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Sample records for 3-d prestack depth

  1. Prestack depth migration for 3D offshore methane hydrates data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonghyung; Kim, Tae-yeon

    2015-04-01

    One of the indicators for the existence of methane hydrates on seismic data is BSR (bottom simulated reflector), which shows the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. It shows a reversed phase polarity compared to that of the water bottom reflections and high amplitude reflections. It is well known acoustic velocity decrease at the contact between gas hydrates and free-gas-bearing sediments. Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a method for imaging the subsurface in depth domain using inner product of source wavefield extrapolation in forward and receiver wavefield extrapolation in backward. It is widely used for imaging the complex subsurface structures with keeping amplitude. We applied RTM to 3D offshore seismic data for methane hydrates exploration. The study area is 12 x 25 km with 120 survey lines offshore. The shot gathers were acquired with 2 streamers and each one has 240 channels. Shot and receiver spacing is 25 m and 12.5 m. The line spacing is 100 m. Near offset is 150 m and maximum far offset is 3137.5 m. The record length is 7 second with a sampling rate of 1 ms. Shot gathers after resampled with 4 ms were processed to enhance signal to noise ratio using conventional basic processing such as amplitude recovery, deconvolution, and band-pass filtering. Interval velocities which were calculated from conventional stack velocities were used for velocity model for RTM. The basic-processed shot gathers and a velocity model were used for input data to obtain 3D image using RTM. For RTM, 20 Hz Ricker wavelet were used and grid size of x, y and z direction is 20x20x20 m. The total number of shot gathers is 176,387 and every 10th shot gather was chosen for reducing computer times and storage. The result is 3D image with inline, cross-line and depth slice image. High amplitude events are shown around (6 km, 4 km, 2.3 km) of in-line image. Each depth slice shows amplitude variation according to different depth steps. Especially channel structure variation

  2. 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel processor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Solano, M.; VanDyke, J.P.; McMechan, G.A.; Epili, D.

    1998-03-01

    Portable, production-scale 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration software capable of full-volume imaging has been successfully implemented and applied to a six-million trace (46.9 Gbyte) marine data set from a salt/subsalt play in the Gulf of Mexico. Velocity model building and updates use an image-driven strategy and were performed in a Sun Sparc environment. Images obtained by 3-D prestack migration after three velocity iterations are substantially better focused and reveal drilling targets that were not visible in images obtained from conventional 3-D poststack time migration. Amplitudes are well preserved, so anomalies associated with known reservoirs conform to the petrophysical predictions. Prototype development was on an 8-node Intel iPSC860 computer; the production version was run on an 1824-node Intel Paragon computer. The code has been successfully ported to CRAY (T3D) and Unix workstation (PVM) environments.

  3. Imaging the Juan de Fuca subduction plate using 3D Kirchoff Prestack Depth Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.; Bodin, T.; Allen, R. M.; Tauzin, B.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new Receiver Function migration method to image the subducting plate in the western US that utilizes the US array and regional network data. While the well-developed CCP (common conversion point) poststack migration is commonly used for such imaging; our method applies a 3D prestack depth migration approach. The traditional CCP and post-stack depth mapping approaches implement the ray tracing and moveout correction for the incoming teleseismic plane wave based on a 1D earth reference model and the assumption of horizontal discontinuities. Although this works well in mapping the reflection position of relatively flat discontinuities (such as the Moho or the LAB), CCP is known to give poor results in the presence of lateral volumetric velocity variations and dipping layers. Instead of making the flat layer assumption and 1D moveout correction, seismic rays are traced in a 3D tomographic model with the Fast Marching Method. With travel time information stored, our Kirchoff migration is done where the amplitude of the receiver function at a given time is distributed over all possible conversion points (i.e. along a semi-elipse) on the output migrated depth section. The migrated reflectors will appear where the semicircles constructively interfere, whereas destructive interference will cancel out noise. Synthetic tests show that in the case of a horizontal discontinuity, the prestack Kirchoff migration gives similar results to CCP, but without spurious multiples as this energy is stacked destructively and cancels out. For 45 degree and 60 degree dipping discontinuities, it also performs better in terms of imaging at the right boundary and dip angle. This is especially useful in the Western US case, beneath which the Juan de Fuca plate subducted to ~450km with a dipping angle that may exceed 50 degree. While the traditional CCP method will underestimate the dipping angle, our proposed imaging method will provide an accurate 3D subducting plate image without

  4. An efficient parallel algorithm: Poststack and prestack Kirchhoff 3D depth migration using flexi-depth iterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Richa; Srivastava, Abhishek; Khonde, Kiran; Sirasala, Kirannmayi M.; Londhe, Ashutosh; Chavhan, Hitesh

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel 3D Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm suitable for current class of multicore architecture. The fundamental Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm exhibits inherent parallelism however, when it comes to 3D data migration, as the data size increases the resource requirement of the algorithm also increases. This challenges its practical implementation even on current generation high performance computing systems. Therefore a smart parallelization approach is essential to handle 3D data for migration. The most compute intensive part of Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm is the calculation of traveltime tables due to its resource requirements such as memory/storage and I/O. In the current research work, we target this area and develop a competent parallel algorithm for post and prestack 3D Kirchhoff depth migration, using hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming techniques. We introduce a concept of flexi-depth iterations while depth migrating data in parallel imaging space, using optimized traveltime table computations. This concept provides flexibility to the algorithm by migrating data in a number of depth iterations, which depends upon the available node memory and the size of data to be migrated during runtime. Furthermore, it minimizes the requirements of storage, I/O and inter-node communication, thus making it advantageous over the conventional parallelization approaches. The developed parallel algorithm is demonstrated and analysed on Yuva II, a PARAM series of supercomputers. Optimization, performance and scalability experiment results along with the migration outcome show the effectiveness of the parallel algorithm.

  5. Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.

    2004-05-01

    Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.

  6. Enhanced 3D prestack depth imaging of broadband data from the South China Sea: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jincheng; Li, Jinbo

    2016-08-01

    We present a case study of prestack depth imaging for data from the South China Sea using an enhanced work flow with cutting edge technologies. In the survey area, the presence of complex geologies such as carbonate pinnacles and gas pockets creates challenges for processing and imaging: the complex geometry of carbonates exhibits 3D effect for wave propagation; deriving velocity inside carbonates and gas pockets is difficult and laborious; and localised strong attenuation effect from gas pockets may lead to absorption and dispersion problems. In the course of developing the enhanced work flow to tackle these issues, the following processing steps have the most significant impact on improving the imaging quality: (1) 3D ghost wavefield attenuation, in particular to remove the ghost energy associated with complex structures; (2) 3D surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) to remove multiples, in particular multiples related to complex carbonate structures; (3) full waveform inversion (FWI) and tomography-based velocity model building, to derive a geologically plausible velocity model for imaging; (4) Q-tomography to estimate the Q model which describes the intrinsic attenuation of the subsurface media; (5) de-absorption prestack depth migration (Q-PSDM) to compensate the earth absorption and dispersion effect during imaging especially for the area below gas pockets. The case study with the data from the South China Sea shows that the enhanced work flow consisting of cutting edge technologies is effective when the complex geologies are present.

  7. Multiscreen backpropagator for fast 3D elastic prestack migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ru-Shan; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    1994-09-01

    Due the huge amount of computation and internal memory required, wave backpropagation becomes the bottleneck of prestack migration or other 3D imaging/inversion procedures. We propose to use the multi-screen backpropagator for 3D prestack migration in laterally inhomogeneous background (depth migration). Multi-screen (phase-screen for scalar waves, elastic complex-screen for elastic waves) backpropagator shuttles between space-domain and wavenumber-domain using FFT and therefore avoids the time-demanding matrix multiplication. The time saving is tremendous for large-size elastic wave problems. Because it needs to store the medium parameters only one grid-plane for each step, the enormous computer memory saving makes it capable of handling large 3D problem prohibitive to other methods. The method of elastic complex screen (ECS) is a one-way propagation algorithm by neglecting the backscattered waves. However, all the forward multiple-scattering effect, such as the focusing/defocusing, diffraction, interference, wave conversion between P and S, interface waves, guided waves, etc., can be correctly handled. In this paper first the Love integral and Love migration integral are introduced. The formulation of elastic complex-screen as elastic wave one-way propagator is summarized. Numerical tests and comparisons with other full-wave methods (elastic wave finite difference and eigenfunction expansion method) are presented to show the validity of the propagator. Finally, two numerical examples of single-shot prestack migration using the ECS backpropagator, one for homogeneous background and the other for inhomogeneous background, are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  8. Prestack reverse time migration for 3D marine reflection seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Seonghyung; Kim, Taeyoun

    2015-03-10

    Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a method for imaging the subsurface using the inner product of wavefield extrapolation in shot domain and in receiver domain. It is well known that RTM is better for preserving amplitudes and phases than other prestack migrations. Since 3D seismic data is huge data volume and it needs heavy computing works, it requires parallel computing in order to have a meaningful depth image of the 3D subsurface. We implemented a parallelized version of 3D RTM for prestack depth migration. The results of numerical example for 3D SEG/EAGE salt model showed good agreement with the original geological model. We applied RTM to offshore 3D seismic reflection data. The study area is 12 × 25 km with 120 survey lines. Shot and receiver spacing is 25 m and 12.5 m. The line spacing is 100 m. Shot gathers were preprocessed to enhance signal to noise ratio and velocity model was calculated from conventional stack velocity. Both of them were used to obtain 3D image using RTM. The results show reasonable subsurface image.

  9. Prestack depth migration applied to deep seismic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, M.; Buske, S.; Lüth, S.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.

    2003-04-01

    We present the results of Kirchhoff prestack depth migration applied to two onshore deep seismic reflection data sets (ANCORP'96 and PRECORP'95). The prestack depth migration was implemented in 3D (ANCORP) and in 2D (PRECORP), respectively, from topography. The 3D velocity model was obtained by extending a 2D velocity model received from refraction data analysis. The traveltime calculation was performed using a finite difference eikonal solver. An additional "offline stacking" provided a final 370 km long 2D depth section of the ANCORP data set. The migration procedure of the PRECORP data set consisted of three steps: First, early arrivals (0-15 s TWT) were processed. Second, later arrivals (15-40 s TWT) were passed to migration . Finally, both depth sections have been stacked and yielded the final 100 km deep subsurface image. In this paper a 180 km long part of the ANCORP section and a 110 km long PRECORP depth profile are presented. In comparison to earlier processing results (ANCORP working group, 1999; 2002) the prestack depth images contain new aspects. The final 2D ANCORP section shows a sharpened image of the oceanic crust. Except for some areas a nearly complete image of the Nazca reflector is present in both data sets between depths of 60 - 90 km. The compilation with local earthquake data shows that the seismogenic zone coincides with the upper reflector of the oceanic crust, but not with the Nazca reflector at depths larger than 80 km. The final depth sections contain two prominent features, the Quebrada Blanca Bright Spot (QBBS, ANCORP) and the Calama Bright Spot (CBS, PRECORP) located 160 km further to the south. Besides the west dip of the QBBS a 3D analysis of the ANCORP data set shows an additional north-dipping trend of the QBBS. Furthermore, the CBS is discovered for the first time. ANCORP Working Group (1999) Seismic reflection image revealing offset of Andean subduction-zone earthquake locations into oceanic mantle. Nature, 397:341--344. ANCORP

  10. Practical imaging of complex geological structures using seismic prestack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinming

    This thesis develops innovative procedures to address problems in imaging multi-channel reflection seismic data in regions of complex geology. Conventional common midpoint (CMP) based processing fails to produce adequate Earth images for complex geological structures with both vertical and lateral heterogeneities. Two powerful prestack depth migration techniques are developed through the integral and finite-difference solutions of the wave equation. I first develop a new, robust, and accurate traveltime calculation method which is essentially a wavefront tracing procedure. This is implemented as a combination of a finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation, an excitation of Huygens' secondary sources, and an application of Fermat's principle. This method is very general and can be directly applied to compute first arrival traveltimes of incident plane waves. These traveltimes are extensively used by the Kirchhoff integral method to determine the integral surface, and also by the reverse-time migration to determine imaging conditions. The prestack Kirchhoff integral migration of shot profiles which is developed using the WKBJ approximation to the Green's function is simply a summation of amplitudes of differential traces along an integral surface with amplitudes being modulated by certain geometrical functions. I demonstrate that this summation scheme along a general integral surface is the mathematically more rigorous extension of the summation scheme along diffraction surfaces and of the superposition scheme of aplanatic surfaces. In contrast to the Kirchhoff method, reverse-time migration is based on a direct solution of the wave equation by approximating the differential terms of the wave equation with finite differences. It is theoretically more accurate than the Kirchhoff method since it attempts to solve the wave equation without a high frequency approximation. In addition to such attractions as implicit static corrections and coherent noise

  11. Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong Moo; Son, Jung-Young

    2008-12-22

    Binocular disparity and monocular depth information are the principal functions of ideal 3D displays. 3D display systems such as stereoscopic or multi-view, super multi-view (SMV), and multi-focus (MF) displays were considered for the testing of the satisfaction level with the monocular accommodation of three different depths of 3D object points. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the MF 3D display gives a monocular depth cue. In addition, the experimental results of the monocular MF 3D display show clear monocular focus on four different depths. Therefore, we can apply the MF 3D display to monocular 3D displays.

  12. 3D astigmatic depth sensing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Tyo, J. Scott; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional displays have become increasingly present in consumer markets. However, the ability to capture threedimensional images inexpensively and without major modifications to current cameras is uncommon. Our goal is to create a modification to a common commercial camera that allows a three dimensional reconstruction. We desire such an imaging system to be inexpensive and easy to use. Furthermore, we require that any three-dimensional modification to a camera does not reduce its resolution. Here we present a possible solution to this problem. A commercial digital camera is used with a projector system with astigmatic focus to capture images of a scene. By using an astigmatic projected pattern we can create two different focus depths for horizontal and vertical features of the projected pattern, thereby encoding depth. This projector could be integrated into the flash unit of the camera. By carefully choosing a pattern we are able to exploit this differential focus in image processing. Wavelet transforms are performed on the image that pick out the projected pattern. By taking ratios of certain wavelet coefficients we are able to correlate the distance an object at a particular transverse position is from the camera to the contrast ratios. We present our information regarding construction, calibration, and images produced by this system. The nature of linking a projected pattern design and image processing algorithms will be discussed.

  13. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  14. Depth discrimination from occlusions in 3D clutter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Zheng, Haomin; Rezvankhah, Shayan

    2016-09-01

    Objects such as trees, shrubs, and tall grass consist of thousands of small surfaces that are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) volume. To perceive the depth of surfaces within 3D clutter, a visual system can use binocular stereo and motion parallax. However, such parallax cues are less reliable in 3D clutter because surfaces tend to be partly occluded. Occlusions provide depth information, but it is unknown whether visual systems use occlusion cues to aid depth perception in 3D clutter, as previous studies have addressed occlusions for simple scene geometries only. Here, we present a set of depth discrimination experiments that examine depth from occlusion cues in 3D clutter, and how these cues interact with stereo and motion parallax. We identify two probabilistic occlusion cues. The first is based on the fraction of an object that is visible. The second is based on the depth range of the occluders. We show that human observers use both of these occlusion cues. We also define ideal observers that are based on these occlusion cues. Human observer performance is close to ideal using the visibility cue but far from ideal using the range cue. A key reason for the latter is that the range cue depends on depth estimation of the clutter itself which is unreliable. Our results provide new fundamental constraints on the depth information that is available from occlusions in 3D clutter, and how the occlusion cues are combined with binocular stereo and motion parallax cues. PMID:27618514

  15. Depth discrimination from occlusions in 3D clutter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Zheng, Haomin; Rezvankhah, Shayan

    2016-09-01

    Objects such as trees, shrubs, and tall grass consist of thousands of small surfaces that are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) volume. To perceive the depth of surfaces within 3D clutter, a visual system can use binocular stereo and motion parallax. However, such parallax cues are less reliable in 3D clutter because surfaces tend to be partly occluded. Occlusions provide depth information, but it is unknown whether visual systems use occlusion cues to aid depth perception in 3D clutter, as previous studies have addressed occlusions for simple scene geometries only. Here, we present a set of depth discrimination experiments that examine depth from occlusion cues in 3D clutter, and how these cues interact with stereo and motion parallax. We identify two probabilistic occlusion cues. The first is based on the fraction of an object that is visible. The second is based on the depth range of the occluders. We show that human observers use both of these occlusion cues. We also define ideal observers that are based on these occlusion cues. Human observer performance is close to ideal using the visibility cue but far from ideal using the range cue. A key reason for the latter is that the range cue depends on depth estimation of the clutter itself which is unreliable. Our results provide new fundamental constraints on the depth information that is available from occlusions in 3D clutter, and how the occlusion cues are combined with binocular stereo and motion parallax cues.

  16. Fast mode decision for 3D-HEVC depth intracoding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Li, Nana; Wu, Qinggang

    2014-01-01

    The emerging international standard of high efficiency video coding based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) is a successor to multiview video coding (MVC). In 3D-HEVC depth intracoding, depth modeling mode (DMM) and high efficiency video coding (HEVC) intraprediction mode are both employed to select the best coding mode for each coding unit (CU). This technique achieves the highest possible coding efficiency, but it results in extremely large encoding time which obstructs the 3D-HEVC from practical application. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on the correlation between texture video and depth map is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC depth intracoding computational complexity. Since the texture video and its associated depth map represent the same scene, there is a high correlation among the prediction mode from texture video and depth map. Therefore, we can skip some specific depth intraprediction modes rarely used in related texture CU. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce computational complexity of 3D-HEVC depth intracoding while maintaining coding efficiency. PMID:24963512

  17. Real-time depth map manipulation for 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideses, Ianir; Fishbain, Barak; Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    One of the key aspects of 3D visualization is computation of depth maps. Depth maps enables synthesis of 3D video from 2D video and use of multi-view displays. Depth maps can be acquired in several ways. One method is to measure the real 3D properties of the scene objects. Other methods rely on using two cameras and computing the correspondence for each pixel. Once a depth map is acquired for every frame, it can be used to construct its artificial stereo pair. There are many known methods for computing the optical flow between adjacent video frames. The drawback of these methods is that they require extensive computation power and are not very well suited to high quality real-time 3D rendering. One efficient method for computing depth maps is extraction of motion vector information from standard video encoders. In this paper we present methods to improve the 3D visualization quality acquired from compression CODECS by spatial/temporal and logical operations and manipulations. We show how an efficient real time implementation of spatial-temporal local order statistics such as median and local adaptive filtering in 3D-DCT domain can substantially improve the quality of depth maps and consequently 3D video while retaining real-time rendering. Real-time performance is achived by utilizing multi-core technology using standard parallelization algorithms and libraries (OpenMP, IPP).

  18. Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cha; Diverdi, Stephen; Höllerer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present an immaterial display that uses a generalized form of depth-fused 3D (DFD) rendering to create unencumbered 3D visuals. To accomplish this result, we demonstrate a DFD display simulator that extends the established depth-fused 3D principle by using screens in arbitrary configurations and from arbitrary viewpoints. The feasibility of the generalized DFD effect is established with a user study using the simulator. Based on these results, we developed a prototype display using one or two immaterial screens to create an unencumbered 3D visual that users can penetrate, examining the potential for direct walk-through and reach-through manipulation of the 3D scene. We evaluate the prototype system in formative and summative user studies and report the tolerance thresholds discovered for both tracking and projector errors.

  19. Pre-stack depth migration for improved imaging under seafloor canyons: 2D case study of Browse Basin, Australia*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, Helen 124Westlake, Shane

    2014-06-01

    In the Browse Basin, as in many areas of the world, complex seafloor topography can cause problems with seismic imaging. This is related to complex ray paths, and sharp lateral changes in velocity. This paper compares ways in which 2D Kirchhoff imaging can be improved below seafloor canyons, using both time and depth domain processing. In the time domain, to improve on standard pre-stack time migration (PSTM) we apply removable seafloor static time shifts in order to reduce the push down effect under seafloor canyons before migration. This allows for better event continuity in the seismic imaging. However this approach does not fully solve the problem, still giving sub-optimal imaging, leaving amplitude shadows and structural distortion. Only depth domain processing with a migration algorithm that honours the paths of the seismic energy as well as a detailed velocity model can provide improved imaging under these seafloor canyons, and give confidence in the structural components of the exploration targets in this area. We therefore performed depth velocity model building followed by pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), the result of which provided a step change improvement in the imaging, and provided new insights into the area.

  20. Preference for motion and depth in 3D film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, Brittney; Lugtigheid, Arthur; Kazimi, Ali; Allison, Robert S.; Wilcox, Laurie M.

    2015-03-01

    While heuristics have evolved over decades for the capture and display of conventional 2D film, it is not clear these always apply well to stereoscopic 3D (S3D) film. Further, while there has been considerable recent research on viewer comfort in S3D media, little attention has been paid to audience preferences for filming parameters in S3D. Here we evaluate viewers' preferences for moving S3D film content in a theatre setting. Specifically we examine preferences for combinations of camera motion (speed and direction) and stereoscopic depth (IA). The amount of IA had no impact on clip preferences regardless of the direction or speed of camera movement. However, preferences were influenced by camera speed, but only in the in-depth condition where viewers preferred faster motion. Given that previous research shows that slower speeds are more comfortable for viewing S3D content, our results show that viewing preferences cannot be predicted simply from measures of comfort. Instead, it is clear that viewer response to S3D film is complex and that film parameters selected to enhance comfort may in some instances produce less appealing content.

  1. 3-D rigid body tracking using vision and depth sensors.

    PubMed

    Gedik, O Serdar; Alatan, A Aydn

    2013-10-01

    In robotics and augmented reality applications, model-based 3-D tracking of rigid objects is generally required. With the help of accurate pose estimates, it is required to increase reliability and decrease jitter in total. Among many solutions of pose estimation in the literature, pure vision-based 3-D trackers require either manual initializations or offline training stages. On the other hand, trackers relying on pure depth sensors are not suitable for AR applications. An automated 3-D tracking algorithm, which is based on fusion of vision and depth sensors via extended Kalman filter, is proposed in this paper. A novel measurement-tracking scheme, which is based on estimation of optical flow using intensity and shape index map data of 3-D point cloud, increases 2-D, as well as 3-D, tracking performance significantly. The proposed method requires neither manual initialization of pose nor offline training, while enabling highly accurate 3-D tracking. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested against a number of conventional techniques, and a superior performance is clearly observed in terms of both objectively via error metrics and subjectively for the rendered scenes. PMID:23955795

  2. 3-D rigid body tracking using vision and depth sensors.

    PubMed

    Gedik, O Serdar; Alatan, A Aydn

    2013-10-01

    In robotics and augmented reality applications, model-based 3-D tracking of rigid objects is generally required. With the help of accurate pose estimates, it is required to increase reliability and decrease jitter in total. Among many solutions of pose estimation in the literature, pure vision-based 3-D trackers require either manual initializations or offline training stages. On the other hand, trackers relying on pure depth sensors are not suitable for AR applications. An automated 3-D tracking algorithm, which is based on fusion of vision and depth sensors via extended Kalman filter, is proposed in this paper. A novel measurement-tracking scheme, which is based on estimation of optical flow using intensity and shape index map data of 3-D point cloud, increases 2-D, as well as 3-D, tracking performance significantly. The proposed method requires neither manual initialization of pose nor offline training, while enabling highly accurate 3-D tracking. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested against a number of conventional techniques, and a superior performance is clearly observed in terms of both objectively via error metrics and subjectively for the rendered scenes.

