reconstructed μa and μs' images.

  14. PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007

  15. Estimating anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundary of a pebble bed random system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasques, R.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the arrangement of the pebbles in a Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) core, if a neutron is located close to a boundary wall, its path length probability distribution function in directions of flight parallel to the wall is significantly different than in other directions. Hence, anisotropic diffusion of neutrons near the boundaries arises. We describe an analysis of neutron transport in a simplified 3-D pebble bed random system, in which we investigate the anisotropic diffusion of neutrons born near one of the system's boundary walls. While this simplified system does not model the actual physical process that takes place near the boundaries of a PBR core, the present work paves the road to a formulation that may enable more accurate diffusion simulations of such problems to be performed in the future. Monte Carlo codes have been developed for (i) deriving realizations of the 3-D random system, and (ii) performing 3-D neutron transport inside the heterogeneous model; numerical results are presented for three different choices of parameters. These numerical results are used to assess the accuracy of estimates for the mean-squared displacement of neutrons obtained with the diffusion approximations of the Atomic Mix Model and of the recently introduced [1] Non-Classical Theory with angular-dependent path length distribution. The Non-Classical Theory makes use of a Generalized Linear Boltzmann Equation in which the locations of the scattering centers in the system are correlated and the distance to collision is not exponentially distributed. We show that the results predicted using the Non-Classical Theory successfully model the anisotropic behavior of the neutrons in the random system, and more closely agree with experiment than the results predicted by the Atomic Mix Model. (authors)

  16. 3-D Modeling of Pore Pressure Diffusion Beneath Koyna and Warna Reservoirs, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amrita; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Purnachandra Rao, N.

    2017-03-01

    The mechanism of reservoir-triggered seismicity is well-understood and explains the earthquake occurrence at different reservoir sites. It can be attributed to the stresses due to water loading and to changes in fluid pressure in pores within the rock matrix. In the present study a 3-D fluid flow numerical model is used to investigate the pore pressure diffusion as a cause for continued seismicity in the Koyna-Warna region in western India. It is shown that reservoir water level fluctuations are sufficient to trigger earthquakes at the seismogenic depths in the region. Our numerical model suggests that a vertical fault with hydraulic conductivity in the range 2-6 m/day facilitates the diffusion of pressure at focal depths of earthquakes in the Koyna-Warna region. Also, for triggering of earthquakes a higher vertical conductivity is required for the Warna region than for the Koyna region. A lag of two months period is found between the maximum water level and the significant hydraulic head required to trigger earthquakes at the focal depth using the appropriate hydraulic conductivity for both the reservoirs.

  17. A 3D profile function suitable for integration of neutron time-of-flight single crystal diffraction peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2017-03-01

    A 3D profile function is presented suitable to integrate reflections arising in time-of-flight (TOF) single crystal neutron diffraction experiments. In order to account for the large asymmetry of the peak shape in the TOF direction, a 3D Gaussian ellipsoid in the pixel (x, z) and time-of-flight coordinates is convoluted with a rising and falling exponential along the time-of-flight direction. An analytic expression is derived, making it suitable for least-squares fitting. The application of this function in detector space or reciprocal space is straightforward.

  18. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, C; Gómez, F; Fleta, C; Rodríguez, J; Quirion, D; Pellegrini, G; Lousa, A; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L; Pombar, M; Lozano, M

    2013-05-21

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  19. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola, C.; Gómez, F.; Fleta, C.; Rodríguez, J.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lousa, A.; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.; Pombar, M.; Lozano, M.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  20. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice

    2014-04-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  1. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, B.; Wang, Z.; Berrill, M. A.; Birke, M.; Pernice, M.

    2014-04-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  2. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; ...

    2016-08-25

    We derived a consistent “2D/1D” neutron transport method from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. Our paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. We also performed several applications on both leadership-class and industry-classmore » computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.« less

  3. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    A consistent "2D/1D" neutron transport method is derived from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. This paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. Several applications have been performed on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  4. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-08-25

    We derived a consistent “2D/1D” neutron transport method from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. Our paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. We also performed several applications on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  5. Diffuse optical 3D-slice imaging of bounded turbid media using a new integro-differential equation.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, D; Yodh, A

    1999-04-12

    A new integro-differential equation for diffuse photon density waves (DPDW) is derived within the diffusion approximation. The new equation applies to inhomogeneous bounded turbid media. Interestingly, it does not contain any terms involving gradients of the light diffusion coefficient. The integro-differential equation for diffusive waves is used to develop a 3D-slice imaging algorithm based the on angular spectrum representation in the parallel plate geometry. The algorithm may be useful for near infrared optical imaging of breast tissue, and is applicable to other diagnostics such as ultrasound and microwave imaging.

  6. Study of a non-diffusing radiochromic gel dosimeter for 3D radiation dose imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Craig Michael

    2000-12-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a new radiation gel dosimeter, based on nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBTZ) suspended in a gelatin mold. Unlike all Fricke based gel dosimeters this dosimeter does not suffer from diffusive loss of image stability. Images are obtained by an optical tomography method. Nitro blue tetrazolium is a common biological indicator that when irradiated in an aqueous medium undergoes reduction to a highly colored formazan, which has an absorbance maximum at 525nm. Tetrazolium is water soluble while the formazan product is insoluble. The formazan product sticks to the gelatin matrix and the dose image is maintained for three months. Methods to maximize the sensitivity of the system were evaluated. It was found that a chemical detergent, Triton X-100, in combination with sodium formate, increased the dosimeter sensitivity significantly. An initial G-value of formazan production for a dosimeter composed of 1mM NBTZ, gelatin, and water was on the order of 0.2. The addition of Triton and formate produced a G-value in excess of 5.0. The effects of NBTZ, triton, formate, and gel concentration were all investigated. All the gels provided linear dose vs. absorbance plots for doses from 0 to >100 Gy. It was determined that gel concentration had minimal if any effect on sensitivity. Sensitivity increased slightly with increasing NBTZ concentration. Triton and formate individually and together provided moderate to large increases in dosimeter sensitivity. The dosimeter described in this work can provide stable 3D radiation dose images for all modalities of radiation therapy equipment. Methods to increase sensitivity are developed and discussed.

  7. A remark on the Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for the 3D MHD equations with zero magnetic diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gala, Sadek; Ragusa, Maria Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we show that a smooth solution of the 3D MHD equations with zero magnetic diffusivity in the whole space ℝ3 breaks down if and only if a certain norm of the magnetic field blows up at the same time.

  8. 3D-Printed High-Density Droplet Array Chip for Miniaturized Protein Crystallization Screening under Vapor Diffusion Mode.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi-Ran; Zhu, Li-Na; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhu, Ying; Ye, Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2017-03-23

    Here we describe the combination of three-dimensional (3D) printed chip and automated microfluidic droplet-based screening techniques for achieving massively parallel, nanoliter-scale protein crystallization screening under vapor diffusion mode. We fabricated high-density microwell array chips for sitting-drop vapor diffusion crystallization utilizing the advantage of the 3D-printing technique in producing high-aspect-ratio chips. To overcome the obstacle of 3D-printed microchips in performing long-term reactions caused by their porousness and gas permeability properties in chip body, we developed a two-step postprocessing method, including paraffin filling and parylene coating, to achieve high sealability and stability. We also developed a simple method especially suitable for controlling the vapor diffusion speed of nanoliter-scale droplets by changing the layer thickness of covering oil. With the above methods, 84 tests of nanoliter-scale protein crystallization under vapor diffusion mode were successfully achieved in the 7 × 12 droplet array chip with a protein consumption of 10 nL for each test, which is 20-100 times lower than that in the conventional large-volume screening system. Such a nanoliter-scale vapor diffusion system was applied to two model proteins with commercial precipitants and displayed advantages over that under microbatch mode. It identified more crystallization conditions, especially for the protein samples with lower concentrations.

  9. New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-10-01

    PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

  10. 3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel coupled with neutronic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Uddin, Rizwan

    2010-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) is widely considered as one of the top candidates identified in the Next Generation Nuclear Power-plant (NGNP) Technology Roadmap under the U.S . Depanment of Energy's Generation IV program. TRlSO particle is a common element among different VHTR designs and its performance is critical to the safety and reliability of the whole reactor. A TRISO particle experiences complex thermo-mechanical changes during reactor operation in high temperature and high burnup conditions. TRISO fuel performance analysis requires evaluation of these changes on micro scale. Since most of these changes are temperature dependent, 3D thermal modeling of TRISO fuel is a crucial step of the whole analysis package. In this paper, a 3D numerical thermal model was developed to calculate temperature distribution inside TRISO and pebble under different scenarios. 3D simulation is required because pebbles or TRISOs are always subjected to asymmetric thermal conditions since they are randomly packed together. The numerical model was developed using finite difference method and it was benchmarked against ID analytical results and also results reported from literature. Monte-Carlo models were set up to calculate radial power density profile. Complex convective boundary condition was applied on the pebble outer surface. Three reactors were simulated using this model to calculate temperature distribution under different power levels. Two asymmetric boundary conditions were applied to the pebble to test the 3D capabilities. A gas bubble was hypothesized inside the TRISO kernel and 3D simulation was also carried out under this scenario. Intuition-coherent results were obtained and reported in this paper.

  11. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  12. Modeling of lamps through a diffuser with 2D and 3D picket-fence backlight models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belshaw, Richard J.; Wilmott, Roger; Thomas, John T.

    2002-08-01

    Laboratory photometric measurements are taken of a display backlight one metre away from the emission surface (diffuser) with a whole acceptance angle on the photometer of about 0.125 degrees (2.182mm spot size at emission surface). A simulation method was sought to be able to obtain the brightness uniformity (luminance peak to trough ratio from above one lamp to the null between lamps in a picket-fence backlight). A 3D raytrace BackLight model in TracePro and a 2D Mathematical model in Matlab have been developed. With a specimen backlight in the laboratory, a smooth luminance profile was measured by the photometer on the diffuser surface. Ray Trace models in both 3D and 2D take too long to produce smooth 'continuous filled' distributions. The Mathematical 2D approach, although with limitations, yielded smooth solutions in a very reasonable time frame.

  13. 3D AMR simulations of the evolution of the diffuse gas cloud G2 in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartmann, M.; Ballone, A.; Burkert, A.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Pfuhl, O.; Eisenhauer, F.; Plewa, P. M.; Ott, T.; George, E. M.; Habibi, M.

    2017-01-01

    With the help of 3D AMR hydrodynamical simulations we aim at understanding G2's nature, recent evolution and fate in the coming years. By exploring the possible parameter space of the diffuse cloud scenario, we find that a starting point within the disc of young stars is favoured by the observations, which may hint at G2 being the result of stellar wind interactions.

  14. Theory of Neutron Chain Reactions: Extracts from Volume I, Diffusion and Slowing Down of Neutrons: Chapter I. Elementary Theory of Neutron Diffusion. Chapter II. Second Order Diffusion Theory. Chapter III. Slowing Down of Neutrons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Weinberg, Alvin M.; Noderer, L. C.

    1951-05-15

    The large scale release of nuclear energy in a uranium fission chain reaction involves two essentially distinct physical phenomena. On the one hand there are the individual nuclear processes such as fission, neutron capture, and neutron scattering. These are essentially quantum mechanical in character, and their theory is non-classical. On the other hand, there is the process of diffusion -- in particular, diffusion of neutrons, which is of fundamental importance in a nuclear chain reaction. This process is classical; insofar as the theory of the nuclear chain reaction depends on the theory of neutron diffusion, the mathematical study of chain reactions is an application of classical, not quantum mechanical, techniques.

  15. TART97 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1997-11-22

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on- line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and its data riles.

  16. A unified approach to diffusion direction sensitive slice registration and 3-D DTI reconstruction from moving fetal brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fogtmann, Mads; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher; Xi Cheng; Chapman, Teresa; Wilm, Jakob; Rousseau, Francois; Studholme, Colin

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired in different anatomical planes. The algorithm is implemented using a multi-resolution iterative scheme and multiple real and synthetic data are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. An accuracy experiment using synthetically created motion data of an adult head and an experiment using synthetic motion added to sedated fetal monkey dataset show a significant improvement in motion-trajectory estimation compared to current state-of-the-art approaches. The performance of the method is then evaluated on challenging but clinically typical in utero fetal scans of four different human cases, showing improved rendition of cortical anatomy and extraction of white matter tracts. While the experimental work focuses on DTI reconstruction (second-order tensor model), the proposed reconstruction framework can employ any 5-D diffusion volume model that can be represented by the spatial parameterizations of an orientation distribution function.

  17. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fogtmann, Mads; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher; Cheng, Xi; Chapman, Teresa; Wilm, Jakob; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3-D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired in different anatomical planes. The algorithm is implemented using a multi-resolution iterative scheme and multiple real and synthetic data are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. An accuracy experiment using synthetically created motion data of an adult head and a experiment using synthetic motion added to sedated fetal monkey dataset show a significant improvement in motion-trajectory estimation compared to a state-of-the-art approaches. The performance of the method is then evaluated on challenging but clinically typical in utero fetal scans of four different human cases, showing improved rendition of cortical anatomy and extraction of white matter tracts. While the experimental work focuses on DTI reconstruction (second-order tensor model), the proposed reconstruction framework can employ any 5-D diffusion volume model that can be represented by the spatial parameterizations of an orientation distribution function. PMID:24108711

  18. Enhancement of REBUS-3/DIF3D for whole-core neutronic analysis of prismatic very high temperature reactor (VHTR).

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Zhong, Z.; Taiwo, T.A.; Yang, W.S.; Khalil, H.S.; Smith, M.A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-13

    asymmetric absorber rods), surface-dependent discontinuity factors based on nodal equivalence theory have been introduced into the nodal diffusion theory option of the DIF3D code (DIF3D-nodal) to improve modeling accuracy. Additionally, the discontinuity factors based on the Simplified Equivalence Theory (SET) have been incorporated as an alternative and may be employed for both the DIF3D-nodal and DIF3D-VARIANT (nodal transport) solution options. Two- and three-dimensional core calculations have been performed using the routines developed and modified in this work, along with cross sections generated from single fuel block and one-dimensional or two-dimensional fuel-reflector model. Generally, REBUS-3/DIF3D results for the core multiplication factor and power distribution are found to be in good agreement with reference results (generated with MCNP continuous energy calculations) particularly when discontinuity factors are applied. The DIF3D-VARIANT option was found to provide a more accurate solution in its diffusion approximation than the DIF3D-nodal option. Control rod worths can be estimated with acceptably small errors compared to MCNP results. However, estimation of the core power tilt needs to be improved by introducing the surface-dependent discontinuity factor capability in DIF3D-VARIANT.

  19. Microstructure of 3D-Printed Polymer Composites Investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae Hui; Compton, Brett G.; Heller, William T.; Urban, Voker S.; Duty, Chad E.; Do, Changwoo

    Polymer composites printed from the large scale printer at Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). For the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/Carbon Fiber (CF) composites, the microstructure of polymer domains and the alignment of CF have been characterized across the layer from the printed piece. CF shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction due to the flow of polymer melt at the nozzle. Order parameter of the anisotropy which ranges from -0.11 to -0.06 exhibits strong correlation with the position within the layer: stronger alignment near the layer interface. It is also confirmed that the existence of CF reduces the polymer domain correlation length significantly and reinforces the mechanical strength of the polymer composites. For the Epoxy/nano-clay platelet composites, the effect of processing condition, nozzle size, and the addition of the another filler, Silicon Carbide (SC), have been investigated by SANS. Nano-clay platelet shows strong anisotropic alignment along the printing direction as well. Order parameter of the anisotropy varies according to nozzle size and presence of the SC, and difference disappears at high Q region. Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Sciences and Energy Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Microscale Diffusion Properties of the Cartilage Pericellular Matrix Measured Using 3D Scanning Microphotolysis

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, Holly A.; Christensen, Susan E.; Guilak, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) are enclosed within a pericellular matrix (PCM) whose composition and structure differ from those of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Since the PCM surrounds each cell, molecules that interact with the chondrocyte must pass through the pericellular environment. A quantitative understanding of the diffusional properties of the PCM will help elucidate the PCM’s regulatory role in controlling transport to and from the chondrocyte. The diffusivity of a fluorescently-labeled 70 kDa dextran was quantified within the PCM of porcine articular cartilage using a newly-developed mathematical model of scanning microphotolysis (SCAMP). SCAMP is a rapid, line photobleaching method that accounts for out-of-plane bleaching attributable to high magnification. Data were analyzed by best-fit comparison to simulations generated using a discretization of the diffusion-reaction equation in conjunction with the microscope-specific three-dimensional excitation and detection profiles. The diffusion coefficient of dextran was significantly lower in the PCM than in the ECM in normal cartilage. In early-stage arthritic tissue, however, no significant differences in diffusivity were detectable. These results support the hypothesis that the diffusivity of the PCM is lower than that of the ECM, presumably due to differences in proteoglycan content, and that osteoarthritic changes in tissue affect the transport properties of the PCM. PMID:19045531

  1. Assessment of diffuse coronary artery disease by quantitative analysis of coronary morphology based upon 3-D reconstruction from biplane angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wahel, A.; Wellnhofer, E.; Mugaragu, I.; Sauer, H.U.; Oswald, H.; Fleck, E. |

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative evaluations on coronary vessel systems are of increasing importance in cardiovascular diagnosis, therapy planning, and surgical verification. Whereas local evaluations, such as stenosis analysis, are already available with sufficient accuracy, global evaluations of vessel segments or vessel subsystems are not yet common. Especially for the diagnosis of diffuse coronary artery diseases, the authors combined a 3-D reconstruction system operating on biplane angiograms with a length/volume calculation. The 3-D reconstruction results in a 3-D model of the coronary vessel system, consisting of the vessel skeleton and a discrete number of contours. To obtain an utmost accurate model, the authors focused on exact geometry determination. Several algorithms for calculating missing geometric parameters and correcting remaining geometry errors were implemented and verified. The length/volume evaluation can be performed either on single vessel segments, on a set of segments, or on subtrees. A volume model based on generalized elliptical conic sections is created for the selected segments. Volumes and lengths (measured along the vessel course) of those elements are summed up. In this way, the morphological parameters of a vessel subsystem can be set in relation to the parameters of the proximal segment supplying it. These relations allow objective assessments of diffuse coronary artery diseases.

  2. BOX SPLINE BASED 3D TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF DIFFUSION PROPAGATORS FROM MRI DATA.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxing; Portnoy, Sharon; Entezari, Alireza; Vemuri, Baba C; Blackband, Stephen J

    2011-06-09

    This paper introduces a tomographic approach for reconstruction of diffusion propagators, P( r ), in a box spline framework. Box splines are chosen as basis functions for high-order approximation of P( r ) from the diffusion signal. Box splines are a generalization of B-splines to multivariate setting that are particularly useful in the context of tomographic reconstruction. The X-Ray or Radon transform of a (tensor-product B-spline or a non-separable) box spline is a box spline - the space of box splines is closed under the Radon transform.We present synthetic and real multi-shell diffusion-weighted MR data experiments that demonstrate the increased accuracy of P( r ) reconstruction as the order of basis functions is increased.

  3. Constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation of 3D volumetric MRI images.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Aleš; Salvado, Olivier; Acosta, Oscar; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen

    2012-03-01

    Due to physical limitations inherent in magnetic resonance imaging scanners, three dimensional volumetric scans are often acquired with anisotropic voxel resolution. We investigate several interpolation approaches to reduce the anisotropy and present a novel approach - constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation. This technique was compared to common methods: linear and cubic B-Spline interpolation and a technique based on non-rigid registration of neighboring slices. The methods were evaluated on artificial MR phantoms and real MR scans of human brain. The constrained reverse diffusion approach delivered promising results and provides an alternative for thick slice interpolation, especially for higher anisotropy factors.

  4. Applying and validating the RANS-3D flow-solver for evaluating a subsonic serpentine diffuser geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Michael J.; Won, Mark J.; Cosentino, Gary B.; Te, Alexander

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic inlet ducts for advanced, high-performance aircraft are evolving towards complex three-dimensional shapes for reasons of overall integration and weight. These factors lead to diffuser geometries that may sacrifice inlet performance, unless careful attention to design details and boundary layer management techniques are employed. The ability of viscous computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such geometries to aid the aircraft configurator in this complex design problem is herein examined. The RANS-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver is applied to model the complex flowfield occurring in a representative diffuser geometry and the solutions are compared to experimental results from a static test of the inlet duct. The computational results are shown to compare very favorably with experimental results over a range of mass flow rates, including those involving large amounts of separation in the diffuser. In addition, a novel grid topology is presented, and two turbulence models are evaluated in this study as part of the RANS-3D code.

