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Sample records for 3-d prestack depth

  1. Prestack depth migration for 3D offshore methane hydrates data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonghyung; Kim, Tae-yeon

    2015-04-01

    One of the indicators for the existence of methane hydrates on seismic data is BSR (bottom simulated reflector), which shows the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. It shows a reversed phase polarity compared to that of the water bottom reflections and high amplitude reflections. It is well known acoustic velocity decrease at the contact between gas hydrates and free-gas-bearing sediments. Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a method for imaging the subsurface in depth domain using inner product of source wavefield extrapolation in forward and receiver wavefield extrapolation in backward. It is widely used for imaging the complex subsurface structures with keeping amplitude. We applied RTM to 3D offshore seismic data for methane hydrates exploration. The study area is 12 x 25 km with 120 survey lines offshore. The shot gathers were acquired with 2 streamers and each one has 240 channels. Shot and receiver spacing is 25 m and 12.5 m. The line spacing is 100 m. Near offset is 150 m and maximum far offset is 3137.5 m. The record length is 7 second with a sampling rate of 1 ms. Shot gathers after resampled with 4 ms were processed to enhance signal to noise ratio using conventional basic processing such as amplitude recovery, deconvolution, and band-pass filtering. Interval velocities which were calculated from conventional stack velocities were used for velocity model for RTM. The basic-processed shot gathers and a velocity model were used for input data to obtain 3D image using RTM. For RTM, 20 Hz Ricker wavelet were used and grid size of x, y and z direction is 20x20x20 m. The total number of shot gathers is 176,387 and every 10th shot gather was chosen for reducing computer times and storage. The result is 3D image with inline, cross-line and depth slice image. High amplitude events are shown around (6 km, 4 km, 2.3 km) of in-line image. Each depth slice shows amplitude variation according to different depth steps. Especially channel structure variation

  2. 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel processor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Solano, M.; VanDyke, J.P.; McMechan, G.A.; Epili, D.

    1998-03-01

    Portable, production-scale 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration software capable of full-volume imaging has been successfully implemented and applied to a six-million trace (46.9 Gbyte) marine data set from a salt/subsalt play in the Gulf of Mexico. Velocity model building and updates use an image-driven strategy and were performed in a Sun Sparc environment. Images obtained by 3-D prestack migration after three velocity iterations are substantially better focused and reveal drilling targets that were not visible in images obtained from conventional 3-D poststack time migration. Amplitudes are well preserved, so anomalies associated with known reservoirs conform to the petrophysical predictions. Prototype development was on an 8-node Intel iPSC860 computer; the production version was run on an 1824-node Intel Paragon computer. The code has been successfully ported to CRAY (T3D) and Unix workstation (PVM) environments.

  3. Imaging the Juan de Fuca subduction plate using 3D Kirchoff Prestack Depth Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.; Bodin, T.; Allen, R. M.; Tauzin, B.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new Receiver Function migration method to image the subducting plate in the western US that utilizes the US array and regional network data. While the well-developed CCP (common conversion point) poststack migration is commonly used for such imaging; our method applies a 3D prestack depth migration approach. The traditional CCP and post-stack depth mapping approaches implement the ray tracing and moveout correction for the incoming teleseismic plane wave based on a 1D earth reference model and the assumption of horizontal discontinuities. Although this works well in mapping the reflection position of relatively flat discontinuities (such as the Moho or the LAB), CCP is known to give poor results in the presence of lateral volumetric velocity variations and dipping layers. Instead of making the flat layer assumption and 1D moveout correction, seismic rays are traced in a 3D tomographic model with the Fast Marching Method. With travel time information stored, our Kirchoff migration is done where the amplitude of the receiver function at a given time is distributed over all possible conversion points (i.e. along a semi-elipse) on the output migrated depth section. The migrated reflectors will appear where the semicircles constructively interfere, whereas destructive interference will cancel out noise. Synthetic tests show that in the case of a horizontal discontinuity, the prestack Kirchoff migration gives similar results to CCP, but without spurious multiples as this energy is stacked destructively and cancels out. For 45 degree and 60 degree dipping discontinuities, it also performs better in terms of imaging at the right boundary and dip angle. This is especially useful in the Western US case, beneath which the Juan de Fuca plate subducted to ~450km with a dipping angle that may exceed 50 degree. While the traditional CCP method will underestimate the dipping angle, our proposed imaging method will provide an accurate 3D subducting plate image without

  4. 3D Pre-stack depth imaging of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism off Shikoku Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Pisani, P.; Ike, T.; Moore, G.; Reshef, M.; Bangs, N.; Gulick, S.; Shipley, T.; Kuramoto, S.

    2003-12-01

    During 1999 we acquired an 8x90 km 3D seismic dataset across the toe of the Nankai Through accretionary prism south of Shikoku. Previous processing steps have focused on 3D pre-stack time migration of the entire survey and 2D pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) of two in-lines that cross the Leg 190/196 drill sites. In this study, we conducted 3D PSDM of the seaward half of the data set to improve structural images and to derive the velocity structure of the underthrust sedimentary section in order to better understand its 3D compaction and dewatering history. Velocities derived from pre-stack depth migration are considered to most accurately reflect actual in-situ formation velocities. Our processing procedure started with pre-stack time migration in the cross-line direction to image the data into 2D inlines, allowing us to use 2D migration velocity analysis (MVA) techniques to update the velocity field. 3D imaging of target volumes of data around the leg 190/196 drill holes using several distinctive reflections as depth marker horizons provided constraints for the migration input velocity model. We then 2D MVA on every 5th inline (total of 32 lines), using a top-down, layer stripping technique with Residual Move Out picking to iteratively update the velocity model and flatten the Common Reflection Point (CRP) gathers. We also compared CRP gathers with image gathers in order to detect dipping events and velocity anisotropy. We then used the resulting 3D velocity field as input to a full 3D PSDM of the entire data set. The depth image clarified the accretionary prism's structure, including the numerous thrust faults, the basal décollement, and the underthrusting Shikoku Basin sedimentary unit. The thickness of the underthrust section decreases landward because of compaction. The velocity model shows that the underthrust section's velocity increases about 20% over the first 15 km landward. Along strike variations in velocity are generally less than about 5-10%.

  5. Enhanced 3D prestack depth imaging of broadband data from the South China Sea: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jincheng; Li, Jinbo

    2016-08-01

    We present a case study of prestack depth imaging for data from the South China Sea using an enhanced work flow with cutting edge technologies. In the survey area, the presence of complex geologies such as carbonate pinnacles and gas pockets creates challenges for processing and imaging: the complex geometry of carbonates exhibits 3D effect for wave propagation; deriving velocity inside carbonates and gas pockets is difficult and laborious; and localised strong attenuation effect from gas pockets may lead to absorption and dispersion problems. In the course of developing the enhanced work flow to tackle these issues, the following processing steps have the most significant impact on improving the imaging quality: (1) 3D ghost wavefield attenuation, in particular to remove the ghost energy associated with complex structures; (2) 3D surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) to remove multiples, in particular multiples related to complex carbonate structures; (3) full waveform inversion (FWI) and tomography-based velocity model building, to derive a geologically plausible velocity model for imaging; (4) Q-tomography to estimate the Q model which describes the intrinsic attenuation of the subsurface media; (5) de-absorption prestack depth migration (Q-PSDM) to compensate the earth absorption and dispersion effect during imaging especially for the area below gas pockets. The case study with the data from the South China Sea shows that the enhanced work flow consisting of cutting edge technologies is effective when the complex geologies are present.

  6. Prestack reverse time migration for 3D marine reflection seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Seonghyung; Kim, Taeyoun

    2015-03-10

    Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) is a method for imaging the subsurface using the inner product of wavefield extrapolation in shot domain and in receiver domain. It is well known that RTM is better for preserving amplitudes and phases than other prestack migrations. Since 3D seismic data is huge data volume and it needs heavy computing works, it requires parallel computing in order to have a meaningful depth image of the 3D subsurface. We implemented a parallelized version of 3D RTM for prestack depth migration. The results of numerical example for 3D SEG/EAGE salt model showed good agreement with the original geological model. We applied RTM to offshore 3D seismic reflection data. The study area is 12 × 25 km with 120 survey lines. Shot and receiver spacing is 25 m and 12.5 m. The line spacing is 100 m. Shot gathers were preprocessed to enhance signal to noise ratio and velocity model was calculated from conventional stack velocity. Both of them were used to obtain 3D image using RTM. The results show reasonable subsurface image.

  7. 3-D Prestack-migration of Wide-angle Data from a Variscan Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleibinhaus, F.; Bopp, M.; Simon, M.; Gebrande, H.

    1999-09-01

    In addition to the near normal-incidence observations within the German DEKORP 2 project in 1984, wide-angle observations have been carried out on a parallel profile across the boundary between the Saxothuringian and Moldanubian crust, approximately 50 km NE of the main transect to control three-dimensional variations. Explosion sources have been used for the entire survey, providing excellent conditions for wide-angle registrations. A velocity model has been derived on the basis of in- and off-line refraction measurements using a kinematic raytracer which was extended to three dimensions by interpolation of 2-D velocity fields between parallel sections. Although prestack-migration of the data led to aliasing effects due to large shot and geophone spacing, stable results were obtained by forming envelopes after single-shot migration. The migrated sections reveal a strongly reflective Moho at about 31 km depth and a steeply (50°) dipping intracrustal reflector, which seems to be related to the border between the two Variscan units.

  8. Joint Stochastic Inversion of Pre-Stack 3D Seismic Data and Well Logs for High Resolution Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Verdin, C.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the successful implementation of a new 3D AVA stochastic inversion algorithm to quantitatively integrate pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs. The stochastic inversion algorithm is used to characterize flow units of a deepwater reservoir located in the central Gulf of Mexico. Conventional fluid/lithology sensitivity analysis indicates that the shale/sand interface represented by the top of the hydrocarbon-bearing turbidite deposits generates typical Class III AVA responses. On the other hand, layer- dependent Biot-Gassmann analysis shows significant sensitivity of the P-wave velocity and density to fluid substitution. Accordingly, AVA stochastic inversion, which combines the advantages of AVA analysis with those of geostatistical inversion, provided quantitative information about the lateral continuity of the turbidite reservoirs based on the interpretation of inverted acoustic properties (P-velocity, S-velocity, density), and lithotype (sand- shale) distributions. The quantitative use of rock/fluid information through AVA seismic amplitude data, coupled with the implementation of co-simulation via lithotype-dependent multidimensional joint probability distributions of acoustic/petrophysical properties, yields accurate 3D models of petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Finally, by fully integrating pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs, the vertical resolution of inverted products is higher than that of deterministic inversions methods.

  9. Three-dimensional pre-stack depth migration of receiver functions with the fast marching method: a Kirchhoff approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Bodin, Thomas; Allen, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel 3-D pre-stack Kirchhoff depth migration (PKDM) method for teleseismic receiver functions. The proposed algorithm considers the effects of diffraction, scattering and traveltime alteration caused by 3-D volumetric heterogeneities. It is therefore particularly useful for imaging complex 3-D structures such as dipping discontinuities, which is hard to accomplish with traditional methods. The scheme is based on the acoustic wave migration principle, where at each time step of the receiver function, the energy is migrated back to the ensemble of potential conversion points in the image, given a smooth 3-D reference model. Traveltimes for P and S waves are computed with an efficient eikonal solver, the fast marching method. We also consider elastic scattering patterns, where the amplitude of converted S waves depends on the angle between the incident P wave and the scattered S wave. Synthetic experiments demonstrate the validity of the method for a variety of dipping angle discontinuities. Comparison with the widely used common conversion point (CCP) stacking method reveals that our migration shows considerable improvement. For example, the effect of multiple reflections that usually produce apparent discontinuities is avoided. The proposed approach is practical, computationally efficient, and is therefore a potentially powerful alternative to standard CCP methods for imaging large-scale continental structure under dense networks.

  10. Methods to improve the resolution of prestack migrated images, with application to a 3D dataset from a fractured reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Gabriel

    I present three different methods to achieve increased definition in images from conventional seismic data, as illustrated with 3D data from the Fort Worth Basin's Barnett Shale fractured reservoir play, currently one of the hottest exploration and production trends in continental U.S. First, I present a method to correct for wavelet stretch in common-angle prestack migrated data. Wavelet stretch adversely influences contributions to the image from large angle or long offset data. Increasing the fidelity of large angles improves the vertical and lateral resolution in images from seismic data and from derived attributes, and positively impact AVA/AVO analysis. Achieving the greatest potential of this technique demands that I address the increased sensitivity to velocity errors and anisotropy. The other two methods presented here benefit from the balance in spectral content of the imaged data across angles and the increased resolution that are achieved from correcting for wavelet stretch. Then I introduce a new way to define azimuth binning in Kirchhoff prestack migration. This approach avoids mixing the typically weaker side-scattered energy with the stronger reflections from the sagittal plane. With the modified binning, signal and noise events are preferentially imaged in azimuth orientations normal to their apparent strike orientation, in surface- or map-views. This modified azimuthal binning also results in improved detection of out-of-the-plane steeply dipping reflectors, fractures and faults and their orientation, especially when combined with attributes such as curvature and coherence. Finally, I present an approach to measure lateral misalignment in prestack migrated seismic images and then correct for it by applying a warping procedure to these images. Though velocity errors are the most likely source for misalignment between images, it can also result from other imperfections in the imaging procedure. Lateral misalignment is most easily recognized and

  11. Prestack depth migration for seismic reflection data in the southern offshore of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S.

    2009-12-01

    Since exploration seismic problems consist of function of time, velocity, source & receiver position, frequency, and wave-number, these have intrinsically parallel characteristic. Though prestack depth migration is widely used for imaging the complex subsurface structure such as salt dome, fault, and fold, it is needed high performance computers and parallelizing techniques because of huge data volume and large amount of computing time. In this study, we have developed reverse time migration on a low-cost PC cluster using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and we applied it to seismic reflection data in the southern offshore of Korea. This sturdy area is a northern margin of the East China Sea Basin and several subbasins characterized by low gravity anomalies exist in the southern offshore of Korea. The basement structures in the basins are characterized by a series of tilted fault blocks bounded by basement involved listric normal faults. The depth to the basement ranges from about 1.0 s to more than 3.5 s in two-way travel time. We tried conventional data processing for a study line and estimated velocity model from interval velocities which were calculated from stack velocities. In the prestack depth migration, we use inner product of back-propagated wavefields and virtual sources. The observed wavefields were extrapolated backward to the subsurface in order to calculate back-propagated wavefields. When we conduct inner product, we used the virtual sources instead of partial derivative wavefields because of the heavy computing hours and disk storage problem. The virtual source is a forward modeled-wavefield with a source term which results from taking partial derivative wave equation with respect to a velocity. These two wavefields were calculated simultaneously after distributing tasks to every computing node by domain decomposition method. The calculated geological model is 27 km × 4 km with a grid size 12.5 m × 12.5 m. The results of prestack depth

  12. Prestack depth migration for complex 2D structure using phase-screen propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.; Huang, Lian-Jie; Burch, C.; Fehler, M.; Hildebrand, S.

    1997-11-01

    We present results for the phase-screen propagator method applied to prestack depth migration of the Marmousi synthetic data set. The data were migrated as individual common-shot records and the resulting partial images were superposed to obtain the final complete Image. Tests were performed to determine the minimum number of frequency components required to achieve the best quality image and this in turn provided estimates of the minimum computing time. Running on a single processor SUN SPARC Ultra I, high quality images were obtained in as little as 8.7 CPU hours and adequate images were obtained in as little as 4.4 CPU hours. Different methods were tested for choosing the reference velocity used for the background phase-shift operation and for defining the slowness perturbation screens. Although the depths of some of the steeply dipping, high-contrast features were shifted slightly the overall image quality was fairly insensitive to the choice of the reference velocity. Our jests show the phase-screen method to be a reliable and fast algorithm for imaging complex geologic structures, at least for complex 2D synthetic data where the velocity model is known.

  13. 3D Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm: A new scalable approach for parallelization on multicore CPU based cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Richa; Londhe, Ashutosh; Srivastava, Abhishek; Sirasala, Kirannmayi M.; Khonde, Kiran

    2017-03-01

    In this article, a new scalable 3D Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm is presented on state of the art multicore CPU based cluster. Parallelization of 3D Kirchhoff depth migration is challenging due to its high demand of compute time, memory, storage and I/O along with the need of their effective management. The most resource intensive modules of the algorithm are traveltime calculations and migration summation which exhibit an inherent trade off between compute time and other resources. The parallelization strategy of the algorithm largely depends on the storage of calculated traveltimes and its feeding mechanism to the migration process. The presented work is an extension of our previous work, wherein a 3D Kirchhoff depth migration application for multicore CPU based parallel system had been developed. Recently, we have worked on improving parallel performance of this application by re-designing the parallelization approach. The new algorithm is capable to efficiently migrate both prestack and poststack 3D data. It exhibits flexibility for migrating large number of traces within the available node memory and with minimal requirement of storage, I/O and inter-node communication. The resultant application is tested using 3D Overthrust data on PARAM Yuva II, which is a Xeon E5-2670 based multicore CPU cluster with 16 cores/node and 64 GB shared memory. Parallel performance of the algorithm is studied using different numerical experiments and the scalability results show striking improvement over its previous version. An impressive 49.05X speedup with 76.64% efficiency is achieved for 3D prestack data and 32.00X speedup with 50.00% efficiency for 3D poststack data, using 64 nodes. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the improved algorithm with high scalability and efficiency on a multicore CPU cluster.

  14. Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cha; Diverdi, Stephen; Höllerer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present an immaterial display that uses a generalized form of depth-fused 3D (DFD) rendering to create unencumbered 3D visuals. To accomplish this result, we demonstrate a DFD display simulator that extends the established depth-fused 3D principle by using screens in arbitrary configurations and from arbitrary viewpoints. The feasibility of the generalized DFD effect is established with a user study using the simulator. Based on these results, we developed a prototype display using one or two immaterial screens to create an unencumbered 3D visual that users can penetrate, examining the potential for direct walk-through and reach-through manipulation of the 3D scene. We evaluate the prototype system in formative and summative user studies and report the tolerance thresholds discovered for both tracking and projector errors.

  15. Pre-stack depth migration for improved imaging under seafloor canyons: 2D case study of Browse Basin, Australia*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, Helen 124Westlake, Shane

    2014-06-01

    In the Browse Basin, as in many areas of the world, complex seafloor topography can cause problems with seismic imaging. This is related to complex ray paths, and sharp lateral changes in velocity. This paper compares ways in which 2D Kirchhoff imaging can be improved below seafloor canyons, using both time and depth domain processing. In the time domain, to improve on standard pre-stack time migration (PSTM) we apply removable seafloor static time shifts in order to reduce the push down effect under seafloor canyons before migration. This allows for better event continuity in the seismic imaging. However this approach does not fully solve the problem, still giving sub-optimal imaging, leaving amplitude shadows and structural distortion. Only depth domain processing with a migration algorithm that honours the paths of the seismic energy as well as a detailed velocity model can provide improved imaging under these seafloor canyons, and give confidence in the structural components of the exploration targets in this area. We therefore performed depth velocity model building followed by pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), the result of which provided a step change improvement in the imaging, and provided new insights into the area.

  16. An efficient 3D traveltime calculation using coarse-grid mesh for shallow-depth source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Woohyun; Pyun, Sukjoon; Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-10-01

    3D Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration requires an efficient algorithm to compute first-arrival traveltimes. In this paper, we exploited a wave-equation-based traveltime calculation algorithm, which is called the suppressed wave equation estimation of traveltime (SWEET), and the equivalent source distribution (ESD) algorithm. The motivation of using the SWEET algorithm is to solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using coarse grid spacing to calculate first-arrival traveltimes. However, if a real source is located at shallow-depth close to free surface, we cannot accurately calculate the wavefield using coarse grid spacing. So, we need an additional algorithm to correctly simulate the shallow source even for the coarse grid mesh. The ESD algorithm is a method to define a set of distributed nodal sources that approximate a point source at the inter-nodal location in a velocity model with large grid spacing. Thanks to the ESD algorithm, we can efficiently calculate the first-arrival traveltimes of waves emitted from shallow source point even when we solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using a coarse-grid mesh. The proposed algorithm is applied to the SEG/EAGE 3D salt model. From the result, we note that the combination of SWEET and ESD algorithms can be successfully used for the traveltime calculation under the condition of a shallow-depth source. We also confirmed that our algorithm using coarse-grid mesh requires less computational time than the conventional SWEET algorithm using relatively fine-grid mesh.

  17. Depth propagation and surface construction in 3-D vision.

    PubMed

    Georgeson, Mark A; Yates, Tim A; Schofield, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    In stereo vision, regions with ambiguous or unspecified disparity can acquire perceived depth from unambiguous regions. This has been called stereo capture, depth interpolation or surface completion. We studied some striking induced depth effects suggesting that depth interpolation and surface completion are distinct stages of visual processing. An inducing texture (2-D Gaussian noise) had sinusoidal modulation of disparity, creating a smooth horizontal corrugation. The central region of this surface was replaced by various test patterns whose perceived corrugation was measured. When the test image was horizontal 1-D noise, shown to one eye or to both eyes without disparity, it appeared corrugated in much the same way as the disparity-modulated (DM) flanking regions. But when the test image was 2-D noise, or vertical 1-D noise, little or no depth was induced. This suggests that horizontal orientation was a key factor. For a horizontal sine-wave luminance grating, strong depth was induced, but for a square-wave grating, depth was induced only when its edges were aligned with the peaks and troughs of the DM flanking surface. These and related results suggest that disparity (or local depth) propagates along horizontal 1-D features, and then a 3-D surface is constructed from the depth samples acquired. The shape of the constructed surface can be different from the inducer, and so surface construction appears to operate on the results of a more local depth propagation process.

  18. Visual fatigue evaluation based on depth in 3D videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-jiao; Sang, Xin-zhu; Liu, Yangdong; Shi, Guo-zhong; Xu, Da-xiong

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, 3D technology has become an emerging industry. However, visual fatigue always impedes the development of 3D technology. In this paper we propose some factors affecting human perception of depth as new quality metrics. These factors are from three aspects of 3D video--spatial characteristics, temporal characteristics and scene movement characteristics. They play important roles for the viewer's visual perception. If there are many objects with a certain velocity and the scene changes fast, viewers will feel uncomfortable. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to calculate the weight values of these factors and analyses their effect on visual fatigue.MSE (Mean Square Error) of different blocks is taken into consideration from the frame and inter-frame for 3D stereoscopic videos. The depth frame is divided into a number of blocks. There are overlapped and sharing pixels (at half of the block) in the horizontal and vertical direction. Ignoring edge information of objects in the image can be avoided. Then the distribution of all these data is indicated by kurtosis with regard of regions which human eye may mainly gaze at. Weight values can be gotten by the normalized kurtosis. When the method is used for individual depth, spatial variation can be achieved. When we use it in different frames between current and previous one, we can get temporal variation and scene movement variation. Three factors above are linearly combined, so we can get objective assessment value of 3D videos directly. The coefficients of three factors can be estimated based on the liner regression. At last, the experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high correlation with subjective quality assessment results.

  19. Depth estimation from multiple coded apertures for 3D interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Sungjoo; Choi, Changkyu; Park, Dusik

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation method from multiple coded apertures for 3D interaction. A flat panel display is transformed into lens-less multi-view cameras which consist of multiple coded apertures. The sensor panel behind the display captures the scene in front of the display through the imaging pattern of the modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURA) on the display panel. To estimate the depth of an object in the scene, we first generate a stack of synthetically refocused images at various distances by using the shifting and averaging approach for the captured coded images. And then, an initial depth map is obtained by applying a focus operator to a stack of the refocused images for each pixel. Finally, the depth is refined by fitting a parametric focus model to the response curves near the initial depth estimates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we construct an imaging system to capture the scene in front of the display. The system consists of a display screen and an x-ray detector without a scintillator layer so as to act as a visible sensor panel. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method accurately determines the depth of an object including a human hand in front of the display by capturing multiple MURA coded images, generating refocused images at different depth levels, and refining the initial depth estimates.

  20. 3D Face Hallucination from a Single Depth Frame

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shu; Kemelmacher-Shlizerman, Ira; Shapiro, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm that takes a single frame of a person’s face from a depth camera, e.g., Kinect, and produces a high-resolution 3D mesh of the input face. We leverage a dataset of 3D face meshes of 1204 distinct individuals ranging from age 3 to 40, captured in a neutral expression. We divide the input depth frame into semantically significant regions (eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks) and search the database for the best matching shape per region. We further combine the input depth frame with the matched database shapes into a single mesh that results in a highresolution shape of the input person. Our system is fully automatic and uses only depth data for matching, making it invariant to imaging conditions. We evaluate our results using ground truth shapes, as well as compare to state-of-the-art shape estimation methods. We demonstrate the robustness of our local matching approach with high-quality reconstruction of faces that fall outside of the dataset span, e.g., faces older than 40 years old, facial expressions, and different ethnicities. PMID:26280021

  1. 3D hand tracking using Kalman filter in depth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangheon; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-12-01

    Hand gestures are an important type of natural language used in many research areas such as human-computer interaction and computer vision. Hand gestures recognition requires the prior determination of the hand position through detection and tracking. One of the most efficient strategies for hand tracking is to use 2D visual information such as color and shape. However, visual-sensor-based hand tracking methods are very sensitive when tracking is performed under variable light conditions. Also, as hand movements are made in 3D space, the recognition performance of hand gestures using 2D information is inherently limited. In this article, we propose a novel real-time 3D hand tracking method in depth space using a 3D depth sensor and employing Kalman filter. We detect hand candidates using motion clusters and predefined wave motion, and track hand locations using Kalman filter. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare the performance of the proposed method with the visual-based method. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method out performs visual-based method.