  3. An efficient 3D traveltime calculation using coarse-grid mesh for shallow-depth source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Woohyun; Pyun, Sukjoon; Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-10-01

    3D Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration requires an efficient algorithm to compute first-arrival traveltimes. In this paper, we exploited a wave-equation-based traveltime calculation algorithm, which is called the suppressed wave equation estimation of traveltime (SWEET), and the equivalent source distribution (ESD) algorithm. The motivation of using the SWEET algorithm is to solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using coarse grid spacing to calculate first-arrival traveltimes. However, if a real source is located at shallow-depth close to free surface, we cannot accurately calculate the wavefield using coarse grid spacing. So, we need an additional algorithm to correctly simulate the shallow source even for the coarse grid mesh. The ESD algorithm is a method to define a set of distributed nodal sources that approximate a point source at the inter-nodal location in a velocity model with large grid spacing. Thanks to the ESD algorithm, we can efficiently calculate the first-arrival traveltimes of waves emitted from shallow source point even when we solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using a coarse-grid mesh. The proposed algorithm is applied to the SEG/EAGE 3D salt model. From the result, we note that the combination of SWEET and ESD algorithms can be successfully used for the traveltime calculation under the condition of a shallow-depth source. We also confirmed that our algorithm using coarse-grid mesh requires less computational time than the conventional SWEET algorithm using relatively fine-grid mesh.

  4. Efficient streaming of stereoscopic depth-based 3D videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Dogancan; Aabed, Mohammed; Solh, Mashhour; AlRegib, Ghaassan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to extract depth from motion, texture and intensity. We first analyze the depth map to extract a set of depth cues. Then, based on these depth cues, we process the colored reference video, using texture, motion, luminance and chrominance content, to extract the depth map. The processing of each channel in the YCRCB-color space is conducted separately. We tested this approach on different video sequences with different monocular properties. The results of our simulations show that the extracted depth maps generate a 3D video with quality close to the video rendered using the ground truth depth map. We report objective results using 3VQM and subjective analysis via comparison of rendered images. Furthermore, we analyze the savings in bitrate as a consequence of eliminating the need for two video codecs, one for the reference color video and one for the depth map. In this case, only the depth cues are sent as a side information to the color video.

  5. Algorithms for 3D shape scanning with a depth camera.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Schuon, Sebastian; Thrun, Sebastian; Stricker, Didier; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-05-01

    We describe a method for 3D object scanning by aligning depth scans that were taken from around an object with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera. These ToF cameras can measure depth scans at video rate. Due to comparably simple technology, they bear potential for economical production in big volumes. Our easy-to-use, cost-effective scanning solution, which is based on such a sensor, could make 3D scanning technology more accessible to everyday users. The algorithmic challenge we face is that the sensor's level of random noise is substantial and there is a nontrivial systematic bias. In this paper, we show the surprising result that 3D scans of reasonable quality can also be obtained with a sensor of such low data quality. Established filtering and scan alignment techniques from the literature fail to achieve this goal. In contrast, our algorithm is based on a new combination of a 3D superresolution method with a probabilistic scan alignment approach that explicitly takes into account the sensor's noise characteristics.

  6. Seismic imaging of the Waltham Canyon fault, California: comparison of ray‐theoretical and Fresnel volume prestack depth migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Klaus; Ryberg, Trond; Fuis, Gary S.; Lüth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Near‐vertical faults can be imaged using reflected refractions identified in controlled‐source seismic data. Often theses phases are observed on a few neighboring shot or receiver gathers, resulting in a low‐fold data set. Imaging can be carried out with Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in which migration noise is suppressed by constructive stacking of large amounts of multifold data. Fresnel volume migration can be used for low‐fold data without severe migration noise, as the smearing along isochrones is limited to the first Fresnel zone around the reflection point. We developed a modified Fresnel volume migration technique to enhance imaging of steep faults and to suppress noise and undesired coherent phases. The modifications include target‐oriented filters to separate reflected refractions from steep‐dipping faults and reflections with hyperbolic moveout. Undesired phases like multiple reflections, mode conversions, direct P and S waves, and surface waves are suppressed by these filters. As an alternative approach, we developed a new prestack line‐drawing migration method, which can be considered as a proxy to an infinite frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume migration. The line‐drawing migration is not considering waveform information but requires significantly shorter computational time. Target‐oriented filters were extended by dip filters in the line‐drawing migration method. The migration methods were tested with synthetic data and applied to real data from the Waltham Canyon fault, California. The two techniques are applied best in combination, to design filters and to generate complementary images of steep faults.

  7. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images. PMID:27410090

  8. Automated Mosaicking of Multiple 3d Point Clouds Generated from a Depth Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Yoon, W.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for automated mosaicking of multiple 3D point clouds generated from a depth camera. A depth camera generates depth data by using ToF (Time of Flight) method and intensity data by using intensity of returned signal. The depth camera used in this paper was a SR4000 from MESA Imaging. This camera generates a depth map and intensity map of 176 x 44 pixels. Generated depth map saves physical depth data with mm of precision. Generated intensity map contains texture data with many noises. We used texture maps for extracting tiepoints and depth maps for assigning z coordinates to tiepoints and point cloud mosaicking. There are four steps in the proposed mosaicking method. In the first step, we acquired multiple 3D point clouds by rotating depth camera and capturing data per rotation. In the second step, we estimated 3D-3D transformation relationships between subsequent point clouds. For this, 2D tiepoints were extracted automatically from the corresponding two intensity maps. They were converted into 3D tiepoints using depth maps. We used a 3D similarity transformation model for estimating the 3D-3D transformation relationships. In the third step, we converted local 3D-3D transformations into a global transformation for all point clouds with respect to a reference one. In the last step, the extent of single depth map mosaic was calculated and depth values per mosaic pixel were determined by a ray tracing method. For experiments, 8 depth maps and intensity maps were used. After the four steps, an output mosaicked depth map of 454x144 was generated. It is expected that the proposed method would be useful for developing an effective 3D indoor mapping method in future.

  9. Subpixel Resolution In Depth Perceived Via 3-D Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika; Fender, Derek H.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiment in which two black vertical bars on featureless white background placed near intersection of optical axes of two charge-coupled-device video cameras positioned to give stereoscopic views. Trained human observers found to perceive depths at subpixel resolutions in stereoscopic television images. This finding significant for remote stereoscopic monitoring, expecially during precise maneuvers of remotely controlled manipulators. Also significant for research in processing of visual information by human brain.

  10. Combining depth and color data for 3D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, Thomas M.; Linneberg, Christian; Andersen, Allan W.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the shape recognition system that has been developed within the ESPRIT project 9052 ADAS on automatic disassembly of TV-sets using a robot cell. Depth data from a chirped laser radar are fused with color data from a video camera. The sensor data is pre-processed in several ways and the obtained representation is used to train a RAM neural network (memory based reasoning approach) to detect different components within TV-sets. The shape recognizing architecture has been implemented and tested in a demonstration setup.

  11. Increasing the depth of field in Multiview 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Yano, Sumio; Jung, Ilkwon

    2016-06-01

    A super-multiview condition simulator which can project up to four different view images to each eye is introduced. This simulator with the image having both disparity and perspective informs that the depth of field (DOF) will be extended to more than the default DOF values as the number of simultaneously but separately projected different view images to each eye increase. The DOF range can be extended to near 2 diopters with the four simultaneous view images. However, the DOF value increments are not prominent as the image with both disparity and perspective with the image with disparity only.

  12. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  13. Depth enhancement of S3D content and the psychological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Masahiro; Shiraishi, Saki; Kawai, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) imaging technologies are widely used recently to create content for movies, TV programs, games, etc. Although S3D content differs from 2D content by the use of binocular parallax to induce depth sensation, the relationship between depth control and the user experience remains unclear. In this study, the user experience was subjectively and objectively evaluated in order to determine the effectiveness of depth control, such as an expansion or reduction or a forward or backward shift in the range of maximum parallactic angles in the cross and uncross directions (depth bracket). Four types of S3D content were used in the subjective and objective evaluations. The depth brackets of comparison stimuli were modified in order to enhance the depth sensation corresponding to the content. Interpretation Based Quality (IBQ) methodology was used for the subjective evaluation and the heart rate was measured to evaluate the physiological effect. The results of the evaluations suggest the following two points. (1) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket affects preference and enhances positive emotions to the S3D content. (2) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket produces above-mentioned effects more notable than shifting the cross/uncross directions.

  14. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  15. Can the perception of depth in stereoscopic images be influenced by 3D sound?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Amy; Berry, Jonathan; Holliman, Nick

    2011-03-01

    The creation of binocular images for stereoscopic display has benefited from significant research and commercial development in recent years. However, perhaps surprisingly, the effect of adding 3D sound to stereoscopic images has rarely been studied. If auditory depth information can enhance or extend the visual depth experience it could become an important way to extend the limited depth budget on all 3D displays and reduce the potential for fatigue from excessive use of disparity. Objective: As there is limited research in this area our objective was to ask two preliminary questions. First what is the smallest difference in forward depth that can be reliably detected using 3D sound alone? Second does the addition of auditory depth information influence the visual perception of depth in a stereoscopic image? Method: To investigate auditory depth cues we use a simple sound system to test the experimental hypothesis that: participants will perform better than chance at judging the depth differences between two speakers a set distance apart. In our second experiment investigating both auditory and visual depth cues we setup a sound system and a stereoscopic display to test the experimental hypothesis that: participants judge a visual stimulus to be closer if they hear a closer sound when viewing the stimulus. Results: In the auditory depth cue trial every depth difference tested gave significant results demonstrating that the human ear can hear depth differences between physical sources as short as 0.25 m at 1 m. In our trial investigating whether audio information can influence the visual perception of depth we found that participants did report visually perceiving an object to be closer when the sound was played closer to them even though the image depth remained unchanged. Conclusion: The positive results in the two trials show that we can hear small differences in forward depth between sound sources and suggest that it could be practical to extend the apparent

  16. Efficient and high speed depth-based 2D to 3D video conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somaiya, Amisha Himanshu; Kulkarni, Ramesh K.

    2013-09-01

    Stereoscopic video is the new era in video viewing and has wide applications such as medicine, satellite imaging and 3D Television. Such stereo content can be generated directly using S3D cameras. However, this approach requires expensive setup and hence converting monoscopic content to S3D becomes a viable approach. This paper proposes a depth-based algorithm for monoscopic to stereoscopic video conversion by using the y axis co-ordinates of the bottom-most pixels of foreground objects. This code can be used for arbitrary videos without prior database training. It does not face the limitations of single monocular depth cues nor does it combine depth cues, thus consuming less processing time without affecting the efficiency of the 3D video output. The algorithm, though not comparable to real-time, is faster than the other available 2D to 3D video conversion techniques in the average ratio of 1:8 to 1:20, essentially qualifying as high-speed. It is an automatic conversion scheme, hence directly gives the 3D video output without human intervention and with the above mentioned features becomes an ideal choice for efficient monoscopic to stereoscopic video conversion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Superpixel-based 3D warping using view plus depth data from multiple viewpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Keita; Fujii, Toshiaki

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a method of virtual view synthesis using view plus depth data from multiple viewpoints. Intuitively, virtual view generation from those data can be easily achieved by simple 3D warping. However, 3D points reconstructed from those data are isolated, i.e. not connected with each other. Consequently, the images generated by existing methods have many holes that are very annoying due to occlusions and the limited sampling density. To tackle this problem, we propose two steps algorithm as follows. In the first step, view plus depth data from each viewpoint is 3D warped to the virtual viewpoint. In this process, we determine which neighboring pixels should be connected or kept isolated. For this determination, we use depth differences among neighboring pixels, and SLIC-based superpixel segmentation that considers both color and depth information. The pixel pairs that have small depth differences or reside in same superpixels are connected, and the polygons enclosed by the connected pixels are inpainted, which greatly reduces the holes. This warping process is performed individually for each viewpoint from which view plus depth data are provided, resulting in several images at the virtual viewpoint that are warped from different viewpoints. In the second step, we merge those warped images to obtain the final result. Thanks to the data provided from different viewpoints, the final result has less noises and holes compared to the result from single viewpoint information. Experimental results using publicly available view plus depth data are reported to validate our method.

  18. Integration of 3D structure from disparity into biological motion perception independent of depth awareness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into visual perception depends on the conscious representation of stereoscopic depth. Here we report evidence that, even without inducing discernible perceptual representations, the disparity-defined depth information could still modulate the visual processing of 3D objects in depth-irrelevant aspects. Specifically, observers who could not discriminate disparity-defined in-depth facing orientations of biological motions (i.e., approaching vs. receding) due to an excessive perceptual bias nevertheless exhibited a robust perceptual asymmetry in response to the indistinguishable facing orientations, similar to those who could consciously discriminate such 3D information. These results clearly demonstrate that the visual processing of biological motion engages the disparity cues independent of observers' depth awareness. The extraction and utilization of binocular depth signals thus can be dissociable from the conscious representation of 3D structure in high-level visual perception.

  19. Integration of multiple view plus depth data for free viewpoint 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Yuko; Kawamoto, Tetsuya; Fujii, Toshiaki; Mase, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for constructing a reasonable scale of end-to-end free-viewpoint video system that captures multiple view and depth data, reconstructs three-dimensional polygon models of objects, and display them on virtual 3D CG spaces. This system consists of a desktop PC and four Kinect sensors. First, multiple view plus depth data at four viewpoints are captured by Kinect sensors simultaneously. Then, the captured data are integrated to point cloud data by using camera parameters. The obtained point cloud data are sampled to volume data that consists of voxels. Since volume data that are generated from point cloud data are sparse, those data are made dense by using global optimization algorithm. Final step is to reconstruct surfaces on dense volume data by discrete marching cubes method. Since accuracy of depth maps affects to the quality of 3D polygon model, a simple inpainting method for improving depth maps is also presented.

  20. Electrophysiological evidence of separate pathways for the perception of depth and 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have investigated the neural mechanism of 3D perception, but the neural distinction between 3D-objects and depth processing remains unclear. In the present study, participants viewed three types of graphics (planar graphics, perspective drawings, and 3D objects) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. The ERP results revealed the following: (1) 3D objects elicited a larger and delayed N1 component than the other two types of stimuli; (2) during the P2 time window, significant differences between 3D objects and the perspective drawings were found mainly over a group of electrode sites in the left lateral occipital region; and (3) during the N2 complex, differences between planar graphics and perspective drawings were found over a group of electrode sites in the right hemisphere, whereas differences between perspective drawings and 3D objects were observed at another group of electrode sites in the left hemisphere. These findings support the claim that depth processing and object identification might be processed by separate pathways and at different latencies.

  1. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  2. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  3. Depth-color fusion strategy for 3-D scene modeling with Kinect.

    PubMed

    Camplani, Massimo; Mantecon, Tomas; Salgado, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Low-cost depth cameras, such as Microsoft Kinect, have completely changed the world of human-computer interaction through controller-free gaming applications. Depth data provided by the Kinect sensor presents several noise-related problems that have to be tackled to improve the accuracy of the depth data, thus obtaining more reliable game control platforms and broadening its applicability. In this paper, we present a depth-color fusion strategy for 3-D modeling of indoor scenes with Kinect. Accurate depth and color models of the background elements are iteratively built, and used to detect moving objects in the scene. Kinect depth data is processed with an innovative adaptive joint-bilateral filter that efficiently combines depth and color by analyzing an edge-uncertainty map and the detected foreground regions. Results show that the proposed approach efficiently tackles main Kinect data problems: distance-dependent depth maps, spatial noise, and temporal random fluctuations are dramatically reduced; objects depth boundaries are refined, and nonmeasured depth pixels are interpolated. Moreover, a robust depth and color background model and accurate moving objects silhouette are generated.

  4. 2D but not 3D: pictorial-depth deficits in a case of visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Driver, Jon; McCarthy, Rosaleen A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with visual agnosia exhibit acquired impairments in visual object recognition, that may or may not involve deficits in low-level perceptual abilities. Here we report a case (patient DM) who after head injury presented with object-recognition deficits. He still appears able to extract 2D information from the visual world in a relatively intact manner; but his ability to extract pictorial information about 3D object-structure is greatly compromised. His copying of line drawings is relatively good, and he is accurate and shows apparently normal mental rotation when matching or judging objects tilted in the picture-plane. But he performs poorly on a variety of tasks requiring 3D representations to be derived from 2D stimuli, including: performing mental rotation in depth, rather than in the picture-plane; judging the relative depth of two regions depicted in line-drawings of objects; and deciding whether a line-drawing represents an object that is 'impossible' in 3D. Interestingly, DM failed to show several visual illusions experienced by normals (Muller-Lyer and Ponzo), that some authors have attributed to pictorial depth cues. Taken together, these findings indicate a deficit in achieving 3D intepretations of objects from 2D pictorial cues, that may contribute to object-recognition problems in agnosia.

  5. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure a Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Wright, Steve T.; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heft, Eric L.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of manipulating disparity on task performance and viewing comfort, twelve participants were tested on a virtual object precision placement task while viewing a stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, passed the Titmus stereovision clinical test, and demonstrated normal binocular function, including phorias and binocular fusion ranges. Each participant completed six experimental sessions with different maximum binocular disparity limits. The results for ten of the twelve participants were generally as expected, demonstrating a large performance advantage when S3D cues were provided. The sessions with the larger disparity limits typically resulted in the best performance, and the sessions with no S3D cues the poorest performance. However, one participant demonstrated poorer performance in sessions with smaller disparity limits but improved performance in sessions with the larger disparity limits. Another participant's performance declined whenever any S3D cues were provided. Follow-up testing suggested that the phenomenon of pseudo-stereoanomaly may account for one viewer's atypical performance, while the phenomenon of stereoanomaly might account for the other. Overall, the results demonstrate that a subset of viewers with clinically normal binocular and stereoscopic vision may have difficulty performing depth-related tasks on S3D displays. The possibility of the vergence-accommodation conflict contributing to individual performance differences is also discussed.

  6. Depth cues versus the simplicity principle in 3D shape perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to explore the mechanisms of human 3D shape perception. In Experiment 1, the subjects' performance in a shape constancy task in the presence of several cues (edges, binocular disparity, shading and texture) was tested. The results show that edges and binocular disparity, but not shading or texture, are important in 3D shape perception. Experiment 2 tested the effect of several simplicity constraints, such as symmetry and planarity on subjects' performance in a shape constancy task. The 3D shapes were represented by edges or vertices only. The results show that performance with or without binocular disparity is at chance level, unless the 3D shape is symmetric and/or its faces are planar. In both experiments, there was a correlation between the subjects' performance with and without binocular disparity. Our study suggests that simplicity constraints, not depth cues, play the primary role in both monocular and binocular 3D shape perception. These results are consistent with our computational model of 3D shape recovery.

  7. A range/depth modulation transfer function (RMTF) framework for characterizing 3D imaging LADAR performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staple, Bevan; Earhart, R. P.; Slaymaker, Philip A.; Drouillard, Thomas F., II; Mahony, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    3D imaging LADARs have emerged as the key technology for producing high-resolution imagery of targets in 3-dimensions (X and Y spatial, and Z in the range/depth dimension). Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. continues to make significant investments in this technology to enable critical NASA, Department of Defense, and national security missions. As a consequence of rapid technology developments, two issues have emerged that need resolution. First, the terminology used to rate LADAR performance (e.g., range resolution) is inconsistently defined, is improperly used, and thus has become misleading. Second, the terminology does not include a metric of the system"s ability to resolve the 3D depth features of targets. These two issues create confusion when translating customer requirements into hardware. This paper presents a candidate framework for addressing these issues. To address the consistency issue, the framework utilizes only those terminologies proposed and tested by leading LADAR research and standards institutions. We also provide suggestions for strengthening these definitions by linking them to the well-known Rayleigh criterion extended into the range dimension. To address the inadequate 3D image quality metrics, the framework introduces the concept of a Range/Depth Modulation Transfer Function (RMTF). The RMTF measures the impact of the spatial frequencies of a 3D target on its measured modulation in range/depth. It is determined using a new, Range-Based, Slanted Knife-Edge test. We present simulated results for two LADAR pulse detection techniques and compare them to a baseline centroid technique. Consistency in terminology plus a 3D image quality metric enable improved system standardization.

  8. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  9. ROI-preserving 3D video compression method utilizing depth information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Chunli; Xu, Guodong; Guan, Yudong; Teng, Yidan

    2015-09-01

    Efficiently transmitting the extra information of three dimensional (3D) video is becoming a key issue of the development of 3DTV. 2D plus depth format not only occupies the smaller bandwidth and is compatible transmission under the condition of the existing channel, but also can provide technique support for advanced 3D video compression in some extend. This paper proposes an ROI-preserving compression scheme to further improve the visual quality at a limited bit rate. According to the connection between the focus of Human Visual System (HVS) and depth information, region of interest (ROI) can be automatically selected via depth map progressing. The main improvement from common method is that a meanshift based segmentation is executed to the depth map before foreground ROI selection to keep the integrity of scene. Besides, the sensitive areas along the edges are also protected. The Spatio-temporal filtering adapting to H.264 is used to the non-ROI of both 2D video and depth map before compression. Experiments indicate that, the ROI extracted by this method is more undamaged and according with subjective feeling, and the proposed method can keep the key high-frequency information more effectively while the bit rate is reduced.

  10. Augmented depth perception visualization in 2D/3D image fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Kreiser, Matthias; Wang, Lejing; Navab, Nassir; Fallavollita, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    2D/3D image fusion applications are widely used in endovascular interventions. Complaints from interventionists about existing state-of-art visualization software are usually related to the strong compromise between 2D and 3D visibility or the lack of depth perception. In this paper, we investigate several concepts enabling improvement of current image fusion visualization found in the operating room. First, a contour enhanced visualization is used to circumvent hidden information in the X-ray image. Second, an occlusion and depth color-coding scheme is considered to improve depth perception. To validate our visualization technique both phantom and clinical data are considered. An evaluation is performed in the form of a questionnaire which included 24 participants: ten clinicians and fourteen non-clinicians. Results indicate that the occlusion correction method provides 100% correctness when determining the true position of an aneurysm in X-ray. Further, when integrating an RGB or RB color-depth encoding in the image fusion both perception and intuitiveness are improved.

  11. Cortical depth dependent functional responses in humans at 7T: improved specificity with 3D GRASE.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Federico; Zimmermann, Jan; Muckli, Lars; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high fields (7T and above) allow functional imaging with high contrast-to-noise ratios and improved spatial resolution. This, along with improved hardware and imaging techniques, allow investigating columnar and laminar functional responses. Using gradient-echo (GE) (T2* weighted) based sequences, layer specific responses have been recorded from human (and animal) primary visual areas. However, their increased sensitivity to large surface veins potentially clouds detecting and interpreting layer specific responses. Conversely, spin-echo (SE) (T2 weighted) sequences are less sensitive to large veins and have been used to map cortical columns in humans. T2 weighted 3D GRASE with inner volume selection provides high isotropic resolution over extended volumes, overcoming some of the many technical limitations of conventional 2D SE-EPI, whereby making layer specific investigations feasible. Further, the demonstration of columnar level specificity with 3D GRASE, despite contributions from both stimulated echoes and conventional T2 contrast, has made it an attractive alternative over 2D SE-EPI. Here, we assess the spatial specificity of cortical depth dependent 3D GRASE functional responses in human V1 and hMT by comparing it to GE responses. In doing so we demonstrate that 3D GRASE is less sensitive to contributions from large veins in superficial layers, while showing increased specificity (functional tuning) throughout the cortex compared to GE.