  5. The regularized 3D Boussinesq equations with fractional Laplacian and no diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessaih, H.; Ferrario, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the 3D regularized Boussinesq equations. The velocity equation is regularized à la Leray through a smoothing kernel of order α in the nonlinear term and a β-fractional Laplacian; we consider the critical case α + β =5/4 and we assume 1/2 < β <5/4. The temperature equation is a pure transport equation, where the transport velocity is regularized through the same smoothing kernel of order α. We prove global well posedness when the initial velocity is in Hr and the initial temperature is in H r - β for r > max ⁡ (2 β , β + 1). This regularity is enough to prove uniqueness of solutions. We also prove a continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions.

  6. Calcium3D: a visual software package for the simulation of calcium buffered diffusion in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Germán; Gil, Amparo; Segura, Javier

    2005-11-01

    We present Calcium3D, a user-friendly software package for simulating calcium triggered processes in neuroendocrine cells. We use Monte Carlo methods for the simulation of the basic processes involved: entry of calcium into the cytoplasm, the diffusion of ions and mobile intracellular calcium buffers inside the intracellular medium, and the kinetics of the reaction of calcium with these buffers. The outputs of the simulation are calcium and buffer concentrations as a function of time and for different depths from the cellular membrane.

  7. 3D transient electromagnetic simulation using a modified correspondence principle for wave and diffusion fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Egbert, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    The fictitious time domain method (FTD), based on the correspondence principle for wave and diffusion fields, has been developed and used over the past few years primarily for marine electromagnetic (EM) modeling. Here we present results of our efforts to apply the FTD approach to land and airborne TEM problems which can reduce the computer time several orders of magnitude and preserve high accuracy. In contrast to the marine case, where sources are in the conductive sea water, we must model the EM fields in the air; to allow for topography air layers must be explicitly included in the computational domain. Furthermore, because sources for most TEM applications generally must be modeled as finite loops, it is useful to solve directly for the impulse response appropriate to the problem geometry, instead of the point-source Green functions typically used for marine problems. Our approach can be summarized as follows: (1) The EM diffusion equation is transformed to a fictitious wave equation. (2) The FTD wave equation is solved with an explicit finite difference time-stepping scheme, with CPML (Convolutional PML) boundary conditions for the whole computational domain including the air and earth , with FTD domain source corresponding to the actual transmitter geometry. Resistivity of the air layers is kept as low as possible, to compromise between efficiency (longer fictitious time step) and accuracy. We have generally found a host/air resistivity contrast of 10-3 is sufficient. (3)A "Modified" Fourier Transform (MFT) allow us recover system's impulse response from the fictitious time domain to the diffusion (frequency) domain. (4) The result is multiplied by the Fourier transformation (FT) of the real source current avoiding time consuming convolutions in the time domain. (5) The inverse FT is employed to get the final full waveform and full time response of the system in the time domain. In general, this method can be used to efficiently solve most time-domain EM

  8. MO-G-BRF-07: Anomalously Fast Diffusion of Carbon Nanotubes Carriers in 3D Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y; Bahng, J; Kotov, N

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to investigate and understand diffusion process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanoscale particles in tissue and organs. Methods: In this research, we utilized a 3D model tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)cultured in inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffolds to compare the diffusivity of CNTs with small molecules such as Rhodamine and FITC in vitro, and further investigated the transportation of CNTs with and without targeting ligand, TGFβ1. The real-time permeation profiles of CNTs in HCC tissue model with high temporal and spatial resolution was demonstrated by using standard confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the diffusion process in 3D was carried out using luminescence intensity in a series of Z-stack images obtained for different time points of the diffusion process after initial addition of CNTs or small molecules to the cell culture and the image data was analyzed by software ImageJ and Mathematica. Results: CNTs display diffusion rate in model tissues substantially faster than small molecules of the similar charge such as FITC, and the diffusion rate of CNTs are significantly enhanced with targeting ligand, TGFβ1. Conclusion: In terms of the advantages of in-vitro model, we were able to have access to measuring the rate of CNT penetration at designed conditions with variable parameters. And the findings by using this model, changed our understanding about advantages of CNTs as nanoscale drug carriers and provides design principles for making new drug carriers for both treatment and diagnostics. Additionally the fast diffusion opens the discussion of the best possible drug carriers to reach deep parts of cancerous tissues, which is often a prerequisite for successful cancer treatment. This work was supported by the Center for Photonic and Multiscale Nanomaterials funded by National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center program DMR 1120923. The work was also partially supported by NSF

  9. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Liu, Feng (Inventor); Lax, Melvin (Inventor); Das, Bidyut B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: ##EQU1## wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absoption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  10. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Gayen, Swapan K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absorption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  11. Heat losses and 3D diffusion phenomena for defect sizing procedures in video pulse thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, N.; Teruzzi, P.

    2002-06-01

    Dynamical thermographic techniques like video pulse thermography are very useful for the non-destructive testing of structural components. In literature different models were proposed, which allow to describe the time evolution of the thermal contrast for materials with sub-superficial defects. In the case of circular defect the time evolution of the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the thermal contrast was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Nevertheless a mismatch in defect sizing between experimental results and theoretical simulations was found. Possible explanations of this disagreement was analysed. A factor widely neglected is the heat loss (radiation and convection). In this paper a theoretical analysis of the influence of these contributions is reported. Furthermore in order to explain the experimental evidence of FWHM time evolution we introduced a correction due to lateral heat diffusion around the defect. In this way a possible explanation for the experimental results was obtained. Brick samples with a circular flat bottom hole as defect was tested both for the interest in defect sizing in building material through NDT and for the low thermal diffusivity of this material which allows the study of the phenomenon in a slow motion.

  12. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 105-106 yr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reconstruction of the internal structure of cooling neutron stars from observations of their thermal surface emission.

  13. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  14. Use of High Resolution 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Study Brain White Matter Development in Live Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu; McMurray, Matthew S.; Oguz, Ipek; Yuan, Hong; Styner, Martin A.; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine M.; An, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    High resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can provide important information on brain development, yet it is challenging in live neonatal rats due to the small size of neonatal brain and motion-sensitive nature of DTI. Imaging in live neonatal rats has clear advantages over fixed brain scans, as longitudinal and functional studies would be feasible to understand neuro-developmental abnormalities. In this study, we developed imaging strategies that can be used to obtain high resolution 3D DTI images in live neonatal rats at postnatal day 5 (PND5) and PND14, using only 3 h of imaging acquisition time. An optimized 3D DTI pulse sequence and appropriate animal setup to minimize physiological motion artifacts are the keys to successful high resolution 3D DTI imaging. Thus, a 3D rapid acquisition relaxation enhancement DTI sequence with twin navigator echoes was implemented to accelerate imaging acquisition time and minimize motion artifacts. It has been suggested that neonatal mammals possess a unique ability to tolerate mild-to-moderate hypothermia and hypoxia without long term impact. Thus, we additionally utilized this ability to minimize motion artifacts in magnetic resonance images by carefully suppressing the respiratory rate to around 15/min for PND5 and 30/min for PND14 using mild-to-moderate hypothermia. These imaging strategies have been successfully implemented to study how the effect of cocaine exposure in dams might affect brain development in their rat pups. Image quality resulting from this in vivo DTI study was comparable to ex vivo scans. fractional anisotropy values were also similar between the live and fixed brain scans. The capability of acquiring high quality in vivo DTI imaging offers a valuable opportunity to study many neurological disorders in brain development in an authentic living environment. PMID:22013426

  15. Dimensionality Reduction Based Optimization Algorithm for Sparse 3-D Image Reconstruction in Diffuse Optical Tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Liu, Hanli; Ye, Zhou; Oraintara, Soontorn

    2016-03-04

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a relatively low cost and portable imaging modality for reconstruction of optical properties in a highly scattering medium, such as human tissue. The inverse problem in DOT is highly ill-posed, making reconstruction of high-quality image a critical challenge. Because of the nature of sparsity in DOT, sparsity regularization has been utilized to achieve high-quality DOT reconstruction. However, conventional approaches using sparse optimization are computationally expensive and have no selection criteria to optimize the regularization parameter. In this paper, a novel algorithm, Dimensionality Reduction based Optimization for DOT (DRO-DOT), is proposed. It reduces the dimensionality of the inverse DOT problem by reducing the number of unknowns in two steps and thereby makes the overall process fast. First, it constructs a low resolution voxel basis based on the sensing-matrix properties to find an image support. Second, it reconstructs the sparse image inside this support. To compensate for the reduced sensitivity with increasing depth, depth compensation is incorporated in DRO-DOT. An efficient method to optimally select the regularization parameter is proposed for obtaining a high-quality DOT image. DRO-DOT is also able to reconstruct high-resolution images even with a limited number of optodes in a spatially limited imaging set-up.

  16. Dimensionality Reduction Based Optimization Algorithm for Sparse 3-D Image Reconstruction in Diffuse Optical Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Liu, Hanli; Ye, Zhou; Oraintara, Soontorn

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a relatively low cost and portable imaging modality for reconstruction of optical properties in a highly scattering medium, such as human tissue. The inverse problem in DOT is highly ill-posed, making reconstruction of high-quality image a critical challenge. Because of the nature of sparsity in DOT, sparsity regularization has been utilized to achieve high-quality DOT reconstruction. However, conventional approaches using sparse optimization are computationally expensive and have no selection criteria to optimize the regularization parameter. In this paper, a novel algorithm, Dimensionality Reduction based Optimization for DOT (DRO-DOT), is proposed. It reduces the dimensionality of the inverse DOT problem by reducing the number of unknowns in two steps and thereby makes the overall process fast. First, it constructs a low resolution voxel basis based on the sensing-matrix properties to find an image support. Second, it reconstructs the sparse image inside this support. To compensate for the reduced sensitivity with increasing depth, depth compensation is incorporated in DRO-DOT. An efficient method to optimally select the regularization parameter is proposed for obtaining a high-quality DOT image. DRO-DOT is also able to reconstruct high-resolution images even with a limited number of optodes in a spatially limited imaging set-up. PMID:26940661

  17. An anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filtering method for 3D SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Arridge, Simon R.; Pedemonte, Stefano; Bousse, Alexandre; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we aim to reconstruct single-photon emission computed tomography images using anatomical information from magnetic resonance imaging as a priori knowledge about the activity distribution. The trade-off between anatomical and emission data is one of the main concerns for such studies. In this work, we propose an anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filter (ADADF) as a penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization optimization framework. The ADADF method has improved edge-preserving denoising characteristics compared to other smoothing penalty terms based on quadratic and non-quadratic functions. The proposed method has an important ability to retain information which is absent in the anatomy. To make our approach more stable to the noise-edge classification problem, robust statistics have been employed. Comparison of the ADADF method is performed with a successful anatomically driven technique, namely, the Bowsher prior (BP). Quantitative assessment using simulated and clinical neuroreceptor volumetric data show the advantage of the ADADF over the BP. For the modelled data, the overall image resolution, the contrast, the signal-to-noise ratio and the ability to preserve important features in the data are all improved by using the proposed method. For clinical data, the contrast in the region of interest is significantly improved using the ADADF compared to the BP, while successfully eliminating noise.

  18. The Development of WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ryan

    Graphics processing units, or GPUs, have gradually increased in computational power from the small, job-specific boards of the early 1990s to the programmable powerhouses of today. Compared to more common central processing units, or CPUs, GPUs have a higher aggregate memory bandwidth, much higher floating-point operations per second (FLOPS), and lower energy consumption per FLOP. Because one of the main obstacles in exascale computing is power consumption, many new supercomputing platforms are gaining much of their computational capacity by incorporating GPUs into their compute nodes. Since CPU-optimized parallel algorithms are not directly portable to GPU architectures (or at least not without losing substantial performance), transport codes need to be rewritten to execute efficiently on GPUs. Unless this is done, reactor simulations cannot take full advantage of these new supercomputers. WARP, which can stand for ``Weaving All the Random Particles,'' is a three-dimensional (3D) continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code developed in this work as to efficiently implement a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithm on a GPU. WARP accelerates Monte Carlo simulations while preserving the benefits of using the Monte Carlo Method, namely, very few physical and geometrical simplifications. WARP is able to calculate multiplication factors, flux tallies, and fission source distributions for time-independent problems, and can run in both criticality or fixed source modes. WARP can transport neutrons in unrestricted arrangements of parallelepipeds, hexagonal prisms, cylinders, and spheres. WARP uses an event-based algorithm, but with some important differences. Moving data is expensive, so WARP uses a remapping vector of pointer/index pairs to direct GPU threads to the data they need to access. The remapping vector is sorted by reaction type after every transport iteration using a high-efficiency parallel radix sort, which serves to keep the

  19. The relevance of ambipolar diffusion for neutron star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Akgün, Taner; Pons, José A.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2017-03-01

    We study ambipolar diffusion in strongly magnetized neutron stars, with special focus on the effects of neutrino reaction rates and the impact of a superfluid/superconducting transition in the neutron star core. For axisymmetric magnetic field configurations, we determine the deviation from β-equilibrium induced by the magnetic force and calculate the velocity of the slow, quasi-stationary, ambipolar drift. We study the temperature dependence of the velocity pattern and clearly identify the transition to a predominantly solenoidal flow. For stars without superconducting/superfluid constituents and with a mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic field of typical magnetar strength, we find that ambipolar diffusion proceeds fast enough to have a significant impact on the magnetic field evolution only at low core temperatures, T ≲ 1-2 × 108 K. The ambipolar diffusion time-scale becomes appreciably shorter when fast neutrino reactions are present, because the possibility to balance part of the magnetic force with pressure gradients is reduced. We also find short ambipolar diffusion time-scales in the case of superconducting cores for T ≲ 109 K, due to the reduced interaction between protons and neutrons. In the most favourable scenario, with fast neutrino reactions and superconducting cores, ambipolar diffusion results in advection velocities of several km kyr-1. This velocity can substantially reorganize magnetic fields in magnetar cores, in a way which can only be confirmed by dynamical simulations.

  20. Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Erell; Ciarlet, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code. APOLLO3 is a registered trademark in France.

  1. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  2. Extrapolation techniques applied to matrix methods in neutron diffusion problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccready, Robert R

    1956-01-01

    A general matrix method is developed for the solution of characteristic-value problems of the type arising in many physical applications. The scheme employed is essentially that of Gauss and Seidel with appropriate modifications needed to make it applicable to characteristic-value problems. An iterative procedure produces a sequence of estimates to the answer; and extrapolation techniques, based upon previous behavior of iterants, are utilized in speeding convergence. Theoretically sound limits are placed on the magnitude of the extrapolation that may be tolerated. This matrix method is applied to the problem of finding criticality and neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron-diffusion equations is treated. Results for this example are indicated.

  3. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Christopher N; Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-29

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode-a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  4. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervin, Christopher N.; Parker, Joseph F.; Nelson, Eric S.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode—a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  5. Diffusion of water in bentonite clay: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. K.; Prabhudesai, S. A.; Dessai, R. Raut; Erwin Desa, J. A.; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion of water confined in natural bentonite clay is studied using the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. X-ray diffraction shows a well-defined crystalline structure of the clay with an interlayer spacing of 13 Å. The QENS experiment has been carried out on hydrated as well as dehydrated clay at 300 K. Significant quasi-elastic broadening was observed in case of hydrated bentonite clay whereas dehydrated clay did not show any broadening over the instrument resolution. Analysis of QENS data reveals that diffusion of water occurs through jump diffusion characterized by random distribution of jump lengths. Diffusion of water in clay is found to be hindered vis a vis bulk water.

  6. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  7. A Diffusion-Based and Dynamic 3D-Printed Device That Enables Parallel in Vitro Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Sarah Y.; Meisel, Jayda E.; Monsma, Frederick J.; Spence, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    The process of bringing a drug to market involves many steps, including the preclinical stage, where various properties of the drug candidate molecule are determined. These properties, which include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, are often displayed in a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. While PK profiles are determined in animal models, in vitro systems that model in vivo processes are available, although each possesses shortcomings. Here, we present a 3D-printed, diffusion-based, and dynamic in vitro PK device. The device contains six flow channels, each with integrated porous membrane-based insert wells. The pores of these membranes enable drugs to freely diffuse back and forth between the flow channels and the inserts, thus enabling both loading and clearance portions of a standard PK curve to be generated. The device is designed to work with 96-well plate technology and consumes single-digit milliliter volumes to generate multiple PK profiles, simultaneously. Generation of PK profiles by use of the device was initially performed with fluorescein as a test molecule. Effects of such parameters as flow rate, loading time, volume in the insert well, and initial concentration of the test molecule were investigated. A prediction model was generated from this data, enabling the user to predict the concentration of the test molecule at any point along the PK profile within a coefficient of variation of ~5%. Depletion of the analyte from the well was characterized and was determined to follow first-order rate kinetics, indicated by statistically equivalent (p > 0.05) depletion half-lives that were independent of the starting concentration. A PK curve for an approved antibiotic, levofloxacin, was generated to show utility beyond the fluorescein test molecule. PMID:26727249

  8. Hierarchical Statistical 3D ' Atomistic' Simulation of Decanano MOSFETs: Drift-Diffusion, Hydrodynamic and Quantum Mechanical Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    When MOSFETs are scaled to deep submicron dimensions the discreteness and randomness of the dopant charges in the channel region introduces significant fluctuations in the device characteristics. This effect, predicted 20 year ago, has been confirmed experimentally and in simulation studies. The impact of the fluctuations on the functionality, yield, and reliability of the corresponding systems shifts the paradigm of the numerical device simulation. It becomes insufficient to simulate only one device representing one macroscopical design in a continuous charge approximation. An ensemble of macroscopically identical but microscopically different devices has to be characterized by simulation of statistically significant samples. The aims of the numerical simulations shift from predicting the characteristics of a single device with continuous doping towards estimating the mean values and the standard deviations of basic design parameters such as threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, transconductance, drive current, etc. for the whole ensemble of 'atomistically' different devices in the system. It has to be pointed out that even the mean values obtained from 'atomistic' simulations are not identical to the values obtained from continuous doping simulations. In this paper we present a hierarchical approach to the 'atomistic' simulation of aggressively scaled decanano MOSFETs. A full scale 3D drift-diffusion'atomostic' simulation approach is first described and used for verification of the more economical, but also more restricted, options. To reduce the processor time and memory requirements at high drain voltage we have developed a self-consistent option based on a thin slab solution of the current continuity equation only in the channel region. This is coupled to the Poisson's equation solution in the whole simulation domain in the Gummel iteration cycles. The accuracy of this approach is investigated in comparison with the full self-consistent solution. At low drain

  9. The 3-D numerical study of airflow in the compressor/combustor prediffuser and dump diffuser of an industrial gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Ajay K.; Yang, Tah-Teh

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the 3D computations of a flow field in the compressor/combustor diffusers of an industrial gas turbine. The geometry considered includes components such as the combustor support strut, the transition piece and the impingement sleeve with discrete cooling air holes on its surface. Because the geometry was complex and 3D, the airflow path was divided into two computational domains sharing an interface region. The body-fitted grid was generated independently in each of the two domains. The governing equations for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the finite volume approach. The results show that the flow in the prediffuser is strongly coupled with the flow in the dump diffuser and vice versa. The computations also revealed that the flow in the dump diffuser is highly nonuniform.

  10. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  11. Performance and accuracy of criticality calculations performed using WARP – A framework for continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport in general 3D geometries on GPUs

    DOE PAGES

    Bergmann, Ryan M.; Rowland, Kelly L.; Radnović, Nikola; ...

    2017-05-01

    In this companion paper to "Algorithmic Choices in WARP - A Framework for Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Neutron Transport in General 3D Geometries on GPUs" (doi:10.1016/j.anucene.2014.10.039), the WARP Monte Carlo neutron transport framework for graphics processing units (GPUs) is benchmarked against production-level central processing unit (CPU) Monte Carlo neutron transport codes for both performance and accuracy. We compare neutron flux spectra, multiplication factors, runtimes, speedup factors, and costs of various GPU and CPU platforms running either WARP, Serpent 2.1.24, or MCNP 6.1. WARP compares well with the results of the production-level codes, and it is shown that on the newestmore » hardware considered, GPU platforms running WARP are between 0.8 to 7.6 times as fast as CPU platforms running production codes. Also, the GPU platforms running WARP were between 15% and 50% as expensive to purchase and between 80% to 90% as expensive to operate as equivalent CPU platforms performing at an equal simulation rate.« less

  12. Calculation of the neutron diffusion equation by using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koklu, H.; Ersoy, A.; Gulecyuz, M. C.; Ozer, O.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of the neutrons in a nuclear fuel element in the nuclear reactor core can be calculated by the neutron diffusion theory. It is the basic and the simplest approximation for the neutron flux function in the reactor core. In this study, the neutron flux function is obtained by the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) that is a new and convenient method in recent years. One-group time-independent neutron diffusion equation is examined for the most solved geometrical reactor core of spherical, cubic and cylindrical shapes, in the frame of the HPM. It is observed that the HPM produces excellent results consistent with the existing literature.