  2. Seismic imaging of the Waltham Canyon fault, California: comparison of ray‐theoretical and Fresnel volume prestack depth migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Klaus; Ryberg, Trond; Fuis, Gary S.; Lüth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Near‐vertical faults can be imaged using reflected refractions identified in controlled‐source seismic data. Often theses phases are observed on a few neighboring shot or receiver gathers, resulting in a low‐fold data set. Imaging can be carried out with Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in which migration noise is suppressed by constructive stacking of large amounts of multifold data. Fresnel volume migration can be used for low‐fold data without severe migration noise, as the smearing along isochrones is limited to the first Fresnel zone around the reflection point. We developed a modified Fresnel volume migration technique to enhance imaging of steep faults and to suppress noise and undesired coherent phases. The modifications include target‐oriented filters to separate reflected refractions from steep‐dipping faults and reflections with hyperbolic moveout. Undesired phases like multiple reflections, mode conversions, direct P and S waves, and surface waves are suppressed by these filters. As an alternative approach, we developed a new prestack line‐drawing migration method, which can be considered as a proxy to an infinite frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume migration. The line‐drawing migration is not considering waveform information but requires significantly shorter computational time. Target‐oriented filters were extended by dip filters in the line‐drawing migration method. The migration methods were tested with synthetic data and applied to real data from the Waltham Canyon fault, California. The two techniques are applied best in combination, to design filters and to generate complementary images of steep faults.

  3. Stereoscopic 3D display with color interlacing improves perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohwan; Johnson, Paul V; Banks, Martin S

    2014-12-29

    Temporal interlacing is a method for presenting stereoscopic 3D content whereby the two eyes' views are presented at different times and optical filtering selectively delivers the appropriate view to each eye. This approach is prone to distortions in perceived depth because the visual system can interpret the temporal delay between binocular views as spatial disparity. We propose a novel color-interlacing display protocol that reverses the order of binocular presentation for the green primary but maintains the order for the red and blue primaries: During the first sub-frame, the left eye sees the green component of the left-eye view and the right eye sees the red and blue components of the right-eye view, and vice versa during the second sub-frame. The proposed method distributes the luminance of each eye's view more evenly over time. Because disparity estimation is based primarily on luminance information, a more even distribution of luminance over time should reduce depth distortion. We conducted a psychophysical experiment to test these expectations and indeed found that less depth distortion occurs with color interlacing than temporal interlacing.

  4. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Stereopsis, Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 16...Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 1 Distribution A: Approved...disparities (up to ~20 arc min) that are fused into a single binocular percept when presented briefly, and that result in increased perceptions of depth

  5. Object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction for depth video coding in 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Jaejoon; Lim, Ilsoon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the 3D video system using the MVD (multi-view video plus depth) data format is being actively studied. The system has many advantages with respect to virtual view synthesis such as an auto-stereoscopic functionality, but compression of huge input data remains a problem. Therefore, efficient 3D data compression is extremely important in the system, and problems of low temporal consistency and viewpoint correlation should be resolved for efficient depth video coding. In this paper, we propose an object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction method to resolve the problems where object-adaptive mean-depth difference between a current block, to be coded, and a reference block are compensated during inter prediction. In addition, unique properties of depth video are exploited to reduce side information required for signaling decoder to conduct the same process. To evaluate the coding performance, we have implemented the proposed method into MVC (multiview video coding) reference software, JMVC 8.2. Experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed method is especially efficient for depth videos estimated by DERS (depth estimation reference software) discussed in the MPEG 3DV coding group. The coding gain was up to 11.69% bit-saving, and it was even increased when we evaluated it on synthesized views of virtual viewpoints.

  6. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  7. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images.

  8. Retrospective sputter depth profiling using 3D mass spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leiliang; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    A molecular multilayer stack composed of alternating Langmuir-Blodgett films was analyzed by ToF-SIMS imaging in combination with intermediate sputter erosion using a focused C60(+) cluster ion beam. From the resulting dataset, depth profiles of any desired lateral portion of the analyzed field-of-view can be extracted in retrospect, allowing the influence of the gating area on the apparent depth resolution to be assessed. In a similar way, the observed degradation of depth resolution with increasing depth of the analyzed interface can be analyzed in order to determine the 'intrinsic' depth resolution of the method.

  9. Automated Mosaicking of Multiple 3d Point Clouds Generated from a Depth Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Yoon, W.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for automated mosaicking of multiple 3D point clouds generated from a depth camera. A depth camera generates depth data by using ToF (Time of Flight) method and intensity data by using intensity of returned signal. The depth camera used in this paper was a SR4000 from MESA Imaging. This camera generates a depth map and intensity map of 176 x 44 pixels. Generated depth map saves physical depth data with mm of precision. Generated intensity map contains texture data with many noises. We used texture maps for extracting tiepoints and depth maps for assigning z coordinates to tiepoints and point cloud mosaicking. There are four steps in the proposed mosaicking method. In the first step, we acquired multiple 3D point clouds by rotating depth camera and capturing data per rotation. In the second step, we estimated 3D-3D transformation relationships between subsequent point clouds. For this, 2D tiepoints were extracted automatically from the corresponding two intensity maps. They were converted into 3D tiepoints using depth maps. We used a 3D similarity transformation model for estimating the 3D-3D transformation relationships. In the third step, we converted local 3D-3D transformations into a global transformation for all point clouds with respect to a reference one. In the last step, the extent of single depth map mosaic was calculated and depth values per mosaic pixel were determined by a ray tracing method. For experiments, 8 depth maps and intensity maps were used. After the four steps, an output mosaicked depth map of 454x144 was generated. It is expected that the proposed method would be useful for developing an effective 3D indoor mapping method in future.

  10. Introducing the depth transfer curve for 3D capture system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goma, Sergio R.; Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas

    2011-03-01

    3D technology has recently made a transition from movie theaters to consumer electronic devices such as 3D cameras and camcorders. In addition to what 2D imaging conveys, 3D content also contains information regarding the scene depth. Scene depth is simulated through the strongest brain depth cue, namely retinal disparity. This can be achieved by capturing an image by horizontally separated cameras. Objects at different depths will be projected with different horizontal displacement on the left and right camera images. These images, when fed separately to either eye, leads to retinal disparity. Since the perception of depth is the single most important 3D imaging capability, an evaluation procedure is needed to quantify the depth capture characteristics. Evaluating depth capture characteristics subjectively is a very difficult task since the intended and/or unintended side effects from 3D image fusion (depth interpretation) by the brain are not immediately perceived by the observer, nor do such effects lend themselves easily to objective quantification. Objective evaluation of 3D camera depth characteristics is an important tool that can be used for "black box" characterization of 3D cameras. In this paper we propose a methodology to evaluate the 3D cameras' depth capture capabilities.

  11. Subpixel Resolution In Depth Perceived Via 3-D Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika; Fender, Derek H.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiment in which two black vertical bars on featureless white background placed near intersection of optical axes of two charge-coupled-device video cameras positioned to give stereoscopic views. Trained human observers found to perceive depths at subpixel resolutions in stereoscopic television images. This finding significant for remote stereoscopic monitoring, expecially during precise maneuvers of remotely controlled manipulators. Also significant for research in processing of visual information by human brain.

  12. Increasing the depth of field in Multiview 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Yano, Sumio; Jung, Ilkwon

    2016-06-01

    A super-multiview condition simulator which can project up to four different view images to each eye is introduced. This simulator with the image having both disparity and perspective informs that the depth of field (DOF) will be extended to more than the default DOF values as the number of simultaneously but separately projected different view images to each eye increase. The DOF range can be extended to near 2 diopters with the four simultaneous view images. However, the DOF value increments are not prominent as the image with both disparity and perspective with the image with disparity only.

  13. Lamina 3D display: projection-type depth-fused display using polarization-encoded depth information.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-gi; Yoon, Sangcheol; Yeom, Jiwoon; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-10-20

    In order to realize three-dimensional (3D) displays, various multiplexing methods have been proposed to add the depth dimension to two-dimensional scenes. However, most of these methods have faced challenges such as the degradation of viewing qualities, the requirement of complicated equipment, and large amounts of data. In this paper, we further developed our previous concept, polarization distributed depth map, to propose the Lamina 3D display as a method for encoding and reconstructing depth information using the polarization status. By adopting projection optics to the depth encoding system, reconstructed 3D images can be scaled like images of 2D projection displays. 3D reconstruction characteristics of the polarization-encoded images are analyzed with simulation and experiment. The experimental system is also demonstrated to show feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  15. Depth enhancement of S3D content and the psychological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Masahiro; Shiraishi, Saki; Kawai, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) imaging technologies are widely used recently to create content for movies, TV programs, games, etc. Although S3D content differs from 2D content by the use of binocular parallax to induce depth sensation, the relationship between depth control and the user experience remains unclear. In this study, the user experience was subjectively and objectively evaluated in order to determine the effectiveness of depth control, such as an expansion or reduction or a forward or backward shift in the range of maximum parallactic angles in the cross and uncross directions (depth bracket). Four types of S3D content were used in the subjective and objective evaluations. The depth brackets of comparison stimuli were modified in order to enhance the depth sensation corresponding to the content. Interpretation Based Quality (IBQ) methodology was used for the subjective evaluation and the heart rate was measured to evaluate the physiological effect. The results of the evaluations suggest the following two points. (1) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket affects preference and enhances positive emotions to the S3D content. (2) Expansion/reduction of the depth bracket produces above-mentioned effects more notable than shifting the cross/uncross directions.

  16. Edge-based intramode selection for depth-map coding in 3D-HEVC.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    The 3D video extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) is the state-of-the-art video coding standard for the compression of the multiview video plus depth format. In the 3D-HEVC design, new depth-modeling modes (DMMs) are utilized together with the existing intraprediction modes for depth intracoding. The DMMs can provide more accurate prediction signals and thereby achieve better compression efficiency. However, testing the DMMs in the intramode decision process causes a drastic increase in the computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a fast mode decision algorithm for depth intracoding. The proposed algorithm first performs a simple edge classification in the Hadamard transform domain. Then, based on the edge classification results, the proposed algorithm selectively omits unnecessary DMMs in the mode decision process. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm speeds up the mode decision process by up to 37.65% with negligible loss of coding efficiency.

  17. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  18. Can the perception of depth in stereoscopic images be influenced by 3D sound?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Amy; Berry, Jonathan; Holliman, Nick

    2011-03-01

    The creation of binocular images for stereoscopic display has benefited from significant research and commercial development in recent years. However, perhaps surprisingly, the effect of adding 3D sound to stereoscopic images has rarely been studied. If auditory depth information can enhance or extend the visual depth experience it could become an important way to extend the limited depth budget on all 3D displays and reduce the potential for fatigue from excessive use of disparity. Objective: As there is limited research in this area our objective was to ask two preliminary questions. First what is the smallest difference in forward depth that can be reliably detected using 3D sound alone? Second does the addition of auditory depth information influence the visual perception of depth in a stereoscopic image? Method: To investigate auditory depth cues we use a simple sound system to test the experimental hypothesis that: participants will perform better than chance at judging the depth differences between two speakers a set distance apart. In our second experiment investigating both auditory and visual depth cues we setup a sound system and a stereoscopic display to test the experimental hypothesis that: participants judge a visual stimulus to be closer if they hear a closer sound when viewing the stimulus. Results: In the auditory depth cue trial every depth difference tested gave significant results demonstrating that the human ear can hear depth differences between physical sources as short as 0.25 m at 1 m. In our trial investigating whether audio information can influence the visual perception of depth we found that participants did report visually perceiving an object to be closer when the sound was played closer to them even though the image depth remained unchanged. Conclusion: The positive results in the two trials show that we can hear small differences in forward depth between sound sources and suggest that it could be practical to extend the apparent

  19. Integration of 3D structure from disparity into biological motion perception independent of depth awareness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into visual perception depends on the conscious representation of stereoscopic depth. Here we report evidence that, even without inducing discernible perceptual representations, the disparity-defined depth information could still modulate the visual processing of 3D objects in depth-irrelevant aspects. Specifically, observers who could not discriminate disparity-defined in-depth facing orientations of biological motions (i.e., approaching vs. receding) due to an excessive perceptual bias nevertheless exhibited a robust perceptual asymmetry in response to the indistinguishable facing orientations, similar to those who could consciously discriminate such 3D information. These results clearly demonstrate that the visual processing of biological motion engages the disparity cues independent of observers' depth awareness. The extraction and utilization of binocular depth signals thus can be dissociable from the conscious representation of 3D structure in high-level visual perception.

  20. Electrophysiological evidence of separate pathways for the perception of depth and 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have investigated the neural mechanism of 3D perception, but the neural distinction between 3D-objects and depth processing remains unclear. In the present study, participants viewed three types of graphics (planar graphics, perspective drawings, and 3D objects) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. The ERP results revealed the following: (1) 3D objects elicited a larger and delayed N1 component than the other two types of stimuli; (2) during the P2 time window, significant differences between 3D objects and the perspective drawings were found mainly over a group of electrode sites in the left lateral occipital region; and (3) during the N2 complex, differences between planar graphics and perspective drawings were found over a group of electrode sites in the right hemisphere, whereas differences between perspective drawings and 3D objects were observed at another group of electrode sites in the left hemisphere. These findings support the claim that depth processing and object identification might be processed by separate pathways and at different latencies.

  1. 3D planar representation of stereo depth images for 3DTV applications.

    PubMed

    Özkalaycı, Burak O; Alatan, A Aydın

    2014-12-01

    The depth modality of the multiview video plus depth (MVD) format is an active research area, whose main objective is to develop depth image based rendering friendly efficient compression methods. As a part of this research, a novel 3D planar-based depth representation is proposed. The planar approximation of multiple depth images are formulated as an energy-based co-segmentation problem by a Markov random field model. The energy terms of this problem are designed to mimic the rate-distortion tradeoff for a depth compression application. A novel algorithm is developed for practical utilization of the proposed planar approximations in stereo depth compression. The co-segmented regions are also represented as layered planar structures forming a novel single-reference MVD format. The ability of the proposed layered planar MVD representation in decoupling the texture and geometric distortions make it a promising approach. Proposed 3D planar depth compression approaches are compared against the state-of-the-art image/video coding standards by objective and visual evaluation and yielded competitive performance.

  2. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  3. Subjective evaluation of mobile 3D video content: depth range versus compression artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Haustola, Tomi; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas

    2011-02-01

    Mobile 3D television is a new form of media experience, which combines the freedom of mobility with the greater realism of presenting visual scenes in 3D. Achieving this combination is a challenging task as greater viewing experience has to be achieved with the limited resources of the mobile delivery channel such as limited bandwidth and power constrained handheld player. This challenge sets need for tight optimization of the overall mobile 3DTV system. Presence of depth and compression artifacts in the played 3D video are two major factors that influence viewer's subjective quality of experience and satisfaction. The primary goal of this study has been to examine the influence of varying depth and compression artifacts on the subjective quality of experience for mobile 3D video content. In addition, the influence of the studied variables on simulator sickness symptoms has been studied and vocabulary-based descriptive quality of experience has been conducted for a sub-set of variables in order to understand the perceptual characteristics in detail. In the experiment, 30 participants have evaluated the overall quality of different 3D video contents with varying depth ranges and compressed with varying quantization parameters. The test video content has been presented on a portable autostereoscopic LCD display with horizontal double density pixel arrangement. The results of the psychometric study indicate that compression artifacts are a dominant factor determining the quality of experience compared to varying depth range. More specifically, contents with strong compression has been rejected by the viewers and deemed unacceptable. The results of descriptive study confirm the dominance of visible spatial artifacts along the added value of depth for artifact-free content. The level of visual discomfort has been determined as not offending.

  4. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  5. Depth cues in human visual perception and their realization in 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelt, Stephan; Häussler, Ralf; Fütterer, Gerald; Leister, Norbert

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, various technologies for visualizing three-dimensional (3D) scenes on displays have been technologically demonstrated and refined, among them such of stereoscopic, multi-view, integral imaging, volumetric, or holographic type. Most of the current approaches utilize the conventional stereoscopic principle. But they all lack of their inherent conflict between vergence and accommodation since scene depth cannot be physically realized but only feigned by displaying two views of different perspective on a flat screen and delivering them to the corresponding left and right eye. This mismatch requires the viewer to override the physiologically coupled oculomotor processes of vergence and eye focus that may cause visual discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the depth cues in the human visual perception for both image quality and visual comfort of direct-view 3D displays. We concentrate our analysis especially on near-range depth cues, compare visual performance and depth-range capabilities of stereoscopic and holographic displays, and evaluate potential depth limitations of 3D displays from a physiological point of view.

  6. Depth-color fusion strategy for 3-D scene modeling with Kinect.

    PubMed

    Camplani, Massimo; Mantecon, Tomas; Salgado, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Low-cost depth cameras, such as Microsoft Kinect, have completely changed the world of human-computer interaction through controller-free gaming applications. Depth data provided by the Kinect sensor presents several noise-related problems that have to be tackled to improve the accuracy of the depth data, thus obtaining more reliable game control platforms and broadening its applicability. In this paper, we present a depth-color fusion strategy for 3-D modeling of indoor scenes with Kinect. Accurate depth and color models of the background elements are iteratively built, and used to detect moving objects in the scene. Kinect depth data is processed with an innovative adaptive joint-bilateral filter that efficiently combines depth and color by analyzing an edge-uncertainty map and the detected foreground regions. Results show that the proposed approach efficiently tackles main Kinect data problems: distance-dependent depth maps, spatial noise, and temporal random fluctuations are dramatically reduced; objects depth boundaries are refined, and nonmeasured depth pixels are interpolated. Moreover, a robust depth and color background model and accurate moving objects silhouette are generated.

  7. Depth cues versus the simplicity principle in 3D shape perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-10-01

    Two experiments were performed to explore the mechanisms of human 3D shape perception. In Experiment 1, the subjects' performance in a shape constancy task in the presence of several cues (edges, binocular disparity, shading and texture) was tested. The results show that edges and binocular disparity, but not shading or texture, are important in 3D shape perception. Experiment 2 tested the effect of several simplicity constraints, such as symmetry and planarity on subjects' performance in a shape constancy task. The 3D shapes were represented by edges or vertices only. The results show that performance with or without binocular disparity is at chance level, unless the 3D shape is symmetric and/or its faces are planar. In both experiments, there was a correlation between the subjects' performance with and without binocular disparity. Our study suggests that simplicity constraints, not depth cues, play the primary role in both monocular and binocular 3D shape perception. These results are consistent with our computational model of 3D shape recovery.

  8. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure a Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Wright, Steve T.; Watamaniuk, Scott N. J.; Heft, Eric L.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of manipulating disparity on task performance and viewing comfort, twelve participants were tested on a virtual object precision placement task while viewing a stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, passed the Titmus stereovision clinical test, and demonstrated normal binocular function, including phorias and binocular fusion ranges. Each participant completed six experimental sessions with different maximum binocular disparity limits. The results for ten of the twelve participants were generally as expected, demonstrating a large performance advantage when S3D cues were provided. The sessions with the larger disparity limits typically resulted in the best performance, and the sessions with no S3D cues the poorest performance. However, one participant demonstrated poorer performance in sessions with smaller disparity limits but improved performance in sessions with the larger disparity limits. Another participant's performance declined whenever any S3D cues were provided. Follow-up testing suggested that the phenomenon of pseudo-stereoanomaly may account for one viewer's atypical performance, while the phenomenon of stereoanomaly might account for the other. Overall, the results demonstrate that a subset of viewers with clinically normal binocular and stereoscopic vision may have difficulty performing depth-related tasks on S3D displays. The possibility of the vergence-accommodation conflict contributing to individual performance differences is also discussed.

  9. A range/depth modulation transfer function (RMTF) framework for characterizing 3D imaging LADAR performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staple, Bevan; Earhart, R. P.; Slaymaker, Philip A.; Drouillard, Thomas F., II; Mahony, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    3D imaging LADARs have emerged as the key technology for producing high-resolution imagery of targets in 3-dimensions (X and Y spatial, and Z in the range/depth dimension). Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. continues to make significant investments in this technology to enable critical NASA, Department of Defense, and national security missions. As a consequence of rapid technology developments, two issues have emerged that need resolution. First, the terminology used to rate LADAR performance (e.g., range resolution) is inconsistently defined, is improperly used, and thus has become misleading. Second, the terminology does not include a metric of the system"s ability to resolve the 3D depth features of targets. These two issues create confusion when translating customer requirements into hardware. This paper presents a candidate framework for addressing these issues. To address the consistency issue, the framework utilizes only those terminologies proposed and tested by leading LADAR research and standards institutions. We also provide suggestions for strengthening these definitions by linking them to the well-known Rayleigh criterion extended into the range dimension. To address the inadequate 3D image quality metrics, the framework introduces the concept of a Range/Depth Modulation Transfer Function (RMTF). The RMTF measures the impact of the spatial frequencies of a 3D target on its measured modulation in range/depth. It is determined using a new, Range-Based, Slanted Knife-Edge test. We present simulated results for two LADAR pulse detection techniques and compare them to a baseline centroid technique. Consistency in terminology plus a 3D image quality metric enable improved system standardization.

  10. Depth representation of moving 3-D objects in apparent-motion path.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Kawachi, Yousuke; Gyoba, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    Apparent motion is perceived when two objects are presented alternately at different positions. The internal representations of apparently moving objects are formed in an apparent-motion path which lacks physical inputs. We investigated the depth information contained in the representation of 3-D moving objects in an apparent-motion path. We examined how probe objects-briefly placed in the motion path-affected the perceived smoothness of apparent motion. The probe objects comprised 3-D objects which were defined by being shaded or by disparity (convex/concave) or 2-D (flat) objects, while the moving objects were convex/concave objects. We found that flat probe objects induced a significantly smoother motion perception than concave probe objects only in the case of the convex moving objects. However, convex probe objects did not lead to smoother motion as the flat objects did, although the convex probe objects contained the same depth information for the moving objects. Moreover, the difference between probe objects was reduced when the moving objects were concave. These counterintuitive results were consistent in conditions when both depth cues were used. The results suggest that internal representations contain incomplete depth information that is intermediate between that of 2-D and 3-D objects.

  11. Depth-based coding of MVD data for 3D video extension of H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanovskyy, Dmytro; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Su, Wenyi

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel approach of using depth information for advanced coding of associated video data in Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD)-based 3D video systems. As a possible implementation of this conception, we describe two coding tools that have been developed for H.264/AVC based 3D Video Codec as response to Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) Call for Proposals (CfP). These tools are Depth-based Motion Vector Prediction (DMVP) and Backward View Synthesis Prediction (BVSP). Simulation results conducted under JCT-3V/MPEG 3DV Common Test Conditions show, that proposed in this paper tools reduce bit rate of coded video data by 15% of average delta bit rate reduction, which results in 13% of bit rate savings on total for the MVD data over the state-of-the-art MVC+D coding. Moreover, presented in this paper conception of depth-based coding of video has been further developed by MPEG 3DV and JCT-3V and this work resulted in even higher compression efficiency, bringing about 20% of delta bit rate reduction on total for coded MVD data over the reference MVC+D coding. Considering significant gains, proposed in this paper coding approach can be beneficial for development of new 3D video coding standards. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Depth map coding using residual segmentation for 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2013-06-01

    Advanced 3D video systems employ multi-view video-plus-depth data to support the free-viewpoint navigation and comfortable 3D viewing; thus efficient depth map coding becomes an important issue. Unlike the color image, the depth map has a property that depth values of the inner part of an object are monotonic, but those of object boundaries change abruptly. Therefore, residual data generated by prediction errors around object boundaries consume many bits in depth map coding. Representing them with segment data can be better than the use of the conventional transformation around the boundary regions. In this paper, we propose an efficient depth map coding method using a residual segmentation instead of using transformation. The proposed residual segmentation divides residual data into two regions with a segment map and two mean values. If the encoder selects the proposed method in terms of rates, two quantized mean values and an index of the segment map are transmitted. Simulation results show significant gains of up to 10 dB compared to the state-of-the-art coders, such as JPEG2000 and H.264/AVC. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  14. A Novel 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Method Using Time-Coherent Depth Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shouyi; Dong, Hao; Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion method for 3D entertainment applications. 3D entertainment is getting more and more popular and can be found in many contexts, such as TV and home gaming equipment. 3D image sensors are a new method to produce stereoscopic video content conveniently and at a low cost, and can thus meet the urgent demand for 3D videos in the 3D entertaiment market. Generally, 2D image sensor and 2D-to-3D conversion chip can compose a 3D image sensor. Our study presents a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion algorithm which can be adopted in a 3D image sensor. In our algorithm, a depth map is generated by combining global depth gradient and local depth refinement for each frame of 2D video input. Global depth gradient is computed according to image type while local depth refinement is related to color information. As input 2D video content consists of a number of video shots, the proposed algorithm reuses the global depth gradient of frames within the same video shot to generate time-coherent depth maps. The experimental results prove that this novel method can adapt to different image types, reduce computational complexity and improve the temporal smoothness of generated 3D video. PMID:26131674

  15. Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jonghan; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Lee, Sunghun

    2012-02-27

    We have proposed and demonstrated a novel method to measure depths of through silicon vias (TSVs) at high speed. TSVs are fine and deep holes fabricated in silicon wafers for 3D semiconductors; they are used for electrical connections between vertically stacked wafers. Because the high-aspect ratio hole of the TSV makes it difficult for light to reach the bottom surface, conventional optical methods using visible lights cannot determine the depth value. By adopting an optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser in the infra-red range as a light source, the depths of TSVs having aspect ratio of about 7 were measured. This measurement was done at high speed based on spectral resolved interferometry. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for depth inspection of TSVs.