  12. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  13. 3D silicon sensors with variable electrode depth for radiation hard high resolution particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Vià, C.; Borri, M.; Dalla Betta, G.; Haughton, I.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Povoli, M.; Mendicino, R.

    2015-04-01

    3D sensors, with electrodes micro-processed inside the silicon bulk using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, were industrialized in 2012 and were installed in the first detector upgrade at the LHC, the ATLAS IBL in 2014. They are the radiation hardest sensors ever made. A new idea is now being explored to enhance the three-dimensional nature of 3D sensors by processing collecting electrodes at different depths inside the silicon bulk. This technique uses the electric field strength to suppress the charge collection effectiveness of the regions outside the p-n electrodes' overlap. Evidence of this property is supported by test beam data of irradiated and non-irradiated devices bump-bonded with pixel readout electronics and simulations. Applications include High-Luminosity Tracking in the high multiplicity LHC forward regions. This paper will describe the technical advantages of this idea and the tracking application rationale.

  14. Fusion of 3D laser scanner and depth images for obstacle recognition in mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzan, Sebastian; Kasprzyk, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The problem of obstacle detection and recognition or, generally, scene mapping is one of the most investigated problems in computer vision, especially in mobile applications. In this paper a fused optical system using depth information with color images gathered from the Microsoft Kinect sensor and 3D laser range scanner data is proposed for obstacle detection and ground estimation in real-time mobile systems. The algorithm consists of feature extraction in the laser range images, processing of the depth information from the Kinect sensor, fusion of the sensor information, and classification of the data into two separate categories: road and obstacle. Exemplary results are presented and it is shown that fusion of information gathered from different sources increases the effectiveness of the obstacle detection in different scenarios, and it can be used successfully for road surface mapping.

  15. Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Munekazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Takada, Hideaki; Nakazawa, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    A new depth-fused 3-D (DFD) display for multiple users is presented. A DFD display, which consists of a stack of layered screens, is expected to be a visually comfortable 3-D display because it can satisfy not only binocular disparity, convergence, accommodation, but also motion parallax for a small observer displacement. However, the display cannot be observed from an oblique angle due to image doubling caused by the layered screen structure, so the display is applicable only for single-observer use. In this paper, we present a multi-viewing-zone DFD display using a stack of a see-through screen and a multi-viewing-zone 2-D display. We used a film, which causes polarization-selective scattering, as the front screen, and an anisotropic scattering film for the rear screen. The front screen was illuminated by one projector, and the screen displayed an image at all viewing angles. The rear screen was illuminated by multiple projectors from different directions. The displayed images on the rear screen were arranged to be well overlapped for each viewing direction to create multiple viewing zones without image doubling. This design is promising for a large-area 3-D display that does not require special glasses because the display uses projection and has a simple structure.

  16. XPS for non-destructive depth profiling and 3D imaging of surface nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hajati, Shaaker; Tougaard, Sven

    2010-04-01

    Depth profiling of nanostructures is of high importance both technologically and fundamentally. Therefore, many different methods have been developed for determination of the depth distribution of atoms, for example ion beam (e.g. O(2)(+) , Ar(+)) sputtering, low-damage C(60) cluster ion sputtering for depth profiling of organic materials, water droplet cluster ion beam depth profiling, ion-probing techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES)), X-ray microanalysis using the electron probe variation technique combined with Monte Carlo calculations, angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) peak-shape analysis. Each of the depth profiling techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, in many cases, non-destructive techniques are preferred; these include ARXPS and XPS peak-shape analysis. The former together with parallel factor analysis is suitable for giving an overall understanding of chemistry and morphology with depth. It works very well for flat surfaces but it fails for rough or nanostructured surfaces because of the shadowing effect. In the latter method shadowing effects can be avoided because only a single spectrum is used in the analysis and this may be taken at near normal emission angle. It is a rather robust means of determining atom depth distributions on the nanoscale both for large-area XPS analysis and for imaging. We critically discuss some of the techniques mentioned above and show that both ARXPS imaging and, particularly, XPS peak-shape analysis for 3D imaging of nanostructures are very promising techniques and open a gateway for visualizing nanostructures. PMID:20091159

  17. Improvement of 3d Monte Carlo Localization Using a Depth Camera and Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, S.; Hatakeyama, R.; Date, H.

    2015-05-01

    Effective and accurate localization method in three-dimensional indoor environments is a key requirement for indoor navigation and lifelong robotic assistance. So far, Monte Carlo Localization (MCL) has given one of the promising solutions for the indoor localization methods. Previous work of MCL has been mostly limited to 2D motion estimation in a planar map, and a few 3D MCL approaches have been recently proposed. However, their localization accuracy and efficiency still remain at an unsatisfactory level (a few hundreds millimetre error at up to a few FPS) or is not fully verified with the precise ground truth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to improve an accuracy and efficiency of 6DOF motion estimation in 3D MCL for indoor localization. Firstly, a terrestrial laser scanner is used for creating a precise 3D mesh model as an environment map, and a professional-level depth camera is installed as an outer sensor. GPU scene simulation is also introduced to upgrade the speed of prediction phase in MCL. Moreover, for further improvement, GPGPU programming is implemented to realize further speed up of the likelihood estimation phase, and anisotropic particle propagation is introduced into MCL based on the observations from an inertia sensor. Improvements in the localization accuracy and efficiency are verified by the comparison with a previous MCL method. As a result, it was confirmed that GPGPU-based algorithm was effective in increasing the computational efficiency to 10-50 FPS when the number of particles remain below a few hundreds. On the other hand, inertia sensor-based algorithm reduced the localization error to a median of 47mm even with less number of particles. The results showed that our proposed 3D MCL method outperforms the previous one in accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Blind deconvolution of 3D fluorescence microscopy using depth-variant asymmetric PSF.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Naemura, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    The 3D wide-field fluorescence microscopy suffers from depth-variant asymmetric blur. The depth-variance and axial asymmetry are due to refractive index mismatch between the immersion and the specimen layer. The radial asymmetry is due to lens imperfections and local refractive index inhomogeneities in the specimen. To obtain the PSF that has these characteristics, there were PSF premeasurement trials. However, they are useless since imaging conditions such as camera position and refractive index of the specimen are changed between the premeasurement and actual imaging. In this article, we focus on removing unknown depth-variant asymmetric blur in such an optical system under the assumption of refractive index homogeneities in the specimen. We propose finding few parameters in the mathematical PSF model from observed images in which the PSF model has a depth-variant asymmetric shape. After generating an initial PSF from the analysis of intensities in the observed image, the parameters are estimated based on a maximum likelihood estimator. Using the estimated PSF, we implement an accelerated GEM algorithm for image deconvolution. Deconvolution result shows the superiority of our algorithm in terms of accuracy, which quantitatively evaluated by FWHM, relative contrast, standard deviation values of intensity peaks and FWHM. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:480-494, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062314

  19. 3D seismic imaging, example of 3D area in the middle of Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antic, S.

    2009-04-01

    3D seismic imaging was carried out in the 3D seismic volume situated in the middle of Banat region in Serbia. The 3D area is about 300 km square. The aim of 3D investigation was defining geology structures and techtonics especially in Mesozoik complex. The investigation objects are located in depth from 2000 to 3000 m. There are number of wells in this area but they are not enough deep to help in the interpretation. It was necessary to get better seismic image in deeper area. Acquisition parameters were satisfactory (good quality of input parameters, length of input data was 5 s, fold was up to 4000 %) and preprocessed data was satisfied. GeoDepth is an integrated system for 3D velocity model building and for 3D seismic imaging. Input data for 3D seismic imaging consist of preprocessing data sorted to CMP gathers and RMS stacking velocity functions. Other type of input data are geological information derived from well data, time migrated images and time migrated maps. Workflow for this job was: loading and quality control the input data (CMP gathers and velocity), creating initial RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, updating the RMS Velocity Volume, PSTM, building the Initial Interval Velocity Model, PSDM, updating the Interval Velocity Model, PSDM. In the first stage the attempt is to derive initial velocity model as simple as possible as.The higher frequency velocity changes are obtained in the updating stage. The next step, after running PSTM, is the time to depth conversion. After the model is built, we generate a 3D interval velocity volume and run 3D pre-stack depth migration. The main method for updating velocities is 3D tomography. The criteria used in velocity model determination are based on the flatness of pre-stack migrated gathers or the quality of the stacked image. The standard processing ended with poststack 3D time migration. Prestack depth migration is one of the powerful tool available to the interpretator to develop an accurate velocity model and get

  20. Parallel I/O and computation for 3D post-stack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Charles C.; Joyner, Calvin L.

    1994-09-01

    Scalable parallel algorithms for seismic imaging remain a significant challenge for the oil and gas industry. Scalability must address both the computational and the input/output portions of the algorithm in question. These issues are addressed by the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite, a public domain software system that provides an environment for development and performance analysis of parallel seismic processing algorithm. We illustrate some of the issues in the design of scalable parallel imaging algorithms with an example process, 3D post-stack depth migration. The algorithm used is based on an implicit finite difference formulation described by Zhiming Li. Scalability is obtained by designing computation, communication between processors, and input/output as parallel operations. The resulting application runs efficiently on both distributed memory and shared memory hardware platforms with processor counts from 1 - 128 nodes.

  1. A thermographic approach for surface crack depth evaluation through 3D finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Mohammed; PV, Nithin; Ravindran, Parag; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-03-01

    Laser Thermography has been reported earlier by several researchers as a tool for detecting surface breaking cracks in metals. A high energy laser (pulsed Nd-YAG) was used to produce a highly localized thermal spot from which heat diffuses (predominantly) in the radial direction. The crack that is perpendicular to the surface and close to this thermal spot will perturb the lateral heat flow and this disturbance can be observed by an IR camera. The laser spot is then scanned over a region to map the crack; this allows remote imaging of crack morphology even in elevated temperatures. The present study involves a 3D finite element simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics as a tool to simulate the thermal flow from a pulsed laser source in the proximity of a crack. The modeling helped to understand the various parameters affecting the thermal images of laser heated spots. The influence of depth of the crack on temperature changes across the crack and the relationship between crack depth and temperature changes due to the crack was simulated and subsequently validated experimentally.

  2. The impact of stereo 3D sports TV broadcasts on user's depth perception and spatial presence experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, K.; Wiemeyer, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work examines the impact of content and presentation parameters in 2D versus 3D on depth perception and spatial presence, and provides guidelines for stereoscopic content development for 3D sports TV broadcasts and cognate subjects. Under consideration of depth perception and spatial presence experience, a preliminary study with 8 participants (sports: soccer and boxing) and a main study with 31 participants (sports: soccer and BMX-Miniramp) were performed. The dimension (2D vs. 3D) and camera position (near vs. far) were manipulated for soccer and boxing. In addition for soccer, the field of view (small vs. large) was examined. Moreover, the direction of motion (horizontal vs. depth) was considered for BMX-Miniramp. Subjective assessments, behavioural tests and qualitative interviews were implemented. The results confirm a strong effect of 3D on both depth perception and spatial presence experience as well as selective influences of camera distance and field of view. The results can improve understanding of the perception and experience of 3D TV as a medium. Finally, recommendations are derived on how to use various 3D sports ideally as content for TV broadcasts.

  3. INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

    2004-03-01

    The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of inversion algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform inversion algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform inversion algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint inversion of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences

  4. Fast 3-D seismic modeling and prestack depth migration using generalized screen methods. Final report for period January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2001-03-31

    Completed a theoretical analysis of phase screen propagators to answer several critical questions: the existence of a singularity in the Green's function for the case of a zero vertical wavenumber, the stability and accuracy of such propagators, and the effects of backscattering for large contrast heterogeneous media. The theory is based on separating the wavefield into forescattering and backscattering parts. The approach is robust and appropriate for earth structures with high velocity contrast. This theory also resolves the apparent singularity problem that has persisted in generalized screen propagator formulations. With this formulation we studied the effects of the commonly used approximations as a function of the degree of velocity contrast in the media.

  5. Ankh in the depth - Subdermal 3D art implants: Radiological identification with body modification.

    PubMed

    Schaerli, Sarah; Berger, Florian; Thali, Michael J; Gascho, Dominic

    2016-05-01

    One of the core tasks in forensic medico-legal investigations is the identification of the deceased. Radiological identification using postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is a powerful technique. In general, the implementation of forensic PMCT is rising worldwide. In addition to specific anatomical structures, medical implants or prostheses serve as markers for the comparison of antemortem and postmortem images to identify the deceased. However, non-medical implants, such as subdermal three-dimensional (3D) art implants, also allow for radiological identification. These implants are a type of body modification that have become increasingly popular over the last several decades and will therefore be employed more frequently in radiological identification in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of radiological identification with a subdermal 3D art implant. Further, the present case shows the characteristics of a silicone 3D art implant on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and X-rays. PMID:27161914

  6. Depth propagation for semi-automatic 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstaya, Ekaterina; Pohl, Petr; Rychagov, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method for temporal propagation of depth data that is available for so called key-frames through video sequence. Our method requires that full frame depth information is assigned. Our method utilizes nearest preceding and nearest following key-frames with known depth information. The propagation of depth information from two sides is essential as it allows to solve most occlusion problems correctly. Image matching is based on the coherency sensitive hashing (CSH) method and is done using image pyramids. Disclosed results are compared with temporal interpolation based on motion vectors from optical flow algorithm. The proposed algorithm keeps sharp depth edges of objects even in situations with fast motion or occlusions. It also handles well many situations, when the depth edges don't perfectly correspond with true edges of objects.

  7. Subjective and Objective Video Quality Assessment of 3D Synthesized Views With Texture/Depth Compression Distortion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangkai; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Sudeng; Kwong, Sam; Kuo, C-C Jay; Peng, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The quality assessment for synthesized video with texture/depth compression distortion is important for the design, optimization, and evaluation of the multi-view video plus depth (MVD)-based 3D video system. In this paper, the subjective and objective studies for synthesized view assessment are both conducted. First, a synthesized video quality database with texture/depth compression distortion is presented with subjective scores given by 56 subjects. The 140 videos are synthesized from ten MVD sequences with different texture/depth quantization combinations. Second, a full reference objective video quality assessment (VQA) method is proposed concerning about the annoying temporal flicker distortion and the change of spatio-temporal activity in the synthesized video. The proposed VQA algorithm has a good performance evaluated on the entire synthesized video quality database, and is particularly prominent on the subsets which have significant temporal flicker distortion induced by depth compression and view synthesis process. PMID:26292342

  8. Kinetic depth effect and optic flow--I. 3D shape from Fourier motion.

    PubMed

    Dosher, B A; Landy, M S; Sperling, G

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three different 3D shapes were defined by sequences of 2D views (frames) of dots on a rotating 3D surface. (1) Subjects' accuracy of shape identifications dropped from over 90% to less than 10% when either the polarity of the stimulus dots was alternated from light-on-gray to dark-on-gray on successive frames or when neutral gray interframe intervals were interposed. Both manipulations interfere with motion extraction by spatio-temporal (Fourier) and gradient first-order detectors. Second-order (non-Fourier) detectors that use full-wave rectification are unaffected by alternating-polarity but disrupted by interposed gray frames. (2) To equate the accuracy of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) planar direction-of-motion discrimination in standard and polarity-alternated stimuli, standard contrast was reduced. 3D shape discrimination survived contrast reduction in standard stimuli whereas it failed completely with polarity-alternation even at full contrast. (3) When individual dots were permitted to remain in the image sequence for only two frames, performance showed little loss compared to standard displays where individual dots had an expected lifetime of 20 frames, showing that 3D shape identification does not require continuity of stimulus tokens. (4) Performance in all discrimination tasks is predicted (up to a monotone transformation) by considering the quality of first-order information (as given by a simple computation on Fourier power) and the number of locations at which motion information is required. Perceptual first-order analysis of optic flow is the primary substrate for structure-from-motion computations in random dot displays because only it offers sufficient quality of perceptual motion at a sufficient number of locations.

  9. Binocular and Monocular Depth Cues in Online Feedback Control of 3-D Pointing Movement

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Knill, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that humans continuously use visual feedback of the hand to control goal-directed movements online. In most studies, visual error signals were predominantly in the image plane and thus were available in an observer’s retinal image. We investigate how humans use visual feedback about finger depth provided by binocular and monocular depth cues to control pointing movements. When binocularly viewing a scene in which the hand movement was made in free space, subjects were about 60 ms slower in responding to perturbations in depth than in the image plane. When monocularly viewing a scene designed to maximize the available monocular cues to finger depth (motion, changing size and cast shadows), subjects showed no response to perturbations in depth. Thus, binocular cues from the finger are critical to effective online control of hand movements in depth. An optimal feedback controller that takes into account of the low peripheral stereoacuity and inherent ambiguity in cast shadows can explain the difference in response time in the binocular conditions and lack of response in monocular conditions. PMID:21724567

  10. Lapse-time dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: firstly, we evaluate the contribution of surface and body wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Secondly, we compare the lapse-time behavior in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  11. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  12. 3D high-efficiency video coding for multi-view video and depth data.

    PubMed

    Muller, Karsten; Schwarz, Heiko; Marpe, Detlev; Bartnik, Christian; Bosse, Sebastian; Brust, Heribert; Hinz, Tobias; Lakshman, Haricharan; Merkle, Philipp; Rhee, Franz Hunn; Tech, Gerhard; Winken, Martin; Wiegand, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes an extension of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard for coding of multi-view video and depth data. In addition to the known concept of disparity-compensated prediction, inter-view motion parameter, and inter-view residual prediction for coding of the dependent video views are developed and integrated. Furthermore, for depth coding, new intra coding modes, a modified motion compensation and motion vector coding as well as the concept of motion parameter inheritance are part of the HEVC extension. A novel encoder control uses view synthesis optimization, which guarantees that high quality intermediate views can be generated based on the decoded data. The bitstream format supports the extraction of partial bitstreams, so that conventional 2D video, stereo video, and the full multi-view video plus depth format can be decoded from a single bitstream. Objective and subjective results are presented, demonstrating that the proposed approach provides 50% bit rate savings in comparison with HEVC simulcast and 20% in comparison with a straightforward multi-view extension of HEVC without the newly developed coding tools. PMID:23715605

  13. Assessing nest-building behavior of mice using a 3D depth camera.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2015-08-15

    We developed a novel method to evaluate the nest-building behavior of mice using an inexpensive depth camera. The depth camera clearly captured nest-building behavior. Using three-dimensional information from the depth camera, we obtained objective features for assessing nest-building behavior, including "volume," "radius," and "mean height". The "volume" represents the change in volume of the nesting material, a pressed cotton square that a mouse shreds and untangles in order to build its nest. During the nest-building process, the total volume of cotton fragments is increased. The "radius" refers to the radius of the circle enclosing the fragments of cotton. It describes the extent of nesting material dispersion. The "radius" averaged approximately 60mm when a nest was built. The "mean height" represents the change in the mean height of objects. If the nest walls were high, the "mean height" was also high. These features provided us with useful information for assessment of nest-building behavior, similar to conventional methods for the assessment of nest building. However, using the novel method, we found that JF1 mice built nests with higher walls than B6 mice, and B6 mice built nests faster than JF1 mice. Thus, our novel method can evaluate the differences in nest-building behavior that cannot be detected or quantified by conventional methods. In future studies, we will evaluate nest-building behaviors of genetically modified, as well as several inbred, strains of mice, with several nesting materials.

  14. 3D high-efficiency video coding for multi-view video and depth data.

    PubMed

    Muller, Karsten; Schwarz, Heiko; Marpe, Detlev; Bartnik, Christian; Bosse, Sebastian; Brust, Heribert; Hinz, Tobias; Lakshman, Haricharan; Merkle, Philipp; Rhee, Franz Hunn; Tech, Gerhard; Winken, Martin; Wiegand, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes an extension of the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard for coding of multi-view video and depth data. In addition to the known concept of disparity-compensated prediction, inter-view motion parameter, and inter-view residual prediction for coding of the dependent video views are developed and integrated. Furthermore, for depth coding, new intra coding modes, a modified motion compensation and motion vector coding as well as the concept of motion parameter inheritance are part of the HEVC extension. A novel encoder control uses view synthesis optimization, which guarantees that high quality intermediate views can be generated based on the decoded data. The bitstream format supports the extraction of partial bitstreams, so that conventional 2D video, stereo video, and the full multi-view video plus depth format can be decoded from a single bitstream. Objective and subjective results are presented, demonstrating that the proposed approach provides 50% bit rate savings in comparison with HEVC simulcast and 20% in comparison with a straightforward multi-view extension of HEVC without the newly developed coding tools.

  15. Real-Depth imaging: a new (no glasses) 3D imaging technology with video/data projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1997-05-01

    Floating Images, Inc. has developed the software and hardware for anew, patent pending, 'floating 3D, off-the- screen-experience' display technology. This technology has the potential to become the next standard for home and arcade video games, computers, corporate presentations, Internet/Intranet viewing, and television. Current '3D Graphics' technologies are actually flat on screen. Floating Images technology actually produce images at different depths from any display, such as CRT and LCD, for television, computer, projection, and other formats. In addition, unlike stereoscopic 3D imaging, no glasses, headgear, or other viewing aids are used. And, unlike current autostereoscopic imaging technologies, there is virtually no restriction on where viewers can sit to view the images, with no 'bad' or 'dead' zones, flipping, or pseudoscopy. In addition to providing traditional depth cues such as perspective and background image occlusion, the new technology also provides both horizontal and vertical binocular parallax and accommodation which coincides with convergence. Since accommodation coincides with convergence, viewing these images doesn't produce headaches, fatigue, or eye-strain, regardless of how long they are viewed. The imagery must either be formatted for the Floating Images platform when written, or existing software can be reformatted without much difficult. The optical hardware system can be made to accommodate virtually any projection system to produce Floating Images for the Boardroom, video arcade, stage shows, or the classroom.

  16. Operational Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean using INSAT-3D/Imager product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rastogi, G.; Chauhan, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean region is derived operationally for the first time from the geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite INSAT-3D Imager data at 0.65 μm wavelength. Single visible channel algorithm based on clear sky composites gives larger retrieval error in AOD than other multiple channel algorithms due to errors in estimating surface reflectance and atmospheric property. However, since MIR channel signal is insensitive to the presence of most aerosols, therefore in present study, AOD retrieval algorithm employs both visible (centred at 0.65 μm) and mid-infrared (MIR) band (centred at 3.9 μm) measurements, and allows us to monitor transport of aerosols at higher temporal resolution. Comparisons made between INSAT-3D derived AOD (τI) and MODIS derived AOD (τM) co-located in space (at 1° resolution) and time during January, February and March (JFM) 2014 encompasses 1165, 1052 and 900 pixels, respectively. Good agreement found between τI and τM during JFM 2014 with linear correlation coefficients (R) of 0.87, 0.81 and 0.76, respectively. The extensive validation made during JFM 2014 encompasses 215 co-located AOD in space and time derived by INSAT 3D (τI) and 10 sun-photometers (τA) that includes 9 AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) and 1 handheld sun-photometer site. INSAT-3D derived AOD i.e. τI, is found within the retrieval errors of τI = ±0.07 ±0.15τA with linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.90 and root mean square error equal (RMSE) to 0.06. Present work shows that INSAT-3D aerosol products can be used quantitatively in many applications with caution for possible residual clouds, snow/ice, and water contamination.