  13. A Numerical Model for Coupling of Neutron Diffusion and Thermomechanics in Fast Burst Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Dana A. Knoll; Cassiano De Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    We develop a numerical model for coupling of neutron diffusion adn termomechanics in order to stimulate transient behavior of a fast burst reactor. The problem involves solving a set of non-linear different equations which approximate neutron diffusion, temperature change, and material behavior. With this equation set we will model the transition from a supercritical to subcritical state and possible mechanical vibration.

  14. Prevention of sulfur diffusion using MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anand P; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, JeongTaik; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-07-28

    We report new three-dimensional (3D)-nanostructured MoS2-carbonaceous materials in which MoS2 sheets are intercalated between the graphite layers that possess a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure which prevents the aggregation of MoS2 and diffusion of sulfur from carbonaceous materials, enhancing the cycling stability of Li-ion batteries. We developed an efficient and scalable process applicable to mass production for synthesizing non-aggregated MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite based on stress induced and microwave irradiation. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the as-synthesized materials consisted of MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite platelets that had a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure. The obtained MoS2-graphite powder surpasses MoS2 as an anode material in terms of specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performances at high current densities for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the graphite sheets not only reduced the contact resistance in the electrode but also facilitated electron transfer in the lithiation/delithiation processes. The superior electrochemical performances especially for the cycling stability of the Li-ion battery originate from prevention of the sulfur diffusion of the MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite.

  15. In-situ Neutron Scattering Determination of 3D Phase-Morphology Correlations in Fullerene Block Copolymer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Alamgir; Bucknall, David; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2015-02-23

    a fundamental study that does not set out to evaluate new materials or produce devices, but rather we wish to understand from first principles how the molecular structure of polymer-fullerene mixtures determined using neutron scattering (small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflection) affects device characteristics and consequently performance. While this seems a very obvious question to ask, this critical understanding is far from being realized despite the wealth of studies into OPV’s and is severely limiting organic PV devices from achieving their theoretical potential. Despite the fundamental nature of proposed work, it is essential to remain technologically relevant and therefore to ensure we address these issues we have developed relationships on the fundamental nature of structure-processing-property paradigm as applied to future need for large area, flexible OPV devices. Nanoscale heterojunction systems consisting of fullerenes dispersed in conjugated polymers are promising materials candidates for achieving high performance organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In order to understand the phase behavior in these devices, neutron reflection is used to determine the behavior of model conjugated polymer-fullerene mixtures. Neutron reflection is particularly useful for these types of thin film studies since the fullerene generally have a high scattering contrast with respect to most polymers. We are studying model bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films based on mixtures of poly(3-hexyl thiophene)s (P3HT), a widely used photoconductive polymer, and different fullerenes (C60, PCBM and bis-PCBM). The characterization technique of neutron reflectivity measurements have been used to determine film morphology in a direction normal to the film surfaces. The novelty of the approach over previous studies is that the BHJ layer is sandwiched between a PEDOT/PSS and Al layers in real device configuration. Using this model system, the effect of typical thermal annealing

  16. HERITAGE: the concept of a giant flux neutron reflectometer for the exploration of 3-d structure of free-liquid and solid interfaces in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattauch, S.; Ioffe, A.; Lott, D.; Bottyán, L.; Daillant, J.; Markó, M.; Menelle, A.; Sajti, S.; Veres, T.

    2017-01-01

    The instrumental concept of HERITAGE - a reflectometer with a horizontal sample geometry - well fitted to the long pulse structure of a neutron source is presented. It is constitutes a new class of reflectometers achieving the unprecedentedly high flux for classical specular reflectometry combined with off-specular reflectometry and grazing incidence small-angle scattering (GISANS), thus resulting in a complete 3-d exploration of lateral and in depth structures in thin films. This is achieved by specially designed neutron guides. In the horizontal direction (perpendicular to the scattering plane) the guide's elliptic shape focusses the neutrons onto the sample. In the vertical direction a multichannel geometry provides a smooth divergence distribution at the sample position while accepting the entire beam from a compact high-brilliance flat moderator. The modular collimation setup of HERITAGE provides extremely high flexibility in respect to sample geometries and environments, including the possibility to study virtually all types of solid and liquid interfaces, statically or kinetically. The use of multiple beam illumination allows for reflectivity and GISANS measurements at liquid interfaces both from above and below without a need to move the sample. This concept assures the delivery of the maximum possible and usable flux to the sample in both reflectivity and GISANS measurement regimes. The presented design outperforms the flux of all present-day and already for the ESS planned reflectometers and GISANS setups in flux and in measuring time for standard samples.

  17. A method for development of efficient 3D models for neutronic calculations of ASTRA critical facility using experimental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanin, A. L.; Boyarinov, V. F.; Glushkov, E. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Moroz, N. P.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Timoshinov, A. V.; Volkov, Yu. N.

    2016-12-01

    The application of experimental information on measured axial distributions of fission reaction rates for development of 3D numerical models of the ASTRA critical facility taking into account azimuthal asymmetry of the assembly simulating a HTGR with annular core is substantiated. Owing to the presence of the bottom reflector and the absence of the top reflector, the application of 2D models based on experimentally determined buckling is impossible for calculation of critical assemblies of the ASTRA facility; therefore, an alternative approach based on the application of the extrapolated assembly height is proposed. This approach is exemplified by the numerical analysis of experiments on measurement of efficiency of control rods mockups and protection system (CPS).

  18. TART 2000: A Coupled Neutron-Photon, 3-D, Combinatorial Geometry, Time Dependent, Monte Carlo Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E

    2000-11-22

    TART2000 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo radiation transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input Preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2000 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2000 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART2000 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART2000 and its data files.

  19. TART98 a coupled neutron-photon 3-D, combinatorial geometry time dependent Monte Carlo Transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    1998-11-22

    TART98 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 Dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo radiation transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART98 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART98 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART98 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART98 and its data files.

  20. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-11-30

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution.

  1. Iso-geometric analysis for neutron diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S. K.; Eaton, M. D.; Williams, M. M. R.

    2012-07-01

    Iso-geometric analysis can be viewed as a generalisation of the finite element method. It permits the exact representation of a wider range of geometries including conic sections. This is possible due to the use of concepts employed in computer-aided design. The underlying mathematical representations from computer-aided design are used to capture both the geometry and approximate the solution. In this paper the neutron diffusion equation is solved using iso-geometric analysis. The practical advantages are highlighted by looking at the problem of a circular fuel pin in a square moderator. For this problem the finite element method requires the geometry to be approximated. This leads to errors in the shape and size of the interface between the fuel and the moderator. In contrast to this iso-geometric analysis allows the interface to be represented exactly. It is found that, due to a cancellation of errors, the finite element method converges more quickly than iso-geometric analysis for this problem. A fuel pin in a vacuum was then considered as this problem is highly sensitive to the leakage across the interface. In this case iso-geometric analysis greatly outperforms the finite element method. Due to the improvement in the representation of the geometry iso-geometric analysis can outperform traditional finite element methods. It is proposed that the use of iso-geometric analysis on neutron transport problems will allow deterministic solutions to be obtained for exact geometries. Something that is only currently possible with Monte Carlo techniques. (authors)

  2. Cooperative learning of neutron diffusion and transport theories

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Michael A.

    1999-04-30

    A cooperative group instructional strategy is being used to teach a unit on neutron transport and diffusion theory in a first-year-graduate level, Reactor Theory course that was formerly presented in the traditional lecture/discussion style. Students are divided into groups of two or three for the duration of the unit. Class meetings are divided into traditional lecture/discussion segments punctuated by cooperative group exercises. The group exercises were designed to require the students to elaborate, summarize, or practice the material presented in the lecture/discussion segments. Both positive interdependence and individual accountability are fostered by adjusting individual grades on the unit exam by a factor dependent upon group achievement. Group collaboration was also encouraged on homework assignments by assigning each group a single grade on each assignment. The results of the unit exam have been above average in the two classes in which the cooperative group method was employed. In particular, the problem solving ability of the students has shown particular improvement. Further,the students felt that the cooperative group format was both more educationally effective and more enjoyable than the lecture/discussion format.

  3. Prevention of sulfur diffusion using MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Anand P.; Yoo, Heejoun; Lee, Jeongtaik; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-07-01

    We report new three-dimensional (3D)-nanostructured MoS2-carbonaceous materials in which MoS2 sheets are intercalated between the graphite layers that possess a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure which prevents the aggregation of MoS2 and diffusion of sulfur from carbonaceous materials, enhancing the cycling stability of Li-ion batteries. We developed an efficient and scalable process applicable to mass production for synthesizing non-aggregated MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite based on stress induced and microwave irradiation. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the as-synthesized materials consisted of MoS2-intercalated 3D hybrid-nanostructured graphite platelets that had a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure. The obtained MoS2-graphite powder surpasses MoS2 as an anode material in terms of specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performances at high current densities for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the graphite sheets not only reduced the contact resistance in the electrode but also facilitated electron transfer in the lithiation/delithiation processes. The superior electrochemical performances especially for the cycling stability of the Li-ion battery originate from prevention of the sulfur diffusion of the MoS2-intercalated 3D-nanostructured graphite.We report new three-dimensional (3D)-nanostructured MoS2-carbonaceous materials in which MoS2 sheets are intercalated between the graphite layers that possess a multiply repeated graphite/MoS2/graphite structure which prevents the aggregation of MoS2 and diffusion of sulfur from carbonaceous materials, enhancing the cycling stability of Li-ion batteries. We developed an efficient and scalable process applicable to mass production for synthesizing non

  4. A scalable diffraction-based scanning 3D colour video display as demonstrated by using tiled gratings and a vertical diffuser

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Chen, Jhensi; Yao, Jun; Chu, Daping

    2017-01-01

    A high quality 3D display requires a high amount of optical information throughput, which needs an appropriate mechanism to distribute information in space uniformly and efficiently. This study proposes a front-viewing system which is capable of managing the required amount of information efficiently from a high bandwidth source and projecting 3D images with a decent size and a large viewing angle at video rate in full colour. It employs variable gratings to support a high bandwidth distribution. This concept is scalable and the system can be made compact in size. A horizontal parallax only (HPO) proof-of-concept system is demonstrated by projecting holographic images from a digital micro mirror device (DMD) through rotational tiled gratings before they are realised on a vertical diffuser for front-viewing. PMID:28304371

  5. A scalable diffraction-based scanning 3D colour video display as demonstrated by using tiled gratings and a vertical diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Chen, Jhensi; Yao, Jun; Chu, Daping

    2017-03-01

    A high quality 3D display requires a high amount of optical information throughput, which needs an appropriate mechanism to distribute information in space uniformly and efficiently. This study proposes a front-viewing system which is capable of managing the required amount of information efficiently from a high bandwidth source and projecting 3D images with a decent size and a large viewing angle at video rate in full colour. It employs variable gratings to support a high bandwidth distribution. This concept is scalable and the system can be made compact in size. A horizontal parallax only (HPO) proof-of-concept system is demonstrated by projecting holographic images from a digital micro mirror device (DMD) through rotational tiled gratings before they are realised on a vertical diffuser for front-viewing.

  6. 3D modeling of void nucleation and initial void growth due to Tin diffusion as a result of electromigration in polycrystalline lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Deepak

    Electromigration (EM) has been a serious reliability concern in microelectronics packaging for close to half a century now. Whenever the challenges of EM are overcome newer complications arise such as the demand for better performance due to increased miniaturization of semiconductor devices or the problems faced due to undesirable properties of lead-free solders. The motivation for the work is that there exists no fully computational modeling study on EM damage in lead-free solders (and also in lead-based solders). Modeling techniques such as one developed here can give new insights on effects of different grain features and offer high flexibility in varying parameters and study the corresponding effects. In this work, a new computational approach has been developed to study void nucleation and initial void growth in solders due to metal atom diffusion. It involves the creation of a 3D stochastic mesoscale model of the microstructure of a polycrystalline Tin structure. The next step was to identify regions of current crowding or 'hot-spots'. This was done through solving a finite difference scheme on top of the 3D structure. The nucleation of voids due to atomic diffusion from the regions of current crowding was modeled by diffusion from the identified hot-spot through a rejection free kinetic Monte-Carlo scheme. This resulted in the net movement of atoms from the cathode to the anode. The above steps of identifying the hotspot and diffusing the atoms at the hotspot were repeated and this lead to the initial growth of the void. This procedure was studied varying different grain parameters. In the future, the goal is to explore the effect of more grain parameters and consider other mechanisms of failure such as the formation of intermetallic compounds due to interstitial diffusion and dissolution of underbump metallurgy.

  7. Cosine series representation of 3D curves and its application to white matter fiber bundles in diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Lee, Jee Eun; Lazar, Mariana; Lainhart, Janet E.; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel cosine series representation for encoding fiber bundles consisting of multiple 3D curves. The coordinates of curves are parameterized as coefficients of cosine series expansion. We address the issue of registration, averaging and statistical inference on curves in a unified Hilbert space framework. Unlike traditional splines, the proposed method does not have internal knots and explicitly represents curves as a linear combination of cosine basis. This simplicity in the representation enables us to design statistical models, register curves and perform subsequent analysis in a more unified statistical framework than splines. The proposed representation is applied in characterizing abnormal shape of white matter fiber tracts passing through the splenium of the corpus callosum in autistic subjects. For an arbitrary tract, a 19 degree expansion is usually found to be sufficient to reconstruct the tract with 60 parameters. PMID:23316267

  8. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Konstantin L. Lukzen, Nikita N.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical “microreactor,” i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the “pole” of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  9. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.; Lukzen, Nikita N.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical "microreactor," i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the "pole" of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  10. A diffuser-based three-dimensional measurement of polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of optical films for 3D-display applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-26

    We propose an accurate and easy-to-use three-dimensional measurement method using a diffuser plate to analyze the scattering characteristics of optical films. The far-field radiation pattern of light scattered by the optical film is obtained from the illuminance pattern created on the diffuser plate by the light. A mathematical model and calibration methods were described, and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct measurement using a luminance meter. The new method gave very precise three-dimensional polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of scattering polarizer films, and it can play an effective role in developing high performance polarization-selective screens for 3D display applications.

  11. Fingering convection induced by atomic diffusion in stars: 3D numerical computations and applications to stellar models

    SciTech Connect

    Zemskova, Varvara; Garaud, Pascale; Deal, Morgan; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2014-11-10

    Iron-rich layers are known to form in the stellar subsurface through a combination of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. Their presence, nature, and detailed structure can affect the excitation process of various stellar pulsation modes and must therefore be modeled carefully in order to better interpret Kepler asteroseismic data. In this paper, we study the interplay between atomic diffusion and fingering convection in A-type stars, as well as its role in the establishment and evolution of iron accumulation layers. To do so, we use a combination of three-dimensional idealized numerical simulations of fingering convection (which neglect radiative transfer and complex opacity effects) and one-dimensional realistic stellar models. Using the three-dimensional simulations, we first validate the mixing prescription for fingering convection recently proposed by Brown et al. (within the scope of the aforementioned approximation) and identify what system parameters (total mass of iron, iron diffusivity, thermal diffusivity, etc.) play a role in the overall evolution of the layer. We then implement the Brown et al. prescription in the Toulouse-Geneva Evolution Code to study the evolution of the iron abundance profile beneath the stellar surface. We find, as first discussed by Théado et al., that when the concurrent settling of helium is ignored, this accumulation rapidly causes an inversion in the mean molecular weight profile, which then drives fingering convection. The latter mixes iron with the surrounding material very efficiently, and the resulting iron layer is very weak. However, taking helium settling into account partially stabilizes the iron profile against fingering convection, and a large iron overabundance can accumulate. The opacity also increases significantly as a result, and in some cases it ultimately triggers dynamical convection. The direct effects of radiative acceleration on the dynamics of fingering convection (especially in the

  12. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  13. 3D He-3 diffusion MRI as a local in vivo morphometric tool to evaluate emphysematous rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Minard, Kevin R.; Laicher, Gernot J.; Timchalk, Charles

    2008-08-21

    In this work, we validate 3He magnetic resonance imaging as a non-invasive morphometric tool to assess emphysematous disease state on a local level. Emphysema was induced intratracheally in rats with 25U/100g body weight of porcine pancreatic elastase dissolved in 200 μL saline. Rats were then paired with saline-dosed controls. Nine three-dimensional 3He diffusion-weighted images were acquired at one-, two-, or three-weeks post-dose, after which the lungs were harvested and prepared for histological analysis. Recently introduced indices sensitive to the heterogeneity of the airspace size distribution were calculated. These indices, D1 and D2, were derived from the moments of the mean equivalent airway diameters. Averaged over the entire lung, it is shown that the 3He diffusivity (Dave) and anisotropy (Dan) both correlate with histology (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001 and R = 0.88, p < 0.0001, respectively). By matching small (0.046 cm2) regions in 3He images with corresponding regions in histological slices, Dave and Dan each correlate significantly with both D1 and D2 (R = 0.93, p < 0.0001). It is concluded that 3He MRI is a viable non-invasive morphometric tool for localized in vivo emphysema assessment.

  14. Highlighting the impact of aging on type I collagen: label-free investigation using confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in 3D matrix model.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Marie; Roig, Blandine; Terryn, Christine; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Manfait, Michel; Perraut, François; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Koenig, Anne; Piot, Olivier

    2016-02-23

    During aging, alterations of extracellular matrix proteins contribute to various pathological phenotypes. Among these alterations, type I collagen cross-linking and associated glycation products accumulation over time detrimentally affects its physico-chemical properties, leading to alterations of tissue biomechanical stability. Here, different-age collagen 3D matrices using non-destructive and label-free biophotonic techniques were analysed to highlight the impact of collagen I aging on 3D constructs, at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Matrices were prepared with collagens extracted from tail tendons of rats (newborns, young and old adults) to be within the physiological aging process. The data of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that aging leads to an inhibition of fibril assembly and a resulting decrease of gel density. Investigations by confocal reflectance microscopy highlight poor-fibrillar structures in oldest collagen networks most likely related to the glycation products accumulation. Complementarily, an infrared analysis brings out marked spectral variations in the Amide I profile, specific of the peptidic bond conformation and for carbohydrates vibrations as function of collagen-age. Interestingly, we also highlight an unexpected behavior for newborn collagen, exhibiting poorly-organized networks and microscopic features close to the oldest collagen. These results demonstrate that changes in collagen optical properties are relevant for investigating the incidence of aging in 3D matrix models.

  15. Highlighting the impact of aging on type I collagen: label-free investigation using confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in 3D matrix model

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Christine; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Manfait, Michel; Perraut, François; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Koenig, Anne; Piot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    During aging, alterations of extracellular matrix proteins contribute to various pathological phenotypes. Among these alterations, type I collagen cross-linking and associated glycation products accumulation over time detrimentally affects its physico-chemical properties, leading to alterations of tissue biomechanical stability. Here, different-age collagen 3D matrices using non-destructive and label-free biophotonic techniques were analysed to highlight the impact of collagen I aging on 3D constructs, at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Matrices were prepared with collagens extracted from tail tendons of rats (newborns, young and old adults) to be within the physiological aging process. The data of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that aging leads to an inhibition of fibril assembly and a resulting decrease of gel density. Investigations by confocal reflectance microscopy highlight poor-fibrillar structures in oldest collagen networks most likely related to the glycation products accumulation. Complementarily, an infrared analysis brings out marked spectral variations in the Amide I profile, specific of the peptidic bond conformation and for carbohydrates vibrations as function of collagen-age. Interestingly, we also highlight an unexpected behavior for newborn collagen, exhibiting poorly-organized networks and microscopic features close to the oldest collagen. These results demonstrate that changes in collagen optical properties are relevant for investigating the incidence of aging in 3D matrix models. PMID:26885896

  16. Electroless nickel alloy deposition on SiO2 for application as a diffusion barrier and seed layer in 3D copper interconnect technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yoo; Son, Hwa-Jin; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young-Il; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Electroless Ni-P films were investigated with the aim of application as barrier and seed layers in 3D interconnect technology. Different shapes of blind-via holes were fabricated with a deep reactive ion etcher and SiO2 formed on these holes as an insulating layer. The surface of the substrate has been made hydrophilic by O2 plasma treatment with 100 W of power for 20 min. Electroless Ni-P films were deposited as both a diffusion barrier and a seed layer for Cu filling process. Prior to plating, substrates were activated in a palladium chloride solution after sensitization in a tin chloride solution with various conditions in order to deposit uniform films in TSV. After the formation of the electroless barrier layer, electro Cu was plated directly on the barrier layer. Ni-P films fabricated in blind-via holes were observed by scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive spectroscopy line scanning was carried out for evaluating the diffusion barrier properties of the Ni-P films. The electroless Ni-P layer worked well as a Cu diffusion barrier until 300 degrees C. However, Cu ions diffused into barrier layer when the annealing temperature increases over 400 degrees C.

  17. Modelling neutron transport in planetary media via analytical multigroup diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfili, P.; Luciani, A.; Furfaro, R.; Ganapol, B. D.; Mostacci, D.