  16. Structured light 3D depth map enhancement and gesture recognition using image content adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Atanassov, Kalin; Goma, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    A structured-light system for depth estimation is a type of 3D active sensor that consists of a structured-light projector that projects an illumination pattern on the scene (e.g. mask with vertical stripes) and a camera which captures the illuminated scene. Based on the received patterns, depths of different regions in the scene can be inferred. In this paper, we use side information in the form of image structure to enhance the depth map. This side information is obtained from the received light pattern image reflected by the scene itself. The processing steps run real time. This post-processing stage in the form of depth map enhancement can be used for better hand gesture recognition, as is illustrated in this paper.

  17. ROI-preserving 3D video compression method utilizing depth information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ti, Chunli; Xu, Guodong; Guan, Yudong; Teng, Yidan

    2015-09-01

    Efficiently transmitting the extra information of three dimensional (3D) video is becoming a key issue of the development of 3DTV. 2D plus depth format not only occupies the smaller bandwidth and is compatible transmission under the condition of the existing channel, but also can provide technique support for advanced 3D video compression in some extend. This paper proposes an ROI-preserving compression scheme to further improve the visual quality at a limited bit rate. According to the connection between the focus of Human Visual System (HVS) and depth information, region of interest (ROI) can be automatically selected via depth map progressing. The main improvement from common method is that a meanshift based segmentation is executed to the depth map before foreground ROI selection to keep the integrity of scene. Besides, the sensitive areas along the edges are also protected. The Spatio-temporal filtering adapting to H.264 is used to the non-ROI of both 2D video and depth map before compression. Experiments indicate that, the ROI extracted by this method is more undamaged and according with subjective feeling, and the proposed method can keep the key high-frequency information more effectively while the bit rate is reduced.

  18. Depth-based representations: Which coding format for 3D video broadcast applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbiriou, Paul; Boisson, Guillaume; Sidibé, Korian; Huynh-Thu, Quan

    2011-03-01

    3D Video (3DV) delivery standardization is currently ongoing in MPEG. Now time is to choose 3DV data representation format. What is at stake is the final quality for end-users, i.e. synthesized views' visual quality. We focus on two major rival depth-based formats, namely Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD) and Layered Depth Video (LDV). MVD can be considered as the basic depth-based 3DV format, generated by disparity estimation from multiview sequences. LDV is more sophisticated, with the compaction of multiview data into color- and depth-occlusions layers. We compare final views quality using MVD2 and LDV (both containing two color channels plus two depth components) coded with MVC at various compression ratios. Depending on the format, the appropriate synthesis process is performed to generate final stereoscopic pairs. Comparisons are provided in terms of SSIM and PSNR with respect to original views and to synthesized references (obtained without compression). Eventually, LDV outperforms significantly MVD when using state-of-the-art reference synthesis algorithms. Occlusions management before encoding is advantageous in comparison with handling redundant signals at decoder side. Besides, we observe that depth quantization does not induce much loss on the final view quality until a significant degradation level. Improvements in disparity estimation and view synthesis algorithms are therefore still expected during the remaining standardization steps.

  19. Augmented depth perception visualization in 2D/3D image fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Kreiser, Matthias; Wang, Lejing; Navab, Nassir; Fallavollita, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    2D/3D image fusion applications are widely used in endovascular interventions. Complaints from interventionists about existing state-of-art visualization software are usually related to the strong compromise between 2D and 3D visibility or the lack of depth perception. In this paper, we investigate several concepts enabling improvement of current image fusion visualization found in the operating room. First, a contour enhanced visualization is used to circumvent hidden information in the X-ray image. Second, an occlusion and depth color-coding scheme is considered to improve depth perception. To validate our visualization technique both phantom and clinical data are considered. An evaluation is performed in the form of a questionnaire which included 24 participants: ten clinicians and fourteen non-clinicians. Results indicate that the occlusion correction method provides 100% correctness when determining the true position of an aneurysm in X-ray. Further, when integrating an RGB or RB color-depth encoding in the image fusion both perception and intuitiveness are improved.

  20. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  1. Combining depth and gray images for fast 3D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wang; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Yingming

    2016-10-01

    Reliable and stable visual perception systems are needed for humanoid robotic assistants to perform complex grasping and manipulation tasks. The recognition of the object and its precise 6D pose are required. This paper addresses the challenge of detecting and positioning a textureless known object, by estimating its complete 6D pose in cluttered scenes. A 3D perception system is proposed in this paper, which can robustly recognize CAD models in cluttered scenes for the purpose of grasping with a mobile manipulator. Our approach uses a powerful combination of two different camera technologies, Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGB, to segment the scene and extract objects. Combining the depth image and gray image to recognize instances of a 3D object in the world and estimate their 3D poses. The full pose estimation process is based on depth images segmentation and an efficient shape-based matching. At first, the depth image is used to separate the supporting plane of objects from the cluttered background. Thus, cluttered backgrounds are circumvented and the search space is extremely reduced. And a hierarchical model based on the geometry information of a priori CAD model of the object is generated in the offline stage. Then using the hierarchical model we perform a shape-based matching in 2D gray images. Finally, we validate the proposed method in a number of experiments. The results show that utilizing depth and gray images together can reach the demand of a time-critical application and reduce the error rate of object recognition significantly.

  2. Autostereoscopic 3D Display with Long Visualization Depth Using Referential Viewing Area-Based Integral Photography.

    PubMed

    Hongen Liao; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Nomura, Keisuke

    2011-11-01

    We developed an autostereoscopic display for distant viewing of 3D computer graphics (CG) images without using special viewing glasses or tracking devices. The images are created by employing referential viewing area-based CG image generation and pixel distribution algorithm for integral photography (IP) and integral videography (IV) imaging. CG image rendering is used to generate IP/IV elemental images. The images can be viewed from each viewpoint within a referential viewing area and the elemental images are reconstructed from rendered CG images by pixel redistribution and compensation method. The elemental images are projected onto a screen that is placed at the same referential viewing distance from the lens array as in the image rendering. Photographic film is used to record the elemental images through each lens. The method enables 3D images with a long visualization depth to be viewed from relatively long distances without any apparent influence from deviated or distorted lenses in the array. We succeeded in creating an actual autostereoscopic images with an image depth of several meters in front of and behind the display that appear to have 3D even when viewed from a distance.

  3. 3D Sorghum Reconstructions from Depth Images Identify QTL Regulating Shoot Architecture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height, leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits. PMID:27528244

  4. Full-field 3D shape measurement of specular surfaces by direct phase to depth relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Liu, Yue; Huang, Shujun; Niu, Zhenqi; Guo, Jiao; Gao, Nan; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) method to measure specular object having discontinuous surfaces. A mathematical model is established to directly relate absolute phase and depth, instead of phase and gradient. Based on the model, a hardware measuring system has been set up, which consists of a beam splitter to change the optical path, and two LCD screens to display the same sinusoidal fringe patterns. By using model-based and machine vision method, system calibration is accomplished to provide the required parameters and conditions. The verification tests are given to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed system. The 3D shape of an artificial step having multiple specular surfaces and a concave mirror has been measured. Initial experimental results show that the proposed measurement method can obtain 3D shape of specular objects with discontinuous surface effectively.

  5. Joint pre-stack depth migration and travel-time tomography applied to a deep seismic profile across the northern Barents Sea igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sakulina, Tamara; Krupnova, Natalia; Dergunov, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    The mainly Permo-Triassic North Barents Sea Basin is considered as a superdeep intracratonic basin containing over 20 km of sedimentary material. This basin was strongly affected by magmatism attributed to the formation of the Early Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Dolerite dikes, sills, and lava flows are observed in the northern Barents Sea and on the islands of Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Some dike swarms can be traced over hundreds of kilometers using high-resolution airborne magnetic data. In the North Barents Sea Basin, the dikes fed giant sill complex emplaced into organic-rich Triassic siliciclastic rocks. The sill complex creates a major challenge for seismic imaging masking the underlying strata. In this contribution, we first perform refraction and reflection travel-time tomography using wide-angle ocean-bottom seismometer data (with receivers deployed every 10 km) along the 4-AR profile (Sakulina et al. 2007, Ivanova et al. 2011). The resulting tomographic model is then used to construct a background velocity model for the pre-stack depth migration. We show that the use of a combined velocity model for the time and depth imaging based on travel-time tomography and RMS velocities constitutes a substantial improvement with respect to a standard processing workflow providing a more coherent seismic structure of this volcanic province. The interpretation of multichannel seismic and high-resolution magnetic data together with P-wave velocity and density anomalies allow to create a model for the system of magmatic feeders in the crystalline basement of the northern Barents Sea region. Sakulina, T.S., Verba, M.L., Ivanova, N.M., Krupnova, N.A., Belyaev I.V., 2007. Deep structure of the north Barents-Kara Region along 4AR transect (Taimyr Peninsula - Franz Joseph Land). In: Models of the Earth's crust and upper mantle after deep seismic profiling. Proceedings of the international scientific-practical seminar. Rosnedra, VSEGEI. St

  6. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  7. Using 2D and 3D Modeling to Infer the Depth of the Okavango Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, M. K.; Mortimer, D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The 179 Ma N110°-striking Okavango Dyke swarm (ODS) extends from southern Zimbabwe for approximately 1500 km northwest into Namibia. The emplacement of dyke swarms is typically associated with the initiation of continental breakup and has been suggested that ODS was emplaced during the breakup of Gondwana along an existing zone of weakness. However, the understanding of how these giant dyke swarms are emplaced over large distances for hundreds of kilometers is limited- do these giant dike swarms propagate from a single source for hundreds of kilometers or do they propagate from sub-crustal magma chambers along a zone of weakness? To address these questions we investigated the ODS in northern Botswana. The dyke swarm is exposed at the surface in the east close to its origin but is buried in the northwest within the Okavango Rift Zone. Using airborne magnetic and ground gravity survey data along with rock property data from the exposed sections, 2D and 3D models were created in order to determine the depth of the dyke swarm. Initially several 2D models were used to test hypothesis of varying depths and rock parameters. The 2D models were then used to ‘seed’ the 3D models with similar density, susceptibility, and depth parameters. The dykes appear to have relatively shallow and finite depths, in the range of 2 to 5 km deep. These results are consistent with a lateral emplacement stemming from the failed triple junction and thus ruling out an infinite depth extent which would have been the case if the dykes were propagated vertically from sub-crustal magma chambers.

  8. Rifting-to-drifting transition of the South China Sea: early Cenozoic syn-rifting deposition imaged with prestack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T.; Li, C.; Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    One of the major unsolved questions of the opening of the South China Sea (SCS) is its opening sequences and episodes. It has been suggested, for example, that the opening of the East and Northwest Sub-basins predated, or at least synchronized with, that of the Southwest Sub-basin, a model contrasting with some others in which an earlier opening in the Southwest Sub-basin is preferred. Difficulties in understanding the perplexing relationships between different sub-basins are often compounded by contradicting evidences leading to different interpretations. Here we carry out pre-stack depth migration of a recently acquired multichannel reflection seismic profile from the Southwest Sub-basin of the SCS in order to reveal complicated subsurface structures and strong lateral velocity variations associated with a thick syn-rifting sequence on the southern margin of the Southwest Sub-basin. Combined with gravimetric and magnetic inversion and modeling, this depth section helps us understand the complicated transitional processes from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. This syn-rifting sequence is found to be extremely thick, over 2 seconds in two-way travel time, and is located directly within the continent-ocean transition zone. It is bounded landwards by a seaward dipping fault, and tapers out seaward. The top of this sequence is an erosional truncation, representing mainly the Oligocene-Miocene unconformity landward but slightly an older unconformity on the seaward side. Stronger erosions of this sequence are found toward the ocean basin. The sequence itself is severely faulted by a group of seaward dipping faults developed mainly within the sequence. The overall deformation style suggests a successive episode of rifting, faulting, compression, tilting, and erosion, prior to seafloor spreading. Integrating information from gravity anomalies and seismic velocities, we interpret that this sequence represents a syn-rifting sequence developed during a long period

  9. Fusion of 3D laser scanner and depth images for obstacle recognition in mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzan, Sebastian; Kasprzyk, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The problem of obstacle detection and recognition or, generally, scene mapping is one of the most investigated problems in computer vision, especially in mobile applications. In this paper a fused optical system using depth information with color images gathered from the Microsoft Kinect sensor and 3D laser range scanner data is proposed for obstacle detection and ground estimation in real-time mobile systems. The algorithm consists of feature extraction in the laser range images, processing of the depth information from the Kinect sensor, fusion of the sensor information, and classification of the data into two separate categories: road and obstacle. Exemplary results are presented and it is shown that fusion of information gathered from different sources increases the effectiveness of the obstacle detection in different scenarios, and it can be used successfully for road surface mapping.

  10. Depth quantificaton for inhomogeneities within semisolid materials using 3D pulsed digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; Rodríguez Vera, Ramón

    2006-06-01

    A 3D experimental arrangement for pulsed digital holography is used to measure the depth position for both a glass sphere and tumor tissue, immersed in a semi-solid gel model. A master gel, one without inhomogeneities, is set to resonate via sound waves generated with a conventional speaker placed a few centimeters away from the gel container. Later an identical prepared gel with an inhomogeneity is placed in the original set up and interrogated at the same resonant frequency. On comparison and using only an out of plane sensitive set up it is possible to measure the displacement of the gel surface, indicating the presence of an internal inhomogeneity. However the depth position cannot be measured accurately since the out of plane component has also the contribution of the in-plane surface displacements. With the information gathered from the 3D pulsed digital holography set up it is possible to obtain three sensitivity vectors that serve to independently separate the contributions from each of the three x, y and z components of the vibration displacement, for the same exciting mechanical wave. It is then possible to build individual maps of displacement along the three rectangular axes and thus measure accurately the depth position of the inhomogeneity. Results from the optical data were correlated to the measured position for different inhomogeneity types, sizes and depths and on comparison an error in the position of less than 1% was found. This optical non invasive method is able to accurately find the inhomogeneity and its position within the gel making it a promising method for the study of mammal tumors, representing and alternative to the traditional invasive methods.

  11. Volumetric 3D display with multi-layered active screens for enhanced the depth perception (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Rin; Park, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Ji-Sub; Min, Sung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display technology has been studied actively because it can offer more realistic images compared to the conventional 2D display. Various psychological factors such as accommodation, binocular parallax, convergence and motion parallax are used to recognize a 3D image. For glass-type 3D displays, they use only the binocular disparity in 3D depth cues. However, this method cause visual fatigue and headaches due to accommodation conflict and distorted depth perception. Thus, the hologram and volumetric display are expected to be an ideal 3D display. Holographic displays can represent realistic images satisfying the entire factors of depth perception. But, it require tremendous amount of data and fast signal processing. The volumetric 3D displays can represent images using voxel which is a physical volume. However, it is required for large data to represent the depth information on voxel. In order to simply encode 3D information, the compact type of depth fused 3D (DFD) display, which can create polarization distributed depth map (PDDM) image having both 2D color image and depth image is introduced. In this paper, a new volumetric 3D display system is shown by using PDDM image controlled by polarization controller. In order to introduce PDDM image, polarization states of the light through spatial light modulator (SLM) was analyzed by Stokes parameter depending on the gray level. Based on the analysis, polarization controller is properly designed to convert PDDM image into sectioned depth images. After synchronizing PDDM images with active screens, we can realize reconstructed 3D image. Acknowledgment This work was supported by `The Cross-Ministry Giga KOREA Project' grant from the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea

  12. Understanding the effects of dielectric medium, substrate, and depth on electric fields and SERS of quasi-3D plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajie; Kvasnička, Pavel; Idso, Matthew; Jordan, Roger W; Gong, Heng; Homola, Jiří; Yu, Qiuming

    2011-10-10

    The local electric field distribution and the effect of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were investigated on the quasi-3D (Q3D) plasmonic nanostructures formed by gold nanohole and nanodisc array layers physically separated by a dielectric medium. The local electric fields at the top gold nanoholes and bottom gold nanodiscs as a function of the dielectric medium, substrate, and depth of Q3D plasmonic nanostructures upon the irradiation of a 785 nm laser were calculated using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. The intensity of the maximum local electric fields was shown to oscillate with the depth and the stronger local electric fields occurring at the top or bottom gold layer strongly depend on the dielectric medium, substrate, and depth of the nanostructure. This phenomenon was determined to be related to the Fabry-Pérot interference effect and the interaction of localized surface plasmons (LSPs). The enhancement factors (EFs) of SERS obtained from the 3D-FDTD simulations were compared to those calculated from the SERS experiments conducted on the Q3D plasmonic nanostructures fabricated on silicon and ITO coated glass substrates with different depths. The same trend was obtained from both methods. The capabilities of tuning not only the intensity but also the location of the maximum local electric fields by varying the depth, dielectric medium, and substrate make Q3D plasmonic nanostructures well suited for highly sensitive and reproducible SERS detection and analysis.

  13. 3-D resistivity imaging of buried concrete infrastructure with application to unknown bridge foundation depth determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. E.; Arjwech, R.; Briaud, J.; Hurlebaus, S.; Medina-Cetina, Z.; Tucker, S.; Yousefpour, N.

    2010-12-01

    Bridges are always vulnerable to scour and those mainly older ones with unknown foundations constitute a significant risk to public safety. Geophysical testing of bridge foundations using 3-D resistivity imaging is a promising non-destructive technology but its execution and reliable interpretation remains a challenging task. A major difficulty to diagnosing foundation depth is that a single linear electrode profile generally does not provide adequate 3—D illumination to provide a useful image of the bottom of the foundation. To further explore the capabilities of resistivity tomography, we conducted a 3—D resistivity survey at a geotechnical test area which includes groups of buried, steel—reinforced concrete structures, such as slabs and piles, with cylindrical and square cross—sections that serve as proxies for bridge foundations. By constructing a number of 3—D tomograms using selected data subsets and comparing the resulting images, we have identified efficient combinations of data acquired in the vicinity of a given foundation which enable the most cost-effective and reliable depth determination. The numerous issues that are involved in adapting this methodology to actual bridge sites is discussed.

  14. The impact of stereo 3D sports TV broadcasts on user's depth perception and spatial presence experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, K.; Wiemeyer, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work examines the impact of content and presentation parameters in 2D versus 3D on depth perception and spatial presence, and provides guidelines for stereoscopic content development for 3D sports TV broadcasts and cognate subjects. Under consideration of depth perception and spatial presence experience, a preliminary study with 8 participants (sports: soccer and boxing) and a main study with 31 participants (sports: soccer and BMX-Miniramp) were performed. The dimension (2D vs. 3D) and camera position (near vs. far) were manipulated for soccer and boxing. In addition for soccer, the field of view (small vs. large) was examined. Moreover, the direction of motion (horizontal vs. depth) was considered for BMX-Miniramp. Subjective assessments, behavioural tests and qualitative interviews were implemented. The results confirm a strong effect of 3D on both depth perception and spatial presence experience as well as selective influences of camera distance and field of view. The results can improve understanding of the perception and experience of 3D TV as a medium. Finally, recommendations are derived on how to use various 3D sports ideally as content for TV broadcasts.

  15. INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

    2004-03-01

    The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of inversion algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform inversion algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform inversion algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint inversion of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences

  16. Fast 3-D seismic modeling and prestack depth migration using generalized screen methods. Final report for period January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2001-03-31

    Completed a theoretical analysis of phase screen propagators to answer several critical questions: the existence of a singularity in the Green's function for the case of a zero vertical wavenumber, the stability and accuracy of such propagators, and the effects of backscattering for large contrast heterogeneous media. The theory is based on separating the wavefield into forescattering and backscattering parts. The approach is robust and appropriate for earth structures with high velocity contrast. This theory also resolves the apparent singularity problem that has persisted in generalized screen propagator formulations. With this formulation we studied the effects of the commonly used approximations as a function of the degree of velocity contrast in the media.

  17. Exogenous orienting of crossmodal attention in 3-D space: support for a depth-aware crossmodal attentional system.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, Nathan; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate exogenous crossmodal orienting of attention in three-dimensional (3-D) space. Most studies in which the orienting of attention has been examined in 3-D space concerned either exogenous intramodal or endogenous crossmodal attention. Evidence for exogenous crossmodal orienting of attention in depth is lacking. Endogenous and exogenous attention are behaviorally different, suggesting that they are two different mechanisms. We used the orthogonal spatial-cueing paradigm and presented auditory exogenous cues at one of four possible locations in near or far space before the onset of a visual target. Cues could be presented at the same (valid) or at a different (invalid) depth from the target (radial validity), and on the same (valid) or on a different (invalid) side (horizontal validity), whereas we blocked the depth at which visual targets were presented. Next to an overall validity effect (valid RTs < invalid RTs) in horizontal space, we observed an interaction between the horizontal and radial validity of the cue: The horizontal validity effect was present only when the cue and the target were presented at the same depth. No horizontal validity effect was observed when the cue and the target were presented at different depths. These results suggest that exogenous crossmodal attention is "depth-aware," and they are discussed in the context of the supramodal hypothesis of attention.

  18. Ultrashallow seismic imaging of the causative fault of the 1980, M6.9, southern Italy earthquake by pre-stack depth migration of dense wide-aperture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Pier Paolo; Castiello, Antonio; Improta, Luigi

    2010-10-01

    A two-step imaging procedure, including pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) and non-linear multiscale refraction tomography, was applied to dense wide-aperture data with the aim of imaging the causative fault of the 1980, M6.9, Irpinia normal faulting earthquake in a very complex geologic environment. PSDM is often ineffective for ultrashallow imaging (100 m of depth and less) of laterally heterogeneous media because of the difficulty in estimating a correct velocity model for migration. Dense wide-aperture profiling allowed us to build accurate velocity models across the fault zone by multiscale tomography and to record wide-angle reflections from steep reflectors. PSDM provided better imaging with respect to conventional post-stack depth migration, and improved definition of fault geometry and apparent cumulative displacement. Results indicate that this imaging strategy can be very effective for near-surface fault detection and characterization. Fault location and geometry are in agreement with paleoseismic data from two nearby trenches. The estimated vertical fault throw is only 29-38 m. This value, combined with the vertical slip rate determined by trench data, suggests a young age (97-127 kyr) of fault inception.

  19. Controlling depth of focus in 3D image reconstructions by flexible and adaptive deformation of digital holograms.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, P; Paturzo, M; Memmolo, P; Finizio, A

    2009-09-15

    We show here that through an adaptive deformation of digital holograms it is possible to manage the depth of focus in 3D imaging reconstruction. Deformation is applied to the original hologram with the aim to put simultaneously in focus, and in one reconstructed image plane, different objects lying at different distances from the hologram plane (i.e., CCD sensor). In the same way, by adapting the deformation it is possible to extend the depth of field having a tilted object entirely in focus. We demonstrate the method in both lensless as well as in microscope configuration.

  20. Depth-expression characteristics of multi-projection 3D display systems [invited].

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Miranda, Matheus; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-09-20

    A multi-projection display consists of multiple projection units. Because of the large amount of data, a multi-projection system shows large, high-quality images. According to the projection geometry and the optical configuration, multi-projection systems show different viewing characteristics for generated three-dimensional images. In this paper, we analyzed the various projection geometries of multi-projection systems, and explained the different depth-expression characteristics for each individual projection geometry. We also demonstrated the depth-expression characteristic of an experimental multi-projection system.

  1. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR), compression, and transmission for a new approach on 3D-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehn, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents details of a system that allows for an evolutionary introduction of depth perception into the existing 2D digital TV framework. The work is part of the European Information Society Technologies (IST) project "Advanced Three-Dimensional Television System Technologies" (ATTEST), an activity, where industries, research centers and universities have joined forces to design a backwards-compatible, flexible and modular broadcast 3D-TV system. At the very heart of the described new concept is the generation and distribution of a novel data representation format, which consists of monoscopic color video and associated per-pixel depth information. From these data, one or more "virtual" views of a real-world scene can be synthesized in real-time at the receiver side (i.e. a 3D-TV set-top box) by means of so-called depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) techniques. This publication will provide: (1) a detailed description of the fundamentals of this new approach on 3D-TV; (2) a comparison with the classical approach of "stereoscopic" video; (3) a short introduction to DIBR techniques in general; (4) the development of a specific DIBR algorithm that can be used for the efficient generation of high-quality "virtual" stereoscopic views; (5) a number of implementation details that are specific to the current state of the development; (6) research on the backwards-compatible compression and transmission of 3D imagery using state-of-the-art MPEG (Moving Pictures Expert Group) tools.

  2. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  3. Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Hung-Shan; Xiao, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-02-15

    We present a three dimensional (3D) micro integral imaging display system with extended depth of focus by using a polarized bifocal liquid crystal lens. This lens and other optical components are combined as the relay optical element. The focal length of the relay optical element can be controlled to project an elemental image array in multiple positions with various lenslet image planes, by applying different voltages to the liquid crystal lens. The depth of focus of the proposed system can therefore be extended. The feasibility of our proposed system is experimentally demonstrated. In our experiments, the depth of focus of the display system is extended from 3.82 to 109.43 mm.

  4. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Homeier, D.; Plez, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Tighter constraints on metal-poor stars we observe are needed to better understand the chemical processes of the early Universe. Computing a stellar spectrum in 3D allows one to model complex stellar behaviours, which cannot be replicated in 1D. Aims: We examine the effect that the intrinsic CNO abundances have on a 3D model structure and the resulting 3D spectrum synthesis. Methods: Model atmospheres were computed in 3D for three distinct CNO chemical compositions using the CO5BOLD model atmosphere code, and their internal structures were examined. Synthetic spectra were computed from these models using Linfor3D and they were compared. New 3D abundance corrections for the G-band and a selection of UV OH lines were also computed. Results: The varying CNO abundances change the metal content of the 3D models. This had an effect on the model structure and the resulting synthesis. However, it was found that the C/O ratio had a larger effect than the overall metal content of a model. Conclusions: Our results suggest that varying the C/O ratio has a substantial impact on the internal structure of the 3D model, even in the hot turn-off star models explored here. This suggests that bespoke 3D models, for specific CNO abundances should be sought. Such effects are not seen in 1D at these temperature regimes.