  17. Depth-resolved 3D visualization of coronary microvasculature with optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wan; Roberts, Meredith A.; Qi, Xiaoli; Murry, Charles E.; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we propose a novel implementation of optical coherence tomography-based angiography combined with ex vivo perfusion of fixed hearts to visualize coronary microvascular structure and function. The extracorporeal perfusion of Intralipid solution allows depth-resolved angiographic imaging, control of perfusion pressure, and high-resolution optical microangiography. The imaging technique offers new opportunities for microcirculation research in the heart, which has been challenging due to motion artifacts and the lack of independent control of pressure and flow. With the ability to precisely quantify structural and functional features, this imaging platform has broad potential for the study of the pathophysiology of microvasculature in the heart as well as other organs.

  18. Simulating hydroplaning of submarine landslides by quasi 3D depth averaged finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Blasio, Fabio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    G.B. Crosta, H. J. Chen, and F.V. De Blasio Dept. Of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, Canada Subaqueous debris flows/submarine landslides, both in the open ocean as well as in fresh waters, exhibit extremely high mobility, quantified by a ratio between vertical to horizontal displacement of the order 0.01 or even much less. It is possible to simulate subaqueous debris flows with small-scale experiments along a flume or a pool using a cohesive mixture of clay and sand. The results have shown a strong enhancement of runout and velocity compared to the case in which the same debris flow travels without water, and have indicated hydroplaning as a possible explanation (Mohrig et al. 1998). Hydroplaning is started when the snout of the debris flow travels sufficiently fast. This generates lift forces on the front of the debris flow exceeding the self-weight of the sediment, which so begins to travel detached from the bed, literally hovering instead of flowing. Clearly, the resistance to flow plummets because drag stress against water is much smaller than the shear strength of the material. The consequence is a dramatic increase of the debris flow speed and runout. Does the process occur also for subaqueous landslides and debris flows in the ocean, something twelve orders of magnitude larger than the experimental ones? Obviously, no experiment will ever be capable to replicate this size, one needs to rely on numerical simulations. Results extending a depth-integrated numerical model for debris flows (Imran et al., 2001) indicate that hydroplaning is possible (De Blasio et al., 2004), but more should be done especially with alternative numerical methodologies. In this work, finite element methods are used to simulate hydroplaning using the code MADflow (Chen, 2014) adopting a depth averaged solution. We ran some simulations on the small scale of the laboratory experiments, and secondly

  19. Robust incremental compensation of the light attenuation with depth in 3D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kervrann, C; Legland, D; Pardini, L

    2004-06-01

    Summary Fluorescent signal intensities from confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM) suffer from several distortions inherent to the method. Namely, layers which lie deeper within the specimen are relatively dark due to absorption and scattering of both excitation and fluorescent light, photobleaching and/or other factors. Because of these effects, a quantitative analysis of images is not always possible without correction. Under certain assumptions, the decay of intensities can be estimated and used for a partial depth intensity correction. In this paper we propose an original robust incremental method for compensating the attenuation of intensity signals. Most previous correction methods are more or less empirical and based on fitting a decreasing parametric function to the section mean intensity curve computed by summing all pixel values in each section. The fitted curve is then used for the calculation of correction factors for each section and a new compensated sections series is computed. However, these methods do not perfectly correct the images. Hence, the algorithm we propose for the automatic correction of intensities relies on robust estimation, which automatically ignores pixels where measurements deviate from the decay model. It is based on techniques adopted from the computer vision literature for image motion estimation. The resulting algorithm is used to correct volumes acquired in CLSM. An implementation of such a restoration filter is discussed and examples of successful restorations are given. PMID:15157197

  20. Investigating the San Andreas Fault System in the Northern Salton Trough by a Combination of Seismic Tomography and Pre-stack Depth Migration: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Ryberg, T.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin which was formed in migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas fault (SAF) and the Imperial fault are current examples. It is located within the large-scale transition between the onshore SAF strike-slip system to the north and the marine rift system of the Gulf of California to the south. Crustal stretching and sinking formed the distinct topographic features and sedimentary successions of the Salton Trough. The active SAF and related fault systems can produce potentially large damaging earthquakes. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded by NSF and USGS, was undertaken to generate seismic data and images to improve the knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF in this key region. The results from these studies are required as input for modeling of earthquake scenarios and prediction of strong ground motion in the surrounding populated areas and cities. We present seismic data analysis and results from tomography and pre-stack depth migration for a number of seismic profiles (Lines 1, 4-7) covering mainly the northern Salton Trough. The controlled-source seismic data were acquired in 2011. The seismic lines have lengths ranging from 37 to 72 km. On each profile, 9-17 explosion sources with charges of 110-460 kg were recorded by 100-m spaced vertical component receivers. On Line 7, additional OBS data were acquired within the Salton Sea. Travel times of first arrivals were picked and inverted for initial 1D velocity models. Alternatively, the starting models were derived from the crustal-scale velocity models developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The final 2D velocity models were obtained using the algorithm of Hole (1992; JGR). We have also tested the tomography packages FAST and SIMUL2000, resulting in similar velocity structures. An

  1. Correction of depth-dependent aberrations in 3D single-molecule localization and super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    McGorty, Ryan; Schnitzbauer, Joerg; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Bo

    2014-01-15

    Single-molecule switching based super-resolution microscopy techniques have been extended into three dimensions through various 3D single-molecule localization methods. However, the localization accuracy in z can be severely degraded by the presence of aberrations, particularly the spherical aberration introduced by the refractive index mismatch when imaging into an aqueous sample with an oil immersion objective. This aberration confines the imaging depth in most experiments to regions close to the coverslip. Here we show a method to obtain accurate, depth-dependent z calibrations by measuring the point spread function (PSF) at the coverslip surface, calculating the microscope pupil function through phase retrieval, and then computing the depth-dependent PSF with the addition of spherical aberrations. We demonstrate experimentally that this method can maintain z localization accuracy over a large range of imaging depths. Our super-resolution images of a mammalian cell nucleus acquired between 0 and 2.5 μm past the coverslip show that this method produces accurate z localizations even in the deepest focal plane.

  2. Depth to the Juan De Fuca slab beneath the Cascadia subduction margin - a 3-D model for sorting earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Blair, J. Luke; Oppenheimer, David H.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    We present an updated model of the Juan de Fuca slab beneath southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California, and use this model to separate earthquakes occurring above and below the slab surface. The model is based on depth contours previously published by Fluck and others (1997). Our model attempts to rectify a number of shortcomings in the original model and update it with new work. The most significant improvements include (1) a gridded slab surface in geo-referenced (ArcGIS) format, (2) continuation of the slab surface to its full northern and southern edges, (3) extension of the slab surface from 50-km depth down to 110-km beneath the Cascade arc volcanoes, and (4) revision of the slab shape based on new seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction studies. We have used this surface to sort earthquakes and present some general observations and interpretations of seismicity patterns revealed by our analysis. For example, deep earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath western Washington define a linear trend that may mark a tear within the subducting plate Also earthquakes associated with the northern stands of the San Andreas Fault abruptly terminate at the inferred southern boundary of the Juan de Fuca slab. In addition, we provide files of earthquakes above and below the slab surface and a 3-D animation or fly-through showing a shaded-relief map with plate boundaries, the slab surface, and hypocenters for use as a visualization tool.

  3. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  4. Psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms by means of simultaneous observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Ookuma, Yoshio; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2007-02-01

    Recently, many types of computer-generated stereograms (CGSs), i.e. various works of art produced by using computer are published for hobby and entertainment. It is said that activation of brain, improvement of visual eye sight, decrease of mental stress, effect of healing, etc. are expected when properly appreciating a kind of CGS as the stereoscopic view. There is a lot of information on the internet web site concerning all aspects of stereogram history, science, social organization, various types of stereograms, and free software for generating CGS. Generally, the CGS is classified into nine types: (1) stereo pair type, (2) anaglyph type, (3) repeated pattern type, (4) embedded type, (5) random dot stereogram (RDS), (6) single image stereogram (SIS), (7) united stereogram, (8) synthesized stereogram, and (9) mixed or multiple type stereogram. Each stereogram has advantages and disadvantages when viewing directly the stereogram with two eyes by training with a little patience. In this study, the characteristics of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms, the role and composition of depth map image (DMI) called hidden image or picture, and the effect of irregular shift of texture pattern image called wall paper are discussed from the viewpoint of psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth and visual quality of virtual image by means of simultaneous observation in the case of the parallel viewing method.

  5. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  6. Depth camera-based 3D hand gesture controls with immersive tactile feedback for natural mid-air gesture interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-08

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback.

  7. Depth Camera-Based 3D Hand Gesture Controls with Immersive Tactile Feedback for Natural Mid-Air Gesture Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangtaek; Kim, Joongrock; Choi, Jaesung; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    Vision-based hand gesture interactions are natural and intuitive when interacting with computers, since we naturally exploit gestures to communicate with other people. However, it is agreed that users suffer from discomfort and fatigue when using gesture-controlled interfaces, due to the lack of physical feedback. To solve the problem, we propose a novel complete solution of a hand gesture control system employing immersive tactile feedback to the user's hand. For this goal, we first developed a fast and accurate hand-tracking algorithm with a Kinect sensor using the proposed MLBP (modified local binary pattern) that can efficiently analyze 3D shapes in depth images. The superiority of our tracking method was verified in terms of tracking accuracy and speed by comparing with existing methods, Natural Interaction Technology for End-user (NITE), 3D Hand Tracker and CamShift. As the second step, a new tactile feedback technology with a piezoelectric actuator has been developed and integrated into the developed hand tracking algorithm, including the DTW (dynamic time warping) gesture recognition algorithm for a complete solution of an immersive gesture control system. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the integrated system were conducted with human subjects, and the results demonstrate that our gesture control with tactile feedback is a promising technology compared to a vision-based gesture control system that has typically no feedback for the user's gesture inputs. Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback. PMID:25580901

  8. Feature-location binding in 3D: Feature judgments are biased by 2D location but not position-in-depth.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-10-01

    A fundamental aspect of human visual perception is the ability to recognize and locate objects in the environment. Importantly, our environment is predominantly three-dimensional (3D), but while there is considerable research exploring the binding of object features and location, it is unknown how depth information interacts with features in the object binding process. A recent paradigm called the spatial congruency bias demonstrated that 2D location is fundamentally bound to object features, such that irrelevant location information biases judgments of object features, but irrelevant feature information does not bias judgments of location or other features. Here, using the spatial congruency bias paradigm, we asked whether depth is processed as another type of location, or more like other features. We initially found that depth cued by binocular disparity biased judgments of object color. However, this result seemed to be driven more by the disparity differences than the depth percept: Depth cued by occlusion and size did not bias color judgments, whereas vertical disparity information (with no depth percept) did bias color judgments. Our results suggest that despite the 3D nature of our visual environment, only 2D location information - not position-in-depth - seems to be automatically bound to object features, with depth information processed more similarly to other features than to 2D location. PMID:27468654

  9. Feature-location binding in 3D: Feature judgments are biased by 2D location but not position-in-depth.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-10-01

    A fundamental aspect of human visual perception is the ability to recognize and locate objects in the environment. Importantly, our environment is predominantly three-dimensional (3D), but while there is considerable research exploring the binding of object features and location, it is unknown how depth information interacts with features in the object binding process. A recent paradigm called the spatial congruency bias demonstrated that 2D location is fundamentally bound to object features, such that irrelevant location information biases judgments of object features, but irrelevant feature information does not bias judgments of location or other features. Here, using the spatial congruency bias paradigm, we asked whether depth is processed as another type of location, or more like other features. We initially found that depth cued by binocular disparity biased judgments of object color. However, this result seemed to be driven more by the disparity differences than the depth percept: Depth cued by occlusion and size did not bias color judgments, whereas vertical disparity information (with no depth percept) did bias color judgments. Our results suggest that despite the 3D nature of our visual environment, only 2D location information - not position-in-depth - seems to be automatically bound to object features, with depth information processed more similarly to other features than to 2D location.

  10. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M; Suh, T; Han, B; Xing, L; Jenkins, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  11. Ryukyu Subduction Zone: 3D Geodynamic Simulations of the Effects of Slab Shape and Depth on Lattice-Preferred Orientation (LPO) and Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, S.; Tan, E.; Billen, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    At the Ryukyu subduction zone, seismic anisotropy observations suggest that there may be strong trench-parallel flow within the mantle wedge driven by complex 3D slab geometry. However, previous simulations have either failed to account for 3D flow or used the infinite strain axis (ISA) approximation for LPO, which is known to be inaccurate in complex flow fields. Additionally, both the slab depth and shape of the Ryukyu slab are contentious. Development of strong trench-parallel flow requires low viscosity to decouple the mantle wedge from entrainment by the sinking slab. Therefore, understanding the relationship between seismic anisotropy and the accompanying flow field will better constrain the material and dynamic properties of the mantle near subduction zones. In this study, we integrate a kinematic model for calculation of LPO (D-Rex) into a buoyancy-driven, instantaneous 3D flow simulation (ASPECT), using composite non-Newtonian rheology to investigate the dependence of LPO on slab geometry and depth at the Ryukyu Trench. To incorporate the 3D flow effects, the trench and slab extends from the southern tip of Japan to the western edge of Taiwan and the model region is approximately 1/4 of a spherical shell extending from the surface to the core-mantle boundary. In the southern-most region we vary the slab depth and shape to test for the effects of the uncertainties in the observations. We also investigate the effect of adding locally hydrated regions above the slab that affect both the mantle rheology and development of LPO through the consequent changes in mantle flow and dominate (weakest) slip system. We characterize how changes in the simulation conditions affect the LPO within the mantle wedge, subducting slab and sub-slab mantle and relate these to surface observations of seismic anisotropy.

  12. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  13. A new 3D Moho depth model for Iran based on the terrestrial gravity data and EGM2008 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiamehr, R.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the variation of crustal thickness is essential in many applications, such as forward dynamic modelling, numerical heat flow calculations and seismologic applications. Dehghani in 1984 estimated the first Moho depth model over the Iranian plateau using the simple profiling method and Bouguer gravity data. However, these data are high deficiencies and lack of coverage in most part of the region. To provide a basis for an accurate analysis of the region's lithospheric stresses, we develop an up to date three dimensional crustal thickness model of the Iranian Plateau using Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. This method is based on a relationship between the Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform of the interface topography. The new model is based on the new and most complete gravity database of Iran which is produced by Kiamehr for computation of the high resolution geoid model for Iran. Total number of 26125 gravity data were collected from different sources and used for generation an outlier-free 2x2 minutes gravity database for Iran. At the mean time, the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) up to degree 2160 has been developed and published by National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. EGM2008 incorporates improved 5x5 minutes gravity anomalies and has benefited from the latest GRACE based satellite solutions. The major benefit of the EGM2008 is its ability to provide precise and uniform gravity data with global data coverage. Two different Moho depth models have been computed based on the terrestrial and EGM2008 datasets. The minimum and maximum Moho depths for land and EGM2008 models are 10.85-53.86 and 15.41-51.43 km, respectively. In general, we found a good agreement between the Moho geometry obtained using both land and EGM2008 datasets with the RMS of 2.7 km. Also, we had a comparison between these gravimetric Moho models versus global seismic crustal models CRUST 2.0. The differences between EGM2008 and land

  14. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  15. Prestack reverse time migration for tilted transversely isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonghyung; Hien, Doan Huy

    2013-04-01

    According to having interest in unconventional resource plays, anisotropy problem is naturally considered as an important step for improving the seismic image quality. Although it is well known prestack depth migration for the seismic reflection data is currently one of the powerful tools for imaging complex geological structures, it may lead to migration error without considering anisotropy. Asymptotic analysis of wave propagation in transversely isotropic (TI) media yields a dispersion relation of couple P- and SV wave modes that can be converted to a fourth order scalar partial differential equation (PDE). By setting the shear wave velocity equal zero, the fourth order PDE, called an acoustic wave equation for TI media, can be reduced to couple of second order PDE systems and we try to solve the second order PDE by the finite difference method (FDM). The result of this P wavefield simulation is kinematically similar to elastic and anisotropic wavefield simulation. We develop prestack depth migration algorithm for tilted transversely isotropic media using reverse time migration method (RTM). RTM is a method for imaging the subsurface using inner product of source wavefield extrapolation in forward and receiver wavefield extrapolation in backward. We show the subsurface image in TTI media using the inner product of partial derivative wavefield with respect to physical parameters and observation data. Since the partial derivative wavefields with respect to the physical parameters require extremely huge computing time, so we implemented the imaging condition by zero lag crosscorrelation of virtual source and back propagating wavefield instead of partial derivative wavefields. The virtual source is calculated directly by solving anisotropic acoustic wave equation, the back propagating wavefield on the other hand is calculated by the shot gather used as the source function in the anisotropic acoustic wave equation. According to the numerical model test for a simple

  16. Integrating depth functions and hyper-scale terrain analysis for 3D soil organic carbon modeling in agricultural fields at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L.; van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Doetterl, S.; Van Oost, K.; Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    different depth functions, ii. The use of different machine learning approaches for modeling the parameters of the fitted depth functions using the ConMap features and iii. The influence of different spatial scales on the SOC profile distribution variability. Keywords: 3D modeling, Digital soil mapping, Depth functions, Terrain analysis. Reference Behrens, T., K. Schmidt, K., Zhu, A.X. Scholten, T. 2010. The ConMap approach for terrain-based digital soil mapping. European Journal of Soil Science, v. 61, p.133-143.

  17. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  18. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in depth profile of Mediterranean Sea by 3D-Fluorescence following with PARAFAC treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiyu, Z.; Durrieu, G.; Redon, R.; Heimbuerger, L.; Mounier, S.

    2009-12-01

    A periodic series of samplings have made during one year(2008) organized by Ifremer into the central Ligurian Sea(DYFAMED site, 43°25’N, 07°52’E, Mediterranean Sea). Spectra were mesured by spectrofluorimetry(HITACHI 4500) at excitation wavelengths from 250nm to 500nm and emission wavelengths from 200nm to 550nm, both wavelength slits for 5nm, scan speed is 2400nm/min. Parallel factors analysis(PARAFAC) software is a powerful statistical technique to treat the 3D-fluorescence spectra leading to the decomposition by a number of independent fluorescent compounds 1 and 2. Found 4 fluorescent components representing the fluorescence maxima of previously identified moieties: [Tyr] maximal excitation wavelength and emission wavelength 265nm/305nm (tyrosine-like); [Trp] maximal λEX/λEM=280nm/340nm(Peak T, tryptophan-like group); [M] maximal λEX/λEM=295nm/410nm(Peak M, marine humic-like substance) and a double maximum component [CA] with maximal λEX/λEM=335nm/445nm(Peak C, visible humic-like group) and λEX/λEM=250nm/445nm(Peak A, UV humic-like substance). Fluorescence contribution of each component at different logarithmic depths(Fig.2) shows that the most concentrated fluorophores zone is deeper than 100m, which is different from the results of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentration which the most concentrated zone is on the seasurface(B.Avril,2002).The humic-like substances are generally less fluorescent, particularly the M compound. An important peak contribution of marine humic-like substance has appeared in May at the profound 100m and 2200m, although the other fluorophores kept their values reasonable. The intensity maxima was closed to 100m, while an augmentation of protein substances in the deep sea(about 400 m) following by a shut immediate at 600 m in the months July, August and September. It is probably due to the sufficient heat from the sea surface; micro-organism could modify their position in the depth profile in the seawater. Thanks to

  19. Detailed Velocity and Density models of the Cascadia Subduction Zone from Prestack Full-Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Mallick, S.; Everson, E. D.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the geologic composition of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is critically important in assessing seismic hazards in the Pacific Northwest. Despite being a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to millions of people, key details of the structure and fault mechanisms remain poorly understood in the CSZ. In particular, the position and character of the subduction interface remains elusive due to its relative aseismicity and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for both passive and active source methods. Modern active-source reflection seismic data acquired as part of the COAST project in 2012 provide an opportunity to study the transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary prism. Coupled with advances in seismic inversion methods, this new data allow us to produce detailed velocity models of the CSZ and accurate pre-stack depth migrations for studying geologic structure. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform seismic inversions at resolutions that match that of the seismic image itself. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of the central seismic line of the COAST survey offshore Washington state. The resultant velocity model is produced by inversion at every CMP location, 6.25 m laterally, with vertical resolution of 0.2 times the dominant seismic frequency. We report a good average correlation value above 0.8 across the entire seismic line, determined by comparing synthetic gathers to the real pre-stack gathers. These detailed velocity models, both Vp and Vs, along with the density model, are a necessary step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Additionally, the P-velocity model is used to produce a pre-stack depth migration image of the CSZ.

  20. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  1. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  2. If you watch it move, you'll recognize it in 3D: Transfer of depth cues between encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Papenmeier, Frank; Schwan, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Viewing objects with stereoscopic displays provides additional depth cues through binocular disparity supporting object recognition. So far, it was unknown whether this results from the representation of specific stereoscopic information in memory or a more general representation of an object's depth structure. Therefore, we investigated whether continuous object rotation acting as depth cue during encoding results in a memory representation that can subsequently be accessed by stereoscopic information during retrieval. In Experiment 1, we found such transfer effects from continuous object rotation during encoding to stereoscopic presentations during retrieval. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we found that the continuity of object rotation is important because only continuous rotation and/or stereoscopic depth but not multiple static snapshots presented without stereoscopic information caused the extraction of an object's depth structure into memory. We conclude that an object's depth structure and not specific depth cues are represented in memory.

  3. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  4. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  5. True-Depth: a new type of true 3D volumetric display system suitable for CAD, medical imaging, and air-traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1998-04-01

    Floating Images, Inc. is developing a new type of volumetric monitor capable of producing a high-density set of points in 3D space. Since the points of light actually exist in space, the resulting image can be viewed with continuous parallax, both vertically and horizontally, with no headache or eyestrain. These 'real' points in space are always viewed with a perfect match between accommodation and convergence. All scanned points appear to the viewer simultaneously, making this display especially suitable for CAD, medical imaging, air-traffic control, and various military applications. This system has the potential to display imagery so accurately that a ruler could be placed within the aerial image to provide precise measurement in any direction. A special virtual imaging arrangement allows the user to superimpose 3D images on a solid object, making the object look transparent. This is particularly useful for minimally invasive surgery in which the internal structure of a patient is visible to a surgeon in 3D. Surgical procedures can be carried out through the smallest possible hole while the surgeon watches the procedure from outside the body as if the patient were transparent. Unlike other attempts to produce volumetric imaging, this system uses no massive rotating screen or any screen at all, eliminating down time due to breakage and possible danger due to potential mechanical failure. Additionally, it is also capable of displaying very large images.

  6. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  7. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, David E.; Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Vandyke, John P.; Oldfield, Ron A.; Greenberg, David S.

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  8. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images.