    A novel analytical solution to the 1D, steady-state, multi-slab, multi-group diffusion equation is proposed as a mean to compute the energy-dependent galactic cosmic ray-induced neutron fluxes established in planetary media. More specifically, the proposed algorithm is implemented to allow fast and highly accurate determination of low-energy cosmic ray neutrons inside the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Two sets of experimental measurements have been considered to validate our model. In both cases, a good agreement between the calculated and observed neutron fluxes is achieved. Subsequently, neutron diffusion calculations have been performed for various Earth-based scenarios comprising (a) two-slab (air-soil) configuration and (b) three-slab (air-soil-ice) configuration to investigate the functional relationship between soil composition and neutron spatial distribution.

  18. 3-D diffusion tensor MRI anisotropy content-adaptive finite element head model generation for bioelectromagnetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, W H; Kim, T S; Kim, Andrew T; Lee, S Y

    2008-01-01

    Realistic finite element (FE) head models have been successfully applied to bioelectromagnetic problems due to a realistic representation of arbitrary head geometry with inclusion of anisotropic material properties. In this paper, we propose a new automatic FE mesh generation scheme to generate a diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) white matter anisotropy content-adaptive FE head model. We term this kind of mesh as wMesh. With this meshing technique, the anisotropic electrical conductivities derived from DT-MRIs can be best incorporated into the model. The influence of the white matter anisotropy on the EEG forward solutions has been studied via our wMesh head models. The scalp potentials computed from the anisotropic wMesh models against those of the isotropic models have been compared. The results describe that there are substantial changes in the scalp electrical potentials between the isotropic and anisotropic models, indicating that the inclusion of the white matter anisotropy is critical for accurate computation of E/MEG forward and inverse solutions. This fully automatic anisotropy-adaptive wMesh meshing scheme could be useful for modeling of individual-specific FE head models with better incorporation of the white matter anisotropic property towards bioelectromagnetic imaging.

  19. 3-D diffusion tensor axonal tracking shows distinct SMA and pre-SMA projections to the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Lehéricy, Stéphane; Ducros, Mathieu; Krainik, Alexandre; Francois, Chantal; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Ugurbil, Kamil; Kim, Dae-Shik

    2004-12-01

    Studies in non-human primates have shown that medial premotor projections to the striatum are characterized as a set of distinct circuits conveying different type of information. This study assesses the anatomical projections from the supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-SMA and motor cortex (MC) to the human striatum using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. Eight right-handed volunteers were studied at 1.5 T using DTI axonal tracking. A connectivity matrix was computed, which tested for connections between cortical areas (MC, SMA and pre-SMA) and subcortical areas (posterior, middle and anterior putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus) in each hemisphere. Pre-SMA projections to the striatum were located rostral to SMA projections to the striatum. The SMA and the MC were similarly connected to the posterior and middle putamen and not to the anterior striatum. These data show that the MC and SMA have connections with similar parts of the sensorimotor compartment of the human striatum, whereas the pre-SMA sends connections to more rostral parts of the striatum, including the associative compartment.

  20. Impact of event-specific chorus wave realization for modeling the October 8-9, 2012, event using the LANL DREAM3D diffusion code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, G.; Tu, W.; Chen, Y.; Reeves, G. D.; Henderson, M. G.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Spence, H.

    2013-12-01

    During the interval October 8-9, 2012, the phase-space density (PSD) of high-energy electrons exhibited a dropout preceding an intense enhancement observed by the MagEIS and REPT instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes. The evolution of the PSD suggests heating by chorus waves, which were observed to have high intensities at the time of the enhancement [1]. Although intense chorus waves were also observed during the first Dst dip on October 8, no PSD enhancement was observed at this time. We demonstrate a quantitative reproduction of the entire event that makes use of three recent modifications to the LANL DREAM3D diffusion code: 1) incorporation of a time-dependent, low-energy, boundary condition from the MagEIS instrument, 2) use of a time-dependent estimate of the chorus wave intensity derived from observations of POES low-energy electron precipitation, and 3) use of an estimate of the last closed drift shell, beyond which electrons are assumed to have a lifetime that is proportional to their drift period around earth. The key features of the event are quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, including the dropout on October 8, and a rapid increase in PSD early on October 9, with a peak near L*=4.2. The DREAM3D code predicts the dropout on October 8 because this feature is dominated by magnetospheric compression and outward radial diffusion-the L* of the last closed drift-shell reaches a minimum value of 5.33 at 1026 UT on October 8. We find that a ';statistical' wave model based on historical CRRES measurements binned in AE* does not reproduce the enhancement because the peak wave amplitudes are only a few 10's of pT, whereas an ';event-specific' model reproduces both the magnitude and timing of the enhancement very well, a s shown in the Figure, because the peak wave amplitudes are 10x higher. [1] 'Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts', G. D. Reeves et al., Science 1237743, Published online 25 July 2013 [DOI:10.1126/science

  1. 3-D Modeling of Directional Solidification of a Non-Dilute Alloy with Temperature and Concentration Fields Coupling via Materials Properties Dependence and via Double Diffusive Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the HgCdTe growth by the vertical Bridgman method was performed using FIDAP finite element code. Double-diffusive melt convection is analyzed, as the primary factor at controls inhomogeneity of the solidified material. Temperature and concentration fields in the model are also coupled via material properties, such as thermal and solutal expansion coefficients with the dependence on both temperature and concentration, and melting temperature evaluation from pseudobinary CdTe-HgTe phase diagram. Experimental measurements were used to obtain temperature boundary conditions. Parametric study of the melt convection dependence on the gravity conditions was undertaken. It was found, that the maximum convection velocity in the melt can be reduced under certain conditions. Optimal conditions to obtain a near flat solidified interface are discussed. The predicted interface shape is in agreement with one obtained experimentally by quenching. The results of 3-D calculations are compared with previous 2- D findings. A video film featuring 3-D melt convection will be presented.

  2. Dynamical microstructure formation in 3D directional solidification of transparent model alloys: in situ characterization in DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert under diffusion transport in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeon, N.; Mota, F. L.; Chen, L.; Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. M.; Guérin, R.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.

    2015-06-01

    To clarify and characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms active in the dynamical formation of three-dimensional (3D) arrays of cells and dendrites under diffusive growth conditions, in situ monitoring of series of experiments on transparent model alloy succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% camphor was carried out under low gravity in the DECLIC Directional Solidification Insert on-board the International Space Station. These experiments offered the very unique opportunity to in situ observe and characterize the whole development of the microstructure in extended 3D patterns. The experimental methods will be first briefly described, including in particular the observation modes and the image analysis procedures developed to quantitatively characterize the patterns. Microgravity environment provided the conditions to get quantitative benchmark data: homogeneous patterns corresponding to homogeneous values of control parameters along the whole interface were obtained. The sequence of microstructure formation will be presented as well as the evolution of the primary spacing which is one of the most important pattern characteristic. Time evolution of this primary spacing during the microstructure development will be analysed to identify the mechanisms of spacing selection and adjustment; the importance of the macroscopic interfacial curvature will be pointed out.

  3. Development of transrectal diffuse optical tomography combined with 3D-transrectal ultrasound imaging to monitor the photocoagulation front during interstitial photothermal therapy of primary focal prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Weersink, Robert; Veilleux, Israel; Mayo, Kenwrick; Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Alam, Adeel; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.

    2013-03-01

    Interstitial near-infrared laser thermal therapy (LITT) is currently undergoing clinical trials as an alternative to watchful waiting or radical surgery in patients with low-risk focal prostate cancer. Currently, we use magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based thermography to monitor treatment delivery and determine indirectly the completeness of the target tissue destruction while avoiding damage to adjacent normal tissues, particularly the rectal wall. However, incomplete tumor destruction has occurred in a significant fraction of patients due to premature termination of treatment, since the photocoagulation zone is not directly observed. Hence, we are developing transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT), in combination with transrectal 3D ultrasound (3D-TRUS), to address his limitation. This is based on the large changes in optical scattering expected upon tissue coagulation. Here, we present forward simulations of a growing coagulated lesion with optical scattering contrast, using an established finite element analysis software platform (NIRFAST). The simulations were validated in tissue-simulating phantoms, with measurements acquired by a state-of-the-art continuous wave (CW) TRDOT system and a recently assembled bench-top CW-DOT system, with specific source-detector configurations. Two image reconstruction schemes were investigated and evaluated, specifically for the accurate delineation of the posterior boundary of the coagulation zone as the critical parameter for treatment guidance in this clinical application.

  4. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry analysis for westinghouse 4-loop XL pressurized water reactor plant using the RadTrack{sup TM} Code System with the 3D parallel discrete ordinates code RAPTOR-M3G

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Alpan, F. A.; Fischer, G.A.; Fero, A.H.

    2011-07-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2D)/one-dimensional (1D) SYNTHESIS methodology has been widely used to calculate fast neutron (>1.0 MeV) fluence exposure to reactor pressure vessel in the belt-line region. However, it is expected that this methodology cannot provide accurate fast neutron fluence calculation at elevations far above or below the active core region. A three-dimensional (3D) parallel discrete ordinates calculation for ex-vessel neutron dosimetry on a Westinghouse 4-Loop XL Pressurized Water Reactor has been done. It shows good agreement between the calculated results and measured results. Furthermore, the results show very different fast neutron flux values at some of the former plate locations and elevations above and below an active core than those calculated by a 2D/1D SYNTHESIS method. This indicates that for certain irregular reactor internal structures, where the fast neutron flux has a very strong local effect, it is required to use a 3D transport method to calculate accurate fast neutron exposure. (authors)

  5. Neutron Diffuse Reflectometry of Magnetic Thin Films with a 3He Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; O'Donovan, Kevin; Borchers, Julie

    2005-03-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) is a powerful probe that characterizes the magnetization depth profile and magnetic domains in magnetic thin films. Although the conventionally used supermirrors are well-matched for specular PNR, they have limited angular acceptance and hence are impractical for complete characterization of the magnetic off-specular scattering where polarization analysis for diffusely reflected neutrons is required. Polarized ^3He gas, produced by optical pumping, can be used to polarize or analyze neutron beams because of the strong spin dependence of the neutron absorption cross section for ^3He. Here we report efficient polarization analysis of diffusely reflected neutrons in a reflectometry geometry using a polarized ^3He analyzer in conjunction with a position-sensitive detector (PSD). We obtained spin-resolved two-dimensional Qx-Qz reciprocal space maps for a patterned array of Co antidots in both the saturated and the demagnetized states. The preliminary results for a patterned amorphous bilayer, Gd40Fe60/ Tb55Fe45, measured with a ^3He analyzer and a PSD will also be discussed. Using the spin exchange optical pumping method we have achieved record high ^3He polarizations of 76% on the neutron beam line where we measured an initial analyzing efficiency of 0.97 and a neutron transmission for the desired spin state of 0.45.

  6. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

    2016-11-01

    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  7. Preliminary 3D In-situ measurements of the texture evolution of strained H2O ice during annealing using neutron Laue diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Montagnat, Maurine; Chauve, Thomas; Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Allibon, John

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) strongly affects the evolution of microstructure (grain size and shape) and texture (crystal preferred orientation) in materials during deformation at high temperature. Since texturing leads to anisotropic physical properties, predicting the effect of DRX is essential for industrial applications, for interpreting geophysical data and modeling geodynamic flows, and predicting ice sheet flow and climate evolution. A large amount of literature is available related to metallurgy, geology or glaciology, but there remains overall fundamental questions about the relationship between nucleation, grain boundary migration and texture development at the microscopic scale. Previous measurements of DRX in ice were either conducted using 2D ex-situ techniques such as AITA [1,2] or Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) [3], or using 3D statistical ex-situ [4] or in-situ [5] techniques. Nevertheless, all these techniques failed to observe at the scale of nucleation processes during DRX in full 3D. Here we present a new approach using neutron Laue diffraction, which enable to perform 3D measurements of in-situ texture evolution of strained polycrystalline H2O ice (>2% at 266 K) during annealing at the microscopic scale. Thanks the CYCLOPS instrument [6] (Institut Laue Langevin Grenoble, France) and the intrinsic low background of this setup, preliminary observations enabled us to follow, in H2O ice, the evolution of serrated grain boundaries, and kink-band during annealing. Our observations show a significant evolution of the texture and internal misorientation over the course of few hours at an annealing temperature of 268.5 K. In the contrary, ice kink-band structures seem to be very stable over time at near melting temperatures. The same samples have been analyzed ex-situ using EBSD for comparison. These results represent a first step toward in-situ microscopic measurements of dynamic recrystallization processes in ice during strain. This

  8. MR diffusion-weighted imaging-based subcutaneous tumour volumetry in a xenografted nude mouse model using 3D Slicer: an accurate and repeatable method

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zelan; Chen, Xin; Huang, Yanqi; He, Lan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and repeatable measurement of the gross tumour volume(GTV) of subcutaneous xenografts is crucial in the evaluation of anti-tumour therapy. Formula and image-based manual segmentation methods are commonly used for GTV measurement but are hindered by low accuracy and reproducibility. 3D Slicer is open-source software that provides semiautomatic segmentation for GTV measurements. In our study, subcutaneous GTVs from nude mouse xenografts were measured by semiautomatic segmentation with 3D Slicer based on morphological magnetic resonance imaging(mMRI) or diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)(b = 0,20,800 s/mm2) . These GTVs were then compared with those obtained via the formula and image-based manual segmentation methods with ITK software using the true tumour volume as the standard reference. The effects of tumour size and shape on GTVs measurements were also investigated. Our results showed that, when compared with the true tumour volume, segmentation for DWI(P = 0.060–0.671) resulted in better accuracy than that mMRI(P < 0.001) and the formula method(P < 0.001). Furthermore, semiautomatic segmentation for DWI(intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.9999) resulted in higher reliability than manual segmentation(ICC = 0.9996–0.9998). Tumour size and shape had no effects on GTV measurement across all methods. Therefore, DWI-based semiautomatic segmentation, which is accurate and reproducible and also provides biological information, is the optimal GTV measurement method in the assessment of anti-tumour treatments. PMID:26489359

  9. Lambda modes of the neutron diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barrachina, T.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.

    2006-07-01

    A nodal collocation method is proposed to compute the dominant Lambda modes of nuclear reactor core with a hexagonal geometry. This method is based on a triangular mesh and assumes that the neutronic flux can be approximated as a finite expansion in terms of Dubiner's polynomials. The method transforms the initial differential eigenvalue problem into a generalized algebraic one, from which the dominant modes of the reactor can be computed. The performance of the method is tested with two benchmark problems. (authors)

  10. Possible theoretical explanations for occasional days of non-field-aligned diffusion at neutron monitor energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    It has been shown previously (Anath et al., 1973 and Kane, 1974) that 20 to 25% of days, the diffusion component of the cosmic-ray neutron diurnal anisotropy is directed more than 30 degrees away from the ecliptic projection of the interplanetary magnetic field averaged over the same 24 hours. A number of explanations for this deviation are discussed and it is concluded that transverse gradient drifts due to gradients perpendicular to the ecliptic are likely, that diurnal variations in the diffusion component of the neutron anisotropy may affect results from single stations and that the 24 hour mean interplanetary magnetic field may not be the field appropriate to the streaming equation at neutron monitor energies.

  11. Diffusion of water in nano-porous polyamide membranes: Quasielastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. K.; Mitra, S.; Singh, P.; Jurányi, F.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2010-10-01

    Dynamics of water sorbed in a reverse osmosis polyamide membrane (ROPM) as studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is reported here. The trimesoylchloride-m-phenylene diamine based ROPM is synthesized by interfacial polymerization technique. QENS data indicates that translational motion of water confined in ROPM gets modified compared to bulk water whereas rotational motion remains unaltered. Translational motion of water in ROPM is found to follow random jump diffusion with lower diffusivity compared to bulk water. Translational diffusivity does not show the Arrhenius behaviour.

  12. Fast oxygen diffusion in bismuth oxide probed by quasielastic neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Mamontov, Eugene

    2016-09-24

    In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, study of solid state oxygen translational diffusion by quasielastic neutron scattering. Such studies in the past might have been precluded by relatively low diffusivities of oxygen anions in the temperature range amenable to neutron scattering experiments. To explore the potential of the quasielastic scattering technique, which can deduce atomic diffusion jump length of oxygen anions through the momentum transfer dependence of the scattering signal, we have selected the fastest known oxygen conductor, bismuth oxide. Finally, we have found the oxygen anion jump length in excellent agreement with the nearest oxygen-vacancymore » distance in the anion sublattice of the fluorite-related structure of bismuth oxide.« less

  13. Fast oxygen diffusion in bismuth oxide probed by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene

    2016-09-24

    In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, study of solid state oxygen translational diffusion by quasielastic neutron scattering. Such studies in the past might have been precluded by relatively low diffusivities of oxygen anions in the temperature range amenable to neutron scattering experiments. To explore the potential of the quasielastic scattering technique, which can deduce atomic diffusion jump length of oxygen anions through the momentum transfer dependence of the scattering signal, we have selected the fastest known oxygen conductor, bismuth oxide. Finally, we have found the oxygen anion jump length in excellent agreement with the nearest oxygen-vacancy distance in the anion sublattice of the fluorite-related structure of bismuth oxide.

  14. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-03-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  15. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward.

  16. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-02-27

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  17. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey – for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960’s. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas. PMID:27064328

  18. Dynamics of silver photo-diffusion into Ge-chalcogenide films: time-resolved neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Asaoka, H.; Uozumi, Y.; Kawakita, Y.; Ito, T.; Kubota, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Soyama, K.; Ailavajhala, M.; Latif, M. R.; Wolf, K.; Mitkova, M.; Skoda, M. W. A.

    2015-06-01

    Silver diffuses into an amorphous (a-) chalcogenide layer while visible light illuminates Ag/a-chalcogenide films and neutron reflectometry is a suitable technique probing time evolution of the depth profiles without damaging the sample by the probe beam itself. In this paper, we report the results of time-resolved neutron reflectivity measurements of a-Ge40Se60/Ag/ Si films taken while the films are exposed to visible light. From the measurements, we found enormous changes in the neutron reflectivity profile, including a loss of total reflection region, with continuous illumination even after forming one homogeneous layer, which occurred about 50 min after starting illumination. At this stage, a clear off-specular scattering was observed by a linear detector and a surface roughness was observed with naked eyes.

  19. Non-standard Fickian self-diffusion of isotopically pure boron observed by neutron reflectometry and depth profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.M.; Wu, K.; Smith, G.S.; Hubbard, K.M.; Nastasi, M.; Downing, R.G.; Lamaze, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) studies of thin films of amorphous {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B on silicon indicate that a non-standard form of Fickian diffusion occurs across the boron interface upon annealing. In order to verify this observation, the samples were examined by neutron depth profiling (NDP). Comparison of the results from models of a step function, standard Fickian diffusion and Fickian diffusion with a fixed composition at the interface were made and compared to the previous NR results. The diffusion constant resulting from the non-standard Fickian model for the NDP data differs slightly from that obtained from the commonly used Fickian diffusion model and is not inconsistent with the NR results. This finding suggests that more information regarding diffusion at interfaces can be gained from these higher resolution neutron scattering techniques.

  20. Determination of self-diffusion coefficients by quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of levitated Ni droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A.; Stüber, S.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Heinen, O.; Unruh, T.

    2008-03-01

    Conventional techniques to measure diffusion coefficients in liquid metals and alloys are hampered by buoyancy-driven convective fluid flow and chemical reactions of the liquids with container material. To overcome these obstacles we combined containerless processing via electromagnetic levitation with quasielastic neutron scattering. This combination allowed us to study the atomic self-motion in liquid nickel within a broad temperature range from 200K above to more than 200K below the melting point, in the metastable regime of an undercooled melt. Other than in liquid Sn the temperature dependence of the Ni self-diffusion coefficient is well described with an Arrhenius law.

  1. Applying nonlinear diffusion acceleration to the neutron transport k-Eigenvalue problem with anisotropic scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Willert, Jeffrey; Park, H.; Taitano, William

    2015-11-01

    High-order/low-order (or moment-based acceleration) algorithms have been used to significantly accelerate the solution to the neutron transport k-eigenvalue problem over the past several years. Recently, the nonlinear diffusion acceleration algorithm has been extended to solve fixed-source problems with anisotropic scattering sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can extend this algorithm to k-eigenvalue problems in which the scattering source is anisotropic and a significant acceleration can be achieved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the low-order, diffusion-like eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently using a technique known as nonlinear elimination.

  2. Artificial Neural Network Solutions of Slab-Geometry Neutron Diffusion Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P.S.

    2000-06-12

    Artificial neural network (ANN) methods have been researched extensively within the nuclear community for applications in systems control, diagnostics, and signal processing. We consider here the use of multilayer perceptron ANNs as an alternative to finite-difference and finite-element methods for obtaining solutions to neutron diffusion problems. This work is based on a method proposed by van Milligen et. al. to obtain solutions of the differential equations arising in plasma physics applications. This ANN method has the potential advantage of yielding an accurate, differentiable approximation to the solution of diffusion problems at all points in the spatial domain.