  5. Depth-resolved 3D visualization of coronary microvasculature with optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wan; Roberts, Meredith A.; Qi, Xiaoli; Murry, Charles E.; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we propose a novel implementation of optical coherence tomography-based angiography combined with ex vivo perfusion of fixed hearts to visualize coronary microvascular structure and function. The extracorporeal perfusion of Intralipid solution allows depth-resolved angiographic imaging, control of perfusion pressure, and high-resolution optical microangiography. The imaging technique offers new opportunities for microcirculation research in the heart, which has been challenging due to motion artifacts and the lack of independent control of pressure and flow. With the ability to precisely quantify structural and functional features, this imaging platform has broad potential for the study of the pathophysiology of microvasculature in the heart as well as other organs.

  6. Operational Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean using INSAT-3D/Imager product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M. K.; Rastogi, G.; Chauhan, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean region is derived operationally for the first time from the geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite INSAT-3D Imager data at 0.65 μm wavelength. Single visible channel algorithm based on clear sky composites gives larger retrieval error in AOD than other multiple channel algorithms due to errors in estimating surface reflectance and atmospheric property. However, since MIR channel signal is insensitive to the presence of most aerosols, therefore in present study, AOD retrieval algorithm employs both visible (centred at 0.65 μm) and mid-infrared (MIR) band (centred at 3.9 μm) measurements, and allows us to monitor transport of aerosols at higher temporal resolution. Comparisons made between INSAT-3D derived AOD (τI) and MODIS derived AOD (τM) co-located in space (at 1° resolution) and time during January, February and March (JFM) 2014 encompasses 1165, 1052 and 900 pixels, respectively. Good agreement found between τI and τM during JFM 2014 with linear correlation coefficients (R) of 0.87, 0.81 and 0.76, respectively. The extensive validation made during JFM 2014 encompasses 215 co-located AOD in space and time derived by INSAT 3D (τI) and 10 sun-photometers (τA) that includes 9 AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) and 1 handheld sun-photometer site. INSAT-3D derived AOD i.e. τI, is found within the retrieval errors of τI = ±0.07 ±0.15τA with linear correlation coefficient (R) of 0.90 and root mean square error equal (RMSE) to 0.06. Present work shows that INSAT-3D aerosol products can be used quantitatively in many applications with caution for possible residual clouds, snow/ice, and water contamination.

  7. Robust incremental compensation of the light attenuation with depth in 3D fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kervrann, C; Legland, D; Pardini, L

    2004-06-01

    Summary Fluorescent signal intensities from confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM) suffer from several distortions inherent to the method. Namely, layers which lie deeper within the specimen are relatively dark due to absorption and scattering of both excitation and fluorescent light, photobleaching and/or other factors. Because of these effects, a quantitative analysis of images is not always possible without correction. Under certain assumptions, the decay of intensities can be estimated and used for a partial depth intensity correction. In this paper we propose an original robust incremental method for compensating the attenuation of intensity signals. Most previous correction methods are more or less empirical and based on fitting a decreasing parametric function to the section mean intensity curve computed by summing all pixel values in each section. The fitted curve is then used for the calculation of correction factors for each section and a new compensated sections series is computed. However, these methods do not perfectly correct the images. Hence, the algorithm we propose for the automatic correction of intensities relies on robust estimation, which automatically ignores pixels where measurements deviate from the decay model. It is based on techniques adopted from the computer vision literature for image motion estimation. The resulting algorithm is used to correct volumes acquired in CLSM. An implementation of such a restoration filter is discussed and examples of successful restorations are given.

  8. Depth position measurement of inhomogeneities in semi-solid organic materials using 3D pulsed digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, C.

    2006-02-01

    We show experimental results to determine the depth of inhomogeneities such as glass spheres and biological human tumors, in semi-solids organic materials, like gels (phantom), using the non invasive optical technique called 3D Pulsed Digital Holography (PDH). We reported previously that this technique may be used for the detection of biological tissues1. 3D Pulsed Digital Holography allowed us to make a quantitative analysis of the changes that the phantom suffers when it contains inhomogeneities as compared to a phantom that does not have one. The results obtained there showed quite remarkably the internal fault in semi-solids. In here we report early results obtained from three different object illumination positions that gave 3 wrapped phase maps that allowed the calculation of the depth position of the inhomogeneity within the phantom. The optical technique used looks at the phantom surface micro displacement, where measurements are correlated to the z position of the inhomogeneity inside the phantom. Likewise, the technique is able to show the deformation that the material undergoes in x, y, and z.

  9. Correction of Depth-Dependent Aberrations in 3D Single Molecule Localization and Super-resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McGorty, Ryan; Schnitzbauer, Joerg; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Single molecule switching based super-resolution microscopy techniques have been extended into three dimensions through various 3D single molecule localization methods. However, the localization accuracy in z can be severely degraded by the presence of aberrations, particularly the spherical aberration introduced by the refractive-index-mismatch when imaging into an aqueous sample with an oil immersion objective. This aberration confines the imaging depth in most experiments to regions close to the coverslip. Here, we show a method to obtain accurate, depth dependent z calibrations by measuring the point spread function (PSF) at the coverslip surface, calculating the microscope pupil function through phase retrieval, and then computing the depth dependent PSF with the addition of spherical aberrations. We demonstrate experimentally that this method can maintain z localization accuracy over a large range of imaging depths. Our super-resolution images of a mammalian cell nucleus acquired between 0 and 2.5 μm past the coverslip show that this method produces accurate z localizations even in the deepest focal plane. PMID:24562125

  10. Variation of repeating earthquake activities depending on their focal depths as inferred from 3-D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hino, R.; Hasegawa, A.; Hori, T.; Kaneda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated depth dependence of the slip velocity of small repeating earthquakes using 3-D numerical simulations for a subduction zone involving large and small asperities based on a rate- and state-dependent friction law. In this study, we examined slip at small asperity located at depth of 5, 10 and 15 km. Our results reveal that the postseismic slip of a large earthquake trigger 'slow' slip (with slip velocity lower than that of the spontaneous rupture of the small asperity) rupture of the small asperity located at a depth of 15 km, whereas 'rapid' slip (with higher slip velocity) one at a depth of 5 km where the small asperity usually occur slow repeating earthquakes. In case of the small asperity at a depth of 10 km, all of events are seismic and recurrence intervals are temporally shorter in the passage of postseismic slip. Uchida et al. [2003; GRL] showed that the repeating earthquakes in the NE Japan subduction zones occur constantly, conforming with the rate of the plate convergence in the depth range of > ~40 km. On the other hand, shallow (< ~10 km) focus repeating earthquakes tend to be activated only in the postseismic period of nearby large interplate earthquakes and cumulative slip estimated from them is less than that expected from the plate convergence rate. In general, asperities in the shallower part are more stable than deeper ones because of low effective normal stress. Thus, most of the observed shallow repeating earthquakes may be 'rapid' slip events triggered by the postseismic slip of the neighboring large asperities, and the corresponding small asperities give rise to (aseismic) slow slip events usually.

  11. Investigating the San Andreas Fault System in the Northern Salton Trough by a Combination of Seismic Tomography and Pre-stack Depth Migration: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Ryberg, T.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin which was formed in migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas fault (SAF) and the Imperial fault are current examples. It is located within the large-scale transition between the onshore SAF strike-slip system to the north and the marine rift system of the Gulf of California to the south. Crustal stretching and sinking formed the distinct topographic features and sedimentary successions of the Salton Trough. The active SAF and related fault systems can produce potentially large damaging earthquakes. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded by NSF and USGS, was undertaken to generate seismic data and images to improve the knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF in this key region. The results from these studies are required as input for modeling of earthquake scenarios and prediction of strong ground motion in the surrounding populated areas and cities. We present seismic data analysis and results from tomography and pre-stack depth migration for a number of seismic profiles (Lines 1, 4-7) covering mainly the northern Salton Trough. The controlled-source seismic data were acquired in 2011. The seismic lines have lengths ranging from 37 to 72 km. On each profile, 9-17 explosion sources with charges of 110-460 kg were recorded by 100-m spaced vertical component receivers. On Line 7, additional OBS data were acquired within the Salton Sea. Travel times of first arrivals were picked and inverted for initial 1D velocity models. Alternatively, the starting models were derived from the crustal-scale velocity models developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The final 2D velocity models were obtained using the algorithm of Hole (1992; JGR). We have also tested the tomography packages FAST and SIMUL2000, resulting in similar velocity structures. An

  12. Depth to the Juan De Fuca slab beneath the Cascadia subduction margin - a 3-D model for sorting earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Blair, J. Luke; Oppenheimer, David H.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    We present an updated model of the Juan de Fuca slab beneath southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California, and use this model to separate earthquakes occurring above and below the slab surface. The model is based on depth contours previously published by Fluck and others (1997). Our model attempts to rectify a number of shortcomings in the original model and update it with new work. The most significant improvements include (1) a gridded slab surface in geo-referenced (ArcGIS) format, (2) continuation of the slab surface to its full northern and southern edges, (3) extension of the slab surface from 50-km depth down to 110-km beneath the Cascade arc volcanoes, and (4) revision of the slab shape based on new seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction studies. We have used this surface to sort earthquakes and present some general observations and interpretations of seismicity patterns revealed by our analysis. For example, deep earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath western Washington define a linear trend that may mark a tear within the subducting plate Also earthquakes associated with the northern stands of the San Andreas Fault abruptly terminate at the inferred southern boundary of the Juan de Fuca slab. In addition, we provide files of earthquakes above and below the slab surface and a 3-D animation or fly-through showing a shaded-relief map with plate boundaries, the slab surface, and hypocenters for use as a visualization tool.

  13. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  14. Psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms by means of simultaneous observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Ookuma, Yoshio; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2007-02-01

    Recently, many types of computer-generated stereograms (CGSs), i.e. various works of art produced by using computer are published for hobby and entertainment. It is said that activation of brain, improvement of visual eye sight, decrease of mental stress, effect of healing, etc. are expected when properly appreciating a kind of CGS as the stereoscopic view. There is a lot of information on the internet web site concerning all aspects of stereogram history, science, social organization, various types of stereograms, and free software for generating CGS. Generally, the CGS is classified into nine types: (1) stereo pair type, (2) anaglyph type, (3) repeated pattern type, (4) embedded type, (5) random dot stereogram (RDS), (6) single image stereogram (SIS), (7) united stereogram, (8) synthesized stereogram, and (9) mixed or multiple type stereogram. Each stereogram has advantages and disadvantages when viewing directly the stereogram with two eyes by training with a little patience. In this study, the characteristics of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms, the role and composition of depth map image (DMI) called hidden image or picture, and the effect of irregular shift of texture pattern image called wall paper are discussed from the viewpoint of psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth and visual quality of virtual image by means of simultaneous observation in the case of the parallel viewing method.

  15. Fast and Forceful: Modulation of Response Activation Induced by Shifts of Perceived Depth in Virtual 3D Space

    PubMed Central

    Plewan, Thorsten; Rinkenauer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) can strongly be influenced by a number of stimulus properties. For instance, there was converging evidence that perceived size rather than physical (i.e., retinal) size constitutes a major determinant of RT. However, this view has recently been challenged since within a virtual three-dimensional (3D) environment retinal size modulation failed to influence RT. In order to further investigate this issue in the present experiments response force (RF) was recorded as a supplemental measure of response activation in simple reaction tasks. In two separate experiments participants’ task was to react as fast as possible to the occurrence of a target located close to the observer or farther away while the offset between target locations was increased from Experiment 1 to Experiment 2. At the same time perceived target size (by varying the retinal size across depth planes) and target type (sphere vs. soccer ball) were modulated. Both experiments revealed faster and more forceful reactions when targets were presented closer to the observers. Perceived size and target type barely affected RT and RF in Experiment 1 but differentially affected both variables in Experiment 2. Thus, the present findings emphasize the usefulness of RF as a supplement to conventional RT measurement. On a behavioral level the results confirm that (at least) within virtual 3D space perceived object size neither strongly influences RT nor RF. Rather the relative position within egocentric (body-centered) space presumably indicates an object’s behavioral relevance and consequently constitutes an important modulator of visual processing. PMID:28018273

  16. 3D seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.

    1997-02-01

    The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is a key to reducing the risk and cost associated with oil and gas exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive. Datasets can be terabytes in size, and the processing time required for the multiple iterations needed to produce a velocity model can take months, even with the massively parallel computers available today. Some algorithms, such as 3D, finite-difference, prestack, depth migration remain beyond the capacity of production seismic processing. Massively parallel processors (MPPs) and algorithms research are the tools that will enable this project to provide new seismic processing capabilities to the oil and gas industry. The goals of this work are to (1) develop finite-difference algorithms for 3D, prestack, depth migration; (2) develop efficient computational approaches for seismic imaging and for processing terabyte datasets on massively parallel computers; and (3) develop a modular, portable, seismic imaging code.

  17. 3-D physical modeling of a complex salt canopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, R.W.; Sekharan, K.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recent drilling has confirmed both significant reservoir potential and the presence of commercial hydrocarbons below salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico. Obtaining definitive seismic images with standard processing schemes beneath these salt structures is very difficult if not impossible. Because of the complicated seismic behavior of these structures, full volume 3-D prestack depth migration is required. Unfortunately, carrying out the multitude of calculations needed to create a proper image requires the largest and fastest supercomputers and rather complex numerical algorithms. Furthermore, developing and testing the imaging algorithms is quite involved and requires appropriate test data sets. To better understand the problems and issues of subsalt imaging, Marathon Oil Company and Louisiana Land and Exploration Company contracted with the University of Houston`s Allied Geophysical Laboratories (AGL) to construct a salt canopy physical model. The model is patterned after the SEG/EAEG Salt Model and is made from synthetic materials. It is a full three-dimensional model with an irregularly shaped, lateral salt structure embedded in five distinct sedimentary layers. The model was used to acquire a multi-offset 3-D marine-style survey. These data are being used to address problems of subsalt imaging. In addition to standard processing techniques, the authors investigate algorithms for multiple removal and prestack depth migration.

  18. Developments in molecular SIMS depth profiling and 3D imaging of biological systems using polyatomic primary ions.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John S; Lockyer, Nicholas P; Vickerman, John C

    2011-01-01

    In principle mass spectral imaging has enormous potential for discovery applications in biology. The chemical specificity of mass spectrometry combined with spatial analysis capabilities of liquid metal cluster beams and the high yields of polyatomic ion beams should present unprecedented ability to spatially locate molecular chemistry in the 100 nm range. However, although metal cluster ion beams have greatly increased yields in the m/z range up to 1000, they still have to be operated under the static limit and even in most favorable cases maximum yields for molecular species from 1 µm pixels are frequently below 20 counts. However, some very impressive molecular imaging analysis has been accomplished under these conditions. Nevertheless although molecular ions of lipids have been detected and correlation with biology is obtained, signal levels are such that lateral resolution must be sacrificed to provide a sufficient signal to image. To obtain useful spatial resolution detection below 1 µm is almost impossible. Too few ions are generated! The review shows that the application of polyatomic primary ions with their low damage cross-sections offers hope of a new approach to molecular SIMS imaging by accessing voxels rather than pixels to thereby increase the dynamic signal range in 2D imaging and to extend the analysis to depth profiling and 3D imaging. Recent data on cells and tissue analysis suggest that there is, in consequence, the prospect that a wider chemistry might be accessible within a sub-micron area and as a function of depth. However, these advances are compromised by the pulsed nature of current ToF-SIMS instruments. The duty cycle is very low and results in excessive analysis times, and maximum mass resolution is incompatible with maximum spatial resolution. New instrumental directions are described that enable a dc primary beam to be used that promises to be able to take full advantage of all the capabilities of the polyatomic ion beam. Some new

  19. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Frary, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Eisses, A.

    2016-08-01

    Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract T13G-07.

  20. Optical full-depth refocusing of 3-D objects based on subdivided-elemental images and local periodic δ-functions in integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ling-Yu; Dong, Xiao-Bin; Jang, Jae-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2016-05-16

    We propose a new approach for optical refocusing of three-dimensional (3-D) objects on their real depth without a pickup-range limitation based on subdivided-elemental image arrays (sub-EIAs) and local periodic δ-function arrays (L-PDFAs). The captured EIA from the 3-D objects locating out of the pickup-range, is divided into a number of sub-EIAs depending on the object distance from the lens array. Then, by convolving these sub-EIAs with each L-PDFA whose spatial period corresponds to the specific object's depth, as well as whose size is matched to that of the sub-EIA, arrays of spatially-filtered sub-EIAs (SF-sub-EIAs) for each object depth can be uniquely extracted. From these arrays of SF-sub-EIAs, 3-D objects can be optically reconstructed to be refocused on their real depth. Operational principle of the proposed method is analyzed based on ray-optics. In addition, to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method in the practical application, experiments with test objects are carried out and the results are comparatively discussed with those of the conventional method.

  1. Computer power fathoms the depths: billion-bit data processors illuminate the subsurface. [3-D Seismic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the same space-age signal technology being used to track events 200 miles above the earth is helping petroleum explorationists track down oil and natural gas two miles and more down into the earth. The breakthroughs, which have come in a technique called three-dimensional seismic work, could change the complexion of exploration for oil and natural gas. Thanks to this 3-D seismic approach, explorationists can make dynamic maps of sites miles beneath the surface. Then explorationists can throw these maps on space-age computer systems and manipulate them every which way - homing in sharply on salt domes, faults, sands and traps associated with oil and natural gas. ''The 3-D seismic scene has exploded within the last two years,'' says, Peiter Tackenberg, Marathon technical consultant who deals with both domestic and international exploration. The 3-D technique has been around for more than a decade, he notes, but recent achievements in space-age computer hardware and software have unlocked its full potential.

  2. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M; Suh, T; Han, B; Xing, L; Jenkins, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  3. Expanding the degree of freedom of observation on depth-direction by the triple-separated slanted parallax barrier in autostereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Youngsik; Park, Min-Chul

    2013-05-01

    Autostereoscopic multi-views 3D display system has a narrow freedom of degrees to the observational directions such as horizontal and perpendicular direction to the display plane than the glasses on type. In this paper, we proposed an innovative method that expanding a width of formed viewing zone on the depth direction keeping with the number of views on horizontal direction by using the triple segmented-slanted parallax barrier (TS-SPB) in the glasses-off type of 3D display. The validity of the proposal is verified by optical simulation based on the environment similar to an actual case. In benefits, the maximum number of views to display on horizontal direction is to be 2n and the width of viewing zone on depth direction is to be increased up to 3.36 times compared to the existing one-layered parallax barrier system.

  4. Soft Hydrogels Featuring In-Depth Surface Density Gradients for the Simple Establishment of 3D Tissue Models for Screening Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Milleret, Vincent; Thompson-Steckel, Greta; Huang, Ning-Ping; Vörös, János; Simona, Benjamin R; Ehrbar, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models are gaining increasing interest for use in drug development pipelines due to their closer resemblance to human tissues. Hydrogels are the first-choice class of materials to recreate in vitro the 3D extra-cellular matrix (ECM) environment, important in studying cell-ECM interactions and 3D cellular organization and leading to physiologically relevant in vitro tissue models. Here we propose a novel hydrogel platform consisting of a 96-well plate containing pre-cast synthetic PEG-based hydrogels for the simple establishment of 3D (co-)culture systems without the need for the standard encapsulation method. The in-depth density gradient at the surface of the hydrogel promotes the infiltration of cells deposited on top of it. The ability to decouple hydrogel production and cell seeding is intended to simplify the use of hydrogel-based platforms and thus increase their accessibility. Using this platform, we established 3D cultures relevant for studying stem cell differentiation, angiogenesis, and neural and cancer models.

  5. Extended depth-of-field 3D endoscopy with synthetic aperture integral imaging using an electrically tunable focal-length liquid-crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Xin; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional synthetic-aperture integral imaging uses a lens array to sense the three-dimensional (3D) object or scene that can then be reconstructed digitally or optically. However, integral imaging generally suffers from a fixed and limited range of depth of field (DOF). In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate a 3D integral-imaging endoscopy with tunable DOF by using a single large-aperture focal-length-tunable liquid crystal (LC) lens. The proposed system can provide high spatial resolution and an extended DOF in synthetic-aperture integral imaging 3D endoscope. In our experiments, the image plane in the integral imaging pickup process can be tuned from 18 to 38 mm continuously using a large-aperture LC lens, and the total DOF is extended from 12 to 51 mm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on synthetic aperture integral imaging 3D endoscopy with a large-aperture LC lens that can provide high spatial resolution 3D imaging with an extend DOF.

  6. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  7. Breaking the Crowther limit: combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Ercius, Peter; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D; Elser, Veit; Muller, David A

    2014-05-01

    To date, high-resolution (<1 nm) imaging of extended objects in three-dimensions (3D) has not been possible. A restriction known as the Crowther criterion forces a tradeoff between object size and resolution for 3D reconstructions by tomography. Further, the sub-Angstrom resolution of aberration-corrected electron microscopes is accompanied by a greatly diminished depth of field, causing regions of larger specimens (>6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability.

  8. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  9. In-depth characterization and computational 3D reconstruction of flagellar filament protein layer structure based on in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Peter; Kozma, Daniel; Nemeth, Andrea; Jankovics, Hajnalka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Horvath, Robert; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Fried, Miklos; Petrik, Peter

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we have reconstructed the statistical 3D structure of hundreds of nanometers thick surface immobilized flagellar filament protein layers in their native environment, in buffer solution. The protein deposition onto the surface activated Ta 2O 5 film was performed in a flow cell, and the immobilization process was followed by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. A multilayer optical model was developed, in that the protein layer was described by five effective medium sublayers. Applying this method, an in-depth analysis of the protein layer formation was performed. Based on the kinetics in the distribution of the surface mass density, the statistical properties of the filamentous film could be determined computationally as a function of the measurement time. It was also demonstrated that the 3D structure of the protein layer can be reconstructed based on the calculated in-depth mass density profile. The computational investigation revealed that the filaments can be classified into two individual groups in approximately equal ratio according to their orientation. In the first group the filaments are close to laying position, whereas in the second group they are in a standing position, resulting in a significantly denser sublayer close to the substrate than at a larger distance.

  10. Imaging Shallow Salt With 3D Refraction Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschuyver, C. J.; Hilterman, F. J.

    2005-05-01

    In offshore West Africa, numerous salt walls are within 200 m of sea level. Because of the shallowness of these salt walls, reflections from the salt top can be difficult to map, making it impossible to build an accurate velocity model for subsequent pre-stack depth migration. An accurate definition of salt boundaries is critical to any depth model where salt is present. Unfortunately, when a salt body is very shallow, the reflection from the upper interface can be obscured due to large offsets between the source and near receivers and also due to the interference from multiples and other near-surface noise events. A new method is described using 3D migration of the refraction waveforms which is simplified because of several constraints in the model definition. The azimuth and dip of the refractor is found by imaging with Kirchhoff theory. A Kirchhoff migration is performed where the traveltime values are adjusted to use the CMP refraction traveltime equation. I assume the sediment and salt velocities to be known such that once the image time is specified, then the dip and azimuth of the refraction path can be found. The resulting 3D refraction migrations are in excellent depth agreement with available well control. In addition, the refraction migration time picks of deeper salt events are in agreement with time picks of the same events on the reflection migration.

  11. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  12. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  13. SU-E-T-678: Response Calibration Using Electron Depth-Dose Data for MRI-Based 3D Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y; Warmington, L; Gopishankar, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a calibration method using the depth-dose data of an electron beam for MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: MAGAT was manufactured in-house to fill two 400mL-cylindrical phantoms and nine 22mL-glass vials. Phantom-A was irradiated along the cylinder axis with a 9MeV electron beam of 6 cm x 6 cm field size (FS). Phantom-B was irradiated with a 6MV photon beam of 3 cm x 3 cm FS by a 360-degree arc technique. Eight vials were irradiated in a water-bath to various doses with a 20 cm x 20 cm FS 6MV photon beam. All irradiated phantoms and one un-irradiated vial were scanned with a 3T MRI scanner to obtain the spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) distributions. By comparing the measured R2-to-depth data with the known depth-dose data for Phantom-A, R2-to-dose calibration data were obtained (e-beam method). Another calibration data were obtained from the 9 vials data (9-vial method). We tested two regression equations, i.e., third-order polynomial and tangent functions, and two dose normalization methods, i.e., one-point and two-point methods. Then, these two calibration methods were used to obtain the 3D dose distribution of Phantom-B and evaluated by comparing the measured data with the dose distribution from a treatment planning system. The comparison was made with gamma passing rate (2%/2mm criteria). Results: We did not observe a clear advantage of the e-beam method over the 9-vial method for the 3D dose comparison with the test case. Nevertheless, we found that the e-beam method required a smaller dose scaling for the dose comparison. Furthermore, the tangent function showed better data fitting than the polynomial function with smaller uncertainty of the estimated coefficients. Conclusions: Considering the overall superior performance, we recommend the e-beam method with the tangent function as the regression equation and one-point dose normalization for the MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry.

  14. Fast seismic velocity analysis using parsimonious Kirchhoff depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Weihong

    Migration-based velocity analysis is the most efficient, and accurate velocity inversion technique. It generally involves time-consuming prestack depth migration, and picking of the depth residuals in common-image gathers (CIGs) in each iteration. Two modifications are proposed to minimize the time of prestack depth migration and the picking work in velocity analysis: one approach is to invert the velocity model in layer-stripping style; the other is based on a grid parametrization of the velocity model. Both approaches are based on the idea of parsimonious depth migration, which is the fastest depth migration currently available. Both approaches have four basic steps: (1) Picking the primary, most consistent reflection events from one reference seismic section or volume. (2) Depending on whether the reference data is 2-D poststack, 2-D common-offset, 3-D poststack, or 3-D common-offset, the corresponding parsimonious depth migration is used to migrate all the picked time samples to their spatial locations and to give their orientations. (3) Ray-tracing defines the CRP gathers for each reflection point. (4) Velocity updating. For the layer-stripping approach, a small (2-3) number of iterations converge to a 2-D model of layer shape and interval velocity. The computation time of this layer-stripping approach is of the same order as that of the standard (1-D) rms velocity scan method, and is much faster than current iterative prestack depth migration velocity analysis methods for typical field data. For the grid-based approach, it is not necessary to define continuous reflectors and that the time at any offset (not only zero offset) can be used as the reference time for a reflection. Truncations, and multi-valued layers, which need much effort in the layer-stripping approach, are handled naturally and implicitly in the grid-based approach. Two important features of the proposed algorithms are: the traveltime picking is limited to only a stacked or common

  15. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  16. 3D and 4D Seismic Imaging in the Oilfield; the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strudley, A.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic imaging in the oilfield context has seen enormous changes over the last 20 years driven by a combination of improved subsurface illumination (2D to 3D), increased computational power and improved physical understanding. Today Kirchhoff Pre-stack migration (in time or depth) is the norm with anisotropic parameterisation and finite difference methods being increasingly employed. In the production context Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic is of growing importance as a tool for monitoring reservoir changes to facilitate increased productivity and recovery. In this paper we present an overview of state of the art technology in 3D and 4D seismic and look at future trends. Pre-stack Kirchhoff migration in time or depth is the imaging tool of choice for the majority of contemporary 3D datasets. Recent developments in 3D pre-stack imaging have been focussed around finite difference solutions to the acoustic wave equation, the so-called Wave Equation Migration methods (WEM). Application of finite difference solutions to imaging is certainly not new, however 3D pre-stack migration using these schemes is a relatively recent development driven by the need for imaging complex geologic structures such as sub salt, and facilitated by increased computational resources. Finally there are a class of imaging methods referred to as beam migration. These methods may be based on either the wave equation or rays, but all operate on a localised (in space and direction) part of the wavefield. These methods offer a bridge between the computational efficiency of Kirchhoff schemes and the improved image quality of WEM methods. Just as 3D seismic has had a radical impact on the quality of the static model of the reservoir, 4D seismic is having a dramatic impact on the dynamic model. Repeat shooting of seismic surveys after a period of production (typically one to several years) reveals changes in pressure and saturation through changes in the seismic response. The growth in interest in 4D seismic

  17. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in depth profile of Mediterranean Sea by 3D-Fluorescence following with PARAFAC treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiyu, Z.; Durrieu, G.; Redon, R.; Heimbuerger, L.; Mounier, S.

    2009-12-01

    A periodic series of samplings have made during one year(2008) organized by Ifremer into the central Ligurian Sea(DYFAMED site, 43°25’N, 07°52’E, Mediterranean Sea). Spectra were mesured by spectrofluorimetry(HITACHI 4500) at excitation wavelengths from 250nm to 500nm and emission wavelengths from 200nm to 550nm, both wavelength slits for 5nm, scan speed is 2400nm/min. Parallel factors analysis(PARAFAC) software is a powerful statistical technique to treat the 3D-fluorescence spectra leading to the decomposition by a number of independent fluorescent compounds 1 and 2. Found 4 fluorescent components representing the fluorescence maxima of previously identified moieties: [Tyr] maximal excitation wavelength and emission wavelength 265nm/305nm (tyrosine-like); [Trp] maximal λEX/λEM=280nm/340nm(Peak T, tryptophan-like group); [M] maximal λEX/λEM=295nm/410nm(Peak M, marine humic-like substance) and a double maximum component [CA] with maximal λEX/λEM=335nm/445nm(Peak C, visible humic-like group) and λEX/λEM=250nm/445nm(Peak A, UV humic-like substance). Fluorescence contribution of each component at different logarithmic depths(Fig.2) shows that the most concentrated fluorophores zone is deeper than 100m, which is different from the results of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentration which the most concentrated zone is on the seasurface(B.Avril,2002).The humic-like substances are generally less fluorescent, particularly the M compound. An important peak contribution of marine humic-like substance has appeared in May at the profound 100m and 2200m, although the other fluorophores kept their values reasonable. The intensity maxima was closed to 100m, while an augmentation of protein substances in the deep sea(about 400 m) following by a shut immediate at 600 m in the months July, August and September. It is probably due to the sufficient heat from the sea surface; micro-organism could modify their position in the depth profile in the seawater. Thanks to

  18. An in-depth spectroscopic examination of molecular bands from 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. I. Formation of the G-band in metal-poor dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Recent developments in the three-dimensional (3D) spectral synthesis code Linfor3D have meant that for the first time, large spectral wavelength regions, such as molecular bands, can be synthesised with it in a short amount of time. Aims: A detailed spectral analysis of the synthetic G-band for several dwarf turn-off-type 3D atmospheres (5850 ≲ Teff [ K ] ≲ 6550, 4.0 ≤ log g ≤ 4.5, - 3.0 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.0) was conducted, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We also examine carbon and oxygen molecule formation at various metallicity regimes and discuss the impact it has on the G-band. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, we describe the different behaviours between the 3D atmospheres and the traditional one-dimensional (1D) atmospheres and how the different physics involved inevitably leads to abundance corrections, which differ over varying metallicities. Spectra computed in 1D were fit to every 3D spectrum to determine the 3D abundance correction. Results: Early analysis revealed that the CH molecules that make up the G-band exhibited an oxygen abundance dependency; a higher oxygen abundance leads to weaker CH features. Nitrogen abundances showed zero impact to CH formation. The 3D corrections are also stronger at lower metallicity. Analysis of the 3D corrections to the G-band allows us to assign estimations of the 3D abundance correction to most dwarf stars presented in the literature. Conclusions: The 3D corrections suggest that A(C) in carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with high A(C) would remain unchanged, but would decrease in CEMP stars with lower A(C). It was found that the C/O ratio is an important parameter to the G-band in 3D. Additional testing confirmed that the C/O ratio is an equally important parameter for OH transitions under 3D. This presents a clear interrelation between the carbon and oxygen abundances in 3D atmospheres through their molecular species, which is not seen in 1D.

  19. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  20. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  1. Prestack seismic inversion and reservoir property prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xingang

    In this dissertation, I have applied the method of prestack seismic inversion with uncertainty analysis. Also, I have developed the methods of the rock physics template analysis, the fluid modulus inversion and the reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes with and without constraint to improve the technique of reservoir characterization. I use the prestack seismic inversion to invert the elastic properties and use the statistical method to derive the posterior probability of the inverted elastic properties for the uncertainty analysis. I use the rock physics template drawn in the cross-plot of the inverted elastic properties to analyze the lithology and fluid property in the target reservoir. I develop the fluid modulus inversion method based on the simplified Gassmann's equation and the empirical rock physics relationship. Using the inverted fluid modulus, I estimate the gas saturation of the target reservoir before drilling. The reservoir property inversion is to predict the porosity, shale volume and water saturation of the reservoir from AVO attributes to enhance the reservoir interpretation and characterization. I apply this method with the statistical analysis together to execute the uncertainty analysis for the inversion results. Two methods of reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes are attempted in this dissertation: one is performed without constraint and the other is performed with the constrained relationship of the porosity and shale volume.

  2. Autostereoscopic 3D display system on the properties of both the expanded depth directional viewing zone and the removed structural crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Park, Anjin; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Jang, Wongun; Park, Youngsik

    2014-06-01

    To expand the suitable stereoscopic viewing zone on depth directional and remove the crosstalk induced by the structures of the existing slanted lenticular lens sheet, Segmented Lenticular lens having Varying Optical Power (SL-VOP) is proposed.

  3. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  4. New insights into the North Taranaki Basin from New Zealand's first broadband 3D survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzcategui, Marjosbet; Francis, Malcolm; Kong, Wai Tin Vincent; Patenall, Richard; Fell, Dominic; Paxton, Andrea; Allen, Tristan

    2016-06-01

    The Taranaki Basin is the only hydrocarbon producing basin in New Zealand. The North Taranaki Basin has widespread two-dimensional (2D) seismic coverage and numerous wells that have not encountered commercial accumulations. This is attributed to the structural complexity in the central graben and the absence of necessary information to help understand the basin's evolution. An active petroleum system has been confirmed by hydrocarbon shows and non-commercial oil and gas discoveries (Karewa-1 and Kora-1). A broadband long offset three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed by Schlumberger in 2013 to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin. Innovative acquisition techniques were combined with advanced processing and imaging methods. Raypath distortions and depth uncertainty were significantly reduced by processing through tilted transverse isotropy (TTI) anisotropic Kirchhoff prestack depth migration with a geologically constrained velocity model. The survey provided the necessary information to understand the petroleum system and provide evidence for material hydrocarbon accumulations. In this investigation, we assessed the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin using the newly acquired data. 3D seismic interpretation and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis support the renewed potential of the basin and demonstrate effectiveness of these technologies that together can achieve encouraging results for hydrocarbon exploration.

  5. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  6. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  7. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, Warren; Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, Christine

    2007-05-04

    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  8. Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbage, C.; Lim, H.; Sun, W.; Mujat, M.; de Boer, J. F.

    2007-06-01

    Three dimensional rapid large depth range imaging of the anterior segments of the human eye by an optical frequency domain imaging system is presented. The tunable source spans from 1217 to 1356 nm with an average output power of 60 mW providing a measured axial resolution of 10 μm in air based on the coherence envelope. The effective depth range is 4 mm, defined as the distance over which the sensitivity drops by 6 dB, achieved by frequency shifting the optical signal using acousto-optic modulators. The measured maximum sensitivity is 109 dB at a sample arm power of 14.7mW and A-lines rate of 43,900 per second. Images consisting of 512 depth profiles are acquired at an acquisition rate of 85 frames per second. We demonstrate an optical frequency domain imaging system capable of mapping in vivo the entire area of the human anterior segment (13.4 x 12 x 4.2 mm) in 1.4 seconds.

  9. Interpretation of a 3D Seismic-Reflection Volume in the Basin and Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Kell, A. M.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Oldow, J. S.; Sabin, A.; Lazaro, M.

    2009-12-01

    A collaborative effort by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at the University of Nevada, Reno, and Optim Inc. of Reno has interpreted a 3d seismic data set recorded by the U.S. Navy Geothermal Programs Office (GPO) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada. The 3d survey incorporated about 20 NNW-striking lines covering an area of approximately 3 by 10 km. The survey covered an alluvial area below the eastern flank of the Wassuk Range. In the reflection volume the most prominent events are interpreted to be the base of Quaternary alluvium, the Quaternary Wassuk Range-front normal fault zone, and sequences of intercalated Tertiary volcanic flows and sediments. Such a data set is rare in the Basin and Range. Our interpretation reveals structural and stratigraphic details that form a basis for rapid development of the geothermal-energy resources underlying the Depot. We interpret a map of the time-elevation of the Wassuk Range fault and its associated splays and basin-ward step faults. The range-front fault is the deepest, and its isochron map provides essentially a map of "economic basement" under the prospect area. There are three faults that are the most readily picked through vertical sections. The fault reflections show an uncertainty in the time-depth that we can interpret for them of 50 to 200 ms, due to the over-migrated appearance of the processing contractor’s prestack time-migrated data set. Proper assessment of velocities for mitigating the migration artifacts through prestack depth migration is not possible from this data set alone, as the offsets are not long enough for sufficiently deep velocity tomography. The three faults we interpreted appear as gradients in potential-field maps. In addition, the southern boundary of a major Tertiary graben may be seen within the volume as the northward termination of the strong reflections from older Tertiary volcanics. Using a transparent volume view across the survey gives a view of the volcanics in full

  10. Complex patterns of faulting revealed by 3D seismic data at the West Galicia rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Cresswell, Derren; Sawyer, Dale; Ranero, Cesar; Shillington, Donna; Morgan, Julia; Lymer, Gael

    2015-04-01

    The west Galicia margin is characterised by crust thinning to less than 3 km, well-defined fault blocks, which overlie a bright reflection (the S reflector) generally interpreted as a tectonic Moho. The margin exhibits neither voluminous magmatism nor thick sediment piles to obscure the structures and the amount of extension. As such is represents an ideal location to study the process of continental breakup both through seismic imaging and potentially through drilling. Prestack depth migration of existing 2D profiles has strongly supported the interpretation of the S reflector as both a detachment and as the crust-mantle boundary; wide-angle seismic has also shown that the mantle beneath S is serpentinised. Despite the quality of the existing 2D seismic images, a number of competing models have been advanced to explain the formation of this margin, including sequential faulting, polyphase faulting, multiple detachments and the gravitational collapse of the margin over exhumed mantle. As these models, all developed for the Galicia margin, have been subsequently applied to other margins, distinguishing between them has implications not only for the structure of the Galicia margin but for the process of rifting through to breakup more generally. To address these issues in summer of 2013 we collected a 3D combined seismic reflection and wide-angle dataset over this margin. Here we present some of the results of ongoing processing of the 3D volume, focussing on the internal structure of some of the fault blocks that overlies the S detachment. 2D processing of the data shows a relatively simple series of tilted fault block, bound by west-dipping faults that detach downwards onto the bright S reflector. However, inspection of the 3D volume produced by 3D pre-stack time migration reveals that the fault blocks contain a complex set of sedimentary packages, with strata tilted to the east, west, north and south, each package bound by faults. Furthermore, the top of crustal

  11. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  12. Satellite and Surface Data Synergy for Developing a 3D Cloud Structure and Properties Characterization Over the ARM SGP. Stage 1: Cloud Amounts, Optical Depths, and Cloud Heights Reconciliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkova, I.; Long, C. N.; Heck, P. W.; Minnis, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program objectives is to obtain measurements applicable to the development of models for better understanding of radiative processes in the atmosphere. We address this goal by building a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the cloud structure and properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP). We take the approach of juxtaposing the cloud properties as retrieved from independent satellite and ground-based retrievals, and looking at the statistics of the cloud field properties. Once these retrievals are well understood, they will be used to populate the 3D characterization database. As a first step we determine the relationship between surface fractional sky cover and satellite viewing angle dependent cloud fraction (CF). We elaborate on the agreement intercomparing optical depth (OD) datasets from satellite and ground using available retrieval algorithms with relation to the CF, cloud height, multi-layer cloud presence, and solar zenith angle (SZA). For the SGP Central Facility, where output from the active remote sensing cloud layer (ARSCL) valueadded product (VAP) is available, we study the uncertainty of satellite estimated cloud heights and evaluate the impact of this uncertainty for radiative studies.

  13. Optimal arrangements of fiber optic probes to enhance the spatial resolution in depth for 3D reflectance diffuse optical tomography with time-resolved measurements performed with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszka, Agathe; Di Sieno, Laura; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic probes with a width limited to a few centimeters can enable diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in intern organs like the prostate or facilitate the measurements on extern organs like the breast or the brain. We have recently shown on 2D tomographic images that time-resolved measurements with a large dynamic range obtained with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) could push forward the imaged depth range in a diffusive medium at short source-detector separation compared with conventional non-gated approaches. In this work, we confirm these performances with the first 3D tomographic images reconstructed with such a setup and processed with the Mellin- Laplace transform. More precisely, we investigate the performance of hand-held probes with short interfiber distances in terms of spatial resolution and specifically demonstrate the interest of having a compact probe design featuring small source-detector separations. We compare the spatial resolution obtained with two probes having the same design but different scale factors, the first one featuring only interfiber distances of 15 mm and the second one, 10 mm. We evaluate experimentally the spatial resolution obtained with each probe on the setup with fast-gated SPADs for optical phantoms featuring two absorbing inclusions positioned at different depths and conclude on the potential of short source-detector separations for DOT.

  14. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-03-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  15. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  16. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  17. Pre-stack Reverse-Time Migration Method for Imaging Subsurface Structures of the Himalaya-Tibet Collision Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Ge, Z.; Huang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    We use pre-stack reverse-time migration (RTM) of converted waves to image crust and mantle structures of the Himalaya-Tibet collision zone. Multi-component seismic data are back propagated using FDTD method of elastic wave. P and SV components are separated through the divergence and curl of the reconstructed wave-field. Cross-correlation imaging condition is applied between the back propagated P and SV wave-fields to reconstruct the location of the points where conversion (e.g., P-to-S or S-to-P) occurred. Unlike traditional CCP receiver function stacking, this method does not rely on 1-D assumptions about the geometry of structures, so that it is able to cope with dipping interface, steep faults. Then we applied this method on data of the southern segment of Hi-CLIMB. The chosen seismic array consists of 76 stations and it is 260-kilometer-long extending northward from the Ganges Basin and across the Himalayas. By pre-stack RTM, we have constructed an image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Himalayas. The image reveals that the Moho dip from a normal depth of 45 km at distance of 120 km ~ 190 km to a much deeper depth of 65 km at 200 km ~ 270 km under southern Tibet. There are also some weak signal in the crust with the same trend of Moho at this region. This may also be related to the underthrusting of Indian plate beneath Tibet. This result of pre-stack RTM consists with previous results obtained by receiver function, but has a steeper change of the depth of Moho.

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  20. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  1. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  2. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  3. Depth migration in transversely isotropic media with explicit operators

    SciTech Connect

    Uzcategui, Omar

    1994-12-01

    The author presents and analyzes three approaches to calculating explicit two-dimensional (2D) depth-extrapolation filters for all propagation modes (P, SV, and SH) in transversely isotropic media with vertical and tilted axis of symmetry. These extrapolation filters are used to do 2D poststack depth migration, and also, just as for isotropic media, these 2D filters are used in the McClellan transformation to do poststack 3D depth migration. Furthermore, the same explicit filters can also be used to do depth-extrapolation of prestack data. The explicit filters are derived by generalizations of three different approaches: the modified Taylor series, least-squares, and minimax methods initially developed for isotropic media. The examples here show that the least-squares and minimax methods produce filters with accurate extrapolation (measured in the ability to position steep reflectors) for a wider range of propagation angles than that obtained using the modified Taylor series method. However, for low propagation angles, the modified Taylor series method has smaller amplitude and phase errors than those produced by the least-squares and minimax methods. These results suggest that to get accurate amplitude estimation, modified Taylor series filters would be somewhat preferred in areas with low dips. In areas with larger dips, the least-squares and minimax methods would give a distinctly better delineation of the subsurface structures.

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. Seismic random noise attenuation via 3D block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Sajjad; Gholami, Ali; Javaheri Niestanak, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The lack of signal to noise ratio increases the final errors of seismic interpretation. In the present study, we apply a new non-local transform domain method called "3 Dimensional Block Matching (3DBM)" for seismic random noise attenuation. Basically, 3DBM uses the similarities through the data for retrieving the amplitude of signal in a specific point in the f-x domain, and because of this, it is able to preserve discontinuities in the data such as fractures and faults. 3DBM considers each seismic profile as an image and thus it can be applied to both pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. It uses the block matching clustering method to gather similar blocks contained in 2D data into 3D groups in order to enhance the level of correlation in each 3D array. By applying a 2D transform and 1D transform (instead of a 3D transform) on each array, we can effectively attenuate the noise by shrinkage of the transform coefficients. The subsequent inverse 2D transform and inverse 1D transform yield estimates of all matched blocks. Finally, the random noise attenuated data is computed using the weighted average of all block estimates. We applied 3DBM on both synthetic and real pre-stack and post-stack seismic data and compared it with a Curvelet transform based denoising method which is one of the most powerful methods in this area. The results show that 3DBM method eventuates in higher signal to noise ratio, lower execution time and higher visual quality.

  6. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  7. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  8. Noise suppression using preconditioned least-squares prestack time migration: application to the Mississippian limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shiguang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qing; Cabrales-Vargas, Alejandro; Marfurt, Kurt J.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional Kirchhoff migration often suffers from artifacts such as aliasing and acquisition footprint, which come from sub-optimal seismic acquisition. The footprint can mask faults and fractures, while aliased noise can focus into false coherent events which affect interpretation and contaminate amplitude variation with offset, amplitude variation with azimuth and elastic inversion. Preconditioned least-squares migration minimizes these artifacts. We implement least-squares migration by minimizing the difference between the original data and the modeled demigrated data using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme. Unpreconditioned least-squares migration better estimates the subsurface amplitude, but does not suppress aliasing. In this work, we precondition the results by applying a 3D prestack structure-oriented LUM (lower-upper-middle) filter to each common offset and common azimuth gather at each iteration. The preconditioning algorithm not only suppresses aliasing of both signal and noise, but also improves the convergence rate. We apply the new preconditioned least-squares migration to the Marmousi model and demonstrate how it can improve the seismic image compared with conventional migration, and then apply it to one survey acquired over a new resource play in the Mid-Continent, USA. The acquisition footprint from the targets is attenuated and the signal to noise ratio is enhanced. To demonstrate the impact on interpretation, we generate a suite of seismic attributes to image the Mississippian limestone, and show that the karst-enhanced fractures in the Mississippian limestone can be better illuminated.

  9. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  10. [3D display of sequential 2D medical images].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisong; Chen, Yazhu

    2003-12-01

    A detailed review is given in this paper on various current 3D display methods for sequential 2D medical images and the new development in 3D medical image display. True 3D display, surface rendering, volume rendering, 3D texture mapping and distributed collaborative rendering are discussed in depth. For two kinds of medical applications: Real-time navigation system and high-fidelity diagnosis in computer aided surgery, different 3D display methods are presented.

  11. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  12. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  13. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  14. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the viewer has a problem with focusing or depth perception. Also, the techniques used to create the 3- ... eyes), or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  15. Sea level history in 3D: Data acquisition and processing for an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedimovic, M. R.; Mountain, G. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Aali, M.; Baldwin, K.; Bhatnagar, T.; Johnson, C.; Küçük, H. M.; Newton, A.; Stanley, J.

    2015-12-01

    In June-July 2015, we acquired the first 3D/2D hybrid (short/long streamer) multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection dataset. These data were collected simultaneously across IODP Exp. 313 drillsites, off New Jersey, using R/V Langsethand cover ~95% of the planned 12x50 km box. Despite the large survey area, the lateral and vertical resolution for the 3D dataset is almost a magnitude of order higher than for data gathered for standard petroleum exploration. Such high-resolution was made possible by collection of common midpoint (CMP) lines whose combined length is ~3 times the Earth's circumference (~120,000 profile km) and a source rich in high-frequencies. We present details on the data acquisition, ongoing data analysis, and preliminary results. The science driving this project is presented by Mountain et al. The 3D component of this innovative survey used an athwartship cross cable, extended laterally by 2 barovanes roughly 357.5 m apart and trailed by 24 50-m P-Cables spaced ~12.5 m with near-trace offset of 53 m. Each P-Cable had 8 single hydrophone groups spaced at 6.25 m for a total of 192 channels. Record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with no low cut and an 824 Hz high cut filter. We ran 77 sail lines spaced ~150 m. Receiver locations were determined using 2 GPS receivers mounted on floats and 2 compasses and depth sensors per streamer. Streamer depths varied from 2.1 to 3.7 m. The 2D component used a single 3 km streamer, with 240 9-hydrophone groups spaced at 12.5 m, towed astern with near-trace offset of 229 m. The record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with low cut filter at 2 Hz and high cut at 412 Hz. Receiver locations were recorded using GPS at the head float and tail buoy, combined with 12 bird compasses spaced ~300 m. Nominal streamer depth was 4.5 m. The source for both systems was a 700 in3 linear array of 4 Bolt air guns suspended at 4.5 m towing depth, 271.5 m behind the ship's stern. Shot spacing was 12.5 m. Data analysis to

  16. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  18. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  20. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Visual search is influenced by 3D spatial layout.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Grove, Philip M

    2015-10-01

    Many activities necessitate the deployment of attention to specific distances and directions in our three-dimensional (3D) environment. However, most research on how attention is deployed is conducted with two dimensional (2D) computer displays, leaving a large gap in our understanding about the deployment of attention in 3D space. We report how each of four parameters of 3D visual space influence visual search: 3D display volume, distance in depth, number of depth planes, and relative target position in depth. Using a search task, we find that visual search performance depends on 3D volume, relative target position in depth, and number of depth planes. Our results demonstrate an asymmetrical preference for targets in the front of a display unique to 3D search and show that arranging items into more depth planes reduces search efficiency. Consistent with research using 2D displays, we found slower response times to find targets in displays with larger 3D volumes compared with smaller 3D volumes. Finally, in contrast to the importance of target depth relative to other distractors, target depth relative to the fixation point did not affect response times or search efficiency.

  2. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  3. Design of monocular multiview stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2001-06-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have developed a 3D HMD system using the monocular stereoscopic display. This paper shows that the 3D vision system using the monocular stereoscopic display and capturing camera builds a 3D virtual space for a telemanipulation using a captured real 3D image. In this paper, we propose the monocular stereoscopic 3D display and capturing camera for a tele- manipulation system. In addition, we describe the result of depth estimation using the multi-focus retinal images.

  4. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  5. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  6. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  7. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  9. Calculation method of prestack FAGVO and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Qing; Wang, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Bing; Ma, Sheng-Li; Cheng, Li-Fang; Yu, Wen-Wu

    2016-12-01

    Frequency attenuation occurs when seismic waves propagate through the porous reservoirs containing hydrocarbons. Current researches on the seismic frequency attenuation mainly focus on the post-stack domain instead of the prestack domain. Here we propose the frequency attenuation gradient vs. offset (FAGVO) based on the amplitude variation with offset and frequency attenuation integral equations. We derive the FAGVO equation that equals to zero in a full-elastic medium and is negative in a viscoelastic medium. FAGVO is affected by the viscosity of the medium, the coefficients of reflection, the frequency variation, and high-frequency attenuation. FAGVO uses the differences of partially stacked data to decrease the interference caused by subsurface strata affecting the frequency attenuation, highlights the frequency attenuation gradient anomalies in hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir pores, and finally realizes the hydrocarbon fluid identification. The method was verified using a two-dimensional wave equation forward model and was found to be cost effective. Furthermore, the method does not require well information, which can be applied in the stage of seismic exploration, especially, in the exploration of a none-well project.

  10. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  11. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  12. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  13. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  14. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  15. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  17. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  18. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  19. 3D object recognition based on local descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakab, Marek; Benesova, Wanda; Racev, Marek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an enhanced method of 3D object description and recognition based on local descriptors using RGB image and depth information (D) acquired by Kinect sensor. Our main contribution is focused on an extension of the SIFT feature vector by the 3D information derived from the depth map (SIFT-D). We also propose a novel local depth descriptor (DD) that includes a 3D description of the key point neighborhood. Thus defined the 3D descriptor can then enter the decision-making process. Two different approaches have been proposed, tested and evaluated in this paper. First approach deals with the object recognition system using the original SIFT descriptor in combination with our novel proposed 3D descriptor, where the proposed 3D descriptor is responsible for the pre-selection of the objects. Second approach demonstrates the object recognition using an extension of the SIFT feature vector by the local depth description. In this paper, we present the results of two experiments for the evaluation of the proposed depth descriptors. The results show an improvement in accuracy of the recognition system that includes the 3D local description compared with the same system without the 3D local description. Our experimental system of object recognition is working near real-time.

  20. Prestack planewave migration of teleseismic P-to-S converted phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppeliers, Christian John

    This research presents a new prestack migration technique to image the Earth with forward scattered teleseismic P-to-S converted phases (receiver functions). The method builds on the pseudostation stacking technique presented by Neal and Pavlis [1999 and a planewave decomposition-based migration technique introduced by Treitel et al. [1982]. We apply this procedure to dozens of teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Lodore array in northwestern Colorado, which was deployed to image the subsurface structure of the Cheyenne belt. The Cheyenne belt has been interpreted as the surface expression of a suture zone between the Archean-age Wyoming province and the Proterozoic-age Colorado Plateau. The end result of applying planewave migration to many events recorded by the Lodore array is that we obtain a high resolution image which suggests the presence of a major, lithospheric scale discontinuity between the Wyoming province and the Colorado Plateau. The imaged discontinuity extends to a depth of at least 90km, which is the maximum depth that we can image with the Lodore array. Additionally, we apply planewave migration to approximately one dozen teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a large array in the Tien Shan mountains (Asia) to image a major suture zone there. Based the two different datasets provided by the Lodore array and the Tien Shan array, we suggest that scars from continental sutures extend to depths greater than 200 km and remain as distinct features for hundreds of millions of years. In a separate study, we analyze data from 35 three-component seismic recording instruments deployed in a 5 x 7 grid over a steep slope. The array was deployed to record to site response of the steep slope and recorded ten underwater explosions detonated in a lake which was adjacent to the slope. The explosions were approximately 800 meters from the array. We found that the slope crest had a local acceleration approximately twice that of the surrounding flat ground

  1. Automated Serial Sectioning for 3D Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jen; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of an apparatus and method for automated serial sectioning of a specimen of a solder, aluminum, or other relatively soft opaque material are discussed. The apparatus includes a small milling machine (micromiller) that takes precise, shallow cuts (increments of depth as small as 1 micron) to expose successive sections. A microscope equipped with an electronic camera, mounted in a fixed position on the micromiller, takes pictures of the newly exposed specimen surface at each increment of depth. The images are digitized, and the resulting data are subsequently processed to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) features of the specimen.

  2. Discrimination of reservoir dolostone within tight limestone using rock physics modeling and pre-stack parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G.; Lee, B.; Lee, G.

    2013-12-01

    Dolostones may be differentiated from limestones based on various pre-stack seismic parameters as they are denser and faster. However, because the seismic properties of a rock are affected strongly by porosity, porous dolostones may not be significantly denser and faster than limestones. We computed various pre-stack parameters (P-impedance, S-impedance, Vp/Vs, Poisson's ratio, Lamé constants) for tight limestones using the Vp and density logs from a well that penetrated Jurassic carbonate and the Vs log, constructed from the empirical relationships of Vp and Vs. The pre-stack parameters of dolostones with 1% - 40% porosity were estimated based on the bulk and shear moduli and bulk densities computed from the formulas proposed by various workers, including Gassmann equations. Crossplots of the pre-stack parameters show that the Lamé constants (λ, μ) are most effective in differentiating dolostones from limestones. In particular, the λρ -μρ vs. μρ crossplot shows a clear-cut separation of the porous dolostones and tight limestones; the porous dolostones plot exclusively to the left of the λρ -μρ of about 25 GPa.

  3. Multiple footprint stereo algorithms for 3D display content generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughorbel, Faysal

    2007-02-01

    This research focuses on the conversion of stereoscopic video material into an image + depth format which is suitable for rendering on the multiview auto-stereoscopic displays of Philips. The recent interest shown in the movie industry for 3D significantly increased the availability of stereo material. In this context the conversion from stereo to the input formats of 3D displays becomes an important task. In this paper we present a stereo algorithm that uses multiple footprints generating several depth candidates for each image pixel. We characterize the various matching windows and we devise a robust strategy for extracting high quality estimates from the resulting depth candidates. The proposed algorithm is based on a surface filtering method that employs simultaneously the available depth estimates in a small local neighborhood while ensuring correct depth discontinuities by the inclusion of image constraints. The resulting highquality image-aligned depth maps proved an excellent match with our 3D displays.

  4. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  5. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. 3D Seismic Reflection Experiment over the Galicia Deep Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Reston, T. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Klaeschen, D.; Ranero, C.; Shillington, D. J.; Morgan, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In June thru September, 2013, a 3D reflection and a long offset seismic experiment were conducted at the Galicia rifted margin by investigators from the US, UK, Germany, and Spain. The 3D multichannel experiment covered 64 km by 20 km (1280 km2), using the RV Marcus Langseth. Four streamers 6 km long were deployed at 12.5 m hydrophone channel spacing. The streamers were 200 m apart. Two airgun arrays, each 3300 cu in, were fired alternately every 37.5 m, to collectively yield a 400 m wide sail line consisting of 8 CMP lines at 50 m spacing. The long offset seismic experiment included 72 short period OBS's deployed below the 3D reflection survey box. Most of the instruments recorded all the shots from the airgun array shots. The 3D seismic box covered a variety of geologic features. The Peridotite Ridge (PR), is associated with the exhumation of upper mantle rocks to the seafloor during the final stage of the continental separation between the Galicia Bank and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The S reflector is present below most of the continental blocks under the deep Galicia basin. S is interpreted to be a low-angle detachment fault formed late in the rifting process, and a number of rotated fault block basins and ranges containing pre and syn-rift sediments. Initial observations from stacked 3D seismic data, and samples of 2D pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic data show that the PR is elevated above the present seafloor in the South and not exposed through the seafloor in the North. The relative smoothness of the PR surface for the entire 20 km N-S contrasts with the more complex, shorter wavelength, faulting of the continental crustal blocks to the east. The PR does not seem to show offsets or any apparent internal structure. The PSTM dip lines show substantial improvement for the structures in the deep sedimentary basin East of the PR. These seem to extend the S reflector somewhat farther to the West. The migrated data show a substantial network of

  8. Development and Calibration of New 3-D Vector VSP Imaging Technology: Vinton Salt Dome, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt J. Marfurt; Hua-Wei Zhou; E. Charlotte Sullivan

    2004-09-01

    Vinton salt dome is located in Southwestern Louisiana, in Calcasieu Parish. Tectonically, the piercement dome is within the salt dome minibasin province. The field has been in production since 1901, with most of the production coming from Miocene and Oligocene sands. The goal of our project was to develop and calibrate new processing and interpretation technology to fully exploit the information available from a simultaneous 3-D surface seismic survey and 3-C, 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey over the dome. More specifically the goal was to better image salt dome flanks and small, reservoir-compartmentalizing faults. This new technology has application to mature salt-related fields across the Gulf Coast. The primary focus of our effort was to develop, apply, and assess the limitations of new 3-C, 3-D wavefield separation and imaging technology that could be used to image aliased, limited-aperture, vector VSP data. Through 2-D and 3-D full elastic modeling, we verified that salt flank reflections exist in the horizontally-traveling portion of the wavefield rather than up- and down-going portions of the wavefield, thereby explaining why many commercial VSP processing flow failed. Since the P-wave reflections from the salt flank are measured primarily on the horizontal components while P-wave reflections from deeper sedimentary horizons are measured primarily on the vertical component, a true vector VSP analysis was needed. We developed an antialiased discrete Radon transform filter to accurately model P- and S-wave data components measured by the vector VSP. On-the-fly polarization filtering embedded in our Kirchhoff imaging algorithm was effective in separating PP from PS wave images. By the novel application of semblance-weighted filters, we were able to suppress many of the migration artifacts associated with low fold, sparse VSP acquisition geometries. To provide a better velocity/depth model, we applied 3-D prestack depth migration to the surface data

  9. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  10. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  11. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  12. COMBINING A NEW 3-D SEISMIC S-WAVE PROPAGATION ANALYSIS FOR REMOTE FRACTURE DETECTION WITH A ROBUST SUBSURFACE MICROFRACTURE-BASED VERIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Bob Hardage; M.M. Backus; M.V. DeAngelo; R.J. Graebner; S.E. Laubach; Paul Murray

    2004-02-01

    Fractures within the producing reservoirs at McElroy Field could not be studied with the industry-provided 3C3D seismic data used as a cost-sharing contribution in this study. The signal-to-noise character of the converted-SV data across the targeted reservoirs in these contributed data was not adequate for interpreting azimuth-dependent data effects. After illustrating the low signal quality of the converted-SV data at McElroy Field, the seismic portion of this report abandons the McElroy study site and defers to 3C3D seismic data acquired across a different fractured carbonate reservoir system to illustrate how 3C3D seismic data can provide useful information about fracture systems. Using these latter data, we illustrate how fast-S and slow-S data effects can be analyzed in the prestack domain to recognize fracture azimuth, and then demonstrate how fast-S and slow-S data volumes can be analyzed in the poststack domain to estimate fracture intensity. In the geologic portion of the report, we analyze published regional stress data near McElroy Field and numerous formation multi-imager (FMI) logs acquired across McElroy to develop possible fracture models for the McElroy system. Regional stress data imply a fracture orientation different from the orientations observed in most of the FMI logs. This report culminates Phase 2 of the study, ''Combining a New 3-D Seismic S-Wave Propagation Analysis for Remote Fracture Detection with a Robust Subsurface Microfracture-Based Verification Technique''. Phase 3 will not be initiated because wells were to be drilled in Phase 3 of the project to verify the validity of fracture-orientation maps and fracture-intensity maps produced in Phase 2. Such maps cannot be made across McElroy Field because of the limitations of the available 3C3D seismic data at the depth level of the reservoir target.

  13. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  14. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  17. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  18. Visualizing realistic 3D urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron; Chen, Tuolin; Brunig, Michael; Schmidt, Hauke

    2003-05-01

    Visualizing complex urban environments has been an active research topic due to its wide variety of applications in city planning: road construction, emergency facilities planning, and optimal placement of wireless carrier base stations. Traditional 2D visualizations have been around for a long time but they only provide a schematic line-drawing bird's eye view and are sometimes confusing to understand due to the lack of depth information. Early versions of 3D systems have been developed for very expensive graphics workstations which seriously limited the availability. In this paper we describe a 3D visualization system for a desktop PC which integrates multiple resolutions of data and provides a realistic view of the urban environment.

  19. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  20. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  1. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  2. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  5. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    at {approx} 10 nm resolution over hundreds of microns in 3 spatial dimensions. Super-resolution microcopy methods based upon single molecule localization were originally limited to 2D slices. Recent advances in this field have extended these methods to three dimensions. However, the 3D rendering was limited to viewing sparsely labeled cellular structures over a z-depth of less than 1 micron. Our first goal is to extend super resolution microscopy to z-depths of hundreds of microns. This substantial improvement is needed to image polymer nanostructure over functionally relevant length scales. (2) Benchmark this instrument by studying the 3D nanostructure of diblock co-polymer morphologies. We will test and benchmark our instrument by imaging fluorescently labeled diblock copolymers, molecules that self-assemble into a variety of 3D nano-structures. We reiterate these polymers are useful for a variety of applications ranging from lithography to light harvesting.

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In each of these areas, the IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  12. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  13. Prestack forward modeling of tight reservoirs based on the Xu-White model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chao; Guo, Qing-Xin; Gong, Qing-Shun; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Li, Sen-Ming; Huang, Ge-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Inversion methods for conventional reservoirs cannot be used in tight reservoirs because of small differences in wave impedance between tight reservoirs and surrounding rocks. Tight reservoirs in western China are characterized by strong heterogeneity; thus, it is difficult to predict favorable zones using conventional reservoir inversion methods. In this study, we propose an inversion method based on the Xu-White model. First, we modify the test parameters of the Xu-White model until model P- and S-wave velocities and density values agree with well-logging data. Then, we calculate P- and S-wave velocities, density, and Poisson ratio for different lithologies and oil saturation and construct different geological models for interbedded sand and shale. Subsequently, we use approximations to Zoeppritz equations to perform prestack forward modeling and analyze the response characteristics of prestack gathers for different physical properties, lithology, and oil saturation. We analyze the response of thirteen types of elastic parameters to porosity, clay content, and oil saturation. After the optimization of the real prestack gathers in the Z area of western China, we select an elastic parameter that is the most sensitive to lithology and oil saturation to predict the distribution of oil-producing reservoirs with high accuracy.

  14. Joint elastic and petrophysical inversion using prestack seismic and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyong; Song, Beibei; Zhang, Jiashu; Hu, Guangmin

    2016-09-01

    Seismic inverse problems aim to infer the properties of subsurface geology, such as elastic and petrophysical properties. Existing seismic inversion methods for the joint estimation of these properties are mainly based either on Gassmann theory for prestack seismic data processed with stochastic optimisation techniques or on the Wyllie formula for poststack seismic data processed by deterministic optimisation techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a strategy for the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties from prestack seismic data based on Gassmann equations with deterministic optimisation techniques. Given poor-quality prestack seismic data, two regularisation parameters are introduced to control the trade-off between fidelity to the data and the smoothness of the solution. An appropriate linearised system of equations for the joint model update is derived from Newton's method, which fits seismic data, the description of the rock physics medium and prior information, simultaneously. We show the preliminary results obtained with the proposed framework for synthetic and real data examples.

  15. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  16. Representation and classification of 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Csakany, P; Wallace, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generic object classification from three-dimensional depth or meshed data. First, surface patches are segmented on the basis of differential geometry and quadratic surface fitting. These are represented by a modified Gaussian image that includes the well-known shape index. Learning is an interactive process in which a human teacher indicates corresponding patches, but the formation of generic classes is unaided. Classification of unknown objects is based on the measurement of similarities between feature sets of the objects and the generic classes. The process is demonstrated on a group of three-dimensional (3-D) objects built from both CAD and laser-scanned depth data.

  17. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  19. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  1. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-07

    Stereopsis - 3D vision - has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, "anaglyph" filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception.

  2. 3D face recognition by projection-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutagaci, Helin; Sankur, Bülent; Yemez, Yücel

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate recognition performances of various projection-based features applied on registered 3D scans of faces. Some features are data driven, such as ICA-based features or NNMF-based features. Other features are obtained using DFT or DCT-based schemes. We apply the feature extraction techniques to three different representations of registered faces, namely, 3D point clouds, 2D depth images and 3D voxel. We consider both global and local features. Global features are extracted from the whole face data, whereas local features are computed over the blocks partitioned from 2D depth images. The block-based local features are fused both at feature level and at decision level. The resulting feature vectors are matched using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Experiments using different combinations of representation types and feature vectors are conducted on the 3D-RMA dataset.

  3. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  4. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  5. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  6. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  7. 3D resolution gray-tone lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbravescu, Niculae

    2000-04-01

    With the conventional micro machining technologies: isotropic and anisotropic, dry and wet etching, a few shapes can be done. To overcome this limitation, both binary multi- tasking technique or direct EB writing were used, but an inexpensive one-step UV-lithographic method, using a so- called 'gray-tone reticle', seems to be the best choice to produce local intensity modulation during exposure process. Although, by using this method and common technologies in standard IC fabrication it is easy to obtain an arbitrarily 3D shaping of positive thick resists, there are some limitations, too. The maximum number of gray-levels, on projection reticle, achieved by e-beam writing, are only 200. Also, for very thick resists, the limited focus depth of the projection objective gives a poor lateral resolution. These are the reasons why the author prose da new approach to enhance the 3D resolution of gray-tone lithography applied for thick resist. By a high resolution, both for vertical direction, as well as for horizontal direction. Particular emphasis was put on the design, manufacturing and use of halftone transmission masks, required for UV- lithographic step in the fabrication process of mechanical, optical or electronics components. The original design and fabrication method for the gray-tone test reticle were supported by experiments showing the main advantage of this new technology: the 3D structuring of thick resist in a single exposure step and also a very promising aspect ratio obtained of over 9:1. Preliminary experimental results are presented for positive thick resists in SEM micrographs. A future optimization of the lithographic process opens interesting perspectives for application of this high 3D resolution structuring method in the fabrication process of different products, with imposed complex smooth profiles, such as: x-ray LiGA-masks, refractive optics and surface- relief DOEs.

  8. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  9. Neural computations underlying depth perception

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Akiyuki; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neural mechanisms underlying depth perception are reviewed with respect to three computational goals: determining surface depth order, gauging depth intervals, and representing 3D surface geometry and object shape. Accumulating evidence suggests that these three computational steps correspond to different stages of cortical processing. Early visual areas appear to be involved in depth ordering, while depth intervals, expressed in terms of relative disparities, are likely represented at intermediate stages. Finally, 3D surfaces appear to be processed in higher cortical areas, including an area in which individual neurons encode 3D surface geometry, and a population of these neurons may therefore represent 3D object shape. How these processes are integrated to form a coherent 3D percept of the world remains to be understood. PMID:20451369

  10. Iterative Multiparameter Elastic Waveform Inversion Using Prestack Time Imaging and Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaniani, Hassan

    This thesis proposes a "standard strategy" for iterative inversion of elastic properties from the seismic reflection data. The term "standard" refers to the current hands-on commercial techniques that are used for the seismic imaging and inverse problem. The method is established to reduce the computation time associated with elastic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) methods. It makes use of AVO analysis, prestack time migration and corresponding forward modeling in an iterative scheme. The main objective is to describe the iterative inversion procedure used in seismic reflection data using simplified mathematical expression and their numerical applications. The frame work of the inversion is similar to (FWI) method but with less computational costs. The reduction of computational costs depends on the data conditioning (with or without multiple data), the level of the complexity of geological model and acquisition condition such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Many processing methods consider multiple events as noise and remove it from the data. This is the motivation for reducing the computational cost associated with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) forward modeling and Reverse Time Migration (RTM)-based techniques. Therefore, a one-way solution of the wave equation for inversion is implemented. While less computationally intensive depth imaging methods are available by iterative coupling of ray theory and the Born approximation, it is shown that we can further reduce the cost of inversion by dropping the cost of ray tracing for traveltime estimation in a way similar to standard Prestack Time Migration (PSTM) and the corresponding forward modeling. This requires the model to have smooth lateral variations in elastic properties, so that the traveltime of the scatterpoints can be approximated by a Double Square Root (DSR) equation. To represent a more realistic and stable solution of the inverse problem, while considering the phase of supercritical angles, the

  11. Case study: The Avengers 3D: cinematic techniques and digitally created 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Graham D.

    2013-03-01

    Marvel's THE AVENGERS was the third film Stereo D collaborated on with Marvel; it was a summation of our artistic development of what Digitally Created 3D and Stereo D's artists and toolsets affords Marvel's filmmakers; the ability to shape stereographic space to support the film and story, in a way that balances human perception and live photography. We took our artistic lead from the cinematic intentions of Marvel, the Director Joss Whedon, and Director of Photography Seamus McGarvey. In the digital creation of a 3D film from a 2D image capture, recommendations to the filmmakers cinematic techniques are offered by Stereo D at each step from pre-production onwards, through set, into post. As the footage arrives at our facility we respond in depth to the cinematic qualities of the imagery in context of the edit and story, with the guidance of the Directors and Studio, creating stereoscopic imagery. Our involvement in The Avengers was early in production, after reading the script we had the opportunity and honor to meet and work with the Director Joss Whedon, and DP Seamus McGarvey on set, and into post. We presented what is obvious to such great filmmakers in the ways of cinematic techniques as they related to the standard depth cues and story points we would use to evaluate depth for their film. Our hope was any cinematic habits that supported better 3D would be emphasized. In searching for a 3D statement for the studio and filmmakers we arrived at a stereographic style that allowed for comfort and maximum visual engagement to the viewer.

  12. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  13. Some practical aspects of prestack waveform inversion using a genetic algorithm: An example from the east Texas Woodbine gas sand

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, S.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, a prestack inversion method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, and issues relating to the implementation of prestack GA inversion in practice are discussed. GA is a Monte-Carlo type inversion, using a natural analogy to the biological evolution process. When GA is cast into a Bayesian framework, a priori information of the model parameters and the physics of the forward problem are used to compute synthetic data. These synthetic data can then be matched with observations to obtain approximate estimates of the marginal a posteriori probability density (PPD) functions in the model space. Plots of these PPD functions allow an interpreter to choose models which best describe the specific geologic setting and lead to an accurate prediction of seismic lithology. Poststack inversion and prestack GA inversion were applied to a Woodbine gas sand data set from East Texas. A comparison of prestack inversion with poststack inversion demonstrates that prestack inversion shows detailed stratigraphic features of the subsurface which are not visible on the poststack inversion.

  14. High-speed optical 3D sensing and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews high-speed optical 3D sensing technologies for obtaining the 3D shape of a target using a camera. The focusing speed is from 100 to 1000 fps, exceeding normal camera frame rates, which are typically 30 fps. In particular, contactless, active, and real-time systems are introduced. Also, three example applications of this type of sensing technology are introduced, including surface reconstruction from time-sequential depth images, high-speed 3D user interaction, and high-speed digital archiving.

  15. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  16. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  17. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  18. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  19. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  20. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  1. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  2. Natural 3D content on glasses-free light-field 3D cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Tibor; Nagy, Zsolt; Kovács, Péter Tamás.; Adhikarla, Vamsi K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a complete framework for capturing, processing and displaying the free viewpoint video on a large scale immersive light-field display. We present a combined hardware-software solution to visualize free viewpoint 3D video on a cinema-sized screen. The new glasses-free 3D projection technology can support larger audience than the existing autostereoscopic displays. We introduce and describe our new display system including optical and mechanical design considerations, the capturing system and render cluster for producing the 3D content, and the various software modules driving the system. The indigenous display is first of its kind, equipped with front-projection light-field HoloVizio technology, controlling up to 63 MP. It has all the advantages of previous light-field displays and in addition, allows a more flexible arrangement with a larger screen size, matching cinema or meeting room geometries, yet simpler to set-up. The software system makes it possible to show 3D applications in real-time, besides the natural content captured from dense camera arrangements as well as from sparse cameras covering a wider baseline. Our software system on the GPU accelerated render cluster, can also visualize pre-recorded Multi-view Video plus Depth (MVD4) videos on this light-field glasses-free cinema system, interpolating and extrapolating missing views.

  3. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  4. 3-D radial gravity gradient inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vanderlei C.; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2013-11-01

    We have presented a joint inversion of all gravity-gradient tensor components to estimate the shape of an isolated 3-D geological body located in subsurface. The method assumes the knowledge about the depth to the top and density contrast of the source. The geological body is approximated by an interpretation model formed by an ensemble of vertically juxtaposed 3-D right prisms, each one with known thickness and density contrast. All prisms forming the interpretation model have a polygonal horizontal cross-section that approximates a depth slice of the body. Each polygon defining a horizontal cross-section has the same fixed number of vertices, which are equally spaced from 0° to 360° and have their horizontal locations described in polar coordinates referred to an arbitrary origin inside the polygon. Although the number of vertices forming each polygon is known, the horizontal coordinates of these vertices are unknown. To retrieve a set of juxtaposed depth slices of the body, and consequently, its shape, our method estimates the radii of all vertices and the horizontal Cartesian coordinates of all arbitrary origins defining the geometry of all polygons describing the horizontal cross-sections of the prisms forming the interpretation model. To obtain a stable estimate that fits the observed data, we impose constraints on the shape of the estimated body. These constraints are imposed through the well-known zeroth- and first-order Tikhonov regularizations allowing, for example, the estimate of vertical or dipping bodies. If the data do not have enough in-depth resolution, the proposed inverse method can obtain a set of stable estimates fitting the observed data with different maximum depths. To analyse the data resolution and deal with this possible ambiguity, we plot the ℓ2-norm of the residuals (s) against the estimated volume (vp) produced by a set of estimated sources having different maximum depths. If this s × vp curve (s as a function of vp) shows a well

  5. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  6. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  7. Vision models for 3D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1992-11-01

    Different approaches to computational stereo to represent human stereo vision have been developed over the past two decades. The Marr-Poggio theory of human stereo vision is probably the most widely accepted model of the human stereo vision. However, recently developed motion stereo models which use a sequence of images taken by either a moving camera or a moving object provide an alternative method of achieving multi-resolution matching without the use of Laplacian of Gaussian operators. While using image sequences, the baseline between two camera positions for a image pair is changed for the subsequent image pair so as to achieve different resolution for each image pair. Having different baselines also avoids the inherent occlusion problem in stereo vision models. The advantage of using multi-resolution images acquired by camera positioned at different baselines over those acquired by LOG operators is that one does not have to encounter spurious edges often created by zero-crossings in the LOG operated images. Therefore in designing a computer vision system, a motion stereo model is more appropriate than a stereo vision model. However, in some applications where only a stereo pair of images are available, recovery of 3D surfaces of natural scenes are possible in a computationally efficient manner by using cepstrum matching and regularization techniques. Section 2 of this paper describes a motion stereo model using multi-scale cepstrum matching for the detection of disparity between image pairs in a sequence of images and subsequent recovery of 3D surfaces from depth-map obtained by a non convergent triangulation technique. Section 3 presents a 3D surface recovery technique from a stereo pair using cepstrum matching for disparity detection and cubic B-splines for surface smoothing. Section 4 contains the results of 3D surface recovery using both of the techniques mentioned above. Section 5 discusses the merit of 2D cepstrum matching and cubic B

  8. 3-D movies using microprocessor-controlled optoelectronic spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Despite rapid advances in technology, 3-D movies are impractical for general movie viewing. A new approach that opens all content for casual 3-D viewing is needed. 3Deeps--advanced microprocessor controlled optoelectronic spectacles--provides such a new approach to 3-D. 3Deeps works on a different principle than other methods for 3-D. 3-D movies typically use the asymmetry of dual images to produce stereopsis, necessitating costly dual-image content, complex formatting and transmission standards, and viewing via a corresponding selection device. In contrast, all 3Deeps requires to view movies in realistic depth is an illumination asymmetry--a controlled difference in optical density between the lenses. When a 2-D movie has been projected for viewing, 3Deeps converts every scene containing lateral motion into realistic 3-D. Put on 3Deeps spectacles for 3-D viewing, or remove them for viewing in 2-D. 3Deeps works for all analogue and digital 2-D content, by any mode of transmission, and for projection screens, digital or analogue monitors. An example using aerial photography is presented. A movie consisting of successive monoscopic aerial photographs appears in realistic 3-D when viewed through 3Deeps spectacles.

  9. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  10. Stereopsis has the edge in 3-D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piantanida, T. P.

    The results of studies conducted at SRI International to explore differences in image requirements for depth and form perception with 3-D displays are presented. Monocular and binocular stabilization of retinal images was used to separate form and depth perception and to eliminate the retinal disparity input to stereopsis. Results suggest that depth perception is dependent upon illumination edges in the retinal image that may be invisible to form perception, and that the perception of motion-in-depth may be inhibited by form perception, and may be influenced by subjective factors such as ocular dominance and learning.

  11. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  12. Resolution enhancement of robust Bayesian pre-stack inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xingyao; Li, Kun; Zong, Zhaoyun

    2016-10-01

    AVO/AVA (amplitude variation with an offset or angle) inversion is one of the most practical and useful approaches to estimating model parameters. So far, publications on AVO inversion in the Fourier domain have been quite limited in view of its poor stability and sensitivity to noise compared with time-domain inversion. For the resolution and stability of AVO inversion in the Fourier domain, a novel robust Bayesian pre-stack AVO inversion based on the mixed domain formulation of stationary convolution is proposed which could solve the instability and achieve superior resolution. The Fourier operator will be integrated into the objective equation and it avoids the Fourier inverse transform in our inversion process. Furthermore, the background constraints of model parameters are taken into consideration to improve the stability and reliability of inversion which could compensate for the low-frequency components of seismic signals. Besides, the different frequency components of seismic signals can realize decoupling automatically. This will help us to solve the inverse problem by means of multi-component successive iterations and the convergence precision of the inverse problem could be improved. So, superior resolution compared with the conventional time-domain pre-stack inversion could be achieved easily. Synthetic tests illustrate that the proposed method could achieve high-resolution results with a high degree of agreement with the theoretical model and verify the quality of anti-noise. Finally, applications on a field data case demonstrate that the proposed method could obtain stable inversion results of elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in conformity with the real logging data.

  13. Predicting saturation of gas hydrates using pre-stack seismic data, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelander, Dianna; Dai, Jianchun; Bunge, George

    2010-03-01

    A promising method for gas hydrates exploration incorporates pre-stack seismic inversion data, elastic properties modeling, and seismic interpretation to predict saturation of gas hydrates ( Sgh). The technology can be modified slightly and used for predicting hydrate concentrations in shallow arctic locations as well. Examples from Gulf of Mexico Walker Ridge (WR) and Green Canyon (GC) protraction areas illustrate how Sgh was derived and used to support the selection of well locations to be drilled for gas hydrates in sand reservoirs by the Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) Leg II cruise in 2009. Concentrations of hydrates were estimated through the integration of seismic inversion of carefully conditioned pre-stack data, seismic stratigraphic interpretation, and shallow rock property modeling. Rock property trends were established by applying principles of rock physics and shallow sediment compaction, constrained by regional geological knowledge. No nearby sonic or density logs were available to define the elastic property trends in the zone of interest. Sgh volumes were generated by inverting pre-stack data to acoustic and shear impedance (PI and SI) volumes, and then analyzing deviations from modeled impedance trends. In order to enhance the quality of the inversion, we stress the importance of maximizing the signal to noise ratio of the offset data by conditioning seismic angle gathers prior to inversion. Seismic interpretation further plays an important role by identifying false anomalies such as hard, compact strata, which can produce apparent high Sgh values, and by identifying the more promising strata and structures for containing the hydrates. This integrated workflow presents a highly promising methodology, appropriate for the exploration of gas hydrates.

  14. 3D annotation and manipulation of medical anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Schaller, Christian; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Although the medical scanners are rapidly moving towards a three-dimensional paradigm, the manipulation and annotation/labeling of the acquired data is still performed in a standard 2D environment. Editing and annotation of three-dimensional medical structures is currently a complex task and rather time-consuming, as it is carried out in 2D projections of the original object. A major problem in 2D annotation is the depth ambiguity, which requires 3D landmarks to be identified and localized in at least two of the cutting planes. Operating directly in a three-dimensional space enables the implicit consideration of the full 3D local context, which significantly increases accuracy and speed. A three-dimensional environment is as well more natural optimizing the user's comfort and acceptance. The 3D annotation environment requires the three-dimensional manipulation device and display. By means of two novel and advanced technologies, Wii Nintendo Controller and Philips 3D WoWvx display, we define an appropriate 3D annotation tool and a suitable 3D visualization monitor. We define non-coplanar setting of four Infrared LEDs with a known and exact position, which are tracked by the Wii and from which we compute the pose of the device by applying a standard pose estimation algorithm. The novel 3D renderer developed by Philips uses either the Z-value of a 3D volume, or it computes the depth information out of a 2D image, to provide a real 3D experience without having some special glasses. Within this paper we present a new framework for manipulation and annotation of medical landmarks directly in three-dimensional volume.

  15. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  17. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  18. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  19. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  1. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  2. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  3. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  4. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nana; Gan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. PMID:25254237

  5. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  6. Implementation of active-type Lamina 3D display system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangcheol; Baek, Hogil; Min, Sung-Wook; Park, Soon-Gi; Park, Min-Kyu; Yoo, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Rin; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-06-15

    Lamina 3D display is a new type of multi-layer 3D display, which utilizes the polarization state as a new dimension of depth information. Lamina 3D display system has advanced properties - to reduce the data amount representing 3D image, to be easily made using the conventional projectors, and to have a potential being applied to the many applications. However, the system might have some limitations in depth range and viewing angle due to the properties of the expressive volume components. In this paper, we propose the volume using the layers of switchable diffusers to implement the active-type Lamina 3D display system. Because the diffusing rate of the layers has no relation with the polarization state, the polarizer wheel is applied to the proposed system in purpose of making the sectioned image synchronized with the diffusing layer at the designated location. The imaging volume of the proposed system consists of five layers of polymer dispersed liquid crystal and the total size of the implemented volume is 24x18x12 mm3(3). The proposed system can achieve the improvements of viewing qualities such as enhanced depth expression and widened viewing angle.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  13. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.

  14. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  15. 3D object recognition in TOF data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Holger; Albrecht, Martin; Grothof, Markus; Hussmann, Stephan; Oikonomidis, Nikolaos; Schwarte, Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    In the last years 3D-Vision systems based on the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) principle have gained more importance than Stereo Vision (SV). TOF offers a direct depth-data acquisition, whereas SV involves a great amount of computational power for a comparable 3D data set. Due to the enormous progress in TOF-techniques, nowadays 3D cameras can be manufactured and be used for many practical applications. Hence there is a great demand for new accurate algorithms for 3D object recognition and classification. This paper presents a new strategy and algorithm designed for a fast and solid object classification. A challenging example - accurate classification of a (half-) sphere - demonstrates the performance of the developed algorithm. Finally, the transition from a general model of the system to specific applications such as Intelligent Airbag Control and Robot Assistance in Surgery are introduced. The paper concludes with the current research results in the above mentioned fields.

  16. Prestack seismic data regularization using a time-variant anisotropic Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiangbo; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Shengchao

    2016-08-01

    The Radon transform (RT) has been widely used in seismic data processing. In this paper, we develop a sparse time-variant anisotropic Radon transform (ART) to regularize and interpolate the prestack seismic data. By introducing the anelliptical parameter η, the ART has a more accurate integral path than other widely used RTs, which produces a better energy-focused Radon panel in the case of a vertical transverse isotropy VTI medium or seismic gather with a large moveout. To promote the sparsity of the Radon panel, the RT is realized as a l 1-l 2 norm inversion problem, and the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm is imposed to solve this sparsity-constrained inversion problem. Compared with the time-invariant parabolic RT in the mixed frequency-time domain and time-variant hyperbolic RT, the reconstructed result of the ART has the best performance and the least reconstruction error in a general synthetic VTI medium. Another field marine example further demonstrates that the ART is effective and robust for prestack seismic data regularization.

  17. Volumetric image display for complex 3D data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Che-Chih; Chen, Jyh Shing

    2000-05-01

    A volumetric image display is a new display technology capable of displaying computer generated 3D images in a volumetric space. Many viewers can walk around the display and see the image from omni-directions simultaneously without wearing any glasses. The image is real and possesses all major elements in both physiological and psychological depth cues. Due to the volumetric nature of its image, the VID can provide the most natural human-machine interface in operations involving 3D data manipulation and 3D targets monitoring. The technology creates volumetric 3D images by projecting a series of profiling images distributed in the space form a volumetric image because of the after-image effect of human eyes. Exemplary applications in biomedical image visualization were tested on a prototype display, using different methods to display a data set from Ct-scans. The features of this display technology make it most suitable for applications that require quick understanding of the 3D relations, need frequent spatial interactions with the 3D images, or involve time-varying 3D data. It can also be useful for group discussion and decision making.

  18. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  19. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  20. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  1. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  2. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  3. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  4. Dip-movement processing for depth-variable velocity. [Correction for variation of velocity with depth

    SciTech Connect

    Artley, C.T.

    1992-12-01

    Dip-moveout correction (DMO) has become commonplace in the seismic processing flow. The goal of DMO processing is to transform the NMO-corrected data to zero-offset, so that the application of zero-offset (poststack) migration is equivalent to full prestack migration of the recorded data. Nearly all DMO implementations assume that the seismic velocity is constant. Usually, this is an acceptable tradeoff because of the tremendous cost savings of DMO and poststack migration versus prestack migration. Where the velocity changes rapidly with depth, however, this constant velocity theory can yield inadequate results. For many areas, such as the Gulf Coast, a velocity function that varies with depth is a reasonable approximation to the true velocity field. Using ray tracing, I find the raypaths from the source and receiver to the reflection point with the given recording time. The time along the corresponding zero-offset ray gives the DMO correction. The relationships between the three rays are expressed by a system of nonlinear equations. By simultaneously solving the equations via Newton-Raphson iteration, I determine the mapping that transforms nonzero-offset data to zero-offset. Unlike previous schemes that approximately handle vertical velocity variation, this method makes no assumptions about the offset, dip, or hyperbolic moveout.

  5. Phase mask optimization for 3D parallax EDF microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Ingeborg E.; Gierlack, Michael; Höppel, Robert; Landskron, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Extended depth-of-field (EDF) microscopy is a well-investigated and very simple method to obtain projection images with an extended depth of focus. Despite its advantages of being a real-time method applicable to any microscopic mode with high lateral resolution that can be simply realized by extending a commercial microscope, the lack of z-correlation is still a problem. In this work we present a combined technique of EDF and stereomicroscopy. By cross-correlation depth information is obtained. Finally, 3D images are reconstructed for best phase masks and simulation results are evaluated experimentally.

  6. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  7. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  8. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  9. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  10. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  11. Estimation of gas-hydrate distribution from 3-D seismic data in a small area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Bo-Yeon; Kang, Nyeon-Keon; Yoo, Dong-Geun; Lee, Gwang-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the gas-hydrate resource in a small (5 km x 5 km) area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea from 3-D seismic and well-log data together with core measurement data, using seismic inversion and multi-attribute transform techniques. Multi-attribute transform technique finds the relationship between measured logs and the combination of the seismic attributes and various post-stack and pre-stack attributes computed from inversion. First, the gas-hydrate saturation and S-wave velocity at the wells were estimated from the simplified three-phase Biot-type equation (STPBE). The core X-ray diffraction data were used to compute the elastic properties of solid components of sediment, which are the key input parameters to the STPBE. Next, simultaneous pre-stack inversion was carried out to obtain P-wave impedance, S-wave impedance, density and lambda-mu-rho attributes. Then, the porosity and gas-hydrate saturation of 3-D seismic volume were predicted from multi-attribute transform. Finally, the gas-hydrate resource was computed by the multiplication of the porosity and gas-hydrate saturation volumes.

  12. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehler, Eric D.; Barney, Brett M.; Higgins, Patrick D.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  13. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  14. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Ehler, Eric D; Barney, Brett M; Higgins, Patrick D; Dusenbery, Kathryn E

    2014-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification.Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms.The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods.A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use.

  15. Research of 3D display using anamorphic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Honda, Toshio

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the auto-stereoscopic display which can reconstruct more reality and viewer friendly 3-D image by increasing the number of parallaxes and giving motion parallax horizontally. It is difficult to increase number of parallaxes to give motion parallax to the 3-D image without reducing the resolution, because the resolution of display device is insufficient. The magnification and the image formation position can be selected independently in horizontal direction and the vertical direction by projecting between the display device and the 3-D image with the anamorphic optics. The anamorphic optics is an optics system with different magnification in horizontal direction and the vertical direction. It consists of the combination of cylindrical lenses with different focal length. By using this optics, even if we use a dynamic display such as liquid crystal display (LCD), it is possible to display the realistic 3-D image having motion parallax. Motion parallax is obtained by assuming width of the single parallax at the viewing position to be about the same size as the pupil diameter of viewer. In addition, because the focus depth of the 3-D image is deep in this method, conflict of accommodation and convergence is small, and natural 3-D image can be displayed.

  16. 3D visualization for research and teaching in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Today, we are provided with an abundance of visual images from a variety of sources. In doing research, data visualization represents an important part, and sophisticated models require special tools that should enhance the comprehension of modeling results. Also, helping our students gain visualization skills is an important way to foster greater comprehension when studying geosciences. For these reasons we build a 3D stereo-visualization system, or a GeoWall, that permits to explore in depth 3D modeling results and provide for students an attractive way for data visualization. In this study, we present the architecture of such low cost system, and how is used. The system consists of three main parts: a DLP-3D capable display, a high performance workstation and several pairs of wireless liquid crystal shutter eyewear. The system is capable of 3D stereo visualization of Google Earth and/or 3D numeric modeling results. Also, any 2D image or movie can be instantly viewed in 3D stereo. Such flexible-easy-to-use visualization system proved to be an essential research and teaching tool.

  17. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-04-29

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  18. 3D cinema to 3DTV content adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasakethu, L.; Blondé, L.; Doyen, D.; Huynh-Thu, Q.

    2012-03-01

    3D cinema and 3DTV have grown in popularity in recent years. Filmmakers have a significant opportunity in front of them given the recent success of 3D films. In this paper we investigate whether this opportunity could be extended to the home in a meaningful way. "3D" perceived from viewing stereoscopic content depends on the viewing geometry. This implies that the stereoscopic-3D content should be captured for a specific viewing geometry in order to provide a satisfactory 3D experience. However, although it would be possible, it is clearly not viable, to produce and transmit multiple streams of the same content for different screen sizes. In this study to solve the above problem, we analyze the performance of six different disparity-based transformation techniques, which could be used for cinema-to-3DTV content conversion. Subjective tests are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms in terms of depth effect, visual comfort and overall 3D quality. The resultant 3DTV experience is also compared to that of cinema. We show that by applying the proper transformation technique on the content originally captured for cinema, it is possible to enhance the 3DTV experience. The selection of the appropriate transformation is highly dependent on the content characteristics.

  19. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  20. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  1. 3D Scene Restoration Using One Active PTZ Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiev, K. M.; Nikolova, I. N.; Zapryanov, G. S.

    2009-10-01

    The paper considers the task of recovery of 3D information about the scene from single camera images. The basic idea is to extract the useful depth information from the images automatically and efficiently. Depth perception with single standard video surveillance camera is a challenging problem. The difficulties in deriving the distance to the observed objects in the scene can be partially overcome using active PTZ cameras and suitable control of camera parameters. There are several techniques for depth recovery. Here, the task of depth estimation in the context of the well known depth from defocus approach is considered. In this paper, it is proposed the problem to be solved as classical nonlinear line fitting optimization problem. The characteristics of the approach are discussed. Experimental studies, using test patterns and real objects are presented.

  2. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  3. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  4. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  5. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  6. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  7. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  8. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  9. Joint calibration of 3D resist image and CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; He, Y. Y.; Tang, Y. P.; Chang, Y. T.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, an optical proximity correction model is to evaluate the resist image at a specific depth within the photoresist and then extract the resist contours from the image. Calibration is generally implemented by comparing resist contours with the critical dimensions (CD). The wafer CD is usually collected by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which evaluates the CD based on some criterion that is a function of gray level, differential signal, threshold or other parameters set by the SEM. However, the criterion does not reveal which depth the CD is obtained at. This depth inconsistency between modeling and SEM makes the model calibration difficult for low k1 images. In this paper, the vertical resist profile is obtained by modifying the model from planar (2D) to quasi-3D approach and comparing the CD from this new model with SEM CD. For this quasi-3D model, the photoresist diffusion along the depth of the resist is considered and the 3D photoresist contours are evaluated. The performance of this new model is studied and is better than the 2D model.

  10. Subjective evaluation of a 3D videoconferencing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizek, Hadi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Johanson, Mathias

    2014-03-01

    A shortcoming of traditional videoconferencing systems is that they present the user with a flat, two-dimensional image of the remote participants. Recent advances in autostereoscopic display technology now make it possible to develop video conferencing systems supporting true binocular depth perception. In this paper, we present a subjective evaluation of a prototype multiview autostereoscopic video conferencing system and suggest a number of possible improvements based on the results. Whereas methods for subjective evaluation of traditional 2D videoconferencing systems are well established, the introduction of 3D requires an extension of the test procedures to assess the quality of depth perception. For this purpose, two depth-based test tasks have been designed and experiments have been conducted with test subjects comparing the 3D system to a conventional 2D video conferencing system. The outcome of the experiments show that the perception of depth is significantly improved in the 3D system, but the overall quality of experience is higher in the 2D system.

  11. Prestack AVA inversion of exact Zoeppritz equations based on modified Trivariate Cauchy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Li, Jingye; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Xingye; Chen, Li

    2017-03-01

    Obtaining interlayer weak reflection information that helps identify properties and accurate density information from complex and elusive reservoirs is particularly important for reservoir characterization and detection. However, conventional prestack amplitude variation with incidence angle inversion method is strongly influenced by the accuracy of the approximate Zoeppritz equations, which suppresses weak reflections coming from the commonly used prior distribution. In this paper, we address these problems by using exact Zoeppritz equations. First, the objective function of the inverse problem was constructed and the modified Cauchy distribution was introduced as the prior information by utilizing Bayes' theorem. In the complicated objective function, the forward operators are the sophisticated and nonlinear Zoeppritz equations with respect to estimate parameters. We then combined the idea of generalized linear inversion with iterative reweighed least-squares algorithm in order to solve the problem. Generalized linear inversion was used to solve the objective function, from which a nonlinear solution of the model parameters' perturbations can be calculated. The iterative reweighed least-squares algorithm was applied to solve the nonlinear expression in an attempt to obtain an updated iterative formula of the model parameters. Therefore the prestack amplitude variation with incidence angle inversion was able to be performed in order to better characterize a reservoir. Both synthetic and field data examples show that the new method can not only directly inverse P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density, but also provides accurate estimation results, particularly for density. The introduction of the modified Trivariate Cauchy prior constraints effectively estimated and inverted elastic parameters of weak reflections. Both examples demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  13. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  14. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  15. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  16. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  17. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  18. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  19. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  20. Study of capabilities and limitations of 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemu, H. G.

    2012-04-01

    3D printing is one of the developments in rapid prototyping technology. The inception and development of the technology has highly assisted the product development phase of product design and manufacturing. The technology is particularly important in educating product design and 3D modeling because it helps students to visualize their design idea, to enhance their creative design process and enables them to touch and feel the result of their innovative work. The availability of many 3D printers on the market has created a certain level of challenge for the user. Among others, complexity of part geometry, material type, compatibility with 3D CAD models and other technical aspects still need in-depth study. This paper presents results of the experimental work on the capabilities and limitations of the Z510 3D printer from Z-corporation. Several parameters such as dimensional and geometrical accuracy, surface quality and strength as a function of model size, orientation and file exchange format are closely studied.

  1. 3D Medical Collaboration Technology to Enhance Emergency Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Söderholm, Hanna M.; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Ampalam, Manoj; Krishnan, Srinivas; Noel, Vincent; Noland, Michael; Manning, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) videoconferencing has been explored widely in the past 15–20 years to support collaboration in healthcare. Two issues that arise in most evaluations of 2D videoconferencing in telemedicine are the difficulty obtaining optimal camera views and poor depth perception. To address these problems, we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to reconstruct dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and of events taking place within. The 3D views could be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals equipped with fixed displays or with mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). The remote professionals’ viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically (continuously) via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewers head-slaved or hand-slaved virtual cameras for monoscopic or stereoscopic viewing of the dynamic reconstructions. We call this idea remote 3D medical collaboration. In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical collaboration technology; we describe the relevant computer vision, computer graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present evaluation results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical collaboration technology could offer benefits over conventional 2D videoconferencing in emergency healthcare. PMID:19521951

  2. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  3. Free and open-source automated 3-D microscope.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, Bas; Petersen, Emily E; Hunt, Emily J; Pearce, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, noninterchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open-source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a USB microscope. Precision measurements were determined to have an average error of 10 μm at the maximum speed and 27 μm at the minimum recorded speed. Accuracy tests yielded an error of 0.15%. The machine is a true 3-D stage and thus able to operate with USB microscopes or conventional desktop microscopes. It is larger than all commercial alternatives, and is thus capable of high-depth images over unprecedented areas and complex geometries. The repeatability is below 2-D microscope stages, but testing shows that it is adequate for the majority of scientific applications. The open-source microscope stage costs less than 3-9% of the closest proprietary commercial stages. This extreme affordability vastly improves accessibility for 3-D microscopy throughout the world.

  4. Development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataupsky, Mark; Turner, Timothy L.; Lane, Harold; Crittenden, Lucille

    1989-01-01

    Computer-generated displays are becoming increasingly popular in aerospace applications. The use of stereo 3-D technology provides an opportunity to present depth perceptions which otherwise might be lacking. In addition, the third dimension could also be used as an additional dimension along which information can be encoded. Historically, the stereo 3-D displays have been used in entertainment, in experimental facilities, and in the handling of hazardous waste. In the last example, the source of the stereo images generally has been remotely controlled television camera pairs. The development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display used in a flight simulation environment is described. The applicability of stereo 3-D displays for aerospace crew stations to meet the anticipated needs for 2000 to 2020 time frame is investigated. Although, the actual equipment that could be used in an aerospace vehicle is not currently available, the lab research is necessary to determine where stereo 3-D enhances the display of information and how the displays should be formatted.

  5. Programming standards for effective S-3D game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neil; Matveev, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    When a video game is in development, more often than not it is being rendered in three dimensions - complete with volumetric depth. It's the PC monitor that is taking this three-dimensional information, and artificially displaying it in a flat, two-dimensional format. Stereoscopic drivers take the three-dimensional information captured from DirectX and OpenGL calls and properly display it with a unique left and right sided view for each eye so a proper stereoscopic 3D image can be seen by the gamer. The two-dimensional limitation of how information is displayed on screen has encouraged programming short-cuts and work-arounds that stifle this stereoscopic 3D effect, and the purpose of this guide is to outline techniques to get the best of both worlds. While the programming requirements do not significantly add to the game development time, following these guidelines will greatly enhance your customer's stereoscopic 3D experience, increase your likelihood of earning Meant to be Seen certification, and give you instant cost-free access to the industry's most valued consumer base. While this outline is mostly based on NVIDIA's programming guide and iZ3D resources, it is designed to work with all stereoscopic 3D hardware solutions and is not proprietary in any way.

  6. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  7. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, F

    2003-07-09

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.

  8. Stereo and motion in the display of 3-D scattergrams

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    A display technique is described that is useful for detecting structure in a 3-dimensional distribution of points. The technique uses a high resolution color raster display to produce a 3-D scattergram. Depth cueing is provided by motion parallax using a capture-replay mechanism. Stereo vision depth cues can also be provided. The paper discusses some general aspects of stereo scattergrams and describes their implementation as red/green anaglyphs. These techniques have been used with data sets containing over 20,000 data points. They can be implemented on relatively inexpensive hardware. (A film of the display was shown at the conference.)

  9. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  10. A perceptual preprocess method for 3D-HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yawen; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Yubing

    2015-08-01

    A perceptual preprocessing method for 3D-HEVC coding is proposed in the paper. Firstly we proposed a new JND model, which accounts for luminance contrast masking effect, spatial masking effect, and temporal masking effect, saliency characteristic as well as depth information. We utilize spectral residual approach to obtain the saliency map and built a visual saliency factor based on saliency map. In order to distinguish the sensitivity of objects in different depth. We segment each texture frame into foreground and background by a automatic threshold selection algorithm using corresponding depth information, and then built a depth weighting factor. A JND modulation factor is built with a linear combined with visual saliency factor and depth weighting factor to adjust the JND threshold. Then, we applied the proposed JND model to 3D-HEVC for residual filtering and distortion coefficient processing. The filtering process is that the residual value will be set to zero if the JND threshold is greater than residual value, or directly subtract the JND threshold from residual value if JND threshold is less than residual value. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve average bit rate reduction of 15.11%, compared to the original coding scheme with HTM12.1, while maintains the same subjective quality.

  11. Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.

  12. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  13. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  14. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  15. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  16. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  17. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  18. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  19. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  20. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. 360-degree panorama in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama was taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses (red left lens, blue right lens) are necessary to help identify surface detail. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible, including the double Twin Peaks at the horizon. Sojourner would later investigate the rock Barnacle Bill just to its left in this image, and the larger rock Yogi at its forward right.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. Stereoscopic imaging brings exceptional clarity and depth to many of the features in this image, particularly the ridge beyond the far left petal and the large rock Yogi. The curvature and misalignment of several section are due to image parallax.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  6. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  7. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  8. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  11. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  12. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  15. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  17. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  18. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. Towards real-time change detection in videos based on existing 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Boitumelo; Schuchert, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Image based change detection is of great importance for security applications, such as surveillance and reconnaissance, in order to find new, modified or removed objects. Such change detection can generally be performed by co-registration and comparison of two or more images. However, existing 3d objects, such as buildings, may lead to parallax artifacts in case of inaccurate or missing 3d information, which may distort the results in the image comparison process, especially when the images are acquired from aerial platforms like small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, considering only intensity information may lead to failures in detection of changes in the 3d structure of objects. To overcome this problem, we present an approach that uses Structure-from-Motion (SfM) to compute depth information, with which a 3d change detection can be performed against an existing 3d model. Our approach is capable of the change detection in real-time. We use the input frames with the corresponding camera poses to compute dense depth maps by an image-based depth estimation algorithm. Additionally we synthesize a second set of depth maps, by rendering the existing 3d model from the same camera poses as those of the image-based depth map. The actual change detection is performed by comparing the two sets of depth maps with each other. Our method is evaluated on synthetic test data with corresponding ground truth as well as on real image test data.

  1. Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Yücel; Kul, Basri; Okursoy, Rasim

    2008-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software. PMID:27879888

  2. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  5. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  6. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  8. Optical Approach to Resin Formulation for 3D Printed Microfluidics†

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hua; Beauchamp, Michael; Perry, Steven; Woolley, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics imposes different requirements on 3D printing compared to many applications because the critical features for microfluidics consist of internal microvoids. Resins for general 3D printing applications, however, are not necessarily formulated to meet the requirements of microfluidics and minimize the size of fabricated voids. In this paper we use an optical approach to guide custom formulation of resins to minimize the cross sectional size of fabricated flow channels as exemplars of such voids. We focus on stereolithgraphy (SL) 3D printing with Digital Light Processing (DLP) based on a micromirror array and use a commercially available 3D printer. We develop a mathematical model for the optical dose delivered through the thickness of a 3D printed part, including the effect of voids. We find that there is a fundamental trade-off between the homogeneity of the optical dose within individual layers and how far the critical dose penetrates into a flow channel during fabrication. We also experimentally investigate the practical limits of flow channel miniaturization given the optical properties of a resin and find that the minimum flow channel height is ~3.5–5.5ha where ha is the optical penetration depth of the resin, and that the minimum width is 4 pixels in the build plane. We also show that the ratio of the build layer thickness to ha should be in the range 0.3–1.0 to obtain the minimum flow channel height for a given resin. The minimum flow channel size that we demonstrate for a custom resin is 60 μm × 108 μm for a 10 μm build layer thickness. This work lays the foundation for 3D printing of <100 μm microfluidic features. PMID:26744624

  9. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  10. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  11. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  12. Fine-scale thermohaline ocean structure retrieved with 2-D prestack full-waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data: Application to the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Ranero, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of 2-D time-domain, adjoint-state acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to retrieve high-resolution models of ocean physical parameters such as sound speed, temperature and salinity. The proposed method is first described and then applied to prestack multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) in 2007 in the framework of the Geophysical Oceanography project. The inversion strategy flow includes specifically designed data preconditioning for acoustic noise reduction, followed by the inversion of sound speed in the shotgather domain. We show that the final sound speed model has a horizontal resolution of ˜ 70 m, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the initial model constructed with coincident eXpendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data, and close to the theoretical resolution of O(λ). Temperature (T) and salinity (S) are retrieved with the same lateral resolution as sound speed by combining the inverted sound speed model with the thermodynamic equation of seawater and a local, depth-dependent T-S relation derived from regional conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. The comparison of the inverted T and S models with XBT and CTD casts deployed simultaneously to the MCS acquisition shows that the thermohaline contrasts are resolved with an accuracy of 0.18oC for temperature and 0.08 PSU for salinity. The combination of oceanographic and MCS data into a common, pseudo-automatic inversion scheme allows to quantitatively resolve submeso-scale features that ought to be incorporated into larger-scale ocean models of oceans structure and circulation.

  13. Dip-movement processing for depth-variable velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Artley, C.T.

    1992-12-01

    Dip-moveout correction (DMO) has become commonplace in the seismic processing flow. The goal of DMO processing is to transform the NMO-corrected data to zero-offset, so that the application of zero-offset (poststack) migration is equivalent to full prestack migration of the recorded data. Nearly all DMO implementations assume that the seismic velocity is constant. Usually, this is an acceptable tradeoff because of the tremendous cost savings of DMO and poststack migration versus prestack migration. Where the velocity changes rapidly with depth, however, this constant velocity theory can yield inadequate results. For many areas, such as the Gulf Coast, a velocity function that varies with depth is a reasonable approximation to the true velocity field. Using ray tracing, I find the raypaths from the source and receiver to the reflection point with the given recording time. The time along the corresponding zero-offset ray gives the DMO correction. The relationships between the three rays are expressed by a system of nonlinear equations. By simultaneously solving the equations via Newton-Raphson iteration, I determine the mapping that transforms nonzero-offset data to zero-offset. Unlike previous schemes that approximately handle vertical velocity variation, this method makes no assumptions about the offset, dip, or hyperbolic moveout.

  14. Implementation of Elastic Prestack Reverse-Time Migration Using an Efficient Finite-Difference Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongyong; Yang, Lei; Dai, Hengchang; Li, Xiang-Yang

    2016-10-01

    Elastic reverse-time migration (RTM) can reflect the underground elastic information more comprehensively than single-component Pwave migration. One of the most important requirements of elastic RTM is to solve wave equations. The imaging accuracy and efficiency of RTM depends heavily on the algorithms used for solving wave equations. In this paper, we propose an efficient staggered-grid finite-difference (SFD) scheme based on a sampling approximation method with adaptive variable difference operator lengths to implement elastic prestack RTM. Numerical dispersion analysis and wavefield extrapolation results show that the sampling approximation SFD scheme has greater accuracy than the conventional Taylor-series expansion SFD scheme. We also test the elastic RTM algorithm on theoretical models and a field data set, respectively. Experiments presented demonstrate that elastic RTM using the proposed SFD scheme can generate better images than that using the Taylor-series expansion SFD scheme, particularly for PS images. FurH. thermore, the application of adaptive variable difference operator lengths can effectively improve the computational efficiency of elastic RTM.

  15. Full-parallax 3D display from single-shot Kinect capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Dorado, Adrián.; Saavedra, Genaro; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Shin, Donghak; Lee, Byung-Gook

    2015-05-01

    We propose the fusion between two concepts that are very successful in the area of 3D imaging and sensing. Kinect technology permits the registration, in real time, but with low resolution, of accurate depth maps of big, opaque, diffusing 3D scenes. Our proposal consists on transforming the sampled depth map, provided by the Kinect technology, into an array of microimages whose position; pitch and resolution are in good accordance with the characteristics of an integral- imaging monitor. By projecting this information onto such monitor we are able to produce 3D images with continuous perspective and full parallax.

  16. 3D visualization of membrane failures in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadvinder; Orfino, Francesco P.; Dutta, Monica; Kjeang, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Durability issues in fuel cells, due to chemical and mechanical degradation, are potential impediments in their commercialization. Hydrogen leak development across degraded fuel cell membranes is deemed a lifetime-limiting failure mode and potential safety issue that requires thorough characterization for devising effective mitigation strategies. The scope and depth of failure analysis has, however, been limited by the 2D nature of conventional imaging. In the present work, X-ray computed tomography is introduced as a novel, non-destructive technique for 3D failure analysis. Its capability to acquire true 3D images of membrane damage is demonstrated for the very first time. This approach has enabled unique and in-depth analysis resulting in novel findings regarding the membrane degradation mechanism; these are: significant, exclusive membrane fracture development independent of catalyst layers, localized thinning at crack sites, and demonstration of the critical impact of cracks on fuel cell durability. Evidence of crack initiation within the membrane is demonstrated, and a possible new failure mode different from typical mechanical crack development is identified. X-ray computed tomography is hereby established as a breakthrough approach for comprehensive 3D characterization and reliable failure analysis of fuel cell membranes, and could readily be extended to electrolyzers and flow batteries having similar structure.

  17. Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.

  18. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  19. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.

  20. Computational challenges of emerging novel true 3D holographic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin D.; Pain, Douglas A.; Stanley, Maurice; Slinger, Christopher W.

    2000-11-01

    A hologram can produce all the 3D depth cues that the human visual system uses to interpret and perceive real 3D objects. As such it is arguably the ultimate display technology. Computer generated holography, in which a computer calculates a hologram that is then displayed using a highly complex modulator, combines the ultimate qualities of a traditional hologram with the dynamic capabilities of a computer display producing a true 3D real image floating in space. This technology is set to emerge over the next decade, potentially revolutionizing application areas such as virtual prototyping (CAD-CAM, CAID etc.), tactical information displays, data visualization and simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational challenges of this technology. We consider different classes of computational algorithms from true computer-generated holograms (CGH) to holographic stereograms. Each has different characteristics in terms of image qualities, computational resources required, total CGH information content, and system performance. Possible trade- offs will be discussed including reducing the parallax. The software and hardware architectures used to implement the CGH algorithms have many possible forms. Different schemes, from high performance computing architectures to graphics based cluster architectures will be discussed and compared. Assessment will be made of current and future trends looking forward to a practical dynamic CGH based 3D display.

  1. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  2. Scanning Acoustic Microscope of 3D-Interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai Kong, Lay; Diebold, A. C.; Rudack, A.; Arkalgud, S.

    2009-09-01

    The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany in collaboration with International SEMATECH is investigating the use of Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) for analyzing 3D Interconnects. SAM is a non-destructive metrology technique which utilizes high frequency ultrasound to generate a microscopic image of the internal parts of a specimen. The goal of this project is to develop microscopic techniques for evaluating Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D-Interconnects. Preliminary data shows voids and other defects in the interface between bonded wafers as shown in Figure 1. Our SAM laboratory system operates at 230 MHz and has a spatial resolution of 5-10 μm and focal length of 5.9 mm on a silicon wafer. The spatial resolution and sampling depth depend on the ultrasonic frequency, sound velocity, focal length and diameter of piezoelectric crystal. Typically, the silicon wafers have a thickness of 775 μm before they are bonded. Our initial work is focused on blanket wafers in order to develop the bonding process. The next step is to bond wafers with test die where the patterning obscures the interface. This paper will discuss the limitations of SAM and compare it to infrared microscopy which is another important imaging capability for 3D Interconnect. We also discuss the current status of research into more advanced acoustic microscopy methods and how this might impact 3D Interconnect imaging.

  3. Use scenarios: mobile 3D television and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Dominik; Weitzel, Mandy; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2009-02-01

    The focus of 3D television and video has been in technical development while hardly any attention has been paid on user expectations and needs of related applications. The object of the study is to examine user requirements for mobile 3D television and video in depth. We conducted two qualitative studies, focus groups and probe studies, to improve the understanding of user approach. Eight focus groups were carried out with altogether 46 participants focusing on use scenario development. The data-collection of the probe study was done over the period of 4 weeks in the field with nine participants to reveal intrinsic user needs and expectations. Both studies were conducted and analyzed independently so that they did not influence each other. The results of both studies provide novel aspects of users, system and content, and context of use. In the paper, we present personas as first archetype users of mobile 3D television and video. Putting these personas into contexts, we summarize the results of our studies and previous related work in the form of use scenarios to guide the user-centered development of 3D television and video.

  4. 3D Multi-Spectrum Sensor System with Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  5. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  6. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  7. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  8. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  9. Research on gaze-based interaction to 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong-Moo; Jeon, Kyeong-Won; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2006-10-01

    There have been reported several researches on gaze tracking techniques using monocular camera or stereo camera. The most popular used gaze estimation techniques are based on PCCR (Pupil Center & Cornea Reflection). These techniques are for gaze tracking for 2D screen or images. In this paper, we address the gaze-based 3D interaction to stereo image for 3D virtual space. To the best of our knowledge, our paper first addresses the 3D gaze interaction techniques to 3D display system. Our research goal is the estimation of both of gaze direction and gaze depth. Until now, the most researches are focused on only gaze direction for the application to 2D display system. It should be noted that both of gaze direction and gaze depth should be estimated for the gaze-based interaction in 3D virtual space. In this paper, we address the gaze-based 3D interaction techniques with glassless stereo display. The estimation of gaze direction and gaze depth from both eyes is a new important research topic for gaze-based 3D interaction. We present our approach for the estimation of gaze direction and gaze depth and show experimentation results.

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  15. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  3. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  4. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  5. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  6. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  7. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Lin, Xue; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces.

  8. Colored 3D surface reconstruction using Kinect sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lian-peng; Chen, Xiang-ning; Chen, Ying; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    A colored 3D surface reconstruction method which effectively fuses the information of both depth and color image using Microsoft Kinect is proposed and demonstrated by experiment. Kinect depth images are processed with the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation which efficiently combines the depth and color data to improve its quality. The registered depth data are integrated to achieve a surface reconstruction through the colored truncated signed distance fields presented in this paper. Finally, the improved ray casting for rendering full colored surface is implemented to estimate color texture of the reconstruction object. Capturing the depth and color images of a toy car, the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation is used to improve the quality of depth images and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is approximately 4.57 dB, which is better than 1.16 dB of the joint-bilateral filter. The colored construction results of toy car demonstrate the suitability and ability of the proposed method.

  9. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  10. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  11. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  12. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  13. Large Area Printing of 3D Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James J.; Beaulieu, Michael R.; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Kothari, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a readily scalable print, lift, and stack approach for producing large area, 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was used to pattern grating structures comprised of highly filled nanoparticle polymer composite resists with tune-able refractive indices (RI). The gratings were robust and upon release from a support substrate were oriented and stacked to yield 3D PCs. The RI of the composite resists was tuned between 1.58 and 1.92 at 800 nm while maintaining excellent optical transparency. The grating structure dimensions, line width, depth, and pitch, were easily varied by simply changing the imprint mold. For example, a 6 layer log-pile stack was prepared using a composite resist a RI of 1.72 yielding 72 % reflection at 900 nm. The process is scalable for roll-to-roll (R2R) production. Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing - an NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

  14. Optical characterization of different types of 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2012-03-01

    All 3D displays have the same intrinsic method to induce depth perception. They provide different images in the left and right eye of the observer to obtain the stereoscopic effect. The three most common solutions already available on the market are active glass, passive glass and auto-stereoscopic 3D displays. The three types of displays are based on different physical principle (polarization, time selection or spatial emission) and consequently require different measurement instruments and techniques. In the proposed paper, we present some of these solutions and the technical characteristics that can be obtained to compare the displays. We show in particular that local and global measurements can be made in the three cases to access to different characteristics. We also discuss the new technologies currently under development and their needs in terms of optical characterization.

  15. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  16. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  17. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  18. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  19. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  20. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  1. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  2. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  3. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  4. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  5. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  6. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  7. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  8. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  9. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  10. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  11. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  12. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  13. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  14. Disparity pattern-based autostereoscopic 3D metrology system for in situ measurement of microstructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Cheung, Chi Fai; Ren, MingJun; Whitehouse, David; Zhao, Xing

    2015-11-15

    This paper presents a disparity pattern-based autostereoscopic (DPA) 3D metrology system that makes use of a microlens array to capture raw 3D information of the measured surface in a single snapshot through a CCD camera. Hence, a 3D digital model of the target surface with the measuring data is generated through a system-associated direct extraction of disparity information (DEDI) method. The DEDI method is highly efficient for performing the direct 3D mapping of the target surface based on tomography-like operation upon every depth plane with the defocused information excluded. Precise measurement results are provided through an error-elimination process based on statistical analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed DPA 3D metrology system is capable of measuring 3D microstructured surfaces with submicrometer measuring repeatability for high precision and in situ measurement of microstructured surfaces.

  15. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  16. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  17. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  18. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  19. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  20. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  1. Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for 3-D infarct.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-constrained framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the 3-D myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of 3-D scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide 3-D imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the 3-D myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of 3-D infarct scar.

  2. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  3. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  4. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  5. Enhanced seismic depth imaging of complex fault-fold structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland Grech, Maria Graziella

    Synthetic seismic data were acquired over numerical and physical models, representing fault-fold structures encountered in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, to investigate which migration algorithm produces the best image in such complex environments. Results showed that pre-stack depth migration from topography with the known velocity model yielded the optimum migrated image. Errors in the positioning of a target underneath a dipping antisotropic overburden were also studied using multicomponent data. The largest error was observed on P-wave data where anisotropy was highest at 18%. For an overburden thickness of 1500 m, the target was imaged 300 m updip from the true location. Field data from a two-dimensional surface seismic line and a multioffset vertical seismic profile (VSP) from the Foothills of southern Alberta, Canada, were processed using a flow designed to yield an optimum depth image. Traveltime inversion of the first arrivals from all the shots from the multioffset VSP revealed that the Mesozoic shale strata in the area exhibit seismic velocity anisotropy. The anisotropy parameters, ε and delta, were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.05 respectively. Anisotropic pre-stack depth migration code for VSP and surface seismic data, which uses a modified version of a raytracer developed in this thesis for the computation of traveltime tables, was also developed. The algorithm was then used in a new method for integrated VSP and surface seismic depth imaging. Results from the migration of synthetic and field data show that the resulting integrated image is superior to that obtained from the migration of either data set alone or to that obtained from the conventional "splicing" approach. The combination of borehole and surface seismic data for anisotropy analysis, velocity model building, and depth migration, yielded a robust image even when the geology was complex, thus permitting a more accurate interpretation of the exploration target.

  6. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  7. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  8. 3-D effects of polarization switching on interdigitated electroded ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, David M.; Lynch, C. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used to obtain an in-plane d33 coupling from patch actuators. Existing design tools do not take into consideration the three dimensional effects of polarization reorientation. This work presents a 3-D finite element code that utilizes a micromechancial constitutive law with full ferroelectric switching. The code is used to explore the design of interdigitated electrode devices. The results point to several parameters that are important to the design of these devices. These include electrode spacing, electrode width, specimen thickness, and specimen depth.

  9. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Implementation Of True 3D Cursors In Computer Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, David R.; McAllister, David F.

    1988-06-01

    The advances in stereoscopic image display techniques have shown an increased need for real-time interaction with the three-dimensional image. We have developed a prototype real-time stereoscopic cursor to investigate this interaction. The results have pointed out areas where hardware speeds are a limiting factor, as well as areas where various methodologies cause perceptual difficulties. This paper addresses the psychological and perceptual anomalies involved in stereo image techniques, cursor generation and motion, and the use of the device as a 3D drawing and depth measuring tool.

  11. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  12. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  13. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  14. Wide-angle Marine Seismic Refraction Imaging of Vertical Faults: Pre-Stack Turning Wave Migrations of Synthetic Data and Implications for Survey Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. C.; Lizarralde, D.; McGuire, J.; Hole, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    We consider methodologies, including survey design and processing algorithms, which are best suited to imaging vertical reflectors in oceanic crust using marine seismic techniques. The ability to image the reflectivity structure of transform faults as a function of depth, for example, may provide new insights into what controls seismicity along these plate boundaries. Turning-wave migration has been used with success to image vertical faults on land. With synthetic datasets we find that this approach has unique difficulties in the deep ocean. The fault-reflected crustal refraction phase (Pg-r) typically used in pre-stack migrations is difficult to isolate in marine seismic data. An "imagable" Pg-r is only observed in a time window between the first arrivals and arrivals from the sediments and the thick, slow water layer at offsets beyond ~25 km. Ocean- bottom seismometers (OBSs), as opposed to a long surface streamer, must be used to acquire data suitable for crustal-scale vertical imaging. The critical distance for Moho reflections (PmP) in oceanic crust is also ~25 km, thus Pg-r and PmP-r are observed with very little separation, and the fault-reflected mantle refraction (Pn-r) arrives prior to Pg-r as the observation window opens with increased OBS-to-fault distance. This situation presents difficulties for "first-arrival" based Kirchoff migration approaches and suggests that wave- equation approaches, which in theory can image all three phases simultaneously, may be more suitable for vertical imaging in oceanic crust. We will present a comparison of these approaches as applied to a synthetic dataset generated from realistic, stochastic velocity models. We will assess their suitability, the migration artifacts unique to the deep ocean, and the ideal instrument layout for such an experiment.

  15. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  16. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  17. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  18. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  19. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  20. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  1. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  2. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  3. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  4. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  5. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  7. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  8. Neighboring block based disparity vector derivation for multiview compatible 3D-AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jewon; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Karczewicz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    3D-AVC being developed under Joint Collaborative Team on 3D Video Coding (JCT-3V) significantly outperforms the Multiview Video Coding plus Depth (MVC+D) which simultaneously encodes texture views and depth views with the multiview extension of H.264/AVC (MVC). However, when the 3D-AVC is configured to support multiview compatibility in which texture views are decoded without depth information, the coding performance becomes significantly degraded. The reason is that advanced coding tools incorporated into the 3D-AVC do not perform well due to the lack of a disparity vector converted from the depth information. In this paper, we propose a disparity vector derivation method utilizing only the information of texture views. Motion information of neighboring blocks is used to determine a disparity vector for a macroblock, so that the derived disparity vector is efficiently used for the coding tools in 3D-AVC. The proposed method significantly improves a coding gain of the 3D-AVC in the multiview compatible mode about 20% BD-rate saving in the coded views and 26% BD-rate saving in the synthesized views on average.

  9. The design and implementation of stereoscopic 3D scalable vector graphics based on WebKit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongxin; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which is a language designed based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is used to describe basic shapes embedded in webpages, such as circles and rectangles. However, it can only depict 2D shapes. As a consequence, web pages using classical SVG can only display 2D shapes on a screen. With the increasing development of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) technology, binocular 3D devices have been widely used. Under this circumstance, we intend to extend the widely used web rendering engine WebKit to support the description and display of S3D webpages. Therefore, the extension of SVG is of necessity. In this paper, we will describe how to design and implement SVG shapes with stereoscopic 3D mode. Two attributes representing the depth and thickness are added to support S3D shapes. The elimination of hidden lines and hidden surfaces, which is an important process in this project, is described as well. The modification of WebKit is also discussed, which is made to support the generation of both left view and right view at the same time. As is shown in the result, in contrast to the 2D shapes generated by the Google Chrome web browser, the shapes got from our modified browser are in S3D mode. With the feeling of depth and thickness, the shapes seem to be real 3D objects away from the screen, rather than simple curves and lines as before.

  10. Three-dimensional (3D) shadowgraph technique visualizes thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinzi; Zhang, Jun; Physics; Maths Research Institutes, NYU Shanghai Team; Applied Maths Lab, NYU Team

    2016-11-01

    Shadowgraph technique has been widely used in thermal convection, and in other types of convection and advection processes in fluids. The technique reveals minute density differences in the fluid, which is otherwise transparent to the eyes and to light-sensitive devices. However, such technique normally integrates the fluid information along the depth of view and collapses the 3D density field onto a 2D plane. In this work, we introduce a stereoscopic shadowgraph technique that preserves the information of the fluid depth by using two cross-field shadowgraphs. The two shadowgraphs are coded with different and complementary colors, and each is seen by only one eye of the viewer. The two shadowgraphs can also be temporally modulated to achieve the same stereoscopic vision of the convective fluid. We further discuss ways to make use of this technique in order to extract useful information for research in fluids.

  11. Robust 3D reconstruction with an RGB-D camera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangkan; Zhang, Guofeng; Bao, Hujun

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel 3D reconstruction approach using a low-cost RGB-D camera such as Microsoft Kinect. Compared with previous methods, our scanning system can work well in challenging cases where there are large repeated textures and significant depth missing problems. For robust registration, we propose to utilize both visual and geometry features and combine SFM technique to enhance the robustness of feature matching and camera pose estimation. In addition, a novel prior-based multicandidates RANSAC is introduced to efficiently estimate the model parameters and significantly speed up the camera pose estimation under multiple correspondence candidates. Even when serious depth missing occurs, our method still can successfully register all frames together. Loop closure also can be robustly detected and handled to eliminate the drift problem. The missing geometry can be completed by combining multiview stereo and mesh deformation techniques. A variety of challenging examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  15. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  16. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  17. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  18. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  19. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  20. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  1. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  2. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also b