  9. New insights into the North Taranaki Basin from New Zealand's first broadband 3D survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzcategui, Marjosbet; Francis, Malcolm; Kong, Wai Tin Vincent; Patenall, Richard; Fell, Dominic; Paxton, Andrea; Allen, Tristan

    2016-06-01

    The Taranaki Basin is the only hydrocarbon producing basin in New Zealand. The North Taranaki Basin has widespread two-dimensional (2D) seismic coverage and numerous wells that have not encountered commercial accumulations. This is attributed to the structural complexity in the central graben and the absence of necessary information to help understand the basin's evolution. An active petroleum system has been confirmed by hydrocarbon shows and non-commercial oil and gas discoveries (Karewa-1 and Kora-1). A broadband long offset three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed by Schlumberger in 2013 to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin. Innovative acquisition techniques were combined with advanced processing and imaging methods. Raypath distortions and depth uncertainty were significantly reduced by processing through tilted transverse isotropy (TTI) anisotropic Kirchhoff prestack depth migration with a geologically constrained velocity model. The survey provided the necessary information to understand the petroleum system and provide evidence for material hydrocarbon accumulations. In this investigation, we assessed the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin using the newly acquired data. 3D seismic interpretation and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis support the renewed potential of the basin and demonstrate effectiveness of these technologies that together can achieve encouraging results for hydrocarbon exploration.

  10. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  12. 3D constraints on a possible deep > 2.5 km massive sulphide mineralization from 2D crooked-line seismic reflection data in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bellefleur, Gilles; Juhlin, Christopher; Tryggvason, Ari

    2009-12-01

    2D crooked-line seismic reflection surveys in crystalline environments are often considered challenging in their processing and interpretation. These challenges are more evident when complex diffraction signals that can originate from out-of-the-plane and a variety of geological features are present. A seismic profile in the Kristineberg mining area in northern Sweden shows an impressive diffraction package, covering an area larger than 25 km 2 in the subsurface at depths greater than 2.5 km. We present here a series of scenarios in which each can, to some extent, explain the nature of this extraordinarily large package of diffractions. Cross-dip analysis, diffraction imaging and modeling, as well as 3D processing of the crooked-line data provided constraints on the interpretation of the diffraction package. Overall, the results indicate that the diffraction package can be associated with at least four main short south-dipping diffractors in a depth range of 2.5-4.5 km. Candidate scenarios for the origin of the diffraction package are: (1) a series of massive sulphide deposits, (2) a series of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, (3) a major shear-zone and (4) multiple contact lithologies. We have also investigated the possible contribution of mode-converted scattered energy in the diffraction package using a modified converted-wave 3D prestack depth migration algorithm with the results indicating that a majority of the diffractions are P-wave diffractions. The 3D prestack migration of the data provided improved images of a series of steeply north-dipping mafic-ultramafic sill intrusions to a depth of about 4 km, where the diffractions appear to focus after the migration. The results and associated interpretations presented in this paper have improved our understanding of this conspicuous package of diffractions and may lead to re-evaluation of the 3D geological model of the Kristineberg mining area.

  13. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, Warren; Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, Christine

    2007-05-04

    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  14. ToF-SIMS depth profiling of cells: z-correction, 3D imaging, and sputter rate of individual NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G

    2012-06-01

    Proper display of three-dimensional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging data of complex, nonflat samples requires a correction of the data in the z-direction. Inaccuracies in displaying three-dimensional ToF-SIMS data arise from projecting data from a nonflat surface onto a 2D image plane, as well as possible variations in the sputter rate of the sample being probed. The current study builds on previous studies by creating software written in Matlab, the ZCorrectorGUI (available at http://mvsa.nb.uw.edu/), to apply the z-correction to entire 3D data sets. Three-dimensional image data sets were acquired from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by collecting ToF-SIMS images, using a dual beam approach (25 keV Bi(3)(+) for analysis cycles and 20 keV C(60)(2+) for sputter cycles). The entire data cube was then corrected by using the new ZCorrectorGUI software, producing accurate chemical information from single cells in 3D. For the first time, a three-dimensional corrected view of a lipid-rich subcellular region, possibly the nuclear membrane, is presented. Additionally, the key assumption of a constant sputter rate throughout the data acquisition was tested by using ToF-SIMS and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the same cells. For the dried NIH/3T3 fibroblasts examined in this study, the sputter rate was found to not change appreciably in x, y, or z, and the cellular material was sputtered at a rate of approximately 10 nm per 1.25 × 10(13) ions C(60)(2+)/cm(2). PMID:22530745

  15. Combining depth analysis with surface morphology analysis to analyse the prehistoric painted pottery from Majiayao Culture by confocal 3D-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Longtao; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Kai; Lin, Xue; Chen, Man; Peng, Shiqi; Yang, Kui; Wang, Jinbang

    2016-04-01

    The Majiayao Culture (3300 BC-2900 BC) formed one of the three painted pottery centres of the Yellow River basin, China, in prehistoric times. Painted pottery from this period is famous for its exquisite workmanship and meticulous painting. Studying the layer structure and element distribution of the paint on the pottery is conducive to investigating its workmanship, which is important for archaeological research. However, the most common analysis methods are destructive. To investigate the layers of paint on the pottery nondestructively, a confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence set-up combined with two individual polycapillary lenses has been used to analyse two painted pottery fragments. Nondestructive elemental depth analyses and surface topographic analysis were performed. The elemental depth profiles of Mn, Fe and Ca obtained from these measurements were consistent with those obtained using an optical microscope. The depth profiles show that there are layer structures in two samples. The images show that the distribution of Ca is approximately homogeneous in both painted and unpainted regions. In contrast, Mn appeared only in the painted regions. Meanwhile, the distributions of Fe in the painted and unpainted regions were not the same. The surface topographic shows that the pigment of dark-brown region was coated above the brown region. These conclusions allowed the painting process to be inferred.

  16. Complex patterns of faulting revealed by 3D seismic data at the West Galicia rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Cresswell, Derren; Sawyer, Dale; Ranero, Cesar; Shillington, Donna; Morgan, Julia; Lymer, Gael

    2015-04-01

    The west Galicia margin is characterised by crust thinning to less than 3 km, well-defined fault blocks, which overlie a bright reflection (the S reflector) generally interpreted as a tectonic Moho. The margin exhibits neither voluminous magmatism nor thick sediment piles to obscure the structures and the amount of extension. As such is represents an ideal location to study the process of continental breakup both through seismic imaging and potentially through drilling. Prestack depth migration of existing 2D profiles has strongly supported the interpretation of the S reflector as both a detachment and as the crust-mantle boundary; wide-angle seismic has also shown that the mantle beneath S is serpentinised. Despite the quality of the existing 2D seismic images, a number of competing models have been advanced to explain the formation of this margin, including sequential faulting, polyphase faulting, multiple detachments and the gravitational collapse of the margin over exhumed mantle. As these models, all developed for the Galicia margin, have been subsequently applied to other margins, distinguishing between them has implications not only for the structure of the Galicia margin but for the process of rifting through to breakup more generally. To address these issues in summer of 2013 we collected a 3D combined seismic reflection and wide-angle dataset over this margin. Here we present some of the results of ongoing processing of the 3D volume, focussing on the internal structure of some of the fault blocks that overlies the S detachment. 2D processing of the data shows a relatively simple series of tilted fault block, bound by west-dipping faults that detach downwards onto the bright S reflector. However, inspection of the 3D volume produced by 3D pre-stack time migration reveals that the fault blocks contain a complex set of sedimentary packages, with strata tilted to the east, west, north and south, each package bound by faults. Furthermore, the top of crustal

  17. Interpretation of a 3D Seismic-Reflection Volume in the Basin and Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Kell, A. M.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Oldow, J. S.; Sabin, A.; Lazaro, M.

    2009-12-01

    A collaborative effort by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at the University of Nevada, Reno, and Optim Inc. of Reno has interpreted a 3d seismic data set recorded by the U.S. Navy Geothermal Programs Office (GPO) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada. The 3d survey incorporated about 20 NNW-striking lines covering an area of approximately 3 by 10 km. The survey covered an alluvial area below the eastern flank of the Wassuk Range. In the reflection volume the most prominent events are interpreted to be the base of Quaternary alluvium, the Quaternary Wassuk Range-front normal fault zone, and sequences of intercalated Tertiary volcanic flows and sediments. Such a data set is rare in the Basin and Range. Our interpretation reveals structural and stratigraphic details that form a basis for rapid development of the geothermal-energy resources underlying the Depot. We interpret a map of the time-elevation of the Wassuk Range fault and its associated splays and basin-ward step faults. The range-front fault is the deepest, and its isochron map provides essentially a map of "economic basement" under the prospect area. There are three faults that are the most readily picked through vertical sections. The fault reflections show an uncertainty in the time-depth that we can interpret for them of 50 to 200 ms, due to the over-migrated appearance of the processing contractor’s prestack time-migrated data set. Proper assessment of velocities for mitigating the migration artifacts through prestack depth migration is not possible from this data set alone, as the offsets are not long enough for sufficiently deep velocity tomography. The three faults we interpreted appear as gradients in potential-field maps. In addition, the southern boundary of a major Tertiary graben may be seen within the volume as the northward termination of the strong reflections from older Tertiary volcanics. Using a transparent volume view across the survey gives a view of the volcanics in full

  18. From the local to the regional scale. What is the effect of missing vertical heterogeneity moving from fully 3-D to 2-D depth averaged dispersion models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvini, G.; Salandin, P.

    2010-12-01

    The plume evolution in natural porous formations is strongly affected by the erratic variability of the hydraulic conductivity K that exhibits a three-dimensional correlation structure. In regional domains, the effect of the vertical heterogeneity combines itself with that one due to the horizontal variability of K, and when the plume has travelled a large number of (horizontal) integral scales, under the hypothesis that the transmissivity spatial distribution prevails, its evolution can be analyzed by two-dimensional models. Until this limit is reached, the vertical and horizontal variability of K are combined to give a fully three-dimensional dispersion process and the application of depth averaged models may give erroneous results. In order to analyze the effects on transport deriving from this simplification, we present the results of some numerical experiments that compare the three-dimensional plume evolution with two-dimensional simulations developed by taking into account different hydraulic conductivity spatial distributions. The comparison between results of numerical simulations and theoretical considerations based on first order solution suggests a possible way to take into account the vertical variability of K in a depth averaged model.

  19. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  20. 3-D geometry and physical property of the Mega-Splay Fault in Nankai trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, R.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Environmental Resource; System Engineering laboratory

    2011-12-01

    The Nankai trough is a subduction zone, where the Philippine Sea plate is being subducted beneath southwest Japan at a rate of ~4-6.5 cm/y at an azimuth of ~300°-315°. A lot of operations have been done in Nankai, such as three-dimensional seismic reflection surveys and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). They revealed that there is a large splay fault, referred to as 'Mega-Splay'. The Mega-Splay Fault has caused a series of catastrophic earthquakes and submarine landslides, which may have led to TSUNAMI. Since fault development history may have affected the geometry of the Mega-Splay Fault and physical property within the fault zone, they need to be examined in detail. In this research, we used 3-D pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), 3-D pre-stack time migration (PSTM) and P-wave velocity in C0004B well (Logging data), in order to interpret 3-D structure of Mega-Splay Fault. The analysis in this research is basically divided into two parts. One is structural interpretation of Splay Fault, based on the high amplitude reflection surface on seismic profiles. The other part is acoustic impedance inversion (AI inversion), in which we inverted seismic waveform into physical property (in this study, acoustic impedance), with the P-wave velocity data at C0004B near Mega-Splay Fault. The 3-D PSDM (or PSTM) clearly images details of Splay Fault, with good continuity of reflections along the fault. It is possible on each seismic profile to trace the high amplitude lines, where rock-properties significantly change. Since Mega-Splay Fault has 45-59m width along the wells, we interpreted the upper limit and the lower limit of the Mega-Splay Fault, based on the high amplitude surfaces along 3-D PSDM. Our interpretation shows that the width of Mega-Splay Fault has variation along the fault, and the plan geometry of the fault toe has a salient at the middle of the 3D box area, suggesting the fault could be

  1. Satellite and Surface Data Synergy for Developing a 3D Cloud Structure and Properties Characterization Over the ARM SGP. Stage 1: Cloud Amounts, Optical Depths, and Cloud Heights Reconciliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkova, I.; Long, C. N.; Heck, P. W.; Minnis, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program objectives is to obtain measurements applicable to the development of models for better understanding of radiative processes in the atmosphere. We address this goal by building a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the cloud structure and properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP). We take the approach of juxtaposing the cloud properties as retrieved from independent satellite and ground-based retrievals, and looking at the statistics of the cloud field properties. Once these retrievals are well understood, they will be used to populate the 3D characterization database. As a first step we determine the relationship between surface fractional sky cover and satellite viewing angle dependent cloud fraction (CF). We elaborate on the agreement intercomparing optical depth (OD) datasets from satellite and ground using available retrieval algorithms with relation to the CF, cloud height, multi-layer cloud presence, and solar zenith angle (SZA). For the SGP Central Facility, where output from the active remote sensing cloud layer (ARSCL) valueadded product (VAP) is available, we study the uncertainty of satellite estimated cloud heights and evaluate the impact of this uncertainty for radiative studies.

  2. Detection of gas hydrate sediments using prestack seismic AVA inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ru-Wei; Li, Hong-Qi; Zhang, Bao-Jin; Huang, Han-Dong; Wen, Peng-Fei

    2015-09-01

    Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) in seismic profile always indicate the bottom of gas hydrate stability zone, but is difficult to determine the distribution and features of gas hydrate sediments (GHS). In this study, based on AVA forward modeling and angle-domain common-image gathers we use prestack AVA parameters consistency inversion in predicting gas hydrate sediments in the Shenhu area at northern slope of South China Sea, and obtain the vertical and lateral features and saturation of GHS.

  3. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  4. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  7. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  8. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  9. Wavefront scanning method for minimum traveltime calculations in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, F.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    1994-12-31

    This paper proposes an efficient way to calculate the shortest travel-time and its correspondent ray-path in three dimension, by using point secondary approximation to depict the wavefront and propagate the travel-time computation along recursively expanding and contracting cubic boxes. Due to its following advantages: (1) the computation order is O(N), where N is the total number of discrete secondary nodes; (2) the memory occupation is relatively small; (3) the algorithm is robust even for high velocity contrast; (4) the minimum travel-time and raypath are computed accurately, this 3-D wavefront scanning raytracing method promises to be real tool for 3-D seismic prestack migration, velocity analysis as well as forward waveform modeling by Maslov asymptotic ray theory.

  10. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  11. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  12. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  13. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  14. Depth migration in transversely isotropic media with explicit operators

    SciTech Connect

    Uzcategui, O.

    1994-12-01

    The author presents and analyzes three approaches to calculating explicit two-dimensional (2D) depth-extrapolation filters for all propagation modes (P, SV, and SH) in transversely isotropic media with vertical and tilted axis of symmetry. These extrapolation filters are used to do 2D poststack depth migration, and also, just as for isotropic media, these 2D filters are used in the McClellan transformation to do poststack 3D depth migration. Furthermore, the same explicit filters can also be used to do depth-extrapolation of prestack data. The explicit filters are derived by generalizations of three different approaches: the modified Taylor series, least-squares, and minimax methods initially developed for isotropic media. The examples here show that the least-squares and minimax methods produce filters with accurate extrapolation (measured in the ability to position steep reflectors) for a wider range of propagation angles than that obtained using the modified Taylor series method. However, for low propagation angles, the modified Taylor series method has smaller amplitude and phase errors than those produced by the least-squares and minimax methods. These results suggest that to get accurate amplitude estimation, modified Taylor series filters would be somewhat preferred in areas with low dips. In areas with larger dips, the least-squares and minimax methods would give a distinctly better delineation of the subsurface structures.

  15. Noise suppression using preconditioned least-squares prestack time migration: application to the Mississippian limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shiguang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qing; Cabrales-Vargas, Alejandro; Marfurt, Kurt J.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional Kirchhoff migration often suffers from artifacts such as aliasing and acquisition footprint, which come from sub-optimal seismic acquisition. The footprint can mask faults and fractures, while aliased noise can focus into false coherent events which affect interpretation and contaminate amplitude variation with offset, amplitude variation with azimuth and elastic inversion. Preconditioned least-squares migration minimizes these artifacts. We implement least-squares migration by minimizing the difference between the original data and the modeled demigrated data using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme. Unpreconditioned least-squares migration better estimates the subsurface amplitude, but does not suppress aliasing. In this work, we precondition the results by applying a 3D prestack structure-oriented LUM (lower–upper–middle) filter to each common offset and common azimuth gather at each iteration. The preconditioning algorithm not only suppresses aliasing of both signal and noise, but also improves the convergence rate. We apply the new preconditioned least-squares migration to the Marmousi model and demonstrate how it can improve the seismic image compared with conventional migration, and then apply it to one survey acquired over a new resource play in the Mid-Continent, USA. The acquisition footprint from the targets is attenuated and the signal to noise ratio is enhanced. To demonstrate the impact on interpretation, we generate a suite of seismic attributes to image the Mississippian limestone, and show that the karst-enhanced fractures in the Mississippian limestone can be better illuminated.

  16. Noise suppression using preconditioned least-squares prestack time migration: application to the Mississippian limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shiguang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qing; Cabrales-Vargas, Alejandro; Marfurt, Kurt J.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional Kirchhoff migration often suffers from artifacts such as aliasing and acquisition footprint, which come from sub-optimal seismic acquisition. The footprint can mask faults and fractures, while aliased noise can focus into false coherent events which affect interpretation and contaminate amplitude variation with offset, amplitude variation with azimuth and elastic inversion. Preconditioned least-squares migration minimizes these artifacts. We implement least-squares migration by minimizing the difference between the original data and the modeled demigrated data using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme. Unpreconditioned least-squares migration better estimates the subsurface amplitude, but does not suppress aliasing. In this work, we precondition the results by applying a 3D prestack structure-oriented LUM (lower-upper-middle) filter to each common offset and common azimuth gather at each iteration. The preconditioning algorithm not only suppresses aliasing of both signal and noise, but also improves the convergence rate. We apply the new preconditioned least-squares migration to the Marmousi model and demonstrate how it can improve the seismic image compared with conventional migration, and then apply it to one survey acquired over a new resource play in the Mid-Continent, USA. The acquisition footprint from the targets is attenuated and the signal to noise ratio is enhanced. To demonstrate the impact on interpretation, we generate a suite of seismic attributes to image the Mississippian limestone, and show that the karst-enhanced fractures in the Mississippian limestone can be better illuminated.

  17. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  18. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  19. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  20. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  1. Super deep 3D images from a 3D omnifocus video camera.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2012-02-20

    When using stereographic image pairs to create three-dimensional (3D) images, a deep depth of field in the original scene enhances the depth perception in the 3D image. The omnifocus video camera has no depth of field limitations and produces images that are in focus throughout. By installing an attachment on the omnifocus video camera, real-time super deep stereoscopic pairs of video images were obtained. The deeper depth of field creates a larger perspective image shift, which makes greater demands on the binocular fusion of human vision. A means of reducing the perspective shift without harming the depth of field was found.

  2. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  3. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  4. Development of a 3D VHR seismic reflection system for lacustrine settings - a case study in Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidhauer, M.; Dupuy, D.; Marillier, F.; Beres, M.

    2003-04-01

    non-aliased signal to depths of 400^om with a best vertical resolution of 1.15^om. The multi-streamer system allows acquisition of high quality data, which already after conventional 3D processing show particularly clear images of the fault zone and the overlying sediments in all directions. Prestack depth migration can further improve data quality and is more appropriate for subsequent geologic interpretation.

  5. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  6. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  7. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... viewer has a problem with focusing or depth perception. Also, the techniques used to create the 3- ... or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  8. Sea level history in 3D: Data acquisition and processing for an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedimovic, M. R.; Mountain, G. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Aali, M.; Baldwin, K.; Bhatnagar, T.; Johnson, C.; Küçük, H. M.; Newton, A.; Stanley, J.

    2015-12-01

    In June-July 2015, we acquired the first 3D/2D hybrid (short/long streamer) multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection dataset. These data were collected simultaneously across IODP Exp. 313 drillsites, off New Jersey, using R/V Langsethand cover ~95% of the planned 12x50 km box. Despite the large survey area, the lateral and vertical resolution for the 3D dataset is almost a magnitude of order higher than for data gathered for standard petroleum exploration. Such high-resolution was made possible by collection of common midpoint (CMP) lines whose combined length is ~3 times the Earth's circumference (~120,000 profile km) and a source rich in high-frequencies. We present details on the data acquisition, ongoing data analysis, and preliminary results. The science driving this project is presented by Mountain et al. The 3D component of this innovative survey used an athwartship cross cable, extended laterally by 2 barovanes roughly 357.5 m apart and trailed by 24 50-m P-Cables spaced ~12.5 m with near-trace offset of 53 m. Each P-Cable had 8 single hydrophone groups spaced at 6.25 m for a total of 192 channels. Record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with no low cut and an 824 Hz high cut filter. We ran 77 sail lines spaced ~150 m. Receiver locations were determined using 2 GPS receivers mounted on floats and 2 compasses and depth sensors per streamer. Streamer depths varied from 2.1 to 3.7 m. The 2D component used a single 3 km streamer, with 240 9-hydrophone groups spaced at 12.5 m, towed astern with near-trace offset of 229 m. The record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with low cut filter at 2 Hz and high cut at 412 Hz. Receiver locations were recorded using GPS at the head float and tail buoy, combined with 12 bird compasses spaced ~300 m. Nominal streamer depth was 4.5 m. The source for both systems was a 700 in3 linear array of 4 Bolt air guns suspended at 4.5 m towing depth, 271.5 m behind the ship's stern. Shot spacing was 12.5 m. Data analysis to

  9. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  10. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  11. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  12. Visual search is influenced by 3D spatial layout.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Grove, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    Many activities necessitate the deployment of attention to specific distances and directions in our three-dimensional (3D) environment. However, most research on how attention is deployed is conducted with two dimensional (2D) computer displays, leaving a large gap in our understanding about the deployment of attention in 3D space. We report how each of four parameters of 3D visual space influence visual search: 3D display volume, distance in depth, number of depth planes, and relative target position in depth. Using a search task, we find that visual search performance depends on 3D volume, relative target position in depth, and number of depth planes. Our results demonstrate an asymmetrical preference for targets in the front of a display unique to 3D search and show that arranging items into more depth planes reduces search efficiency. Consistent with research using 2D displays, we found slower response times to find targets in displays with larger 3D volumes compared with smaller 3D volumes. Finally, in contrast to the importance of target depth relative to other distractors, target depth relative to the fixation point did not affect response times or search efficiency.