  3. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Eliot D; Ma, Jie; Delaire, Olivier A; Budai, John D; May, Andrew F; Karapetrova, Evguenia A.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  4. Hydrogen diffusion in potassium intercalated graphite studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purewal, Justin; Keith, J. Brandon; Ahn, Channing C.; Brown, Craig M.; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Fultz, Brent

    2012-12-01

    The graphite intercalation compound KC24 adsorbs hydrogen gas at low temperatures up to a maximum stoichiometry of KC24(H2)2, with a differential enthalpy of adsorption of approximately -9 kJ mol-1. The hydrogen molecules and potassium atoms form a two-dimensional condensed phase between the graphite layers. Steric barriers and strong adsorption potentials are expected to strongly hinder hydrogen diffusion within the host KC24 structure. In this study, self-diffusion in a KC24(H2)0.5 sample is measured experimentally by quasielastic neutron scattering and compared to values from molecular dynamics simulations. Self-diffusion coefficients are determined by fits of the experimental spectra to a honeycomb net diffusion model and found to agree well with the simulated values. The experimental H2 diffusion coefficients in KC24 vary from 3.6 × 10-9 m2 s-1 at 80 K to 8.5 × 10-9 m2 s-1 at 110 K. The measured diffusivities are roughly an order of magnitude lower that those observed on carbon adsorbents, but compare well with the rate of hydrogen self-diffusion in molecular sieve zeolites.

  5. Diffusion of lithium-6 isotopes in lithium aluminate ceramics using neutron depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhinney, Hylton G.; James, William D.; Schweikert, Emile A.; Williams, John R.; Hollenberg, Glen; Welsh, John; Sereatan, Washington

    1993-07-01

    Lithium Ceramics offer tremendous potential as a source for the production of tritium ( 3H) for fusion power reactors. Their successful application will depend to a great extent upon the diffusion properties of the 6Li within the matrix. Consequently knowledge od 6Li concentration gradients in the ceramic matrices is an important requirement in the continued development of the technology. In this investigation, the neutron depth profile (NDP) technique has been applied to the study of concentration profiles of 6Li in lithium aluminate ceramics, doped with 1.8%, 50% and 95% 6Li isotopic concentrations. Specimen for analysis were prepared at Battelle (PNL) as pellet discs. Samples for diffusion studies were arranged as diffusion couples in the following manner: 1.8% 6Li discs/85% 6Li powder. Experiments were performed at the Texas A&M Nuclear Science Center Reactor Building, utilizing 1 MW equivalent thermal neutron fluxes 3 × 10 11n/ m2s. The depth probed by the technique is approximately 15 μ.m. Diffusion coefficients are in the range of 2.1 × 10 -12 to 7.0 × 10 -11m2s-1 for 1.8% 6Li-doped ceramics annealed at 1200 and 1400° C, for 4 to 48-h anneal times.

  6. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, E C; Rorschach, H E; Clegg, J S; Hazlewood, C F; Nicklow, R M; Wakabayashi, N

    1984-01-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H2O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H2O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths gamma (Q2) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement [u2] as determined from the Q-dependence of the line areas were also obtained. PMID:6733243

  7. Comparison of the 3-D Deterministic Neutron Transport Code Attila® To Measure Data, MCNP And MCNPX For The Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. Scott Lucas; D. S. Lucas

    2005-09-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to apply the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the development of Attila models for ATR, capabilities of Attila, the generation and use of different cross-section libraries, and comparisons to ATR data, MCNP, MCNPX and future applications.

  8. Ab initio modeling of quasielastic neutron scattering of hydrogen pipe diffusion in palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Emily J.; Trinkle, Dallas R.

    2016-08-01

    A recent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) study of hydrogen in heavily deformed fcc palladium provided the first direct measurement of hydrogen pipe diffusion, which has a significantly higher diffusivity and lower activation barrier than in bulk. While ab initio estimates of hydrogen diffusion near a dislocation corroborated the experimental values, open questions remain from the Chudley-Elliott analysis of the QENS spectra, including significant nonmonotonic changes in jump distance with temperature. We calculate the spherically averaged incoherent scattering function at different temperatures using our ab initio data for the network of site energies, jump rates, and jump vectors to directly compare to experiment. Diffusivities and jump distances are sensitive to how a single Lorentzian is fit to the scattering function. Using a logarithmic least squares fit over the range of experimentally measured energies, our diffusivities and jump distances agree well with those measured by experiment. However, these calculated quantities do not reflect barriers or distances in our dislocation geometry. This computational approach allows for validation against experiment, along with a more detailed understanding of the QENS results.

  9. Real time wide area radiation surveillance system (REWARD) based on 3d silicon and (CD,ZN)Te for neutron and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disch, C.

    2014-09-01

    Mobile surveillance systems are used to find lost radioactive sources and possible nuclear threats in urban areas. The REWARD collaboration [1] aims to develop such a complete radiation monitoring system that can be installed in mobile or stationary setups across a wide area. The scenarios include nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination and nuclear accidents. This paper will show the performance capabilities of the REWARD system in different scnarios. The results include both Monte Carlo simulations as well as neutron and gamma-ray detection performances in terms of efficiency and nuclide identification. The outcomes of several radiation mapping survey with the entire REWARD system will also be presented.

  10. Coupled 3D-neutronics / thermal-hydraulics analysis of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a 3600 MWth SFR core

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.; Chenu, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Krepel, J.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The core behaviour of a large (3600 MWth) sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is investigated in this paper with the use of a coupled TRACE/PARCS model. The SFR neutron spectrum is characterized by several performance advantages, but also leads to one dominating neutronics drawback - a positive sodium void reactivity. This implies a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. In order to evaluate such feedback in terms of the dynamics, a representative unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) transient, i.e. flow run-down without SCRAM in which sodium boiling occurs, is analyzed. Although analysis of a single transient cannot allow general conclusions to be drawn, it does allow better understanding of the underlying physics and can lead to proposals for improving the core response during such an accident. The starting point of this study is the reference core design considered in the framework of the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). To reduce the void effect, the core has been modified by introducing an upper sodium plenum (along with a boron layer) and by reducing the core height-to-diameter ratio. For the ULOF considered, a sharp increase in core power results in melting of the fuel in the case of the reference core. In the modified core, a large dryout leads to melting of the clad. It seems that, for the hypothetical event considered, fuel failure cannot be avoided with just improvement of the neutronics design; therefore, thermal-hydraulics optimization has been considered. An innovative assembly design is proposed to prevent sodium vapour blocking the fuel channel. This results in preventing a downward propagation of the sodium boiling to the core center, thus limiting it to the upper region. Such a void map introduces a negative coolant density reactivity feedback, which dominates the total reactivity change. As a result, the power level and the fuel temperature are effectively reduced, and a large dryout

  11. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  12. How useful is neutron diffusion theory for nuclear rocket engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsmeier, T.A.; Aithal, S.M.; Aldemir, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Correct modeling of neutron leakage and geometry effects is important in the design of a nuclear rocket engine because of the need for small reactor cores in space applications. In principle, there are generalized procedures that can account for these effects in a reliable manner (e.g., a three-dimensional, continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation with all core components explicitly modeled). However, these generalized procedures are not usually suitable for parametric design studies because of the long computational times required, and the feasibility of using faster running, more approrimate neutronic modeling approaches needs to be investigated. Faster running neutronic models are also needed for simulator development to assess the engine performance during startup and power level changes. This paper investigates the potential of the few-group diffusion approach for nuclear rocket engine core design and optimization by comparing the k[sub eff] and power distributions obtained by the MCNP code against those obtained from the LEOPARD and 2DB codes for the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept described. The PBRs have been identified as one of the two near-term options for nuclear thermal propulsion by the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/US Department of Energy/US Department of Defense program that was recently set up at the NASA Lewis Research Center to develop a flight-rated nuclear rocket engine by the 2020s.

  13. Diffusivity of the hydrogen molecule sorbed in NaA zeolite by a neutron scattering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, R.; Cohen De Lara, E.; Viennet, E.

    1989-10-01

    The diffusion of hydrogen in NaA zeolite was studied by incoherent neutron scattering. An experiment was carried out on samples loaded with 1.2 to 3.4 molecules per cavity and at several temperatures from 70 to 150 K. The angular (θ) dependence of the elastic and quasielastic intensities shows that the H2 molecule has a translational motion in a nonrestricted volume. A diffusion model where the molecule undergoes isotropic jumps of mean length l¯=3.9 Å independent of temperature and is at rest for a time τ0 between two jumps accounts for the width of the quasielastic scattering in the entire (θ,T) range (τ0=10.8 ps at T=100 K). This leads to a diffusion coefficient D(cm2/s)=6×10-4 exp(E/RT) with E=2 kJ/mol for the less loaded samples. The diffusion coefficient increases slightly with the loading.

  14. Methanol Diffusion into Thin Ionomer Films: An in situ Study Using Neutron Reflectometry .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lilin

    2008-03-01

    THUSITHA, N. ETAMPAWALA DVORA, PERAHIA ^ Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 JAROSLAW MAJEWSKI, Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 CHRISTOPHER J. CORNELIUS^ Sandia National Laboratories, MS 0886, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0886 The penetration of solvent into a polymer that consists of incompatable groups is determined by the specific interactions with the guest molecule, where interfacial structure and dynamics of the polymer affect the onset of the process. The current work presents a neutron reflectometry study of the penetration of methanol into sulfonated polyphenlylene thin films. The ionomer films were exposed to saturated deuterated methanol vapor and reflectometry patterns were recorded until equilibrium was reached. The process incorporates two stages where the vapors first wet the surface and then penetrate into the film. Significant swelling takes place as soon as the film is exposed to the vapors. Similar to previous studied in water, the onset diffusion is Fickian followed by an anomalous diffusion process. The entire process however is faster than that observed for water.

  15. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of 3D diffusion, crystal geometry, and initial conditions on retrieved time-scales from Fe-Mg zoning in natural oriented orthopyroxene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimer, Daniel; Costa, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Volcano petrologists and geochemists increasingly use time-scale determinations of magmatic processes from modeling the chemical zoning patterns in crystals. Most determinations are done using one-dimensional traverses across a two-dimensional crystal section. However, crystals are three-dimensional objects with complex shapes, and diffusion and re-equilibration occurs in multiple dimensions. Given that we can mainly study the crystals in two-dimensional petrographic thin sections, the determined time-scales could be in error if multiple dimensional and geometrical effects are not identified and accounted for. Here we report the results of a numerical study where we investigate the role of multiple dimensions, geometry, and initial conditions of Fe-Mg diffusion in an orthopyroxene crystal with the view towards proper determinations of time scales from modeling natural crystals. We found that merging diffusion fronts (i.e. diffusion from multiple directions) causes 'additional' diffusion that has the greatest influence close to the crystal's corners (i.e. where two crystal faces meet), and with longer times the affected area widens. We also found that the one-dimensional traverses that can lead to the most accurate calculated time-scales from natural crystals are along the b- crystallographic axis on the ab-plane when model inputs (concentration and zoning geometry) are taken as measured (rather than inferred from other observations). More specifically, accurate time-scales are obtained if the compositional traverses are highly symmetrical and contain a concentration plateau measured through the crystal center. On the other hand, for two-dimensional models the ab- and ac-planes are better suited if the initial (pre-diffusion) concentration and zoning geometry inputs are known or can be estimated, although these are a priory unknown, and thus, may be difficult to use in practical terms. We also found that under certain conditions, a combined one-dimensional and two

  17. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3Dthree-dimensional) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCChepatocellular carcinoma) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACEtransarterial chemoembolization). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCChepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TACEtransarterial chemoembolization before surgery. Semiautomatic 3Dthree-dimensional volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCapparent diffusion coefficient) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual

  18. Neutron scattering studies of K3H(SO4)2 and K3D(SO4)2: The particle-in-a-box model for the quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillaux, François; Cousson, Alain

    2012-08-01

    In the crystal of K3H(SO4)2 or K3D(SO4)2, dimers SO4ṡṡṡHṡṡṡSO4 or SO4ṡṡṡDṡṡṡSO4 are linked by strong centrosymmetric hydrogen or deuterium bonds whose OṡṡṡO length is ≈2.50 Å. We address two open questions. (i) Are H or D sites split or not? (ii) Is there any structural counterpart to the phase transition observed for K3D(SO4)2 at Tc ≈ 85.5 K, which does not exist for K3H(SO4)2? Neutron diffraction by single-crystals at cryogenic or room temperature reveals no structural transition and no resolvable splitting of H or D sites. However, the width of the probability densities suggest unresolved splitting of the wavefunctions suggesting rigid entities HL1/2 -HR1/2 or DL1/2 -DR1/2 whose separation lengths are lH ≈ 0.16 Å or lD ≈ 0.25 Å. The vibrational eigenstates for the center of mass of HL1/2 -HR1/2 revealed by inelastic neutron scattering are amenable to a square-well and we suppose the same potential holds for DL1/2 -DR1/2. In order to explain dielectric and calorimetric measurements of mixed crystals K3D(1 - ρ)Hρ(SO4)2 (0 ⩽ ρ ⩽ 1), we replace the classical notion of order-disorder by the quantum notion of discernible (e.g., DL1/2 -DR1/2) or indiscernible (e.g., HL1/2 -HR1/2) components depending on the separation length of the split wavefunction. The discernible-indiscernible isostructural transition at finite temperatures is induced by a thermal pure quantum state or at 0 K by ρ.

  19. Neutron scattering studies of K3H(SO4)2 and K3D(SO4)2: the particle-in-a-box model for the quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Fillaux, François; Cousson, Alain

    2012-08-21

    In the crystal of K(3)H(SO(4))(2) or K(3)D(SO(4))(2), dimers SO(4)···H···SO(4) or SO(4)···D···SO(4) are linked by strong centrosymmetric hydrogen or deuterium bonds whose O···O length is ≈2.50 Å. We address two open questions. (i) Are H or D sites split or not? (ii) Is there any structural counterpart to the phase transition observed for K(3)D(SO(4))(2) at T(c) ≈ 85.5 K, which does not exist for K(3)H(SO(4))(2)? Neutron diffraction by single-crystals at cryogenic or room temperature reveals no structural transition and no resolvable splitting of H or D sites. However, the width of the probability densities suggest unresolved splitting of the wavefunctions suggesting rigid entities H(L1/2)-H(R1/2) or D(L1/2)-D(R1/2) whose separation lengths are l(H) ≈ 0.16 Å or l(D) ≈ 0.25 Å. The vibrational eigenstates for the center of mass of H(L1/2)-H(R1/2) revealed by inelastic neutron scattering are amenable to a square-well and we suppose the same potential holds for D(L1/2)-D(R1/2). In order to explain dielectric and calorimetric measurements of mixed crystals K(3)D((1-ρ))H(ρ)(SO(4))(2) (0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1), we replace the classical notion of order-disorder by the quantum notion of discernible (e.g., D(L1/2)-D(R1/2)) or indiscernible (e.g., H(L1/2)-H(R1/2)) components depending on the separation length of the split wavefunction. The discernible-indiscernible isostructural transition at finite temperatures is induced by a thermal pure quantum state or at 0 K by ρ.

  20. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  1. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  2. A Systematic Solution Approach for Neutron Transport Problems in Diffuse Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manteuffel, T. A.; Ressel, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic solution approach for the neutron transport equation, based on a least-squares finite-element discretization, is presented. This approach includes the theory for the existence and uniqueness of the analytical as well as of the discrete solution, bounds for the discretization error, and guidance for the development of an efficient multigrid solver for the resulting discrete problem. To guarantee the accuracy of the discrete solution for diffusive regimes, a scaling transformation is applied to the transport operator prior to the discretization. The key result is the proof of the V-ellipticity and continuity of the scaled least-squares bilinear form with constants that are independent of the total cross section and the absorption cross section. For a variety of least-squares finite-element discretizations this leads to error bounds that remain valid in diffusive regimes. Moreover, for problems in slab geometry a full multigrid solver is presented with V(1, 1)-cycle convergence rates approximately equal to 0.1, independent of the size of the total cross section and the absorption cross section.

  3. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  4. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6

    DOE PAGES

    Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; ...

    2015-02-23

    Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less

  5. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  6. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  7. Hydrogen in polar intermetallics: Syntheses and structures of the ternary Ca5Bi3D0.93, Yb5Bi3Hx, and Sm5Bi3H~1 by powder neutron or single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Escamilla, E. Alejandro; Dervenagas, Panagiotis; Stasis, Constantine; Corbett, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The syntheses of the title compounds are described in detail. Structural characterizations from refinements of single crystal X-ray diffraction data for Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x} and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub 1} and of powder neutron diffraction data for Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93(3)} are reported. These confirm that all three crystallize with the heavy atom structure type of {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, and the third gives the first proof that the deuterium lies in the center of nominal calcium tetrahedra, isostructural with the Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F-type structure. These Ca and Yb phases are particularly stable with respect to dissociation to Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type product plus H{sub 2}. Some contradictions in the literature regarding Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}H{sub x} phases are considered in terms of adventitious hydrogen impurities that are generated during reactions in fused silica containers at elevated temperatures.

  8. Radiation Effects in 3D Integrated SOl SRAM Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Comparing Neutrons and Protons Data Monoenergetic neutrons and protons are used to characterize single event effects in electronics circuits, and are...for proton irradiation with energies between 4.8 and 500 MeV. Results are compared with 14-MeV neutron irradiation. Single event upset cross-section...fabricating circuits for space applications. singIe event effects, SOl, fully depleted, 3D integration, neutron , protons, upset cross-section U U U U SAR

  9. Lithium diffusion in congruent LiNbO3 single crystals at low temperatures probed by neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Hüger, E; Rahn, J; Stahn, J; Geue, T; Heitjans, P; Schmidt, H

    2014-02-28

    The self-diffusion of lithium in congruent LiNbO3 single crystals was investigated at low temperatures between 379 and 523 K by neutron reflectometry. From measurements on (6)LiNbO3 (amorphous film)/(nat)LiNbO3 (single crystal) samples, Li self-diffusivities were determined in single crystals down to extremely low values of 1 × 10(-25) m(2) s(-1) on small length scales of 1-10 nm. The measured diffusivities are in excellent agreement with (extrapolated) literature data obtained by experiments based on Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Impedance Spectroscopy. The tracer diffusivities can be described by a single Arrhenius line over ten orders of magnitude with an activation enthalpy of 1.33 eV, which corresponds to the migration energy of a single Li vacancy. A deviation from the Arrhenius behaviour at low temperatures, e.g., due to defect cluster formation is not observed.

  10. Convergence analysis of two-node CMFD method for two-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yongjin; Park, Jinsu; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear coarse-mesh finite difference method with two-node local problem (CMFD2N) is proven to be unconditionally stable for neutron diffusion eigenvalue problems. The explicit current correction factor (CCF) is derived based on the two-node analytic nodal method (ANM2N), and a Fourier stability analysis is applied to the linearized algorithm. It is shown that the analytic convergence rate obtained by the Fourier analysis compares very well with the numerically measured convergence rate. It is also shown that the theoretical convergence rate is only governed by the converged second harmonic buckling and the mesh size. It is also noted that the convergence rate of the CCF of the CMFD2N algorithm is dependent on the mesh size, but not on the total problem size. This is contrary to expectation for eigenvalue problem. The novel points of this paper are the analytical derivation of the convergence rate of the CMFD2N algorithm for eigenvalue problem, and the convergence analysis based on the analytic derivations.

  11. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. )

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  12. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W.

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  13. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  14. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  17. Optimal arrangements of fiber optic probes to enhance the spatial resolution in depth for 3D reflectance diffuse optical tomography with time-resolved measurements performed with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszka, Agathe; Di Sieno, Laura; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic probes with a width limited to a few centimeters can enable diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in intern organs like the prostate or facilitate the measurements on extern organs like the breast or the brain. We have recently shown on 2D tomographic images that time-resolved measurements with a large dynamic range obtained with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) could push forward the imaged depth range in a diffusive medium at short source-detector separation compared with conventional non-gated approaches. In this work, we confirm these performances with the first 3D tomographic images reconstructed with such a setup and processed with the Mellin- Laplace transform. More precisely, we investigate the performance of hand-held probes with short interfiber distances in terms of spatial resolution and specifically demonstrate the interest of having a compact probe design featuring small source-detector separations. We compare the spatial resolution obtained with two probes having the same design but different scale factors, the first one featuring only interfiber distances of 15 mm and the second one, 10 mm. We evaluate experimentally the spatial resolution obtained with each probe on the setup with fast-gated SPADs for optical phantoms featuring two absorbing inclusions positioned at different depths and conclude on the potential of short source-detector separations for DOT.

  18. Lévy/Anomalous Diffusion as a Mean-Field Theory for 3D Cloud Effects in SW-RT: Empirical Support, New Analytical Formulation, and Impact on Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, K.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Buldryrev, S.; Barker, H.

    2001-12-01

    2-stream RT models, as used in all current GCMs, are mathematically equivalent to standard diffusion theory where the physical picture is a slow propagation of the diffuse radiation by Gaussian random walks. In other words, after the conventional van de Hulst rescaling by 1/(1-g) in R3 and also by (1-g) in t, solar photons follow convoluted fractal trajectories in the atmosphere. For instance, we know that transmitted light is typically scattered about (1-g)τ 2 times while reflected light is scattered on average about τ times, where τ is the optical depth of the column. The space/time spread of this diffusion process is described exactly by a Gaussian distribution; from the statistical physics viewpoint, this follows from the convergence of the sum of many (rescaled) steps between scattering events with a finite variance. This Gaussian picture follows from directly from first principles (the RT equation) under the assumptions of horizontal uniformity and large optical depth, i.e., there is a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud somewhere in the column. The first-order effect of 3D variability of cloudiness, the main source of scattering, is to perturb the distribution of single steps between scatterings which, modulo the '1-g' rescaling, can be assumed effectively isotropic. The most natural generalization of the Gaussian distribution is the 1-parameter family of symmetric Lévy-stable distributions because the sum of many zero-mean random variables with infinite variance, but finite moments of order q < α (0 < α < 2), converge to them. It has been shown on heuristic grounds that for these Lévy-based random walks the typical number of scatterings is now (1-g)τ α for transmitted light. The appearance of a non-rational exponent is why this is referred to as anomalous diffusion. Note that standard/Gaussian diffusion is retrieved in the limit α = 2-. Lévy transport theory has been successfully used in the statistical physics to investigate a wide variety of

  19. Lévy/Anomalous Diffusion as a Mean-Field Theory for 3D Cloud Effects in Shortwave Radiative Transfer: Empirical Support, New Analytical Formulation, and Impact on Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, S.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-12-01

    Two-stream radiation transport models, as used in all current GCM parameterization schemes, are mathematically equivalent to ``standard'' diffusion theory where the physical picture is a slow propagation of the diffuse radiation by Gaussian random walks. The space/time spread (technically, the Green function) of this diffusion process is described exactly by a Gaussian distribution; from the statistical physics viewpoint, this follows from the convergence of the sum of many (rescaled) steps between scattering events with a finite variance. This Gaussian picture follows directly from first principles (the radiative transfer equation) under the assumptions of horizontal uniformity and large optical depth, i.e., there is a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud somewhere in the column. The first-order effect of 3D variability of cloudiness, the main source of scattering, is to perturb the distribution of single steps between scatterings which, modulo the ``1-g'' rescaling, can be assumed effectively isotropic. The most natural generalization of the Gaussian distribution is the 1-parameter family of symmetric Lévy-stable distributions because the sum of many zero-mean random variables with infinite variance, but finite moments of order q < α (0 < α < 2), converge to them. It has been shown on heuristic grounds that for these Lévy-based random walks the typical number of scatterings is now (1-g)τ α for transmitted light. The appearance of a non-rational exponent is why this is referred to as ``anomalous'' diffusion. Note that standard/Gaussian diffusion is retrieved in the limit α = 2-. Lévy transport theory has been successfully used in the statistical physics literature to investigate a wide variety of systems with strongly nonlinear dynamics; these applications range from random advection in turbulent fluids to the erratic behavior of financial time-series and, most recently, self-regulating ecological systems. We will briefly survey the state

  20. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  1. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  2. Numerical solution of the equation of neutrons transport on plane geometry by analytical schemes using acceleration by synthetic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Vargas, G.

    A computer program has been developed which uses a technique of synthetic acceleration by diffusion by analytical schemes. Both in the diffusion equation as in that of transport, analytical schemes were used which allowed a substantial time saving in the number of iterations required by source iteration method to obtain the K(sub e)ff. The program developed ASD (Synthetic Diffusion Acceleration) by diffusion was written in FORTRAN and can be executed on a personal computer with a hard disc and mathematical O-processor. The program is unlimited as to the number of regions and energy groups. The results obtained by the ASD program for K(sub e)ff is nearly completely concordant with those obtained by utilizing the ANISN-PC code for different analytical type problems in this work. The ASD program allowed obtention of an approximate solution of the neutron transport equation with a relatively low number of internal reiterations with good precision. One of its applications would be in the direct determinations of axial distribution neutronic flow in a fuel assembly as well as in the obtention of the effective multiplication factor.

  3. Monoclinic β-Li2TiO3: Neutron diffraction study and estimation of Li diffusion pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchak, M.; Dolotko, O.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Baran, V.; Senyshyn, A.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    A neutron powder diffraction study on lithium titanate Li2TiO3 was performed at low temperatures. The monoclinic β-phase has been found to be stable over the whole investigated range of temperatures (4 K-300 K). A smooth and nonlinear increase of the lattice parameters has been observed upon heating and correlated to the behavior of interatomic distances. Lithium diffusion pathways in Li2TiO3 were estimated theoretically on the basis of the obtained structural data using bond-valence modeling. Experimentally diffusion pathways were evaluated by analysis of the negative nuclear scattering densities at 1073 K, which were reconstructed using a maximum entropy method. Although the bond-valence mismatch map indicated a possible Li diffusion either in ab plane or along c direction, analysis of the experimental data revealed that Li migration is thermodynamically less feasible in latter case.

  4. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  6. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Neutron Diffusion in a Space Lattice of Fissionable and Absorbing Materials

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feynman, R. P.; Welton, T. A.

    1946-08-27

    Methods are developed for estimating the effect on a critical assembly of fabricating it as a lattice rather than in the more simply interpreted homogeneous manner. An idealized case is discussed supposing an infinite medium in which fission, elastic scattering and absorption can occur, neutrons of only one velocity present, and the neutron m.f.p. independent of position and equal to unity with the unit of length used.

  10. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  11. Cosmological quantum chromodynamics, neutron diffusion, and the production of primordial heavy elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, J. H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Scherrer, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional model is used to describe the evolution of neutron density before and during nucleosynthesis in a high-entropy bubble left over from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. It is shown why cosmic nucleosynthesis in such a neutron-rich environment produces a surfeit of elements heavier than lithium. Analytical and numerical techniques are used to estimate the abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and heavier elements up to Ne-22. A high-density neutron-rich region produces enough primordial N-14 to be observed in stellar atmospheres. It shown that very heavy elements may be created in a cosmological r-process; the neutron exposure in the neutron-rich regions is large enough for the Ne-22 to trigger a catastrophic r-process runaway in which the quantity of heavy elements doubles in much less than an expansion time due to fission cycling. A primordial abundance of r-process elements is predicted to appear as an excess of rare earth elements in extremely metal-poor stars.

  12. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Self-diffusion in molecular liquids: Medium-chain n-alkanes and coenzyme Q10 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Christoph; Busch, Sebastian; Gemmecker, Gerd; Unruh, Tobias

    2008-07-01

    A systematic time-of-flight quasielastic neutron scattering (TOF-QENS) study on diffusion of n-alkanes in a melt is presented for the first time. As another example of a medium-chain molecule, coenzyme Q10 is investigated in the same way. The data were evaluated both in the frequency and in the time domain. TOF-QENS data can be satisfactorily described by different models, and it turned out that the determined diffusion coefficients are largely independent of the applied model. The derived diffusion coefficients are compared with values measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). With increasing chain length, an increasing difference between the TOF-QENS diffusion coefficient and the PFG-NMR diffusion coefficient is observed. This discrepancy in the diffusion coefficients is most likely due to a change of the diffusion mechanism on a nanometer length scale for molecules of medium-chain length.

  16. Lithium diffusion in polyether ether ketone and polyimide stimulated by in situ electron irradiation and studied by the neutron depth profiling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Attar, F. M. D.; Mathakari, N. L.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion of lithium from a LiCl aqueous solution into polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and polyimide (PI) assisted by in situ irradiation with 6.5 MeV electrons was studied by the neutron depth profiling method. The number of the Li atoms was found to be roughly proportional to the diffusion time. Regardless of the diffusion time, the measured depth profiles in PEEK exhibit a nearly exponential form, indicating achievement of a steady-state phase of a diffusion-reaction process specified in the text. The form of the profiles in PI is more complex and it depends strongly on the diffusion time. For the longer diffusion time, the profile consists of near-surface bell-shaped part due to Fickian-like diffusion and deeper exponential part.

  17. Translational diffusion of water and its dependence on temperature in charged and uncharged clays: A neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Jurányi, Fanni; Gimmi, Thomas; Van Loon, Luc; Unruh, Tobias; Diamond, Larryn W

    2008-11-07

    The water diffusion in four different, highly compacted clays [montmorillonite in the Na- and Ca-forms, illite in the Na- and Ca-forms, kaolinite, and pyrophyllite (bulk dry density rho(b)=1.85+/-0.05 gcm(3))] was studied at the atomic level by means of quasielastic neutron scattering. The experiments were performed on two time-of-flight spectrometers and at three different energy resolutions [FOCUS at SINQ, PSI (3.65 and 5.75 A), and TOFTOF at FRM II (10 A)] for reliable data analysis and at temperatures between 27 and 95 degrees C. Two different jump diffusion models were used to describe the translational motion. Both models describe the data equally well and give the following ranking of diffusion coefficients: Na-montmorillonitediffusion coefficients than that of bulk water due to their hydrophobic surfaces. The time between jumps, tau(t), follows the sequence: Ca-montmorillonite>or=Na-montmorillonite>Ca-illite>Na-illite>or=kaolinite>pyrophyllite>or=water, in both jump diffusion models. For clays with a permanent layer charge (montmorillonite and illite) a reduction in the water content by a factor of 2 resulted in a decrease in the self-diffusion coefficients and an increase in the time between jumps as compared to the full saturation. The uncharged clay kaolinite exhibited no change in the water mobility between the two hydration states. The rotational relaxation time of water was affected by the charged clay surfaces, especially in the case of montmorillonite; the uncharged clays presented a waterlike behavior. The activation energies for translational diffusion were calculated from the Arrhenius law, which adequately describes the systems in the studied temperature range. Na- and Ca-montmorillonite (approximately 11-12 kJmol), Na-illite (approximately 13 kJmol), kaolinite and pyrophyllite (approximately 14 kJmol), and Ca-illite (approximately

  18. Translational diffusion of water and its dependence on temperature in charged and uncharged clays: A neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Jurányi, Fanni; Gimmi, Thomas; Van Loon, Luc; Unruh, Tobias; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2008-11-01

    The water diffusion in four different, highly compacted clays [montmorillonite in the Na- and Ca-forms, illite in the Na- and Ca-forms, kaolinite, and pyrophyllite (bulk dry density ρb=1.85±0.05g/cm3)] was studied at the atomic level by means of quasielastic neutron scattering. The experiments were performed on two time-of-flight spectrometers and at three different energy resolutions [FOCUS at SINQ, PSI (3.65 and 5.75Å), and TOFTOF at FRM II (10Å)] for reliable data analysis and at temperatures between 27 and 95°C. Two different jump diffusion models were used to describe the translational motion. Both models describe the data equally well and give the following ranking of diffusion coefficients: Na-montmorillonite⩽Ca-montmorillonitediffusion coefficients than that of bulk water due to their hydrophobic surfaces. The time between jumps, τt, follows the sequence: Ca-montmorillonite⩾Na-montmorillonite>Ca-illite>Na-illite⩾kaolinite>pyrophyllite⩾water, in both jump diffusion models. For clays with a permanent layer charge (montmorillonite and illite) a reduction in the water content by a factor of 2 resulted in a decrease in the self-diffusion coefficients and an increase in the time between jumps as compared to the full saturation. The uncharged clay kaolinite exhibited no change in the water mobility between the two hydration states. The rotational relaxation time of water was affected by the charged clay surfaces, especially in the case of montmorillonite; the uncharged clays presented a waterlike behavior. The activation energies for translational diffusion were calculated from the Arrhenius law, which adequately describes the systems in the studied temperature range. Na- and Ca-montmorillonite (˜11-12kJ/mol), Na-illite (˜13kJ/mol), kaolinite and pyrophyllite (˜14kJ/mol), and Ca-illite (˜15kJ/mol) all had lower activation energies than bulk water (˜17k

  19. Hydrogen jump diffusion in C14-type ZrMn2H3 : Quasielastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripov, A. V.; Udovic, T. J.; Rush, J. J.

    2007-09-01

    In order to study the mechanism and parameters of hydrogen diffusion in the hexagonal (C14-type) Laves-phase ZrMn2 , we have performed quasielastic neutron scattering measurements for ZrMn2H3 over the temperature range 10-390K . It is found that the diffusive motion of hydrogen in this system can be described in terms of at least two jump processes: a fast localized H motion with the jump rate τl-1 and a slower process with the rate τd-1 associated with H jumps leading to long-range diffusion. The temperature dependence of τd-1 in the range 225-390K follows the Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 124±4meV . In the same range, the temperature dependence of τl-1 deviates from the Arrhenius behavior and is considerably weaker than that of τd-1 . The Q dependence of the elastic incoherent structure factor (studied up to Qmax≈3.8Å-1 ) suggests that the fast localized H motion in ZrMn2H3 corresponds to two-site jumps within pairs of closely spaced interstitial Zr2Mn2 sites.

  20. Combining Diffusion NMR and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Enables Precise Measurements of Polymer Chain Compression in a Crowded Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Swomitra; He, Lilin; Hamilton, William A.; Yethiraj, Arun; Yethiraj, Anand

    2017-03-01

    The effect of particles on the behavior of polymers in solution is important in a number of important phenomena such as the effect of "crowding" proteins in cells, colloid-polymer mixtures, and nanoparticle "fillers" in polymer solutions and melts. In this Letter, we study the effect of spherical inert nanoparticles (which we refer to as "crowders") on the diffusion coefficient and radius of gyration of polymers in solution using pulsed-field-gradient NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. The diffusion coefficients exhibit a plateau below a characteristic polymer concentration, which we identify as the overlap threshold concentration c⋆. Above c⋆, in a crossover region between the dilute and semidilute regimes, the (long-time) self-diffusion coefficients are found, universally, to decrease exponentially with polymer concentration at all crowder packing fractions, consistent with a structural basis for the long-time dynamics. The radius of gyration obtained from SANS in the crossover regime changes linearly with an increase in polymer concentration, and must be extrapolated to c⋆ in order to obtain the radius of gyration of an individual polymer chain. When the polymer radius of gyration and crowder size are comparable, the polymer size is very weakly affected by the presence of crowders, consistent with recent computer simulations. There is significant chain compression, however, when the crowder size is much smaller than the polymer radius gyration.

  1. Combining Diffusion NMR and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Enables Precise Measurements of Polymer Chain Compression in a Crowded Environment.

    PubMed

    Palit, Swomitra; He, Lilin; Hamilton, William A; Yethiraj, Arun; Yethiraj, Anand

    2017-03-03

    The effect of particles on the behavior of polymers in solution is important in a number of important phenomena such as the effect of "crowding" proteins in cells, colloid-polymer mixtures, and nanoparticle "fillers" in polymer solutions and melts. In this Letter, we study the effect of spherical inert nanoparticles (which we refer to as "crowders") on the diffusion coefficient and radius of gyration of polymers in solution using pulsed-field-gradient NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. The diffusion coefficients exhibit a plateau below a characteristic polymer concentration, which we identify as the overlap threshold concentration c^{⋆}. Above c^{⋆}, in a crossover region between the dilute and semidilute regimes, the (long-time) self-diffusion coefficients are found, universally, to decrease exponentially with polymer concentration at all crowder packing fractions, consistent with a structural basis for the long-time dynamics. The radius of gyration obtained from SANS in the crossover regime changes linearly with an increase in polymer concentration, and must be extrapolated to c^{⋆} in order to obtain the radius of gyration of an individual polymer chain. When the polymer radius of gyration and crowder size are comparable, the polymer size is very weakly affected by the presence of crowders, consistent with recent computer simulations. There is significant chain compression, however, when the crowder size is much smaller than the polymer radius gyration.

  2. Development of a Nodal Method for the Solution of the Neutron Diffusion Equation in General Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Terry, William Knox

    2002-04-01

    The usual strategy for solving the neutron diffusion equation in two or three dimensions by nodal methods is to reduce the multidimensional partial differential equation to a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in the separate spatial coordinates. This reduction is accomplished by “transverse integration” of the equation.1 For example, in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, the three-dimensional equation is first integrated over x and y to obtain an ODE in z, then over x and z to obtain an ODE in y, and finally over y and z to obtain an ODE in x. Then the ODEs are solved to obtain onedimensional solutions for the neutron fluxes averaged over the other two dimensions. These solutions are found in regions (“nodes”) small enough for the material properties and cross sections in them to be adequately represented by average values. Because the solution in each node is an exact analytical solution, the nodes can be much larger than the mesh elements used in finite-difference solutions. Then the solutions in the different nodes are coupled by applying interface conditions, ultimately fixing the solutions to the external boundary conditions.

  3. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  4. Diffusion, diffraction des neutrons en temps réel et études réalisées in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnard, O.

    2003-02-01

    La diffusion des neutrons est une technique particulièrement efficace pour l'analyse en temps réel des processus réactionnels dans la matière. La diffraction de neutrons in situ a été développée très tôt sur les sources à haut flux tel que l'Institut Laue Langevin. Ces études nécessitent un flux de neutrons important et un détecteur couvrant un domaine angulaire le plus grand possible. Les neutrons offrent la spécificité d'être très peu absorbés par nombre de matériaux, cette faible absorption fait de la diffusion neutronique un excellent outil pour sonder la matière en volume et de manière non destructive. Cela permet en particulier d'utiliser des environnements d'échantillons complexes tout en conservant un flux raisonnable. La diffusion de neutrons en temps réel est donc très largement utilisée par diverses communautés scientifiques : sciences des matériaux, physiciens, chimistes... L'objet de ce cours est de donner les paramètres importants pour ce type d'étude et d'illustrer le propos à l'aide d'exemples pris dans des domaines scientifiques divers : électrochimie, magnétisme, métallurgie, chimie du solide. Après avoir présenté quelques repères méthodologiques sur les méthodes d'acquisition de données, des exemples montreront le fort potentiel de la diffusion neutronique en temps réel pour l'étude de la matière dans des conditions dynamiques. Enfin, nous donnerons aussi quelques conseils pour la visualisation, le dépouillement et l'analyse de ce type d'expérience. La diffusion des neutrons sur poudre est actuellement très bien adaptée aux études réalisées in situ. Cependant, nous verrons que la faisabilité d'études in situ s'étend à d'autres techniques expérimentales telles que la diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles et même la diffusion sur monocristal qui est en plein renouveau.

  5. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  6. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  9. Diffusion Processes in Water on Oxide Surfaces: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Hydration Water in Rutile Nano-Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Ehlers, Georg; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Wang, Wei; Wesolowski, David J

    2011-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) was used to investigate the diffusion dynamics of hydration water on the surface of rutile (TiO{sub 2}) nanopowder. The dynamics measurements utilizing two inelastic instruments, a backscattering spectrometer and a disk chopper spectrometer, probed the fast, intermediate, and slow motions of the water molecules on the time scale of picoseconds to more than a nanosecond. We employed a model-independent analysis of the data collected at each value of the scattering momentum transfer to investigate the temperature dependence of several diffusion components. All of the probed components were present in the studied temperature range of 230-320 K, providing, at a first sight, no evidence of discontinuity in the hydration water dynamics. However, a qualitative change in the elastic scattering between 240 and 250 K suggested a surface freezing-melting transition, when the motions that were localized at lower temperatures became delocalized at higher temperatures. On the basis of our previous molecular dynamics simulations of this system, we argue that interpretation of QENS data from such a complex interfacial system requires at least qualitative input from simulations, particularly when comparing results from spectrometers with very different energy resolutions and dynamic ranges.

  10. Odyssey over Martian Sunrise, 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft passes above a portion of the planet that is rotating into the sunlight in this artist's concept illustration. This red-blue anaglyph artwork can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue (cyan) 3-D glasses.

    The spacecraft has been orbiting Mars since October 24, 2001.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  12. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  13. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  15. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  16. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  17. Translational diffusion of water inside hydrophobic carbon micropores studied by neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Diallo, S. O.; Vlcek, L.; Mamontov, E.; ...