  13. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  17. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  18. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  19. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  20. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. Iterative Multiparameter Elastic Waveform Inversion Using Prestack Time Imaging and Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaniani, Hassan

    This thesis proposes a "standard strategy" for iterative inversion of elastic properties from the seismic reflection data. The term "standard" refers to the current hands-on commercial techniques that are used for the seismic imaging and inverse problem. The method is established to reduce the computation time associated with elastic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) methods. It makes use of AVO analysis, prestack time migration and corresponding forward modeling in an iterative scheme. The main objective is to describe the iterative inversion procedure used in seismic reflection data using simplified mathematical expression and their numerical applications. The frame work of the inversion is similar to (FWI) method but with less computational costs. The reduction of computational costs depends on the data conditioning (with or without multiple data), the level of the complexity of geological model and acquisition condition such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Many processing methods consider multiple events as noise and remove it from the data. This is the motivation for reducing the computational cost associated with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) forward modeling and Reverse Time Migration (RTM)-based techniques. Therefore, a one-way solution of the wave equation for inversion is implemented. While less computationally intensive depth imaging methods are available by iterative coupling of ray theory and the Born approximation, it is shown that we can further reduce the cost of inversion by dropping the cost of ray tracing for traveltime estimation in a way similar to standard Prestack Time Migration (PSTM) and the corresponding forward modeling. This requires the model to have smooth lateral variations in elastic properties, so that the traveltime of the scatterpoints can be approximated by a Double Square Root (DSR) equation. To represent a more realistic and stable solution of the inverse problem, while considering the phase of supercritical angles, the

  3. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  4. Discrimination of reservoir dolostone within tight limestone using rock physics modeling and pre-stack parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G.; Lee, B.; Lee, G.

    2013-12-01

    Dolostones may be differentiated from limestones based on various pre-stack seismic parameters as they are denser and faster. However, because the seismic properties of a rock are affected strongly by porosity, porous dolostones may not be significantly denser and faster than limestones. We computed various pre-stack parameters (P-impedance, S-impedance, Vp/Vs, Poisson's ratio, Lamé constants) for tight limestones using the Vp and density logs from a well that penetrated Jurassic carbonate and the Vs log, constructed from the empirical relationships of Vp and Vs. The pre-stack parameters of dolostones with 1% - 40% porosity were estimated based on the bulk and shear moduli and bulk densities computed from the formulas proposed by various workers, including Gassmann equations. Crossplots of the pre-stack parameters show that the Lamé constants (λ, μ) are most effective in differentiating dolostones from limestones. In particular, the λρ -μρ vs. μρ crossplot shows a clear-cut separation of the porous dolostones and tight limestones; the porous dolostones plot exclusively to the left of the λρ -μρ of about 25 GPa.

  5. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  6. Common shot, prestack inversion and mode-conversion analysis of physical-model seismic data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    Imaging physical model data provides a good test for an inversion algorithm. The physical model data are real wave fields and do not include the simplifications of synthetic data. Also, the parameters of the model are known beforehand so that it is easy to determine how well the inversion works. Here, inversion is a true amplitude Kirchhoff depth migration in the sense that the amplitude of the imaged reflections is proportional to the reflection coefficient. Each shot record in a physical model data set is inverted separately with a common shot, prestack inversion routine with a laterally and depth variable velocity function. Each shot record inversion forms a partial image of the subsurface. The results are then stacked to form a full image of the subsurface. The physical model data set is inverted twice. For the second inversion, the output trace spacing is half the spacing for the first inversion and the output aperture is three times wider than in the first inversion. In both cases, the background velocity field is nearly identical to the actual model. This tests the inversion procedure independent of velocity analysis. Both inversions accurately position reflectors in the model but each performs better on different portions of the data. With a larger inversion output zone, steeper events are imaged better but the increased migration smile noise obliterates some deeper events.

  7. Computational integral-imaging reconstruction-based 3-D volumetric target object recognition by using a 3-D reference object.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Park, Seok-Chan; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel computational integral-imaging reconstruction (CIIR)-based three-dimensional (3-D) image correlator system for the recognition of 3-D volumetric objects by employing a 3-D reference object. That is, a number of plane object images (POIs) computationally reconstructed from the 3-D reference object are used for the 3-D volumetric target recognition. In other words, simultaneous 3-D image correlations between two sets of target and reference POIs, which are depth-dependently reconstructed by using the CIIR method, are performed for effective recognition of 3-D volumetric objects in the proposed system. Successful experiments with this CIIR-based 3-D image correlator confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  9. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  10. STAR3D: a stack-based RNA 3D structural alignment tool

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ping; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    The various roles of versatile non-coding RNAs typically require the attainment of complex high-order structures. Therefore, comparing the 3D structures of RNA molecules can yield in-depth understanding of their functional conservation and evolutionary history. Recently, many powerful tools have been developed to align RNA 3D structures. Although some methods rely on both backbone conformations and base pairing interactions, none of them consider the entire hierarchical formation of the RNA secondary structure. One of the major issues is that directly applying the algorithms of matching 2D structures to the 3D coordinates is particularly time-consuming. In this article, we propose a novel RNA 3D structural alignment tool, STAR3D, to take into full account the 2D relations between stacks without the complicated comparison of secondary structures. First, the 3D conserved stacks in the inputs are identified and then combined into a tree-like consensus. Afterward, the loop regions are compared one-to-one in accordance with their relative positions in the consensus tree. The experimental results show that the prediction of STAR3D is more accurate for both non-homologous and homologous RNAs than other state-of-the-art tools with shorter running time. PMID:26184875

  11. 3D Seismic Reflection Experiment over the Galicia Deep Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Reston, T. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Klaeschen, D.; Ranero, C.; Shillington, D. J.; Morgan, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features. The Peridotite Ridge (PR), is associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor during the final stage of the continental separation between the Galicia Bank and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The S reflector is present below most of the continental blocks under the deep Galicia basin. S is interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations from stacked 3D seismic data, and samples of 2D pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic data show that the PR is elevated above the present seafloor in the South and not exposed through the seafloor in the North. The relative smoothness of the PR surface for the entire 20 km N-S contrasts with the more complex, shorter wavelength, faulting of the continental crustal blocks to the east. The PR does not seem to show offsets or any apparent internal structure. The PSTM dip lines show substantial improvement for the structures in the deep sedimentary basin East of the PR. These seem to extend the S reflector somewhat farther to the West. The migrated data show a substantial network of

  12. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  13. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  14. Development and Calibration of New 3-D Vector VSP Imaging Technology: Vinton Salt Dome, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt J. Marfurt; Hua-Wei Zhou; E. Charlotte Sullivan

    2004-09-01

    Vinton salt dome is located in Southwestern Louisiana, in Calcasieu Parish. Tectonically, the piercement dome is within the salt dome minibasin province. The field has been in production since 1901, with most of the production coming from Miocene and Oligocene sands. The goal of our project was to develop and calibrate new processing and interpretation technology to fully exploit the information available from a simultaneous 3-D surface seismic survey and 3-C, 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey over the dome. More specifically the goal was to better image salt dome flanks and small, reservoir-compartmentalizing faults. This new technology has application to mature salt-related fields across the Gulf Coast. The primary focus of our effort was to develop, apply, and assess the limitations of new 3-C, 3-D wavefield separation and imaging technology that could be used to image aliased, limited-aperture, vector VSP data. Through 2-D and 3-D full elastic modeling, we verified that salt flank reflections exist in the horizontally-traveling portion of the wavefield rather than up- and down-going portions of the wavefield, thereby explaining why many commercial VSP processing flow failed. Since the P-wave reflections from the salt flank are measured primarily on the horizontal components while P-wave reflections from deeper sedimentary horizons are measured primarily on the vertical component, a true vector VSP analysis was needed. We developed an antialiased discrete Radon transform filter to accurately model P- and S-wave data components measured by the vector VSP. On-the-fly polarization filtering embedded in our Kirchhoff imaging algorithm was effective in separating PP from PS wave images. By the novel application of semblance-weighted filters, we were able to suppress many of the migration artifacts associated with low fold, sparse VSP acquisition geometries. To provide a better velocity/depth model, we applied 3-D prestack depth migration to the surface data

  15. Seismic Imaging of the Waltham Canyon Fault, California: Comparison of Ray-Theoretical and Fresnel Volume Prestack Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Ryberg, T.; Fuis, G. S.; Lueth, S.

    2011-12-01

    Steep faults can be imaged by migration of reflected refractions observed in controlled-source seismic data. The processing can be focussed on the enhancement of the reflected refractions and simultaneous suppression of undesired phases. The Kirchhoff prestack migration is then applied where migration noise is suppressed by constructive stacking of multi-fold data. The Fresnel volume migration is an efficient alternative method, where smearing along isochrones (potential reflection points, partly migration noise) is limited to the first Fresnel zone in this technique. This makes the Fresnel volume migration particularly interesting for the imaging of steep faults using only low-fold data. We depeloped a ray-theroretical line drawing migration, which can be considered as the high-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume migration. The ray-theoretical migration is less time consuming, and, hence, can be used to optimize the migration parameters before the final application of Fresnel volume migration. Another advantage of our ray-theoretical migration is possible wave field separation before and after migration. This feature can be used to optimize the pre-processing of the data before migration. We tested the prestack migration techniques with synthetic data. The methods were then applied to low-fold data collected across the SAFOD drill site near Parkfield, California. We chose five shot gathers with clear phases interpreted as reflected refractions. The phases are not obvious in shot gathers apart from the five shot locations. The resulting images show near-vertical reflector segments at 1-5 km depth, which project close to the surface track of the Waltham Canyon fault running approximately 10 km eastward and parallel to the San Andreas fault. Some more details were resolved in comparison with previous investigations. Based on modeling studies, the imaged features can be interpreted as reflections from a fault with lower internal velocities compared with the

  16. 3D microscopy for microfabrication quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; De Jean, Paul D.

    2015-03-01

    A novel stereo microscope adapter, the SweptVue, has been developed to rapidly perform quantitative 3D microscopy for cost-effective microfabrication quality control. The SweptVue adapter uses the left and right stereo channels of an Olympus SZX7 stereo microscope for sample illumination and detection, respectively. By adjusting the temporal synchronization between the illumination lines projected from a Texas Instruments DLP LightCrafter and the rolling shutter on a Point Grey Flea3 CMOS camera, micrometer-scale depth features can be easily and rapidly measured at up to 5 μm resolution on a variety of microfabricated samples. In this study, the build performance of an industrial-grade Stratasys Object 300 Connex 3D printer was examined. Ten identical parts were 3D printed with a lateral and depth resolution of 42 μm and 30 μm, respectively, using both a rigid and flexible Stratasys PolyJet material. Surface elevation precision and accuracy was examined over multiple regions of interest on plateau and hemispherical surfaces. In general, the dimensions of the examined features were reproducible across the parts built using both materials. However, significant systemic lateral and height build errors were discovered, such as: decreased heights when approaching the edges of plateaus, inaccurate height steps, and poor tolerances on channel width. For 3D printed parts to be used in functional applications requiring micro-scale tolerances, they need to conform to specification. Despite appearing identical, our 3D printed parts were found to have a variety of defects that the SweptVue adapter quickly revealed.

  17. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  18. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  19. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  20. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  1. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Prestack nonstationary deconvolution based on variable-step sampling in the radial trace domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Shou-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chang; Zheng, Qiang

    2013-12-01

    The conventional nonstationary convolutional model assumes that the seismic signal is recorded at normal incidence. Raw shot gathers are far from this assumption because of the effects of offsets. Because of such problems, we propose a novel prestack nonstationary deconvolution approach. We introduce the radial trace (RT) transform to the nonstationary deconvolution, we estimate the nonstationary deconvolution factor with hyperbolic smoothing based on variable-step sampling (VSS) in the RT domain, and we obtain the high-resolution prestack nonstationary deconvolution data. The RT transform maps the shot record from the offset and traveltime coordinates to those of apparent velocity and traveltime. The ray paths of the traces in the RT better satisfy the assumptions of the convolutional model. The proposed method combines the advantages of stationary deconvolution and inverse Q filtering, without prior information for Q. The nonstationary deconvolution in the RT domain is more suitable than that in the space-time (XT) domain for prestack data because it is the generalized extension of normal incidence. Tests with synthetic and real data demonstrate that the proposed method is more effective in compensating for large-offset and deep data.

  5. Fringe projection 3D microscopy with the general imaging model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongkai; Wang, Meng; Gao, Bruce Z; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging and metrology of microstructures is a critical task for the design, fabrication, and inspection of microelements. Newly developed fringe projection 3D microscopy is presented in this paper. The system is configured according to camera-projector layout and long working distance lenses. The Scheimpflug principle is employed to make full use of the limited depth of field. For such a specific system, the general imaging model is introduced to reach a full 3D reconstruction. A dedicated calibration procedure is developed to realize quantitative 3D imaging. Experiments with a prototype demonstrate the accessibility of the proposed configuration, model, and calibration approach.

  6. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  7. Viewing 3D MRI data in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Chin, Chialei

    2000-10-01

    In medical imaging applications, 3D morphological data set is often presented in 2D format without considering visual perspective. Without perspective, the resulting image can be counterintuitive to natural human visual perception, specially in a setting of MR guided neurosurgical procedure where depth perception is crucial. To address this problem we have developed a new projection scheme that incorporates linear perspective transformation in various image reconstructions, including MR angiographical projection. In the scheme, an imaginary picture plane (PP) can be placed within or immediately in front of a 3D object, and the stand point (SP) of an observer is fixed at a normal viewing distance os 25 cm in front of the picture plane. A clinical 3D angiography data set (TR/TF/Flipequals30/5.4/15) was obtained from a patient head on a 1.5T MR scanner in 4 min 10 sec (87.5% rectangular, 52% scan). The length, width and height of the image volume were 200mm, 200mm and 72.4mm respectively, corresponding to an effective matrix size of 236x512x44 in transverse orientation (512x512x88 after interpolation). Maximum intensity project (MaxIP) algorithm was used along the viewing trace of perspective projection than rather the parallel projection. Consecutive 36 views were obtained at a 10 degree interval azimuthally. When displayed in cine-mode, the new MaxIP images appeared realistic with an improved depth perception.

  8. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  9. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  10. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  11. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  12. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  13. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  18. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    at {approx} 10 nm resolution over hundreds of microns in 3 spatial dimensions. Super-resolution microcopy methods based upon single molecule localization were originally limited to 2D slices. Recent advances in this field have extended these methods to three dimensions. However, the 3D rendering was limited to viewing sparsely labeled cellular structures over a z-depth of less than 1 micron. Our first goal is to extend super resolution microscopy to z-depths of hundreds of microns. This substantial improvement is needed to image polymer nanostructure over functionally relevant length scales. (2) Benchmark this instrument by studying the 3D nanostructure of diblock co-polymer morphologies. We will test and benchmark our instrument by imaging fluorescently labeled diblock copolymers, molecules that self-assemble into a variety of 3D nano-structures. We reiterate these polymers are useful for a variety of applications ranging from lithography to light harvesting.

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  3. Iterative Multiparameter Elastic Waveform Inversion Using Prestack Time Imaging and Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaniani, Hassan

    This thesis proposes a "standard strategy" for iterative inversion of elastic properties from the seismic reflection data. The term "standard" refers to the current hands-on commercial techniques that are used for the seismic imaging and inverse problem. The method is established to reduce the computation time associated with elastic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) methods. It makes use of AVO analysis, prestack time migration and corresponding forward modeling in an iterative scheme. The main objective is to describe the iterative inversion procedure used in seismic reflection data using simplified mathematical expression and their numerical applications. The frame work of the inversion is similar to (FWI) method but with less computational costs. The reduction of computational costs depends on the data conditioning (with or without multiple data), the level of the complexity of geological model and acquisition condition such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Many processing methods consider multiple events as noise and remove it from the data. This is the motivation for reducing the computational cost associated with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) forward modeling and Reverse Time Migration (RTM)-based techniques. Therefore, a one-way solution of the wave equation for inversion is implemented. While less computationally intensive depth imaging methods are available by iterative coupling of ray theory and the Born approximation, it is shown that we can further reduce the cost of inversion by dropping the cost of ray tracing for traveltime estimation in a way similar to standard Prestack Time Migration (PSTM) and the corresponding forward modeling. This requires the model to have smooth lateral variations in elastic properties, so that the traveltime of the scatterpoints can be approximated by a Double Square Root (DSR) equation. To represent a more realistic and stable solution of the inverse problem, while considering the phase of supercritical angles, the

  4. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  5. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  6. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  7. 2D/3D Monte Carlo Feature Profile Simulator FPS-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulation of etching/deposition profiles is important for semiconductor industry, as it allows analysis and prediction of the outcome of materials processing on a micron and sub-micron scale. The difficulty, however, is in making such a simulator a reliable, general, and easy to use tool applicable to different situations, for example, with different ratios of ion to neutral fluxes, different chemistries, different energies of incoming particles, and different angular and energy dependencies for surface reactions, without recompiling the code each time when the parameters change. The FPS-3D simulator [1] does not need recompilation when the features, materials, gases, or plasma are changed -- modifications to input, chemistry, and flux files are enough. The code allows interaction of neutral low-energy species with the surface mono-layer, while considering finite penetration depth into the volume for fast particles and ions. The FPS-3D code can simulate etching and deposition processes, both for 2D and 3D geometries. FPS-3D is using an advanced graphics package from HFS for presenting real-time process and profile evolution. The presentation will discuss the FPS-3D code with examples for different process conditions. The author is thankful to Drs. S.-Y. Kang of TEL TDC and P. Miller of HFS for valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] P. Moroz, URP.00101, GEC, Saratoga, NY, 2009.

  8. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  9. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  10. 3D stochastic inversion of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipour, Pejman; Chouteau, Michel; Marcotte, Denis

    2011-04-01

    A stochastic inversion method based on a geostatistical approach is presented to recover 3D susceptibility models from magnetic data. The aim of applying geostatistics is to provide quantitative descriptions of natural variables distributed in space or in time and space. Cokriging, the method which is used in this paper, is a method of estimation that minimizes the theoretical estimation error variance by using auto- and cross-correlations of several variables. The covariances for total field, susceptibility and total field-susceptibility are estimated using the observed data. Then, the susceptibility is cokriged or simulated as the primary variable. In order to avoid the natural tendency of the estimated structure to lay near the surface, depth weighting is included in the cokriging system. The algorithm assumes there is no remanent magnetization and the observation data represent only induced magnetization effects. The method is applied on different synthetic models to demonstrate its suitability for 3D inversion of magnetic data. A case study using ground measurements of total field at the Perseverance mine (Quebec, Canada) is presented. The recovered 3D susceptibility model provides beneficial information that can be used to analyze the geology of massive sulfide for the domain under study.

  11. Resolution enhancement of robust Bayesian pre-stack inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xingyao; Li, Kun; Zong, Zhaoyun

    2016-10-01

    AVO/AVA (amplitude variation with an offset or angle) inversion is one of the most practical and useful approaches to estimating model parameters. So far, publications on AVO inversion in the Fourier domain have been quite limited in view of its poor stability and sensitivity to noise compared with time-domain inversion. For the resolution and stability of AVO inversion in the Fourier domain, a novel robust Bayesian pre-stack AVO inversion based on the mixed domain formulation of stationary convolution is proposed which could solve the instability and achieve superior resolution. The Fourier operator will be integrated into the objective equation and it avoids the Fourier inverse transform in our inversion process. Furthermore, the background constraints of model parameters are taken into consideration to improve the stability and reliability of inversion which could compensate for the low-frequency components of seismic signals. Besides, the different frequency components of seismic signals can realize decoupling automatically. This will help us to solve the inverse problem by means of multi-component successive iterations and the convergence precision of the inverse problem could be improved. So, superior resolution compared with the conventional time-domain pre-stack inversion could be achieved easily. Synthetic tests illustrate that the proposed method could achieve high-resolution results with a high degree of agreement with the theoretical model and verify the quality of anti-noise. Finally, applications on a field data case demonstrate that the proposed method could obtain stable inversion results of elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in conformity with the real logging data.

  12. Predicting saturation of gas hydrates using pre-stack seismic data, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelander, Dianna; Dai, Jianchun; Bunge, George

    2010-03-01

    A promising method for gas hydrates exploration incorporates pre-stack seismic inversion data, elastic properties modeling, and seismic interpretation to predict saturation of gas hydrates ( Sgh). The technology can be modified slightly and used for predicting hydrate concentrations in shallow arctic locations as well. Examples from Gulf of Mexico Walker Ridge (WR) and Green Canyon (GC) protraction areas illustrate how Sgh was derived and used to support the selection of well locations to be drilled for gas hydrates in sand reservoirs by the Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) Leg II cruise in 2009. Concentrations of hydrates were estimated through the integration of seismic inversion of carefully conditioned pre-stack data, seismic stratigraphic interpretation, and shallow rock property modeling. Rock property trends were established by applying principles of rock physics and shallow sediment compaction, constrained by regional geological knowledge. No nearby sonic or density logs were available to define the elastic property trends in the zone of interest. Sgh volumes were generated by inverting pre-stack data to acoustic and shear impedance (PI and SI) volumes, and then analyzing deviations from modeled impedance trends. In order to enhance the quality of the inversion, we stress the importance of maximizing the signal to noise ratio of the offset data by conditioning seismic angle gathers prior to inversion. Seismic interpretation further plays an important role by identifying false anomalies such as hard, compact strata, which can produce apparent high Sgh values, and by identifying the more promising strata and structures for containing the hydrates. This integrated workflow presents a highly promising methodology, appropriate for the exploration of gas hydrates.

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  15. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  16. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  17. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  18. Triangulation-based 3D surveying borescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwer, S.; Steglich, P.; Villringer, C.; Bauer, J.; Burger, M.; Franz, M.; Grieshober, K.; Wirth, F.; Blondeau, J.; Rautenberg, J.; Mouti, S.; Schrader, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a measurement concept based on triangulation was developed for borescopic 3D-surveying of surface defects. The integration of such measurement system into a borescope environment requires excellent space utilization. The triangulation angle, the projected pattern, the numerical apertures of the optical system, and the viewing angle were calculated using partial coherence imaging and geometric optical raytracing methods. Additionally, optical aberrations and defocus were considered by the integration of Zernike polynomial coefficients. The measurement system is able to measure objects with a size of 50 μm in all dimensions with an accuracy of +/- 5 μm. To manage the issue of a low depth of field while using an optical high resolution system, a wavelength dependent aperture was integrated. Thereby, we are able to control depth of field and resolution of the optical system and can use the borescope in measurement mode with high resolution and low depth of field or in inspection mode with low resolution and higher depth of field. First measurements of a demonstrator system are in good agreement with our simulations.

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  3. Case study: The Avengers 3D: cinematic techniques and digitally created 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Graham D.

    2013-03-01

    Marvel's THE AVENGERS was the third film Stereo D collaborated on with Marvel; it was a summation of our artistic development of what Digitally Created 3D and Stereo D's artists and toolsets affords Marvel's filmmakers; the ability to shape stereographic space to support the film and story, in a way that balances human perception and live photography. We took our artistic lead from the cinematic intentions of Marvel, the Director Joss Whedon, and Director of Photography Seamus McGarvey. In the digital creation of a 3D film from a 2D image capture, recommendations to the filmmakers cinematic techniques are offered by Stereo D at each step from pre-production onwards, through set, into post. As the footage arrives at our facility we respond in depth to the cinematic qualities of the imagery in context of the edit and story, with the guidance of the Directors and Studio, creating stereoscopic imagery. Our involvement in The Avengers was early in production, after reading the script we had the opportunity and honor to meet and work with the Director Joss Whedon, and DP Seamus McGarvey on set, and into post. We presented what is obvious to such great filmmakers in the ways of cinematic techniques as they related to the standard depth cues and story points we would use to evaluate depth for their film. Our hope was any cinematic habits that supported better 3D would be emphasized. In searching for a 3D statement for the studio and filmmakers we arrived at a stereographic style that allowed for comfort and maximum visual engagement to the viewer.

  4. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  5. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  6. 3D human pose recognition for home monitoring of elderly.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Bart; Temmermans, Frederik; Deklerck, Rudi

    2007-01-01

    A toolbox for the automatic monitoring of elderly in a nursing home or in the natural home environment is proposed. Rather than monitoring vital signs or other biomedical parameters, the toolbox is focussed on the monitoring of activity patterns and changes therein. Activity information is derived from visual information using image processing algorithms. The visual information is acquired using 3D camera technology. Besides a traditional visual image, 3D cameras also provide highly accurate depth information. The 3D position of the subject is derived and serves as the primary information source for the different components in the toolbox.

  7. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  9. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  10. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  11. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  12. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  13. Prestack seismic data regularization using a time-variant anisotropic Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiangbo; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Shengchao

    2016-08-01

    The Radon transform (RT) has been widely used in seismic data processing. In this paper, we develop a sparse time-variant anisotropic Radon transform (ART) to regularize and interpolate the prestack seismic data. By introducing the anelliptical parameter η, the ART has a more accurate integral path than other widely used RTs, which produces a better energy-focused Radon panel in the case of a vertical transverse isotropy VTI medium or seismic gather with a large moveout. To promote the sparsity of the Radon panel, the RT is realized as a l 1–l 2 norm inversion problem, and the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm is imposed to solve this sparsity-constrained inversion problem. Compared with the time-invariant parabolic RT in the mixed frequency-time domain and time-variant hyperbolic RT, the reconstructed result of the ART has the best performance and the least reconstruction error in a general synthetic VTI medium. Another field marine example further demonstrates that the ART is effective and robust for prestack seismic data regularization.

  14. Prestack seismic data regularization using a time-variant anisotropic Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiangbo; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Shengchao

    2016-08-01

    The Radon transform (RT) has been widely used in seismic data processing. In this paper, we develop a sparse time-variant anisotropic Radon transform (ART) to regularize and interpolate the prestack seismic data. By introducing the anelliptical parameter η, the ART has a more accurate integral path than other widely used RTs, which produces a better energy-focused Radon panel in the case of a vertical transverse isotropy VTI medium or seismic gather with a large moveout. To promote the sparsity of the Radon panel, the RT is realized as a l 1-l 2 norm inversion problem, and the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm is imposed to solve this sparsity-constrained inversion problem. Compared with the time-invariant parabolic RT in the mixed frequency-time domain and time-variant hyperbolic RT, the reconstructed result of the ART has the best performance and the least reconstruction error in a general synthetic VTI medium. Another field marine example further demonstrates that the ART is effective and robust for prestack seismic data regularization.

  15. Detailed Seismic Velocity Structure of the Plate Boundary, Cascadia Subduction Zone, from Prestack Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.; Everson, E.; Mallick, S.; Padhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the geologic makeup of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) has great importance for understanding seismic hazards in the coastal margin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Cascadia margin is a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to the many millions who live in the area, yet details of its structure and mechanics remain poorly understood. In particular, the character of the subduction interface is elusive due to the CSZ's relatively aseismic behavior and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for passive and active source methods, respectively. In July 2012 seismic data were acquired as a part of the COAST project, spanning the important transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary wedge. This modern data, coupled with sophisticated pre-stack full waveform seismic inversion methods, allows us to create highly detailed velocity models. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform these inversions with enough lateral density to yield highly detailed velocity information in both the vertical and horizontal. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of a seismic line from the center of the COAST survey offshore Washington state as a cross section of the velocity structure of the CSZ. This detailed velocity model is a necessary initial step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Using these new data we investigate the lateral variability in reflectivity of the subducting plate boundary reflection in terms of its seismic velocity.

  16. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  17. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  18. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  19. 3-D movies using microprocessor-controlled optoelectronic spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Despite rapid advances in technology, 3-D movies are impractical for general movie viewing. A new approach that opens all content for casual 3-D viewing is needed. 3Deeps--advanced microprocessor controlled optoelectronic spectacles--provides such a new approach to 3-D. 3Deeps works on a different principle than other methods for 3-D. 3-D movies typically use the asymmetry of dual images to produce stereopsis, necessitating costly dual-image content, complex formatting and transmission standards, and viewing via a corresponding selection device. In contrast, all 3Deeps requires to view movies in realistic depth is an illumination asymmetry--a controlled difference in optical density between the lenses. When a 2-D movie has been projected for viewing, 3Deeps converts every scene containing lateral motion into realistic 3-D. Put on 3Deeps spectacles for 3-D viewing, or remove them for viewing in 2-D. 3Deeps works for all analogue and digital 2-D content, by any mode of transmission, and for projection screens, digital or analogue monitors. An example using aerial photography is presented. A movie consisting of successive monoscopic aerial photographs appears in realistic 3-D when viewed through 3Deeps spectacles.

  20. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  1. Video coding and transmission standards for 3D television — a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchowicz, A.

    2013-03-01

    The emerging 3D television systems require effective techniques for transmission and storage of data representing a 3-D scene. The 3-D scene representations based on multiple video sequences or multiple views plus depth maps are especially important since they can be processed with existing video technologies. The review of the video coding and transmission techniques is presented in this paper.

  2. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  3. 3D annotation and manipulation of medical anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Schaller, Christian; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Although the medical scanners are rapidly moving towards a three-dimensional paradigm, the manipulation and annotation/labeling of the acquired data is still performed in a standard 2D environment. Editing and annotation of three-dimensional medical structures is currently a complex task and rather time-consuming, as it is carried out in 2D projections of the original object. A major problem in 2D annotation is the depth ambiguity, which requires 3D landmarks to be identified and localized in at least two of the cutting planes. Operating directly in a three-dimensional space enables the implicit consideration of the full 3D local context, which significantly increases accuracy and speed. A three-dimensional environment is as well more natural optimizing the user's comfort and acceptance. The 3D annotation environment requires the three-dimensional manipulation device and display. By means of two novel and advanced technologies, Wii Nintendo Controller and Philips 3D WoWvx display, we define an appropriate 3D annotation tool and a suitable 3D visualization monitor. We define non-coplanar setting of four Infrared LEDs with a known and exact position, which are tracked by the Wii and from which we compute the pose of the device by applying a standard pose estimation algorithm. The novel 3D renderer developed by Philips uses either the Z-value of a 3D volume, or it computes the depth information out of a 2D image, to provide a real 3D experience without having some special glasses. Within this paper we present a new framework for manipulation and annotation of medical landmarks directly in three-dimensional volume.

  4. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Clinical Applications of 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralbell, Raymond

    Although a significant improvement in cancer cure (i.e. 20% increment) has been obtained in the last 2-3 decades, 30-40% of patients still fail locally after curative radiotherapy. In order to improve local tumor control rates with radiotherapy high doses to the tumor volume are frequently necessary. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on three-dimensional imaging to define the target (tumor) and to distinguish it from normal tissues. Modern, high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques are needed in order to implement the goal of optimal tumor destruction delivering minimal dose to the non-target normal tissues. A better target definition is nowadays possible with contemporary imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography) and image registration technology. A highly precise dose distributions can be obtained with optimal 3-D CRT treatment delivery techniques such as stereotactic RT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT), or protontherapy (the latter allowing for in-depth conformation). Patient daily set-up repositioning and internal organ immobilization systems are necessary before considering to undertake any of the above mentioned high-precision treatment approaches. Prostate cancer, brain tumors, and base of skull malignancies are among the sites most benefitting of dose escalation approaches. Nevertheless, a significant dose reduction to the normal tissues in the vicinity of the irradiated tumor also achievable with optimal 3-D CRT may also be a major issue in the treatment of pediatric tumors in order to preserve growth, normal development, and to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced diseases such as cancer or endocrinologic disorders.

  6. Microbial metabolic exchange in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D; Phelan, Vanessa V; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Moree, Wilna J; Duggan, Brendan M; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2013-01-01

    Mono- and multispecies microbial populations alter the chemistry of their surrounding environments during colony development thereby influencing multicellular behavior and interspecies interactions of neighboring microbes. Here we present a methodology that enables the creation of three-dimensional (3D) models of a microbial chemotype that can be correlated to the colony phenotype through multimodal imaging analysis. These models are generated by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) on serial cross-sections of microbial colonies grown on 8 mm deep agar, registering data sets of each serial section in MATLAB to create a model, and then superimposing the model with a photograph of the colonies themselves. As proof-of-principle, 3D models were used to visualize metabolic exchange during microbial interactions between Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor, as well as, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The resulting models were able to capture the depth profile of secreted metabolites within the agar medium and revealed properties of certain mass signals that were previously not observable using two-dimensional MALDI-TOF IMS. Most significantly, the 3D models were capable of mapping previously unobserved chemical distributions within the array of sub-surface hyphae of C. albicans and how this chemistry is altered by the presence of P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen known to alter virulence of C. albicans. It was determined that the presence of C. albicans triggered increased rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa, which in turn was capable of inhibiting embedded hyphal growth produced beneath the C. albicans colony at ambient temperature. PMID:23283018

  7. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  8. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  9. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  10. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  11. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  12. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

  13. Low complexity mode decision for 3D-HEVC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

  14. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  15. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  16. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  17. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  18. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  2. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  3. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.

  4. A systematized WYSIWYG pipeline for digital stereoscopic 3D filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Robert; Ward, Chris; Hušák, Michal

    2008-02-01

    Digital tools are transforming stereoscopic 3D content creation and delivery, creating an opportunity for the broad acceptance and success of stereoscopic 3D films. Beginning in late 2005, a series of mostly CGI features has successfully initiated the public to this new generation of highly-comfortable, artifact-free digital 3D. While the response has been decidedly favorable, a lack of high-quality live-action films could hinder long-term success. Liveaction stereoscopic films have historically been more time-consuming, costly, and creatively-limiting than 2D films - thus a need arises for a live-action 3D filmmaking process which minimizes such limitations. A unique 'systematized' what-you-see-is-what-you-get (WYSIWYG) pipeline is described which allows the efficient, intuitive and accurate capture and integration of 3D and 2D elements from multiple shoots and sources - both live-action and CGI. Throughout this pipeline, digital tools utilize a consistent algorithm to provide meaningful and accurate visual depth references with respect to the viewing audience in the target theater environment. This intuitive, visual approach introduces efficiency and creativity to the 3D filmmaking process by eliminating both the need for a 'mathematician mentality' of spreadsheets and calculators, as well as any trial and error guesswork, while enabling the most comfortable, 'pixel-perfect', artifact-free 3D product possible.

  5. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  6. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  8. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  9. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  10. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  11. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  12. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  13. Clinical Assessment of Stereoacuity and 3-D Stereoscopic Entertainment

    PubMed Central

    Tidbury, Laurence P.; Black, Robert H.; O’Connor, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: The perception of compelling depth is often reported in individuals where no clinically measurable stereoacuity is apparent. We aim to investigate the potential cause of this finding by varying the amount of stereopsis available to the subject, and assessing their perception of depth viewing 3-D video clips and a Nintendo 3DS. Methods: Monocular blur was used to vary interocular VA difference, consequently creating 4 levels of measurable binocular deficit from normal stereoacuity to suppression. Stereoacuity was assessed at each level using the TNO, Preschool Randot®, Frisby, the FD2, and Distance Randot®. Subjects also completed an object depth identification task using the Nintendo 3DS, a static 3DTV stereoacuity test, and a 3-D perception rating task of 6 video clips. Results: As intraocular VA differences increased, stereoacuity of the 57 subjects (aged 16–62 years) decreased (eg, 110”, 280”, 340”, and suppression). The ability to correctly identify depth on the Nintendo 3DS remained at 100% until suppression of one eye occurred. The perception of a compelling 3-D effect when viewing the video clips was rated high until suppression of one eye occurred, where the 3-D effect was still reported as fairly evident. Conclusion: If an individual has any level of measurable stereoacuity, the perception of 3-D when viewing stereoscopic entertainment is present. The presence of motion in stereoscopic video appears to provide cues to depth, where static cues are not sufficient. This suggests there is a need for a dynamic test of stereoacuity to be developed, to allow fully informed patient management decisions to be made. PMID:26669421

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  17. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  18. Scattering robust 3D reconstruction via polarized transient imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rihui; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Yongdong; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing 3D structure of scenes in the scattering medium is a challenging task with great research value. Existing techniques often impose strong assumptions on the scattering behaviors and are of limited performance. Recently, a low-cost transient imaging system has provided a feasible way to resolve the scene depth, by detecting the reflection instant on the time profile of a surface point. However, in cases with scattering medium, the rays are both reflected and scattered during transmission, and the depth calculated from the time profile largely deviates from the true value. To handle this problem, we used the different polarization behaviors of the reflection and scattering components, and introduced active polarization to separate the reflection component to estimate the scattering robust depth. Our experiments have demonstrated that our approach can accurately reconstruct the 3D structure underlying the scattering medium. PMID:27607944

  19. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  20. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  1. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  2. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  3. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  4. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  5. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  6. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  7. Trapezoidal phase-shifting method for 3D shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peisen S.; Zhang, Song; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2004-12-01

    We propose a novel structured light method, namely trapezoidal phase-shifting method, for 3-D shape measurement. This method uses three patterns coded with phase-shifted, trapezoidal-shaped gray levels. The 3-D information of the object is extracted by direct calculation of an intensity ratio. Theoretical analysis showed that this new method was significantly less sensitive to the defocusing effect of the captured images when compared to the traditional intensity-ratio based methods. This important advantage makes large-depth 3-D shape measurement possible. If compared to the sinusoidal phase-shifting method, the resolution is similar, but the processing speed is at least 4.5 times faster. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in a previously developed real-time 3-D shape measurement system. The reconstructed 3-D results showed similar quality as those obtained by the sinusoidal phase-shifting method. However, since the processing speed was much faster, we were able to not only acquire the images in real time, but also reconstruct the 3-D shapes in real time (40 fps at a resolution of 532 x 500 pixels). This real-time capability allows us to measure dynamically changing objects, such as human faces. The potential applications of this new method include industrial inspection, reverse engineering, robotic vision, computer graphics, medical diagnosis, etc.

  8. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  9. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  10. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  12. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  13. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  15. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  16. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  17. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  18. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  19. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  20. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Férin, Guillaume; Dufait, Rémi; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32×32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60° in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. This results for both techniques in a frame rate of 18 Hz. The implemented synthetic aperture technique reduces the number of transmit channels from 1024 to 256, compared to Explososcan. In terms of FWHM performance, was Explososcan and synthetic aperture found to perform similar. At 90mm depth is Explososcan's FWHM performance 7% better than that of synthetic aperture. Synthetic aperture improved the cystic resolution, which expresses the ability to detect anechoic cysts in a uniform scattering media, at all depths except at Explososcan's focus point. Synthetic aperture reduced the cyst radius, R20dB, at 90mm depth by 48%. Synthetic aperture imaging was shown to reduce the number of transmit channels by four and still, generally, improve the imaging quality.

  1. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  2. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  3. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  4. Ultrasonic impact damage assessment in 3D woven composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannai, E.; Lamboul, B.; Roche, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    An ultrasonic nondestructive methodology is proposed for the assessment of low velocity impact damage in a 3D woven composite material. The output data is intended for material scientists and numerical scientists to validate the damage tolerance performance of the manufactured materials and the reliability of damage modeling predictions. A depth-dependent threshold based on the reflectivity of flat bottom holes is applied to the ultrasonic data to remove the structural noise and isolate echoes of interest. The methodology was applied to a 3 mm thick 3D woven composite plate impacted with different energies. An artificial 3D representation of the detected echoes is proposed to enhance the spatial perception of the generated damage by the end user. The paper finally highlights some statistics made on the detected echoes to quantitatively assess the impact damage resistance of the tested specimens.

  5. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision - has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, "anaglyph" filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception. PMID:26740144

  6. 3-D Terahertz Synthetic-Aperture Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Samuel C.

    Terahertz (THz) wavelengths have attracted recent interest in multiple disciplines within engineering and science. Situated between the infrared and the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, THz energy can propagate through non-polar materials such as clothing or packaging layers. Moreover, many chemical compounds, including explosives and many drugs, reveal strong absorption signatures in the THz range. For these reasons, THz wavelengths have great potential for non-destructive evaluation and explosive detection. Three-dimensional (3-D) reflection imaging with considerable depth resolution is also possible using pulsed THz systems. While THz imaging (especially 3-D) systems typically operate in transmission mode, reflection offers the most practical configuration for standoff detection, especially for objects with high water content (like human tissue) which are opaque at THz frequencies. In this research, reflection-based THz synthetic-aperture (SA) imaging is investigated as a potential imaging solution. THz SA imaging results presented in this dissertation are unique in that a 2-D planar synthetic array was used to generate a 3-D image without relying on a narrow time-window for depth isolation cite [Shen 2005]. Novel THz chemical detection techniques are developed and combined with broadband THz SA capabilities to provide concurrent 3-D spectral imaging. All algorithms are tested with various objects and pressed pellets using a pulsed THz time-domain system in the Northwest Electromagnetics and Acoustics Research Laboratory (NEAR-Lab).

  7. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema

    PubMed Central

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision – has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, “anaglyph” filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception. PMID:26740144

  8. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  9. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  10. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  11. Programming standards for effective S-3D game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neil; Matveev, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    When a video game is in development, more often than not it is being rendered in three dimensions - complete with volumetric depth. It's the PC monitor that is taking this three-dimensional information, and artificially displaying it in a flat, two-dimensional format. Stereoscopic drivers take the three-dimensional information captured from DirectX and OpenGL calls and properly display it with a unique left and right sided view for each eye so a proper stereoscopic 3D image can be seen by the gamer. The two-dimensional limitation of how information is displayed on screen has encouraged programming short-cuts and work-arounds that stifle this stereoscopic 3D effect, and the purpose of this guide is to outline techniques to get the best of both worlds. While the programming requirements do not significantly add to the game development time, following these guidelines will greatly enhance your customer's stereoscopic 3D experience, increase your likelihood of earning Meant to be Seen certification, and give you instant cost-free access to the industry's most valued consumer base. While this outline is mostly based on NVIDIA's programming guide and iZ3D resources, it is designed to work with all stereoscopic 3D hardware solutions and is not proprietary in any way.

  12. Development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataupsky, Mark; Turner, Timothy L.; Lane, Harold; Crittenden, Lucille

    1989-01-01

    Computer-generated displays are becoming increasingly popular in aerospace applications. The use of stereo 3-D technology provides an opportunity to present depth perceptions which otherwise might be lacking. In addition, the third dimension could also be used as an additional dimension along which information can be encoded. Historically, the stereo 3-D displays have been used in entertainment, in experimental facilities, and in the handling of hazardous waste. In the last example, the source of the stereo images generally has been remotely controlled television camera pairs. The development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display used in a flight simulation environment is described. The applicability of stereo 3-D displays for aerospace crew stations to meet the anticipated needs for 2000 to 2020 time frame is investigated. Although, the actual equipment that could be used in an aerospace vehicle is not currently available, the lab research is necessary to determine where stereo 3-D enhances the display of information and how the displays should be formatted.

  13. 3D visualization techniques for the STEREO-mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Podlipnik, B.; Inhester, B.; Feng, L.; Ruan, P.

    The forthcoming STEREO-mission will observe the Sun from two different viewpoints We expect about 2GB data per day which ask for suitable data presentation techniques A key feature of STEREO is that it will provide for the first time a 3D-view of the Sun and the solar corona In our normal environment we see objects three dimensional because the light from real 3D objects needs different travel times to our left and right eye As a consequence we see slightly different images with our eyes which gives us information about the depth of objects and a corresponding 3D impression Techniques for the 3D-visualization of scientific and other data on paper TV computer screen cinema etc are well known e g two colour anaglyph technique shutter glasses polarization filters and head-mounted displays We discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and how they can be applied to STEREO-data The 3D-visualization techniques are not limited to visual images but can be also used to show the reconstructed coronal magnetic field and energy and helicity distribution In the advent of STEREO we test the method with data from SOHO which provides us different viewpoints by the solar rotation This restricts the analysis to structures which remain stationary for several days Real STEREO-data will not be affected by these limitations however

  14. 3D Medical Collaboration Technology to Enhance Emergency Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15–20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals’ viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare. PMID:19521951

  15. On the Inverse Problem of Binocular 3D Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Lages, Martin; Heron, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that existing processing schemes of 3D motion perception such as interocular velocity difference, changing disparity over time, as well as joint encoding of motion and disparity, do not offer a general solution to the inverse optics problem of local binocular 3D motion. Instead we suggest that local velocity constraints in combination with binocular disparity and other depth cues provide a more flexible framework for the solution of the inverse problem. In the context of the aperture problem we derive predictions from two plausible default strategies: (1) the vector normal prefers slow motion in 3D whereas (2) the cyclopean average is based on slow motion in 2D. Predicting perceived motion directions for ambiguous line motion provides an opportunity to distinguish between these strategies of 3D motion processing. Our theoretical results suggest that velocity constraints and disparity from feature tracking are needed to solve the inverse problem of 3D motion perception. It seems plausible that motion and disparity input is processed in parallel and integrated late in the visual processing hierarchy. PMID:21124957

  16. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  17. 3D medical collaboration technology to enhance emergency healthcare.

    PubMed

    Welch, Gregory F; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj K; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E

    2009-04-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals' viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare.

  18. Multivariate 3D modelling of Scottish soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental modelling. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were modelled with a multivariate 3D-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) modelling the multivariate trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D model, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive Models) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a 3D smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the model residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the 3D-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.

  19. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  20. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, F

    2003-07-09

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.

  1. Practical Implementation of Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration on a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guofeng; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present a practical implementation of prestack Kirchhoff time migration (PSTM) on a general purpose graphic processing unit. First, we consider the three main optimizations of the PSTM GPU code, i.e., designing a configuration based on a reasonable execution, using the texture memory for velocity interpolation, and the application of an intrinsic function in device code. This approach can achieve a speedup of nearly 45 times on a NVIDIA GTX 680 GPU compared with CPU code when a larger imaging space is used, where the PSTM output is a common reflection point that is gathered as I[nx][ny][nh][nt] in matrix format. However, this method requires more memory space so the limited imaging space cannot fully exploit the GPU sources. To overcome this problem, we designed a PSTM scheme with multi-GPUs for imaging different seismic data on different GPUs using an offset value. This process can achieve the peak speedup of GPU PSTM code and it greatly increases the efficiency of the calculations, but without changing the imaging result.

  2. A hybrid method for strong low-frequency noise suppression in prestack seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunhua; Lu, Wenkai

    2014-09-01

    Low-frequency components are important portion of seismic data in exploration geophysics, and have great effects on seismic imaging of deep subsurface and full waveform inversion. Unfortunately, seismic data usually suffers from various kinds of noises and has low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in low-frequency band, although this situation has been improved by developments of acquisition technology. In this paper, we propose a low-frequency cascade filter (LFCF) in Fourier domain for strong low-frequency noise suppression in prestack gathers. LFCF includes a 1D adaptive median filter in f-x domain and a 2D notch filter in f-k domain, which is able to process high-amplitude swell noise, random noise, and seismic interference noise. We employ traces rearrangement and spike-detection mechanisms in adaptive f-x median filter, which can handle strong noise specifically, such as wide-spreading swell noise and tug noise. And a notch filter in f-k domain is designed to separate reflection signal and random noise by different apparent velocities. Through these means, our method can effectively attenuate low-frequency random and coherent noise while simultaneously protect the signal. Experiments on synthetic example and field data are conducted, and the results demonstrate that our method is practical and effective and can preserve signal down to 2 Hz.