    2015-02-17

    When water molecules are confined to nanoscale spacings, such as in the nanometer-size pores of activated carbon fiber (ACF), their freezing point gets suppressed down to very low temperatures (~150 K), leading to a metastable liquid state with remarkable physical properties. Here we have investigated the ambient pressure diffusive dynamics of water in microporous Kynol ACF-10 (average pore size ~11.6 Å, with primarily slit-like pores) from temperature T = 280 K in its stable liquid state down to T = 230 K into the metastable supercooled phase. The observed characteristic relaxation times and diffusion coefficients are found to be, respectively, higher and lower than those in bulk water, indicating a slowing down of the water mobility with decreasing temperature. The observed temperature-dependent average relaxation time (more » $${{\\tau}}$$) when compared to previous findings indicate that it is the width of the slit pores-not their curvature-that primarily affects the dynamics of water for pore sizes larger than 10 Å. The experimental observations are compared to complementary molecular dynamics simulations of a model system, in which we studied the diffusion of water within the 11.6 Å gap of two parallel graphene sheets. We find generally a reasonable agreement between the observed and calculated relaxation times at the low momentum transfer Q (Q ≤ 0.9 Å-1). At high Q, however, where localized dynamics becomes relevant, this ideal system does not satisfactorily reproduce the measurements. Consequently, the simulations are compared to the experiments at low Q, where the two can be best reconciled. The best agreement is obtained for the diffusion parameter D associated with the hydrogen-site when a representative stretched exponential function, rather than the standard bimodal exponential model, is used to parametrize the self-correlation function I (Q,t).« less

  18. Translational diffusion of water inside hydrophobic carbon micropores studied by neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, S. O.; Vlcek, L.; Mamontov, E.; Keum, J. K.; Chen, Jihua; Hayes, J. S.; Chialvo, A. A.

    2015-02-17

    When water molecules are confined to nanoscale spacings, such as in the nanometer-size pores of activated carbon fiber (ACF), their freezing point gets suppressed down to very low temperatures (~150 K), leading to a metastable liquid state with remarkable physical properties. Here we have investigated the ambient pressure diffusive dynamics of water in microporous Kynol ACF-10 (average pore size ~11.6 Å, with primarily slit-like pores) from temperature T = 280 K in its stable liquid state down to T = 230 K into the metastable supercooled phase. The observed characteristic relaxation times and diffusion coefficients are found to be, respectively, higher and lower than those in bulk water, indicating a slowing down of the water mobility with decreasing temperature. The observed temperature-dependent average relaxation time (${{\\tau}}$) when compared to previous findings indicate that it is the width of the slit pores-not their curvature-that primarily affects the dynamics of water for pore sizes larger than 10 Å. The experimental observations are compared to complementary molecular dynamics simulations of a model system, in which we studied the diffusion of water within the 11.6 Å gap of two parallel graphene sheets. We find generally a reasonable agreement between the observed and calculated relaxation times at the low momentum transfer Q (Q ≤ 0.9 Å-1). At high Q, however, where localized dynamics becomes relevant, this ideal system does not satisfactorily reproduce the measurements. Consequently, the simulations are compared to the experiments at low Q, where the two can be best reconciled. The best agreement is obtained for the diffusion parameter D associated with the hydrogen-site when a representative stretched exponential function, rather than the standard bimodal exponential model, is used to parametrize the self-correlation function I (Q,t).

  19. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  2. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. Computation of diffuse scattering arising from one-phonon excitations in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Matthias J.; Graziano, Gabriella; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Refson, Keith; von Zimmerman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Direct phonon excitation in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment has been observed in a single crystal of NaCl. At room temperature both phonon emission and excitation leave characteristic features in the diffuse scattering and these are well reproduced using ab initio phonons from density functional theory (DFT). A measurement at 20 K illustrates the effect of thermal population of the phonons, leaving the features corresponding to phonon excitation and strongly suppressing the phonon annihilation. A recipe is given to compute these effects combining DFT results with the geometry of the neutron experiment. PMID:26306090

  6. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  7. A Dynamic Density Functional Theory Approach to Diffusion in White Dwarfs and Neutron Star Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaw, A.; Murillo, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a multicomponent hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy equations for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. These equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while transport enters through a relaxation approximation. This approach enables the introduction of Coulomb coupling correction terms into the standard Burgers equations. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct correlation function.

  8. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  9. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  10. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  11. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  12. The diffusion of cesium in the graphitic matrix A3-3 under irradiation by a fast neutron flux of 2 × 10 17 m -2 s -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensel, W.; Hoinkis, E.

    1995-09-01

    The 137Cs core release rate of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) is effected by the interactions of cesium with the graphitic material used as a matrix for the coated fuel particles. The migration of 137Cs in the graphitic matrix A3-3 at a fast neutron flux of 2 × 10 17 m -2 s -1 was studied in short-term experiments using the thin-film technique. The penetration profiles did not satisfy Fick's second law. The diffusion/trapping/re-emission model was applied to determine the diffusion coefficient D and the trapping coefficient μ for four profiles produced at 1088 and 1166 K. D, μ and the reemission coefficient b at 1293 K were determined for two profiles. Compared to laboratory conditions no effect of the fast neutron irradiation on the 137Cs migration in matrix A3-3 was observed.

  13. GAMSOR: Gamma Source Preparation and DIF3D Flux Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. H.; Hill, R. N.

    2016-12-15

    Nuclear reactors that rely upon the fission reaction have two modes of thermal energy deposition in the reactor system: neutron absorption and gamma absorption. The gamma rays are typically generated by neutron absorption reactions or during the fission process which means the primary driver of energy production is of course the neutron interaction. In conventional reactor physics methods, the gamma heating component is ignored such that the gamma absorption is forced to occur at the gamma emission site. For experimental reactor systems like EBR-II and FFTF, the placement of structural pins and assemblies internal to the core leads to problems with power heating predictions because there is no fission power source internal to the assembly to dictate a spatial distribution of the power. As part of the EBR-II support work in the 1980s, the GAMSOR code was developed to assist analysts in calculating the gamma heating. The GAMSOR code is a modified version of DIF3D and actually functions within a sequence of DIF3D calculations. The gamma flux in a conventional fission reactor system does not perturb the neutron flux and thus the gamma flux calculation can be cast as a fixed source problem given a solution to the steady state neutron flux equation. This leads to a sequence of DIF3D calculations, called the GAMSOR sequence, which involves solving the neutron flux, then the gamma flux, then combining the results to do a summary edit. In this manuscript, we go over the GAMSOR code and detail how it is put together and functions. We also discuss how to setup the GAMSOR sequence and input for each DIF3D calculation in the GAMSOR sequence. With the GAMSOR capability, users can take any valid steady state DIF3D calculation and compute the power distribution due to neutron and gamma heating. The MC2-3 code is the preferable companion code to use for generating neutron and gamma cross section data, but the GAMSOR code can accept cross section data from other sources. To further

  14. Facing Challenges for Monte Carlo Analysis of Full PWR Cores : Towards Optimal Detail Level for Coupled Neutronics and Proper Diffusion Data for Nodal Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, A.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Doligez, X.; El Mhari, C.; Méplan, O.

    2014-06-01

    Safety analysis of innovative reactor designs requires three dimensional modeling to ensure a sufficiently realistic description, starting from steady state. Actual Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport codes are suitable candidates to simulate large complex geometries, with eventual innovative fuel. But if local values such as power densities over small regions are needed, reliable results get more difficult to obtain within an acceptable computation time. In this scope, NEA has proposed a performance test of full PWR core calculations based on Monte Carlo neutron transport, which we have used to define an optimal detail level for convergence of steady state coupled neutronics. Coupling between MCNP for neutronics and the subchannel code COBRA for thermal-hydraulics has been performed using the C++ tool MURE, developed for about ten years at LPSC and IPNO. In parallel with this study and within the same MURE framework, a simplified code of nodal kinetics based on two-group and few-point diffusion equations has been developed and validated on a typical CANDU LOCA. Methods for the computation of necessary diffusion data have been defined and applied to NU (Nat. U) and Th fuel CANDU after assembly evolutions by MURE. Simplicity of CANDU LOCA model has made possible a comparison of these two fuel behaviours during such a transient.

  15. Determination of diffusion parameters of thermal neutrons for non-moderator media by a pulsed method and a time independent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufraqech, A.

    1991-02-01

    Two methods for determining the diffusion parameters of thermal neutrons for non-moderator and non-multiplicator media have been developed. The first one, which is a pulsed method, is based on thermal neutrons relaxation coefficients measurement in a moderator, with and without the medium of interest that plays the role of reflector. For the experimental results interpretation using the diffusion theory, a corrective factor which takes into account the neutron cooling by diffusion has been introduced. Its dependence on the empirically obtained relaxation coefficients is in a good agreement with the calculations made in P3L2 approximation. The difference between linear extrapolation lengths of the moderator and the reflector has been taken into account, by developing the scalar fluxes in Bessel function series which automatically satisfy the boundary conditions at the extrapolated surfaces of the two media. The obtained results for iron are in a good agreement with those in the literature. The second method is time independent, based on the 'flux albedo' measurements interpretation (concept introduced by Amaldi and Fermi) by P3 approximation in the one group transport theory. The independent sources are introduced in the Marshak boundary conditions. An angular albedo matrix has been used to deal with multiple reflections and to take into account the distortion of the current vector when entering a medium, after being reflected by this latter. The results obtained by this method are slightly different from those given in the literature. The analysis of the possible sources causing this discrepancy, particulary the radial distribution of flux in cylindrical geometry and the flux depression at medium-black body interface, has shown that the origin of this discrepancy is the neutron heating by diffusion.

  16. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  17. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  18. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  19. Freehand 3D ultrasound breast tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yinan; Ou, Yue; Cao, Biao

    2007-12-01

    It is very important for physicians to accurately determine breast tumor location, size and shape in ultrasound image. The precision of breast tumor volume quantification relies on the accurate segmentation of the images. Given the known location and orientation of the ultrasound probe, We propose using freehand three dimensional (3D) ultrasound to acquire original images of the breast tumor and the surrounding tissues in real-time, after preprocessing with anisotropic diffusion filtering, the segmentation operation is performed slice by slice based on the level set method in the image stack. For the segmentation on each slice, the user can adjust the parameters to fit the requirement in the specified image in order to get the satisfied result. By the quantification procedure, the user can know the tumor size varying in different images in the stack. Surface rendering and interpolation are used to reconstruct the 3D breast tumor image. And the breast volume is constructed by the segmented contours in the stack of images. After the segmentation, the volume of the breast tumor in the 3D image data can be obtained.

  20. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  2. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  4. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  5. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  6. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  8. Diffusivity of the deuterated hydrogen molecule HD in NaA zeolite by neutron scattering experiment. Comparison with H2 in NaA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen De Lara, Evelyne; Kahn, Rémi

    1992-01-01

    The diffusion of HD in NaA is studied by incoherent neutron scattering, in order to be compared with H2. The behavior of HD is similar to the one of H2: Translational motion in a nonrestricted volume and liquidlike diffusivity. The diffusion model which fits the width of the quasielastic scattering in the entire (q,T) range gives a mean length for the isotropic jump l¯=3.3 Å, shorter than the one of H2 (3.9 Å), and equivalent values of the time τ0 between jumps. The comparison of the Arrhenius plots of DH2 and DHD leads to the conclusion that quantum effects have to be taken into account.

  9. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  10. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W.

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation.

  11. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  12. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  13. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  15. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  16. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  17. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  18. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  1. The relative diffusive transport rate of SrI2 in water changes over the nanometer length scale as measured by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Faraone, Antonio

    2016-05-14

    X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to provide insight into the structures of ionic solutions for over a century, but the probes have covered distances shorter than 8 Å. For the non-hydrolyzing salt SrI2 in aqueous solution, a locally ordered lattice of ions exists that scatters slow neutrons coherently down to at least 0.1 mol L(-1) concentration, where the measured average distance between scatterers is over 18 Å. To investigate the motions of these scatterers, coherent quasielastic neutron scattering (CQENS) data on D2O solutions with SrI2 at 1, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4 mol L(-1) concentrations was obtained to provide an experimental measure of the diffusive transport rate for the motion between pairs of ions relative to each other. Because CQENS measures the motion of one ion relative to another, the frame of reference is centered on an ion, which is unique among all diffusion measurement methods. We call the measured quantity the pairwise diffusive transport rate Dp. In addition to this ion centered frame of reference, the diffusive transport rate can be measured as a function of the momentum transfer q, where q = (4π/λ)sin θ with a scattering angle of 2θ. Since q is related to the interion distance (d = 2π/q), for the experimental range 0.2 Å(-1)≤q≤ 1.0 Å(-1), Dp is, then, measured over interion distances from 40 Å to ≈6 Å. We find the measured diffusional transport rates increase with increasing distance between scatterers over the entire range covered and interpret this behavior to be caused by dynamic coupling among the ions. Within the model of Fickian diffusion, at the longer interionic distances Dp is greater than the Nernst-Hartley value for an infinitely dilute solution. For these nm-distance diffusional transport rates to conform with the lower, macroscopically measured diffusion coefficients, we propose that local, coordinated counter motion of at least pairs of ions is part of the transport process.

  2. Reaction induced fractures in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The process of fracture formation due to volume changing processes has been studied numerically in a variety of different settings, e.g. fracture initiation in general volume increasing reactions by Ulven et al.[4], weathering of dolerites by Røyne et al.[2], and volume reduction during chemical decomposition prosesses by Malthe-Sørenssen et al.[1]. Common to many previous works is that the simulations were performed in a 2D setting, due to computational limitations. Fractures observed both in field studies and in experiments are in many cases three dimensional. It remains an open question in what cases the simplification to 2D systems is applicable, and when a full 3D simulation is necessary. In this study, we use a newly developed 3D code combining elements from the discrete element model (DEM) with elements from Peridynamics[3]. We study fracture formation in fully three dimensional simulations, and compare them with simulation results from 2D DEM, thus gaining insight in both qualitative and quantitative differences between results from 2D and 3D simulations. References [1] Malthe-Sørenssen, A., Jamtveit, B., and Meakin, P., 'Fracture Patterns Generated by Diffusion Controlled Volume Changing Reactions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 2006, pp. 245501-1 - 245501-4. [2] Røyne, A., Jamtveit, B., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A., 'Controls on rock weathering rates by reaction-induced hierarchial fracturing,' Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 275, 2008, pp. 364 - 369. [3] Silling, S. A., 'Reformulation of elasticity theory for discontinuities and long-range forces,' J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48, Issue 1, 2000, pp. 175 - 209 [4] Ulven, O. I., Storheim, H., Austrheim, H., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A., 'Fracture Initiation During Volume Increasing Reactions in Rocks and Applications for CO2 Sequestration', Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 389C, 2014, pp. 132 - 142.

  3. Implementation of active-type Lamina 3D display system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangcheol; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Park, Soon-Gi; Park, Min-Kyu; Yoo, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Rin; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-06-15

    Lamina 3D display is a new type of multi-layer 3D display, which utilizes the polarization state as a new dimension of depth information. Lamina 3D display system has advanced properties - to reduce the data amount representing 3D image, to be easily made using the conventional projectors, and to have a potential being applied to the many applications. However, the system might have some limitations in depth range and viewing angle due to the properties of the expressive volume components. In this paper, we propose the volume using the layers of switchable diffusers to implement the active-type Lamina 3D display system. Because the diffusing rate of the layers has no relation with the polarization state, the polarizer wheel is applied to the proposed system in purpose of making the sectioned image synchronized with the diffusing layer at the designated location. The imaging volume of the proposed system consists of five layers of polymer dispersed liquid crystal and the total size of the implemented volume is 24x18x12 mm3(3). The proposed system can achieve the improvements of viewing qualities such as enhanced depth expression and widened viewing angle.

  4. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  5. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  6. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  8. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  9. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  10. Reactor transient analyses with KIN3D/PARTISN

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Marchetti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are going on at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to extend the kinetics capability of the PARTISN code in order to run in parallel two- and three-dimensional transient analyses with the quasistatic method, while taking into account delayed neutrons. In the original code version, time-dependent transport problems are solved by employing a semi-implicit direct kinetics option, the delayed neutrons being not taken into account. The PARTISN 5.97 code has been extended and then coupled with KIN3D, a time-dependent model embedded in the ERANOS code system. In the coupled code, PARTISN 5.97 is used as neutron transport solver to perform transient analyses while employing direct and quasi-static kinetics options of KIN3D. The coupled code can be also applied for first-order and exact perturbation theory calculations. In the paper, the PARTISN 5.97 extensions and coupling procedure are described and the performances of the KIN3D/PARTISN coupled code are investigated by analyzing transients induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional ADS model driven by an external source. (authors)

  11. 3D analysis of the reactivity insertion accident in VVER-1000

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Zhukov, A. I.; Slyeptsov, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    Fuel parameters such as peak enthalpy and temperature during rod ejection accident are calculated. The calculations are performed by 3D neutron kinetics code NESTLE and 3D thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W. Both hot zero power and hot full power cases were studied for an equilibrium cycle with Westinghouse hex fuel in VVER-1000. It is shown that the use of 3D methodology can significantly increase safety margins for current criteria and met future criteria. (authors)

  12. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line.

  13. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  14. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  17. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  20. Analysis of 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Lee, Jong Min; Ahrberg, Christian D; Chung, Bong Geun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) simple multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator to create molecular gradients on the centimeter scale with a wide range of flow rates. To create the concentration gradients, a main channel (MC) was orthogonally intersected with vertical side microchannel (SC) in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic device. Through sequential dilution from the SC, a spatial gradient was generated in the MC. Two theoretical models were created to assist in the design of the 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator and to compare its performance against a two-dimensional equivalent. A first mass balance model was used to predict the steady-state concentrations reached, while a second computational fluid dynamic model was employed to predict spatial development of the gradient by considering convective as well as diffusive mass transport. Furthermore, the theoretical simulations were verified through experiments to create molecular gradients in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

  1. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  2. Non-isothermal 3D SDPD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Potami, Raffaele; Gatsonis, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    The study of fluids at micro and nanoscale requires new modeling and computational approaches. Smooth Particle Dissipative Dynamics (SDPD) is a mesh-free method that provides a bridge between the continuum equations of hydrodynamics embedded in the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach and the molecular nature embedded in the DPD approach. SDPD is thermodynamically consistent, does not rely on arbitrary coefficients for its thermostat, involves realistic transport coefficients, and includes fluctuation terms. SDPD is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D geometries with a methodology to model solid wall boundary conditions. We present simulations for isothermal flows for verification of our approach. The entropy equation is implemented with a velocity-entropy Verlet integration algorithm Flows with heat transfer are simulated for verification of the SDPD. We present also the self-diffusion coefficient derived from SDPD simulations for gases and liquids. Results show the scale dependence of self-diffusion coefficient on SDPD particle size. Computational Mathematics Program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant/contract number FA9550-06-1-0236.

  3. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  4. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  7. Review of recent advances in radiochromic materials for 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    Recent papers concerning radiochromic films, plastics and hydrogels for 3D dosimetry are summarized. The utility of Presage", a radiochromic plastic, with optical CT readout was demonstrated for the following applications: motion and gated treatment delivery, commissioning of small fields for radiosurgery, 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy source commissioning and as a 3D insert for IMRT credentialing tests with Radiological Physics Centre (RPC) phantoms. Preliminary performance for characterizing microbeams from a synchrotron with optic projection tomography readout demonstrated resolution of an 83 micron diameter beam. Hydrogel chemistries based on nonionic micelles for leuco malachite green and leuco crystal violet demonstrated that low diffusion gels can be designed by choosing product dyes that are poorly soluble and water and tend to remain in the micelles. Turnbull blue chemistry has been successfully adapted to form a non-difffusing gel as well. The performance of ferrous xylenol orange hydrogel layers doped with boron to form neutron dosimeters demonstrated another practical application. Polymerization hydrogels are alternate materials that can be read with optical CT scanners. High dose gradient applications in brachytherapy with 90Sr/90Y sources and proton dosimetry are presented for comparison.

  8. Hydrogen in polar intermetallics: Syntheses and structures of the ternary Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93}, Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x}, and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 1} by powder neutron or single crystal X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro Leon-Escamilla, E.; Dervenagas, Panagiotis; Stassis, Constantine; Corbett, John D.

    2010-01-15

    The syntheses of the title compounds are described in detail. Structural characterizations from refinements of single crystal X-ray diffraction data for Yb{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub x} and Sm{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 1} and of powder neutron diffraction data for Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}D{sub 0.93(3)} are reported. These confirm that all three crystallize with the heavy atom structure type of beta-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, and the third gives the first proof that the deuterium lies in the center of nominal calcium tetrahedra, isostructural with the Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F-type structure. These Ca and Yb phases are particularly stable with respect to dissociation to Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type product plus H{sub 2}. Some contradictions in the literature regarding Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}H{sub x} phases are considered in terms of adventitious hydrogen impurities that are generated during reactions in fused silica containers at elevated temperatures. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}H{sub 0.93} occurs in the novel Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}F structure type with D centered in the shaded calcium tetrahedra.

  9. Neutronic calculation of fast reactors by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltashev, D. A.; Stakhanova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    This article considers neutronic calculation of a fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code. The main goal of development and application of integrated codes is a nuclear power plant safety justification. EUCLID/V1 is integrated code designed for coupled neutronics, thermomechanical and thermohydraulic fast reactor calculations under normal and abnormal operating conditions. EUCLID/V1 code is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The integrated code has a modular structure and consists of three main modules: thermohydraulic module HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1, thermomechanical module BERKUT and neutronic module DN3D. In addition, the integrated code includes databases with fuel, coolant and structural materials properties. Neutronic module DN3D provides full-scale simulation of neutronic processes in fast reactors. Heat sources distribution, control rods movement, reactivity level changes and other processes can be simulated. Neutron transport equation in multigroup diffusion approximation is solved. This paper contains some calculations implemented as a part of EUCLID/V1 code validation. A fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 transient simulation (fuel assembly floating, decompression of passive feedback system channel) and cross-validation with MCU-FR code results are presented in this paper. The calculations demonstrate EUCLID/V1 code application for BREST-OD-300 simulating and safety justification.

  10. The Transient 3-D Transport Coupled Code TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for High-Fidelity Pebble-Bed HTGR Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Armin; Sureda, Antonio; Lapins, Janis; Bader, Johannes; Laurien, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the 3D discrete ordinates-based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that aims at steady state and transient analyses of pebble-bed high-temperature gas cooled reactors. In view of increasing computing power, the application of time-dependent neutron transport methods becomes feasible for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. The calculation capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D are presented along with the coupling approach, with focus on the time-dependent neutron transport features of TORT-TD. Results obtained for the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark demonstrate the transient capabilities of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D.

  11. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  12. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  13. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  14. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  15. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  16. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  17. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  18. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  19. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  20. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  1. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  2. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  3. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode lasers, the possibility now exists to obtain reactant and product concentrations and temperatures non-intrusively in microgravity combustion studies. Over the past ten years, Southwest Sciences has focused its research on the high sensitivity, quantitative detection of gas phase species using diode lasers. Our research approach combines three innovations in an experimental system resulting in a new capability for nonintrusive measurement of major combustion species. FM spectroscopy or high frequency Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) have recently been applied to sensitive absorption measurements at Southwest Sciences and in other laboratories using GaAlAs or InGaAsP diode lasers in the visible or near-infrared as well as lead-salt lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region. Because these lasers exhibit essentially no source noise at the high detection frequencies employed with this technique, the achievement of sensitivity approaching the detector shot noise limit is possible.

  4. Neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of neutron detection and measurement are discussed. Topics include sources of neutrons, neutrons in medicine, interactions of neutrons with matter, neutron shielding, neutron measurement units, measurement methods, and neutron spectroscopy. (ACR)

  5. CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW modeling of the temporal dynamics of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-02-12

    The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) model, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be modeled quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked modeling improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.

  6. CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW modeling of the temporal dynamics of NSTX NBI+HHFW discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code[1] has been upgraded to include physics of finite-orbit-width (FOW) guiding-center orbits[2,3], as compared with the previous zero-orbit-width (ZOW) model, and a recent first-order orbit calculation[2]. The Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA[4,5] signal resulting from neutral beam (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) RF power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak can now be modeled quite accurately, using ion distributions from the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW code, a rapidly executing variant that includes FOW+gyro-orbit losses to the plasma edge, FOW effects on NBI injection and HHFW diffusion, but does not include neoclassical radial diffusion. Accurate simulation of prompt fast ion (FI) losses is a key feature of the marked modeling improvement relative to previous ZOW results. By comparing NBI-only and NBI+HHFW shots, independent confirmation of the usual 35% edge loss of HHFW in NSTX is obtained. Further, HHFW prompt losses from the plasma core are shown to be 3X as large (>25%) as the NBI-only case. The modulated NBI and time-dependent background plasma variations and charge exchange losses of fast ions are accounted for, and the temporal neutron variation is in approximate agreement with NSTX observations.

  7. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  8. Use of 3D Printing for Custom Wind Tunnel Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagorik, Paul; Bates, Zachary; Issakhanian, Emin

    2016-11-01

    Small-scale wind tunnels for the most part are fairly simple to produce with standard building equipment. However, the intricate bell housing and inlet shape of an Eiffel type wind tunnel, as well as the transition from diffuser to fan in a rectangular tunnel can present design and construction obstacles. With the help of 3D printing, these shapes can be custom designed in CAD models and printed in the lab at very low cost. The undergraduate team at Loyola Marymount University has built a custom benchtop tunnel for gas turbine film cooling experiments. 3D printing is combined with conventional construction methods to build the tunnel. 3D printing is also used to build the custom tunnel floor and interchangeable experimental pieces for various experimental shapes. This simple and low-cost tunnel is a custom solution for specific engineering experiments for gas turbine technology research.

  9. Multi-view 3D display using waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Chang-Kun

    2015-07-01

    We propose a multi-projection based multi-view 3D display system using an optical waveguide. The images from the projection units with the angle satisfying the total internal reflection (TIR) condition are incident on the waveguide and experience multiple reflections at the interface by the TIR. As a result of the multiple reflections in the waveguide, the projection distance in horizontal direction is effectively reduced to the thickness of the waveguide, and it is possible to implement the compact projection display system. By aligning the projection array in the entrance part of the waveguide, the multi-view 3D display system based on the multiple projectors with the minimized structure is realized. Viewing zones are generated by combining the waveguide projection system, a vertical diffuser, and a Fresnel lens. In the experimental setup, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified and a ten-view 3D display system with compact size in projection space is implemented.

  10. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  11. The study of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and Boron diffusion in Ta--CoFeB--MgO--CoFeB--Ta magnetic tunnel junction using polarized neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, H.; Zhu, T.; Yang, Y.; Yu, R. C.; Xiao, J. Q.

    2013-03-01

    The current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) plays an important role in spintronic devices. However, the level of current density needed to reorient the magnetization is presently too high for most commercial applications, and reducing the current density is the challenging basis for recent research in spintronics. The magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) enables a small critical current density for current-induced magnetization switching and provides a pathway for such STT devices. We investigated the origin of PMA in CoFeB sandwiched by MgO and Ti layers using the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). It is found that the PMA properties of CoFeB layers deposited above and under MgO layer are different and PNR measurements confirmed that a large PMA in the CoFeB above MgO layer is related to its low magnetization. From PNR experiments, we obtained the details of the magnetic and structural depth profiles inside the film. Using the sensitivity of neutrons to the absorption cross-section of boron, we unambiguously determined the depth profile of the boron distribution and showed that after annealing, most of the boron diffused to form a 2-nm-thick interface layer between the CoFeB and tantalum layers. Research at ORNL SNS was sponsored by BES and DOE.

  12. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  13. Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tripathl, R. K.; Cicomptta, F. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tweed, J.

    2002-01-01

    High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.

  14. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  15. 3D microstructure modeling of compressed fiber-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiselmann, Gerd; Tötzke, Christian; Manke, Ingo; Lehnert, Werner; Schmidt, Volker

    2014-07-01

    A novel parametrized model that describes the 3D microstructure of compressed fiber-based materials is introduced. It allows to virtually generate the microstructure of realistically compressed gas-diffusion layers (GDL). Given the input of a 3D microstructure of some fiber-based material, the model compresses the system of fibers in a uniaxial direction for arbitrary compression rates. The basic idea is to translate the fibers in the direction of compression according to a vector field which depends on the rate of compression and on the locations of fibers within the material. In order to apply the model to experimental 3D image data of fiber-based materials given for several compression states, an optimal vector field is estimated by simulated annealing. The model is applied to 3D image data of non-woven GDL in PEMFC gained by synchrotron tomography for different compression rates. The compression model is validated by comparing structural characteristics computed for experimentally compressed and virtually compressed microstructures, where two kinds of compression - using a flat stamp and a stamp with a flow-field profile - are applied. For both stamps types, a good agreement is found. Furthermore, the compression model is combined with a stochastic 3D microstructure model for uncompressed fiber-based materials. This allows to efficiently generate compressed fiber-based microstructures in arbitrary volumes.

  16. Influence of scaffold design on 3D printed cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Souness, Auryn; Zamboni, Fernanda; Walker, Gavin M; Collins, Maurice N

    2017-02-14

    Additive manufacturing is currently receiving significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterial science. The development of precise, affordable 3D printing technologies has provided a new platform for novel research to be undertaken in 3D scaffold design and fabrication. In the past, a number of 3D scaffold designs have been fabricated to investigate the potential of a 3D printed scaffold as a construct which could support cellular life. These studies have shown promising results; however, few studies have utilized a low-cost desktop 3D printing technology as a potential rapid manufacturing route for different scaffold designs. Here six scaffold designs were manufactured using a Fused deposition modeling, a "bottom-up" solid freeform fabrication approach, to determine optimal scaffold architecture for three-dimensional cell growth. The scaffolds, produced from PLA, are coated using pullulan and hyaluronic acid to assess the coating influence on cell proliferation and metabolic rate. Scaffolds are characterized both pre- and postprocessing using water uptake analysis, mechanical testing, and morphological evaluation to study the inter-relationships between the printing process, scaffold design, and scaffold properties. It was found that there were key differences between each scaffold design in terms of porosity, diffusivity, swellability, and compressive strength. An optimal design was chosen based on these physical measurements which were then weighted in accordance to design importance based on literature and utilizing a design matrix technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  17. Phonon-drag thermopower in 3D Dirac semimetals.

    PubMed

    Kubakaddi, S S

    2015-11-18

    A theory of low-temperature phonon-drag thermopower S(g) in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals has been developed considering screened electron-phonon deformation potential coupling. Numerical investigations of S(g), in the boundary scattering regime for phonons, are made in 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, as a function of temperature T and electron concentration n e. S(g) is found to increase rapidly for about T  <  1 K and nearly levels off for higher T. It is also seen that S(g) increases (decreases) with decreasing n e at lower (higher) T (<2 K). A screening effect is found to be very significant, strongly affecting T and n e dependence for about  <1 K and becoming negligible at higher temperature. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime the power laws S(g) ~ T(8) (T(4)) and S(g) ~ n(e)(-5/3)(n(e)(-1/3) with (without) screening are obtained. These laws with respect to T and n e are, respectively, characteristics of 3D phonons and Dirac 3D electrons. Comparison with diffusion thermopower S(d) shows that S (g) dominates (and is much greater than) S(d) for about T  >  0.2 K. Herring's law S(g) μ p ~ T (-1), relating phonon limited mobility μ p and S(g) in the BG regime, is shown to be valid in 3D Dirac semimetals. The results obtained here are compared with those in 3D semiconductors, low-dimensional semiconductor heterojunctions and graphene. We conclude that n e-dependent measurements, rather than T-dependent ones, provide a clearer signature of the 3D Dirac semimetal phase.

  18. Phonon-drag thermopower in 3D Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    A theory of low-temperature phonon-drag thermopower S g in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals has been developed considering screened electron-phonon deformation potential coupling. Numerical investigations of S g, in the boundary scattering regime for phonons, are made in 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, as a function of temperature T and electron concentration n e. S g is found to increase rapidly for about T  <  1 K and nearly levels off for higher T. It is also seen that S g increases (decreases) with decreasing n e at lower (higher) T (<2 K). A screening effect is found to be very significant, strongly affecting T and n e dependence for about  <1 K and becoming negligible at higher temperature. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime the power laws S g ~ T 8 (T 4) and S g ~ n\\text{e}-5/3 (n\\text{e}-1/3) with (without) screening are obtained. These laws with respect to T and n e are, respectively, characteristics of 3D phonons and Dirac 3D electrons. Comparison with diffusion thermopower S d shows that S g dominates (and is much greater than) S d for about T  >  0.2 K. Herring’s law S g μ p ~ T -1, relating phonon limited mobility μ p and S g in the BG regime, is shown to be valid in 3D Dirac semimetals. The results obtained here are compared with those in 3D semiconductors, low-dimensional semiconductor heterojunctions and graphene. We conclude that n e-dependent measurements, rather than T-dependent ones, provide a clearer signature of the 3D Dirac semimetal phase.

  19. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  20. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  1. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  2. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  3. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  4. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  5. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  6. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  7. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  8. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  9. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  10. Nanoimaging of Focal Adhesion Dynamics in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Aguilar, Jose S.; Tsai, Connie Y.; Wu, GuiKai; Gratton, Enrico; Digman, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Organization and dynamics of focal adhesion proteins have been well characterized in cells grown on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture surfaces. However, much less is known about the dynamic association of these proteins in the 3D microenvironment. Limited imaging technologies capable of measuring protein interactions in real time and space for cells grown in 3D is a major impediment in understanding how proteins function under different environmental cues. In this study, we applied the nano-scale precise imaging by rapid beam oscillation (nSPIRO) technique and combined the scaning-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (sFCS) and the number and molecular brightness (N&B) methods to investigate paxillin and actin dynamics at focal adhesions in 3D. Both MDA-MB-231 cells and U2OS cells produce elongated protrusions with high intensity regions of paxillin in cell grown in 3D collagen matrices. Using sFCS we found higher percentage of slow diffusing proteins at these focal spots, suggesting assembling/disassembling processes. In addition, the N&B analysis shows paxillin aggregated predominantly at these focal contacts which are next to collagen fibers. At those sites, actin showed slower apparent diffusion rate, which indicated that actin is either polymerizing or binding to the scaffolds in these locals. Our findings demonstrate that by multiplexing these techniques we have the ability to spatially and temporally quantify focal adhesion assembly and disassembly in 3D space and allow the understanding tumor cell invasion in a more complex relevant environment. PMID:24959851

  11. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  12. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  13. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  14. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  15. User Guide for the R5EXEC Coupling Interface in the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Forsmann, J. Hope; Weaver, Walter L.

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the R5EXEC coupling interface in the RELAP5-3D computer code from the users perspective. The information in the report is intended for users who want to couple RELAP5-3D to other thermal-hydraulic, neutron kinetics, or control system simulation codes.

  16. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  17. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  18. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  19. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  20. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  1. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  2. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  3. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  4. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  5. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  6. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  7. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  8. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  9. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  11. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  12. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  13. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  14. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  15. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  16. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  19. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  20. 3D shape measurement with thermal pattern projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Anika; Reetz, Edgar; Schindwolf, Simon; Correns, Martin; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2016-12-01

    Structured light projection techniques are well-established optical methods for contactless and nondestructive three-dimensional (3D) measurements. Most systems operate in the visible wavelength range (VIS) due to commercially available projection and detection technology. For example, the 3D reconstruction can be done with a stereo-vision setup by finding corresponding pixels in both cameras followed by triangulation. Problems occur, if the properties of object materials disturb the measurements, which are based on the measurement of diffuse light reflections. For example, there are existing materials in the VIS range that are too transparent, translucent, high absorbent, or reflective and cannot be recorded properly. To overcome these challenges, we present an alternative thermal approach that operates in the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose, we used two cooled mid-wave (MWIR) cameras (3-5 μm) to detect emitted heat patterns, which were introduced by a CO2 laser. We present a thermal 3D system based on a GOBO (GOes Before Optics) wheel projection unit and first 3D analyses for different system parameters and samples. We also show a second alternative approach based on an incoherent (heat) source, to overcome typical disadvantages of high-power laser-based systems, such as industrial health and safety considerations, as well as high investment costs. Thus, materials like glass or fiber-reinforced composites can be measured contactless and without the need of additional paintings.

  1. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations.

  2. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957

  3. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  4. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  5. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  7. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  8. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  9. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  15. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  3. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  4. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  5. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  6. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H2 Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, F.; Jobic, H.; Maurin, G.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  7. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H{sub 2} Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Salles, F.; Maurin, G.; Jobic, H.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  8. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  9. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  10. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  11. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  12. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  13. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  14. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  15. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  16. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  17. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  18. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  19. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  20. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  1. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  2. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  3. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  4. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  5. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  6. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  7. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  8. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  9. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  10. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  11. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  12. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  13. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  14. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  15. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  16. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  17. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  18. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  19. 3D Space Radiation Transport in a Shielded ICRU Tissue Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2014-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High Charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for a simple homogeneous shield object. Monte Carlo benchmarks were used to verify the methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and the 3D corrections were shown to provide significant improvement over the straight-ahead approximation in some cases. In the present report, the new algorithms with well-defined convergence criteria are extended to inhomogeneous media within a shielded tissue slab and a shielded tissue sphere and tested against Monte Carlo simulation to verify the solution methods. The 3D corrections are again found to more accurately describe the neutron and light ion fluence spectra as compared to the straight-ahead approximation. These computationally efficient methods provide a basis for software capable of space shield analysis and optimization.

  20. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  1. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  2. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  3. 3D target array for pulsed multi-sourced radiography

    DOEpatents

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the generation of x-rays and other charged particles. A plurality of disparate source materials can be combined on an array to facilitate fabrication of co-located mixed tips (point sources) which can be utilized to form a polychromatic cloud, e.g., a plurality of x-rays having a range of energies and or wavelengths, etc. The tips can be formed such that the x-rays are emitted in a direction different to other charged particles to facilitate clean x-ray sourcing. Particles, such as protons, can be directionally emitted to facilitate generation of neutrons at a secondary target. The various particles can be generated by interaction of a laser irradiating the array of tips. The tips can be incorporated into a plurality of 3D conical targets, the conical target sidewall(s) can be utilized to microfocus a portion of a laser beam onto the tip material.

  4. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  5. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  6. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  7. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  8. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  9. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  10. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  11. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  12. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  13. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  14. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  15. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  16. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  17. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Yang, FeiFei; Zhao, HaiMing; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, JianZhong

    2016-01-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells. PMID:27436509

  18. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  19. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  20. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  1. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  2. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  3. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  4. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  5. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  6. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  7. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  8. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  9. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  10. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  11. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  12. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  13. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  14. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  15. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  16. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  17. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  18. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  19. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  20. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  1. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  2. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  3. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  4. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  5. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  6. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  7. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  8. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  9. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  10. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  11. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  12. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  13. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  14. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  15. Simulation of human ischemic stroke in realistic 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Thierry; Duarte, Max; Descombes, Stéphane; Dronne, Marie-Aimée; Massot, Marc; Louvet, Violaine

    2013-06-01

    In silico research in medicine is thought to reduce the need for expensive clinical trials under the condition of reliable mathematical models and accurate and efficient numerical methods. In the present work, we tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling human ischemic stroke. This problem induces peculiar difficulties like potentially large stiffness which stems from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of steep spatial gradients in the reaction fronts, spatially very localized. Furthermore, simulations on realistic 3D geometries are mandatory in order to describe correctly this type of phenomenon. The main goal of this article is to obtain, for the first time, 3D simulations on realistic geometries and to show that the simulation results are consistent with those obtain in experimental studies or observed on MRI images in stroke patients. For this purpose, we introduce a new resolution strategy based mainly on time operator splitting that takes into account complex geometry coupled with a well-conceived parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures. We consider then a high order implicit time integration for the reaction and an explicit one for the diffusion term in order to build a time operator splitting scheme that exploits efficiently the special features of each problem. Thus, we aim at solving complete and realistic models including all time and space scales with conventional computing resources, that is on a reasonably powerful workstation. Consequently and as expected, 2D and also fully 3D numerical simulations of ischemic strokes for a realistic brain geometry, are conducted for the first time and shown to reproduce the dynamics observed on MRI images in stroke patients. Beyond this major step, in order to improve accuracy and computational efficiency of the simulations, we indicate how the present numerical strategy can be coupled with spatial

  16. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  17. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  18. Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W

    2002-05-23

    A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.

  19. AF printability check with a full-chip 3D resist profile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-En R.; Chang, Jason; Song, Hua; Shiely, James

    2013-09-01

    A single compact resist model capable of predicting 3D resist profile is strongly demanded for the advanced technology nodes to avoid the potential hotspots due to imperfect resist pattern shape and its lack of resistance in the subsequent etch process. In this work, we propose a resist 3D (R3D) compact model that takes acidz-diffusion effect into account. The chemical reaction between acid and base along z-direction is treated as second order effect that is absorbed into the anisotropic diffusion length as a fitting parameter. Meanwhile, the resist model in the x-y wafer plane is still kept in general by applying the compact solution of 2D reaction-diffusion equation. In order to have the 2D contour predictability at arbitrary resist height, calibration from entire 3D data (CDs at several heights) areconducted simultaneously witha single cost function so that the R3D compact model is described by a common set of resist free parameters and threshold for all resist heights. With the low energy approximation, the acid z-diffusion effect is equivalent to a z-diffused TCC that takes the form of linear combination of pure optical TCCs sampled at discrete image-depth which can be pre-calculated. With this benefit, the R3D compact model offers a more physical approach but adds no runtime concern on the OPC and verification applications. The predicted resist cross-section profiles from our test patterns are compared those computed with rigorous lithography simulator SLITHO and show very good matching results between them. The demonstration of the AF printability check from the predicted cross-section profile at AF indicates the success of our R3D compact model.

  20. Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: from planar to 3D converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Giorgia; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Croci, Gabriele; Muraro, Andrea; Schooneveld, Erik; Scherillo, Antonella; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Birch, Jens; Claps, Gerardo; Murtas, Fabrizio; Rebai, Marica; Tardocchi, Marco; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The so-called ‘3He-crisis’ has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense R&D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard 3He tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising ‘3He-free’ technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional 3He tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed 3He tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.