  3. A perceptual preprocess method for 3D-HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yawen; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Yubing

    2015-08-01

    A perceptual preprocessing method for 3D-HEVC coding is proposed in the paper. Firstly we proposed a new JND model, which accounts for luminance contrast masking effect, spatial masking effect, and temporal masking effect, saliency characteristic as well as depth information. We utilize spectral residual approach to obtain the saliency map and built a visual saliency factor based on saliency map. In order to distinguish the sensitivity of objects in different depth. We segment each texture frame into foreground and background by a automatic threshold selection algorithm using corresponding depth information, and then built a depth weighting factor. A JND modulation factor is built with a linear combined with visual saliency factor and depth weighting factor to adjust the JND threshold. Then, we applied the proposed JND model to 3D-HEVC for residual filtering and distortion coefficient processing. The filtering process is that the residual value will be set to zero if the JND threshold is greater than residual value, or directly subtract the JND threshold from residual value if JND threshold is less than residual value. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve average bit rate reduction of 15.11%, compared to the original coding scheme with HTM12.1, while maintains the same subjective quality.

  4. Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.

  5. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  6. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  7. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  8. Fine-scale thermohaline ocean structure retrieved with 2-D prestack full-waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data: Application to the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Ranero, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of 2-D time-domain, adjoint-state acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to retrieve high-resolution models of ocean physical parameters such as sound speed, temperature and salinity. The proposed method is first described and then applied to prestack multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) in 2007 in the framework of the Geophysical Oceanography project. The inversion strategy flow includes specifically designed data preconditioning for acoustic noise reduction, followed by the inversion of sound speed in the shotgather domain. We show that the final sound speed model has a horizontal resolution of ˜ 70 m, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the initial model constructed with coincident eXpendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data, and close to the theoretical resolution of O(λ). Temperature (T) and salinity (S) are retrieved with the same lateral resolution as sound speed by combining the inverted sound speed model with the thermodynamic equation of seawater and a local, depth-dependent T-S relation derived from regional conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. The comparison of the inverted T and S models with XBT and CTD casts deployed simultaneously to the MCS acquisition shows that the thermohaline contrasts are resolved with an accuracy of 0.18oC for temperature and 0.08 PSU for salinity. The combination of oceanographic and MCS data into a common, pseudo-automatic inversion scheme allows to quantitatively resolve submeso-scale features that ought to be incorporated into larger-scale ocean models of oceans structure and circulation.

  9. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  10. Formation of 3D structures in a volumetric photocurable material via a holographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorzobova, N. D.; Bulgakova, V. G.; Veselov, V. O.

    2015-12-01

    The principle of forming 3D polymer structures is considered, based on the display of the 3D intensity distribution of radiation formed by a hologram in the bulk of a photocurable material. The conditions are determined for limiting the cure depth and reproducing the projected wavefront configuration.

  11. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  12. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  13. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  14. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  15. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  16. Independent effects of 2-D and 3-D locations of stimuli in a 3-D display on response speed in a Simon task

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Simon Effect is a phenomenon in which reaction times are usually faster when the stimulus location and the response correspond, even if the stimulus location is irrelevant to the task. Recent studies have demonstrated the Simon effect in a three-dimensional (3-D) display. The present study examined whether two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D locations simultaneously affected the Simon effect for stimuli in which a target and fixation were located on the same plane (ground or ceiling) at different 3-D depths, and the perspective effect produced a difference in the 2-D vertical location of the target stimulus relative to the fixation. The presence of the ground and ceiling plane was controlled to examine the contextual effects of background. The results showed that the 2-D vertical location and 3-D depth simultaneously affected the speed of responses, and they did not interact. The presence of the background did not affect the magnitude of either the 2-D or the 3-D Simon effect. These results suggest that 2-D vertical location and 3-D depth are coded simultaneously and independently, and both affect response selection in which 2-D and 3-D representations overlap. PMID:26388807

  17. 3D seismic data reconstruction based on complex-valued curvelet transform in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Hongxing

    2015-02-01

    Traditional seismic data sampling must follow the Nyquist Sampling Theorem. However, the field data acquisition may not meet the sampling criteria due to missing traces or limits in exploration cost, causing a prestack data reconstruction problem. Recently researchers have proposed many useful methods to regularize the seismic data. In this paper, a 3D seismic data reconstruction method based on the Projections Onto Convex Sets (POCS) algorithm and a complex-valued curvelet transform (CCT) has been introduced in the frequency domain. In order to improve reconstruction efficiency and reduce the computation time, the seismic data are transformed from the t-x-y domain to the f-x-y domain and the data reconstruction is processed for every frequency slice during the reconstruction process. The selection threshold parameter is important for reconstruction efficiency for each iteration, therefore an exponential square root decreased (ESRD) threshold is proposed. The experimental results show that the ESRD threshold can greatly reduce iterations and improve reconstruction efficiency compared to the other thresholds for the same reconstruction result. We also analyze the antinoise ability of the CCT-based POCS reconstruction method. The example studies on synthetic and real marine seismic data showed that our proposed method is more efficient and applicable.

  18. 360-degree panorama in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama was taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses (red left lens, blue right lens) are necessary to help identify surface detail. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible, including the double Twin Peaks at the horizon. Sojourner would later investigate the rock Barnacle Bill just to its left in this image, and the larger rock Yogi at its forward right.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. Stereoscopic imaging brings exceptional clarity and depth to many of the features in this image, particularly the ridge beyond the far left petal and the large rock Yogi. The curvature and misalignment of several section are due to image parallax.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. Interlopers 3D: experiences designing a stereoscopic game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, James; Holliman, Nicolas S.

    2014-03-01

    Background In recent years 3D-enabled televisions, VR headsets and computer displays have become more readily available in the home. This presents an opportunity for game designers to explore new stereoscopic game mechanics and techniques that have previously been unavailable in monocular gaming. Aims To investigate the visual cues that are present in binocular and monocular vision, identifying which are relevant when gaming using a stereoscopic display. To implement a game whose mechanics are so reliant on binocular cues that the game becomes impossible or at least very difficult to play in non-stereoscopic mode. Method A stereoscopic 3D game was developed whose objective was to shoot down advancing enemies (the Interlopers) before they reached their destination. Scoring highly required players to make accurate depth judgments and target the closest enemies first. A group of twenty participants played both a basic and advanced version of the game in both monoscopic 2D and stereoscopic 3D. Results The results show that in both the basic and advanced game participants achieved higher scores when playing in stereoscopic 3D. The advanced game showed that by disrupting the depth from motion cue the game became more difficult in monoscopic 2D. Results also show a certain amount of learning taking place over the course of the experiment, meaning that players were able to score higher and finish the game faster over the course of the experiment. Conclusions Although the game was not impossible to play in monoscopic 2D, participants results show that it put them at a significant disadvantage when compared to playing in stereoscopic 3D.

  20. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  1. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  2. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  3. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  4. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  5. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  6. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  7. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  8. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  9. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  10. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  11. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  13. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  14. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  15. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  16. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Yücel; Kul, Basri; Okursoy, Rasim

    2008-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software.

  19. Improvements of 3-D image quality in integral display by reducing distortion errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Sato, Masahito

    2008-02-01

    An integral three-dimensional (3-D) system based on the principle of integral photography can display natural 3-D images. We studied ways of improving the resolution and viewing angle of 3-D images by using extremely highresolution (EHR) video in an integral 3-D video system. One of the problems with the EHR projection-type integral 3-D system is that positional errors appear between the elemental image and the elemental lens when there is geometric distortion in the projected image. We analyzed the relationships between the geometric distortion in the elemental images caused by the projection lens and the spatial distortion of the reconstructed 3-D image. As a result, we clarified that 3-D images reconstructed far from the lens array were greatly affected by the distortion of the elemental images, and that the 3-D images were significantly distorted in the depth direction at the corners of the displayed images. Moreover, we developed a video signal processor that electrically compensated the distortion in the elemental images for an EHR projection-type integral 3-D system. Therefore, the distortion in the displayed 3-D image was removed, and the viewing angle of the 3-D image was expanded to nearly double that obtained with the previous prototype system.

  20. Intrinsic spatial shift of local focus metric curves in digital inline holography for accurate 3D morphology measurement of irregular micro-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Lebrun, Denis; Brunel, Marc; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of digital inline holography system reveals that the local focus metric curves (FMCs) of different parts of an irregular micro-object present spatial shift in the depth direction which is resulted from the depth shift. Thus, the 3D morphology of an irregular micro-object can be accurately measured using the cross correlation of the local FMCs. This method retrieves the 3D depth information directly, avoiding the uncertainty inherited from the depth position determination. Typical 3D morphology measurements, including the 3D boundary lines of tilted carbon fibers and irregular coal particles, and the 3D swimming gesture of a live Caenorhabdities elegans, are presented.

  1. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.

  2. Scanning Acoustic Microscope of 3D-Interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai Kong, Lay; Diebold, A. C.; Rudack, A.; Arkalgud, S.

    2009-09-01

    The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany in collaboration with International SEMATECH is investigating the use of Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) for analyzing 3D Interconnects. SAM is a non-destructive metrology technique which utilizes high frequency ultrasound to generate a microscopic image of the internal parts of a specimen. The goal of this project is to develop microscopic techniques for evaluating Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D-Interconnects. Preliminary data shows voids and other defects in the interface between bonded wafers as shown in Figure 1. Our SAM laboratory system operates at 230 MHz and has a spatial resolution of 5-10 μm and focal length of 5.9 mm on a silicon wafer. The spatial resolution and sampling depth depend on the ultrasonic frequency, sound velocity, focal length and diameter of piezoelectric crystal. Typically, the silicon wafers have a thickness of 775 μm before they are bonded. Our initial work is focused on blanket wafers in order to develop the bonding process. The next step is to bond wafers with test die where the patterning obscures the interface. This paper will discuss the limitations of SAM and compare it to infrared microscopy which is another important imaging capability for 3D Interconnect. We also discuss the current status of research into more advanced acoustic microscopy methods and how this might impact 3D Interconnect imaging.

  3. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  4. Use scenarios: mobile 3D television and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Weitzel, Mandy; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2009-02-01

    The focus of 3D television and video has been in technical development while hardly any attention has been paid on user expectations and needs of related applications. The object of the study is to examine user requirements for mobile 3D television and video in depth. We conducted two qualitative studies, focus groups and probe studies, to improve the understanding of user approach. Eight focus groups were carried out with altogether 46 participants focusing on use scenario development. The data-collection of the probe study was done over the period of 4 weeks in the field with nine participants to reveal intrinsic user needs and expectations. Both studies were conducted and analyzed independently so that they did not influence each other. The results of both studies provide novel aspects of users, system and content, and context of use. In the paper, we present personas as first archetype users of mobile 3D television and video. Putting these personas into contexts, we summarize the results of our studies and previous related work in the form of use scenarios to guide the user-centered development of 3D television and video.

  5. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  6. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  7. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  8. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  9. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  10. Misalignment effects in 3-D versions of Poggendorff displays.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1995-04-01

    Strong misalignment effects are found in three-dimensional (3-D) versions of Poggendorff displays viewed binocularly. The components of the standard 2-D Poggendorff figure--the parallels and the oblique segments--were presented in 3-D depth as a flat rectangular object with occluding edges and an oblique line situated behind the object. Three experiments investigated the misalignment effects under three different observation instructions: Subjects were told to look at the oblique (Experiment 1), at the rectangle (Experiment 2), or at the background (Experiment 3). Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects on judgments of alignment of varying the distance in depth that separates the oblique from the rectangle. Experiment 3 examined the effects of varying the distance between the fixated background and the 3-D Poggendorff figure. Both standard and reversed misalignment effects were obtained. When the viewing condition produces crossed disparity for the oblique, perceived misalignment occurs in the usual Poggendorff direction, but it is reversed with uncrossed disparity. Moreover, the amount of misalignment is related to the amount of disparity, and it can be much stronger than is usual in the 2-D versions of the Poggendorff. The misalignment effects can be explained by binocular integration to produce a single cyclopean image.

  11. Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.

  12. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications. PMID:22402692

  13. Improvements in the Visualization of Stereoscopic 3D Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrieri, Luis E.

    2015-09-01

    A pleasant visualization of stereoscopic imagery must take into account factors that may produce eye strain and fatigue. Fortunately, our binocular vision system has embedded mechanisms to perceive depth for extended periods of time without producing eye fatigue; however, stereoscopic imagery may still induce visual discomfort in certain displaying scenarios. An important source of eye fatigue originates in the conflict between vergence eye movement and focusing mechanisms. Today's eye-tracking technology makes possible to know the viewers' gaze direction; hence, 3D imagery can be dynamically corrected based on this information. In this paper, I introduce a method to improve the visualization of stereoscopic imagery on planar displays based on emulating vergence and accommodation mechanisms of binocular human vision. Unlike other methods to improve the visual comfort that introduce depth distortions, in the stereoscopic visual media, this technique aims to produce a gentler and more natural binocular viewing experience without distorting the original depth of the scene.

  14. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  3. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  4. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  5. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  6. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  7. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  8. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  9. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  10. 3D object recognition using kernel construction of phase wrapped images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Su, Hongjun

    2011-06-01

    Kernel methods are effective machine learning techniques for many image based pattern recognition problems. Incorporating 3D information is useful in such applications. The optical profilometries and interforometric techniques provide 3D information in an implicit form. Typically phase unwrapping process, which is often hindered by the presence of noises, spots of low intensity modulation, and instability of the solutions, is applied to retrieve the proper depth information. In certain applications such as pattern recognition problems, the goal is to classify the 3D objects in the image, rather than to simply display or reconstruct them. In this paper we present a technique for constructing kernels on the measured data directly without explicit phase unwrapping. Such a kernel will naturally incorporate the 3D depth information and can be used to improve the systems involving 3D object analysis and classification.

  11. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  12. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Lin, Xue; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces.

  13. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  14. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  15. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  16. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  17. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  18. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  19. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  20. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  1. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  2. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  3. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  4. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  5. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  6. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  7. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  8. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  9. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  10. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  11. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  12. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  13. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  14. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  15. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  16. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  17. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  18. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  19. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  20. 3D range scan enhancement using image-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbort, Steffen; Gerken, Britta; Schugk, Daniel; Wöhler, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 3D surface scan refinement, which is desirable due to noise, outliers, and missing measurements being present in the 3D surfaces obtained with a laser scanner. We present a novel algorithm for the fusion of absolute laser scanner depth profiles and photometrically estimated surface normal data, which yields a noise-reduced and highly detailed depth profile with large scale shape robustness. In contrast to other approaches published in the literature, the presented algorithm (1) regards non-Lambertian surfaces, (2) simultaneously computes surface reflectance (i.e. BRDF) parameters required for 3D reconstruction, (3) models pixelwise incident light and viewing directions, and (4) accounts for interreflections. The algorithm as such relies on the minimization of a three-component error term, which penalizes intensity deviations, integrability deviations, and deviations from the known large-scale surface shape. The solution of the error minimization is obtained iteratively based on a calculus of variations. BRDF parameters are estimated by initially reducing and then iteratively refining the optical resolution, which provides the required robust data basis. The 3D reconstruction of concave surface regions affected by interreflections is improved by compensating global illumination in the image data. The algorithm is evaluated based on eight objects with varying albedos and reflectance behaviors (diffuse, specular, metallic). The qualitative evaluation shows a removal of outliers and a strong reduction of noise, while the large scale shape is preserved. Fine surface details Which are previously not contained in the surface scans, are incorporated through using image data. The algorithm is evaluated with respect to its absolute accuracy using two caliper objects of known shape, and based on synthetically generated data. The beneficial effect of interreflection compensation on the reconstruction accuracy is evaluated quantitatively in a

  1. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  2. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  3. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  4. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  5. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  6. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  7. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  8. Visualization package for 3D laser-scanned geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Paul F.; Sadler, Lewis L.

    1993-06-01

    A computer software package named LEGO was designed and implemented to enable medical personnel to explore and manipulate laser scanned 3D geometry obtained from a Cyberware 4020PS scanner. This type of scanner reconstructs a real world object into a mathematical computer model by collecting thousands of depth measurement using a low powered laser. LEGO consists of a collection of tools that can be interactively combined to accomplish complex tasks. Tools fall into five major categories: viewing, simple, quantitative, manipulative, and miscellaneous. This paper is based on a masters thesis obtained from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

  9. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  10. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  11. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  12. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  13. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  14. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  15. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  16. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  17. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  18. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  19. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  20. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  1. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  2. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  4. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  5. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  6. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  7. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  8. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  10. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  11. The design and implementation of stereoscopic 3D scalable vector graphics based on WebKit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongxin; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which is a language designed based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is used to describe basic shapes embedded in webpages, such as circles and rectangles. However, it can only depict 2D shapes. As a consequence, web pages using classical SVG can only display 2D shapes on a screen. With the increasing development of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) technology, binocular 3D devices have been widely used. Under this circumstance, we intend to extend the widely used web rendering engine WebKit to support the description and display of S3D webpages. Therefore, the extension of SVG is of necessity. In this paper, we will describe how to design and implement SVG shapes with stereoscopic 3D mode. Two attributes representing the depth and thickness are added to support S3D shapes. The elimination of hidden lines and hidden surfaces, which is an important process in this project, is described as well. The modification of WebKit is also discussed, which is made to support the generation of both left view and right view at the same time. As is shown in the result, in contrast to the 2D shapes generated by the Google Chrome web browser, the shapes got from our modified browser are in S3D mode. With the feeling of depth and thickness, the shapes seem to be real 3D objects away from the screen, rather than simple curves and lines as before.

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  14. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  15. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  16. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  17. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  18. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  19. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  20. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  1. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  2. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  3. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  4. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  5. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  6. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  7. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  8. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  9. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  10. Robust 3D reconstruction with an RGB-D camera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangkan; Zhang, Guofeng; Bao, Hujun

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel 3D reconstruction approach using a low-cost RGB-D camera such as Microsoft Kinect. Compared with previous methods, our scanning system can work well in challenging cases where there are large repeated textures and significant depth missing problems. For robust registration, we propose to utilize both visual and geometry features and combine SFM technique to enhance the robustness of feature matching and camera pose estimation. In addition, a novel prior-based multicandidates RANSAC is introduced to efficiently estimate the model parameters and significantly speed up the camera pose estimation under multiple correspondence candidates. Even when serious depth missing occurs, our method still can successfully register all frames together. Loop closure also can be robustly detected and handled to eliminate the drift problem. The missing geometry can be completed by combining multiview stereo and mesh deformation techniques. A variety of challenging examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Spatial watermarking of 3D triangle meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayre, Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is obvious that watermarking has become of great interest in protecting audio, videos, and still pictures, few work has been done considering 3D meshes. We propose a new method for watermarking 3D triangle meshes. This method embeds the watermark as triangles deformations. The list of watermarked triangles is obtained through a similar way to the one used in the TSPS (Triangle Strip Peeling Sequence) method. Unlike TSPS, our method is automatic and more secure. We also show that it is reversible.

  12. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  13. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  14. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  15. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  16. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  17. Method and simulation to study 3D crosstalk perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Blondé, Laurent; Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Doyen, Didier

    2012-03-01

    To various degrees, all modern 3DTV displays suffer from crosstalk, which can lead to a decrease of both visual quality and visual comfort, and also affect perception of depth. In the absence of a perfect 3D display technology, crosstalk has to be taken into account when studying perception of 3D stereoscopic content. In order to improve 3D presentation systems and understand how to efficiently eliminate crosstalk, it is necessary to understand its impact on human perception. In this paper, we present a practical method to study the perception of crosstalk. The approach consists of four steps: (1) physical measurements of a 3DTV, (2) building of a crosstalk surface based on those measurements and representing specifically the behavior of that 3TV, (3) manipulation of the crosstalk function and application on reference images to produce test images degraded by crosstalk in various ways, and (4) psychophysical tests. Our approach allows both a realistic representation of the behavior of a 3DTV and the easy manipulation of its resulting crosstalk in order to conduct psycho-visual experiments. Our approach can be used in all studies requiring the understanding of how crosstalk affects perception of stereoscopic content and how it can be corrected efficiently.

  18. Computation of optimized arrays for 3-D electrical imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Chambers, J. E.; Oxby, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    3-D electrical resistivity surveys and inversion models are required to accurately resolve structures in areas with very complex geology where 2-D models might suffer from artefacts. Many 3-D surveys use a grid where the number of electrodes along one direction (x) is much greater than in the perpendicular direction (y). Frequently, due to limitations in the number of independent electrodes in the multi-electrode system, the surveys use a roll-along system with a small number of parallel survey lines aligned along the x-direction. The `Compare R' array optimization method previously used for 2-D surveys is adapted for such 3-D surveys. Offset versions of the inline arrays used in 2-D surveys are included in the number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) to improve the sensitivity to structures in between the lines. The array geometric factor and its relative error are used to filter out potentially unstable arrays in the construction of the comprehensive data set. Comparisons of the conventional (consisting of dipole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays) and optimized arrays are made using a synthetic model and experimental measurements in a tank. The tests show that structures located between the lines are better resolved with the optimized arrays. The optimized arrays also have significantly better depth resolution compared to the conventional arrays.

  19. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  20. Panoramic, large-screen, 3-D flight display system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Henry; Larson, Brent; Johnson, Michael; Droessler, Justin; Reinhart, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The report documents and summarizes the results of the required evaluations specified in the SOW and the design specifications for the selected display system hardware. Also included are the proposed development plan and schedule as well as the estimated rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a flyable prototype research flight display system. The thrust of the effort was development of a complete understanding of the user/system requirements for a panoramic, collimated, 3-D flyable avionic display system and the translation of the requirements into an acceptable system design for fabrication and demonstration of a prototype display in the early 1997 time frame. Eleven display system design concepts were presented to NASA LaRC during the program, one of which was down-selected to a preferred display system concept. A set of preliminary display requirements was formulated. The state of the art in image source technology, 3-D methods, collimation methods, and interaction methods for a panoramic, 3-D flight display system were reviewed in depth and evaluated. Display technology improvements and risk reductions associated with maturity of the technologies for the preferred display system design concept were identified.

  1. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  2. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  3. A semi-automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with adaptive key-frame selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Kuanyu; Xiong, Hongkai

    2014-11-01

    To compensate the deficit of 3D content, 2D to 3D video conversion (2D-to-3D) has recently attracted more attention from both industrial and academic communities. The semi-automatic 2D-to-3D conversion which estimates corresponding depth of non-key-frames through key-frames is more desirable owing to its advantage of balancing labor cost and 3D effects. The location of key-frames plays a role on quality of depth propagation. This paper proposes a semi-automatic 2D-to-3D scheme with adaptive key-frame selection to keep temporal continuity more reliable and reduce the depth propagation errors caused by occlusion. The potential key-frames would be localized in terms of clustered color variation and motion intensity. The distance of key-frame interval is also taken into account to keep the accumulated propagation errors under control and guarantee minimal user interaction. Once their depth maps are aligned with user interaction, the non-key-frames depth maps would be automatically propagated by shifted bilateral filtering. Considering that depth of objects may change due to the objects motion or camera zoom in/out effect, a bi-directional depth propagation scheme is adopted where a non-key frame is interpolated from two adjacent key frames. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing 2D-to-3D scheme with fixed key-frame interval.

  4. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  5. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  6. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpent