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Sample records for 3-d stratigraphic inversion

  1. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  2. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  3. 3D Electromagnetic inversion using conjugate gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    In large scale 3D EM inverse problems it may not be possible to directly invert a full least-squares system matrix involving model sensitivity elements. Thus iterative methods must be employed. For the inverse problem, we favor either a linear or non-linear (NL) CG scheme, depending on the application. In a NL CG scheme, the gradient of the objective function is required at each relaxation step along with a univariate line search needed to determine the optimum model update. Solution examples based on both approaches will be presented.

  4. 3-D radial gravity gradient inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vanderlei C.; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2013-11-01

    We have presented a joint inversion of all gravity-gradient tensor components to estimate the shape of an isolated 3-D geological body located in subsurface. The method assumes the knowledge about the depth to the top and density contrast of the source. The geological body is approximated by an interpretation model formed by an ensemble of vertically juxtaposed 3-D right prisms, each one with known thickness and density contrast. All prisms forming the interpretation model have a polygonal horizontal cross-section that approximates a depth slice of the body. Each polygon defining a horizontal cross-section has the same fixed number of vertices, which are equally spaced from 0° to 360° and have their horizontal locations described in polar coordinates referred to an arbitrary origin inside the polygon. Although the number of vertices forming each polygon is known, the horizontal coordinates of these vertices are unknown. To retrieve a set of juxtaposed depth slices of the body, and consequently, its shape, our method estimates the radii of all vertices and the horizontal Cartesian coordinates of all arbitrary origins defining the geometry of all polygons describing the horizontal cross-sections of the prisms forming the interpretation model. To obtain a stable estimate that fits the observed data, we impose constraints on the shape of the estimated body. These constraints are imposed through the well-known zeroth- and first-order Tikhonov regularizations allowing, for example, the estimate of vertical or dipping bodies. If the data do not have enough in-depth resolution, the proposed inverse method can obtain a set of stable estimates fitting the observed data with different maximum depths. To analyse the data resolution and deal with this possible ambiguity, we plot the ℓ2-norm of the residuals (s) against the estimated volume (vp) produced by a set of estimated sources having different maximum depths. If this s × vp curve (s as a function of vp) shows a well

  5. Using 3D visualization and seismic attributes to improve structural and stratigraphic resolution of reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, J. ); Jones, G.L. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in hardware and software have given the interpreter and engineer new ways to view 3D seismic data and well bore information. Recent papers have also highlighted the use of various statistics and seismic attributes. By combining new 3D rendering technologies with recent trends in seismic analysis, the interpreter can improve the structural and stratigraphic resolution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper gives several examples using 3D visualization to better define both the structural and stratigraphic aspects of several different structural types from around the world. Statistics, 3D visualization techniques and rapid animation are used to show complex faulting and detailed channel systems. These systems would be difficult to map using either 2D or 3D data with conventional interpretation techniques.

  6. Using 3D visualization and seismic attributes to improve structural and stratigraphic resolution of reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, J.; Jones, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances in hardware and software have given the interpreter and engineer new ways to view 3D seismic data and well bore information. Recent papers have also highlighted the use of various statistics and seismic attributes. By combining new 3D rendering technologies with recent trends in seismic analysis, the interpreter can improve the structural and stratigraphic resolution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper gives several examples using 3D visualization to better define both the structural and stratigraphic aspects of several different structural types from around the world. Statistics, 3D visualization techniques and rapid animation are used to show complex faulting and detailed channel systems. These systems would be difficult to map using either 2D or 3D data with conventional interpretation techniques.

  7. Joint inversions of two VTEM surveys using quasi-3D TDEM and 3D magnetic inversion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Vlad; Di Massa, Domenico; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In the current paper, we present results of a joint quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) inversion of two versatile time domain electromagnetic (VTEM) datasets, as well as a joint 3D inversion of associated aeromagnetic datasets, from two surveys flown six years apart from one another (2007 and 2013) over a volcanogenic massive sulphide gold (VMS-Au) prospect in northern Ontario, Canada. The time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were inverted jointly using the spatially constrained inversion (SCI) approach. In order to increase the coherency in the model space, a calibration parameter was added. This was followed by a joint inversion of the total magnetic intensity (TMI) data extracted from the two surveys. The results of the inversions have been studied and matched with the known geology, adding some new valuable information to the ongoing mineral exploration initiative.

  8. 3D Magnetic inversion and remanence: solving the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, V.; Morris, W.

    2003-04-01

    3D inversion of surface magnetic data is a common processing technique when used in mineral exploration. The major drawback of most 3D inversion algorithms is that they assume that the surface magnetic anomaly is produced by induced magnetization and that there are no remanent magnetization or demagnetization effects present. This has a significant impact when modeling magnetic data that has remanent magnetization. The magnetic anomaly produced by a dipping subsurface body will be identical for a consistent relationship between the dip of the body and the dip of the magnetic vector, regardless of the actual dip of the magnetic body. For example, in the case where a subsurface body is dipping, such as a dipping dike, the dip estimated by the inversion routine will be correct only if induced magnetization is present. This has serious implications for mineral exploration. A solution to the remanence problem is to model the surface magnetic anomaly using a constrained 2D approach rather than 3D. Using a priori information on dip and strike length of a source body, it is possible to approximate the remanence direction and intensity. The 2D solutions can then be rendered into a 3D imaging package to create a model in 3D. A case study was performed on a mafic-ultramafic layered igneous intrusion located in Big Trout Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Large layered igneous intrusions are known to have significant remanence. Like many other layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, the Big Trout Lake Complex is highly prospective for Platinum Group Elements (PGEs). Intruded during Archean time, the Big Trout Lake Complex has been subsequently folded and faulted to near vertical. As a consequence of limited surface exposures, knowledge of layering within the pluton and the extent of deformation of the pluton is very limited. Newly acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data shows a strongly mineralized horizon within the intrusion that

  9. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  10. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  11. 3D-spectral CDIs: a fast alternative to 3D inversion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnae, James

    2015-09-01

    Virtually all airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data is interpreted using stitched 1D conductivity sections, derived from constrained inversion or fast but fairly accurate approximations. A small subset of this AEM data recently has been inverted using either block 3D models or thin plates, which processes have limitations in terms of cost and accuracy, and the results are in general strongly biased by the choice of starting models. Recent developments in spectral modelling have allowed fast 3D approximations of the EM response of both vortex induction and current gathering for simple geological target geometries. Fitting these spectral responses to AEM data should be sufficient to accurately locate current systems within the ground, and the behaviour of these local current systems can in theory approximately define a conductivity structure in 3D. This paper describes the results of initial testing of the algorithm in fitting vortex induction in a small target at the Forrestania test range, Western Australia, using results from a versatile time-domain electromagnetic (VTEM)-Max survey.

  12. Petroleum Systems of South Kara Basin: 3D stratigraphic simulation and basin modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malysheva, S.; Vasilyev, V.; Verzhbitsky, V.; Ananyev, V.; Murzin, R.; Komissarov, D.; Kosenkova, N.; Roslov, Yu.

    2012-04-01

    Petroleum systems of South Kara Basin are still poorly studied and hydrocarbon resource estimates vary depending on geological models and understanding of the basin evolution. The main purpose of the regional studies of South Kara Basin was to produce a consistent model, which would be able to explain the existence of the fields discovered in the area as well as to determine the most favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones in the study area for further exploration. In the study 3D stratigraphic simulation and basin modeling of South Kara Basin was carried out. The stratigraphic simulation results, along with geological, geophysical and geochemical data for the inland areas of Yamal and Gydan peninsulas and South Kara islands enabled to predict the lithological composition and distribution of source rocks, reservoirs and seals in the Kara Sea offshore area. Based on the basin modeling results hydrocarbon accumulations may occur in the reservoir facies of the wide stratigraphic range from Jurrasic to Cretaceous. The main source for the hydrocarbons, accumulated in the South Kara Basin Neocomian and Cenomanian reservoirs are the J3-K1 (the northward extension of Bazhenov Formation and its analogs of West Siberia), as well as J1 and probably J2 shales with predominantly marine type of kerogen (type II). Thermal and burial history restorations show that Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) sediments enriched with terrigenous organic matter (kerogen of type III) and containing coaly layers could not produce the hydrocarbon volumes to fill the giant Rusanovskoye and Leningradskoye gas-condensate fields as the K1 source rocks are not mature enough. The modeling results, in particular, suggest that the geologic conditions in the South Kara Basin are favorable for further discoveries of giant fields. Although gas accumulations are predominating in the basin, oil-and-gascondensate fields (not a pure oil fields though) with sufficient part of liquid hydrocarbons might be present

  13. 3D and 4D GPR for Stratigraphic and Hydrologic Characterization of Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.

    2008-05-01

    In a time of almost unlimited mobility, information, and connectivity it is surprising how our knowledge of natural systems becomes fragmented as soon as we enter the ground. Excavation, drilling, and 2D geophysics are unable to capture the spatio-temporal variability inside soil and rock volumes at the 1-10m scale. The problem is the lack of efficient and high-resolution imaging for the near surface domain. We have developed a high- resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system suitable for data acquisition at field sites. To achieve sharp and repeatable subsurface imaging we have integrated GPR with a rotary laser/IR strobe system. With 40 xyz coordinate updates per second, continuously moving GPR antennae can be tracked centimeter precise. A real-time LED guidance system shows the GPR antenna operator how to follow pre-computed survey tracks. Without having to stake out hundreds of survey tracks anymore one person now can scan an area of up to 600m2 per hour with a dual GPR antenna at 1m/s with 0.1m line spacing. The coordinate and GPR data are fused in real-time providing a first look of the subsurface in horizontal map view for quality control and in-field site assessment during data acquisition. The precision of the laser positioning system enables centimeter accurate repeat surveys to image and quantify water content changes in the vadose zone. To verify quantitative results of such 4D GPR we performed a controlled pond infiltration injecting 3200L of water from a 4x4m temporary pond with a thin soil layer and 5m of unsaturated porous limestone below. A total of sixteen repeated 3D GPR surveys were acquired just before the infiltration and in the following 2 weeks. All data were recorded with 250MHz antennae on a 5x10cm grid covering an area of 18x20m. Data processing included 3D migration and extraction of time shifts between pairs of time- lapse 3D GPR surveys. From the time shifts water content changes were computed using the Topp equation. The

  14. Leveraging 3D Wheeler Diagrams and relative time mapping in seismic data to improve stratigraphic interpretation: Application, Assumptions, and Sequence Stratigraphic Revelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggin, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of subsurface stratigraphic relationships is guided by stratigraphic concepts that were developed using many varieties and scales of data including paleontological samples, cuttings and core, outcrop analogs, well logs, and seismic. Subsurface stratigraphic correlations are strongly influenced by the type, density, and distribution of the data available. The exploration geologist typically interprets 2D and 3D seismic reflections to define prospects and plays. In structurally simple areas, he or she often assumes that seismic reflectors mark depositional boundaries that are essentially time-synchronous events represented by a single wavelet character. In reality, seismic reflectors usually display spatial wavelet variability, seldom resolve individual beds and are the product of the amplitude expression of a range of lithologic changes that encompasses a range of geologic time and depositional processes. Our assumption that seismic reflections are time-synchronous can lead to errors in stratigraphic correlation that only become evident when our prediction of well or field performance is unrealized. To mitigate the potential for this correlation error, we must modify how we interpret seismic data. In this presentation we will focus on the concept of defining or approximating time-correlative surfaces in seismic data, leverage concepts of the Wheeler transform to place these seismic reflectors into the relative time domain and then examine the diachronous nature of these time-mapped surfaces in 3D. We will then explore how the 3D mapping of time-correlative surfaces fits sequence stratigraphic concepts and discuss whether this new approach requires us to change our interpretation paradigms.

  15. Computational and methodological developments towards 3D full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Hu, G.; Jia, Y.; Operto, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is one of the most promising techniques for seismic imaging. It relies on a formalism taking into account every piece of information contained in the seismic data as opposed to more classical techniques such as travel time tomography. As a result, FWI is a high resolution imaging process able to reach a spatial accuracy equal to half a wavelength. FWI is based on a local optimization scheme and therefore the main limitation concerns the starting model which has to be closed enough to the real one in order to converge to the global minimum. Another counterpart of FWI is the required computational resources when considering models and frequencies of interest. The task becomes even more tremendous when one tends to perform the inversion using the elastic equation instead of using the acoustic approximation. This is the reason why until recently most studies were limited to 2D cases. In the last few years, due to the increase of the available computational power, FWI has focused a lot of interests and continuous efforts towards inversion of 3D models, leading to remarkable applications up to the continental scale. We investigate the computational burden induced by FWI in 3D elastic media and propose some strategic features leading to the reduction of the numerical cost while providing a great flexibility in the inversion parametrization. First, in order to release the memory requirements, we developed our FWI algorithm in the frequency domain and take benefit of the wave-number redundancy in the seismic data to process a quite reduced number of frequencies. To do so, we extract frequency solutions from time marching techniques which are efficient for 3D structures. Moreover, this frequency approach permits a multi-resolution strategy by proceeding from low to high frequencies: the final model at one frequency is used as the starting model for the next frequency. This procedure overcomes partially the non-linear behavior of the inversion

  16. Inverse Tomo-Lithography for Making Microscopic 3D Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Victor; Wiberg, Dean

    2003-01-01

    According to a proposal, basic x-ray lithography would be extended to incorporate a technique, called inverse tomography, that would enable the fabrication of microscopic three-dimensional (3D) objects. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would make it possible to produce complex shaped, submillimeter-sized parts that would be difficult or impossible to make in any other way. Examples of such shapes or parts include tapered helices, paraboloids with axes of different lengths, and even Archimedean screws that could serve as rotors in microturbines. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would be based partly on a prior microfabrication process known by the German acronym LIGA (lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding). In LIGA, one generates a precise, high-aspect ratio pattern by exposing a thick, x-ray-sensitive resist material to an x-ray beam through a mask that contains the pattern. One can electrodeposit metal into the developed resist pattern to form a precise metal part, then dissolve the resist to free the metal. Aspect ratios of 100:1 and patterns into resist thicknesses of several millimeters are possible.

  17. A cut-&-paste strategy for the 3-D inversion of helicopter-borne electromagnetic data - II. Combining regional 1-D and local 3-D inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, A.; Scheunert, M.; Afanasjew, M.; Börner, R.-U.; Siemon, B.; Spitzer, K.

    2016-07-01

    As a standard procedure, multi-frequency helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) data are inverted to conductivity-depth models using 1-D inversion methods, which may, however, fail in areas of strong lateral conductivity contrasts (so-called induction anomalies). Such areas require more realistic multi-dimensional modelling. Since the full 3-D inversion of an entire HEM data set is still extremely time consuming, our idea is to combine fast 1-D and accurate but numerically expensive 3-D inversion of HEM data in such a way that the full 3-D inversion is only carried out for those parts of a HEM survey which are affected by induction anomalies. For all other parts, a 1-D inversion method is sufficient. We present a newly developed algorithm for identification, selection, and extraction of induction anomalies in HEM data sets and show how the 3-D inversion model of the anomalous area is re-integrated into the quasi-1-D background. Our proposed method is demonstrated to work properly on a synthetic and a field HEM data set from the Cuxhaven tunnel valley in Germany. We show that our 1-D/3-D approach yields better results compared to 1-D inversions in areas where 3-D effects occur.

  18. 3D stochastic joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipour, Pejman; Marcotte, Denis; Chouteau, Michel

    2012-04-01

    A novel stochastic joint inversion method based on cokriging is applied to estimate density and magnetic susceptibility distributions from gravity and total magnetic field data. The method fully integrates the physical relations between density-gravity, on one hand, and magnetic susceptibility-total magnetic field, on the other hand. As a consequence, when the data are considered noise-free, the responses from the inverted density and susceptibility data exactly reproduce the observed data. The required density and magnetic susceptibility auto- and cross covariance are assumed to follow a linear model of coregionalization (LCM). The parameters of the LCM are estimated from v-v plot fitting of the gravity and total magnetic experimental covariances. The model is tested on two synthetic cases and one real data set, the Perseverance mine (Quebec, Canada). Joint inversions are compared to separate inversions. The joint inversions better recover the known models in the synthetic cases. With the real data set, better definition and location of the mineralized lenses are achieved by joint inversion.

  19. 3D Structural and Stratigraphic Architecture of the Northwest Santa Barbara Channel and Implications for Submarine Landslide Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A.; Kluesner, J. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple submarine landslides have been previously documented on the north flank of the Santa Barbara Channel, and such failures are considered capable of generating local tsunamis. 2D seismic-reflection datasets provide a general view of regional framework geology, including faulting and folding associated with north-south compression. However, better understanding of the relationships between faults, folds, stratigraphic architecture, and submarine landslides can be obtained with 3D seismic datasets. In this study we use an industry 3D seismic-reflection volume that encompasses the slope and shelfbreak surrounding the Gaviota submarine landslide (3.8 km2) to investigate structural and stratigraphic controls on slope failure in this region. The depth-migrated seismic volume shows a network of stacked thrust faults, backthrusts, and splays that results in both broad and local zones of compression and folding along the slope and shelf. One localized zone of enhanced folding associated with small-offset thrust faults is located directly beneath the Gaviota landslide headwall, while another zone is located directly below an imaged seafloor fissure. In addition, 3D seismic attribute analysis provides insight into the shallow sedimentary section of the failed and non-failed sedimentary packages. Calculation of RMS amplitude and dominant frequency within a windowed region below the seafloor horizon delineates an apparent zone of gas-charged strata that onlaps onto older folded sediments. The up-dip limit of these gas-charged sediments aligns with the location of a seafloor fissure that extends westward from the Gaviota landslide headwall. We propose that the combination of deformation and fluid charging acted to pre-condition and trigger the failure of the Gaviota landslide, and as a result, the presence of these conditions along the fissure adjacent to the Gaviota landslide suggests this area should be considered landslide prone.

  20. Direct inversion of digital 3D Fraunhofer holography maps.

    PubMed

    Podorov, Sergei G; Förster, Eckhart

    2016-01-20

    Differential Fourier holography (DFH) gives an exact mathematical solution of the inverse problem of diffraction in the Fraunhofer regime. After the first publication [Opt. Express15, 9954 (2007)], DFH was successfully applied in many experiments to obtain amplitude and phase information about two-dimensional images. In this paper, we demonstrate numerically the possibility to apply DFH also for investigation of unknown three-dimensional objects. The first simulation is made for a double-spiral structure plus a line as a reference object.

  1. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qiu, Chang-Kai

    2016-12-01

    To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss-Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM "footprint" concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.

  2. Contribution of 3D inversion of Electrical Resistivity Tomography data applied to volcanic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portal, Angélie; Fargier, Yannick; Lénat, Jean-François; Labazuy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, initially developed for environmental and engineering exploration, is now commonly used for geological structures imaging. Such structures can present complex characteristics that conventional 2D inversion processes cannot perfectly integrate. Here we present a new 3D inversion algorithm named EResI, firstly developed for levee investigation, and presently applied to the study of a complex lava dome (the Puy de Dôme volcano, France). EResI algorithm is based on a conventional regularized Gauss-Newton inversion scheme and a 3D non-structured discretization of the model (double grid method based on tetrahedrons). This discretization allows to accurately model the topography of investigated structure (without a mesh deformation procedure) and also permits a precise location of the electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that a complete 3D unstructured discretization limits the number of inversion cells and is better adapted to the resolution capacity of tomography than a structured discretization. This study shows that a 3D inversion with a non-structured parametrization has some advantages compared to classical 2D inversions. The first advantage comes from the fact that a 2D inversion leads to artefacts due to 3D effects (3D topography, 3D internal resistivity). The second advantage comes from the fact that the capacity to experimentally align electrodes along an axis (for 2D surveys) depends on the constrains on the field (topography...). In this case, a 2D assumption induced by 2.5D inversion software prevents its capacity to model electrodes outside this axis leading to artefacts in the inversion result. The last limitation comes from the use of mesh deformation techniques used to accurately model the topography in 2D softwares. This technique used for structured discretization (Res2dinv) is prohibed for strong topography (>60 %) and leads to a small computational errors. A wide geophysical survey was carried out

  3. Obtaining valid geologic models from 3-D resistivity inversion of magnetotelluric data at Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    The 3-D inversion was generally able to reproduce the gross resistivity structure of the “known” model, but the simulated conductive volcanic composite unit horizons were often too shallow when compared to the “known” model. Additionally, the chosen computation parameters such as station spacing appear to have resulted in computational artifacts that are difficult to interpret but could potentially be removed with further refinements of the 3-D resistivity inversion modeling technique.

  4. Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2013-12-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for 3D subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the 3D subsurface structures from 3D geophysical data using a state-of-art 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. 3D OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, 3D OOA is used to extract 3D subsurface objects from a real 3D seismic tomography model. The extracted 3D objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted 3D objects, is used to constrain the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. This can be used to constrain modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted 3D subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to constrain inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.

  5. Fast 3D Focusing Inversion of Gravity Data Using Reweighted Regularized Lanczos Bidiagonalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Inversion of gravity data is one of the important steps in the interpretation of practical data. One of the most interesting geological frameworks for gravity data inversion is the detection of sharp boundaries between orebody and host rocks. The focusing inversion is able to reconstruct a sharp image of the geological target. This technique can be efficiently applied for the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. In this study, a new reweighted regularized method for the 3D focusing inversion technique based on Lanczos bidiagonalization method is developed. The inversion results of synthetic data show that the new method is faster than common reweighted regularized conjugate gradient method to produce an acceptable solution for focusing inverse problem. The new developed inversion scheme is also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over the San Nicolas Cu-Zn orebody in Zacatecas State, Mexico. The inversion results indicate a remarkable correlation with the true structure of the orebody that is achieved from drilling data.

  6. 3D Propagation and Geoacoustic Inversion Studies in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    3D Propagation and Geoacoustic Inversion Studies in the Mid-Atlantic Bight Kevin B. Smith Code PH/Sk, Department of Physics Naval Postgraduate...properties and measured transmission loss. Results from this analysis will be considered in the context of geoacoustic inversions . OBJECTIVES To...bathymetric features and ocean fronts near the shelf break of the mid-Atlantic Bight, and use of various data for geoacoutic inversion studies. The results

  7. Semiautomatic approaches to account for 3-D distortion of the electric field from local, near-surface structures in 3-D resistivity inversions of 3-D regional magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2017-03-31

    This report summarizes the results of three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion simulations that were performed to account for local 3-D distortion of the electric field in the presence of 3-D regional structure, without any a priori information on the actual 3-D distribution of the known subsurface geology. The methodology used a 3-D geologic model to create a 3-D resistivity forward (“known”) model that depicted the subsurface resistivity structure expected for the input geologic configuration. The calculated magnetotelluric response of the modeled resistivity structure was assumed to represent observed magnetotelluric data and was subsequently used as input into a 3-D resistivity inverse model that used an iterative 3-D algorithm to estimate 3-D distortions without any a priori geologic information. A publicly available inversion code, WSINV3DMT, was used for all of the simulated inversions, initially using the default parameters, and subsequently using adjusted inversion parameters. A semiautomatic approach of accounting for the static shift using various selections of the highest frequencies and initial models was also tested. The resulting 3-D resistivity inversion simulation was compared to the “known” model and the results evaluated. The inversion approach that produced the lowest misfit to the various local 3-D distortions was an inversion that employed an initial model volume resistivity that was nearest to the maximum resistivities in the near-surface layer.

  8. Seismic source inversion using Green's reciprocity and a 3-D structural model for the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.

  9. Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking induces inverse energy cascade in 3D active fluids

    PubMed Central

    Słomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Classical turbulence theory assumes that energy transport in a 3D turbulent flow proceeds through a Richardson cascade whereby larger vortices successively decay into smaller ones. By contrast, an additional inverse cascade characterized by vortex growth exists in 2D fluids and gases, with profound implications for meteorological flows and fluid mixing. The possibility of a helicity-driven inverse cascade in 3D fluids had been rejected in the 1970s based on equilibrium-thermodynamic arguments. Recently, however, it was proposed that certain symmetry-breaking processes could potentially trigger a 3D inverse cascade, but no physical system exhibiting this phenomenon has been identified to date. Here, we present analytical and numerical evidence for the existence of an inverse energy cascade in an experimentally validated 3D active fluid model, describing microbial suspension flows that spontaneously break mirror symmetry. We show analytically that self-organized scale selection, a generic feature of many biological and engineered nonequilibrium fluids, can generate parity-violating Beltrami flows. Our simulations further demonstrate how active scale selection controls mirror-symmetry breaking and the emergence of a 3D inverse cascade. PMID:28193853

  10. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  11. Lithologic identification & mapping test based on 3D inversion of magnetic and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtian; Qi, Guang; Zhao, Jinhua; Zhang, Yongqian

    2016-04-01

    Though lithologic identification & mapping to achieve ore concentration district transparent within 5km depth is the main way to realize deep fine structures study, to explore deep mineral resources and to reveal metallogenic regularity of large-scale ore district . Owing to the wide covered area, high sampling density and mature three-dimensional inversion algorithm of gravity and magnetic data, so gravity and magnetic inversion become the most likely way to achieve three-dimensional lithologic mapping at the present stage. In this paper, we take Lu-zong(Lujiang county to Zongyang county in Anhui province ,east China) ore district as a case, we proposed lithologic mapping flow based 3D inversion of gravity magnetic and then carry out the lithologic mapping test. Lithologic identification & mapping flow is as follows: 1. Analysis relations between lithology and density and magnetic susceptibility by cross plot. 2.Extracting appropriate residual anomalies from high-precision Bourger gravity and aeromagnetic. 3.Use same mesh, do 3D magnetic and gravity inversion respectively under prior information constrained, and then invert susceptibility and density 3D model. 4. According setp1, construct logical topology operations between density 3D model and susceptibility. 5.Use the logical operations, identify lithogies cell by cell in 3D mesh, and then get 3D lithological model. According this flow, we obtained three-dimensional distribution of five main type lithologies in the Lu-Zong ore district within 5km depth. The result of lithologic mapping not only showed that the shallow characteristics and surface geological mapping are basically Coincide,more importantly ,it reveals the deeper lithologic changes.The lithlogical model make up the insufficient of surface geological mapping. The lithologic mapping test results in Lu-Zong ore concentration district showed that lithological mapping using 3D inversion of gravity and magnetic is a effective method to reveal the

  12. 3-D joint inversion of the magnetotelluric phase tensor and vertical magnetic transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, Kristina; Ritter, Oliver; Egbert, Gary D.

    2015-11-01

    With advancing computational resources, 3-D inversion techniques have become feasible in recent years and are now a more widely used tool for magnetotelluric (MT) data interpretation. Galvanic distortion caused by small-scale near-surface inhomogeneities remains an obstacle for 3-D MT inversion which so far has experienced little attention. If not considered properly, the effect on 3-D inversion can be immense and result in erroneous subsurface models and interpretations. To tackle the problem we implemented inversion of the distortion-free phase tensor into the ModEM inversion package. The dimensionless phase tensor components describe only variations of the conductivity structure. When inverting these data, particular care has to be taken of the conductivity structure in the a priori model, which provides the reference frame when transferring the information from phase tensors into absolute conductivity values. Our results obtained with synthetic data show that phase tensor inversion can recover the regional conductivity structure in presence of galvanic distortion if the a priori model provides a reasonable assumption for the regional resistivity average. Joint inversion of phase tensor data and vertical magnetic transfer functions improves recovery of the absolute resistivity structure and is less dependent on the prior model. We also used phase tensor inversion for a data set of more than 250 MT sites from the central San Andreas fault, California, where a number of sites showed significant galvanic distortion. We find the regional structure of the phase tensor inversion results compatible with previously obtained models from impedance inversion. In the vicinity of distorted sites, phase tensor inversion models exhibit more homogeneous/smoother conductivity structures.

  13. 3D Modeling of Iran and Surrounding Areas From Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Geophysical Datasets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    lithosphere elude us. We have been able to surmise that geologic variations here are substantial, and we know that they frustrate attempts to use robust...concepts are summarized conceptually in Figure 2, which shows the regions of the lithosphere most sensitive to the different data that we employ. To...construct an approximate 3D model of the lithosphere , we use a hybrid 1D-3D inversion. In many tomography analyses, dispersion variations are

  14. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  15. Inverse Cascades Sustained by the Transfer Rate of Angular Momentum in a 3D Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  16. Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion for the 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jungkyun; Shin, Changsoo; Calandra, Henri

    2016-06-01

    Laplace-domain waveform inversion reconstructs long-wavelength subsurface models by using the zero-frequency component of damped seismic signals. Despite the computational advantages of Laplace-domain waveform inversion over conventional frequency-domain waveform inversion, an acoustic assumption and an iterative matrix solver have been used to invert 3D marine datasets to mitigate the intensive computing cost. In this study, we develop a Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion algorithm for 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media by using a parallel sparse direct solver library (MUltifrontal Massively Parallel Solver, MUMPS). We precisely simulate a real marine environment by coupling the 3D acoustic and elastic wave equations with the proper boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface. In addition, we can extract the elastic properties of the Earth below the sea bottom from the recorded acoustic pressure datasets. As a matrix solver, the parallel sparse direct solver is used to factorize the non-symmetric impedance matrix in a distributed memory architecture and rapidly solve the wave field for a number of shots by using the lower and upper matrix factors. Using both synthetic datasets and real datasets obtained by a 3D wide azimuth survey, the long-wavelength component of the P-wave and S-wave velocity models is reconstructed and the proposed modeling and inversion algorithm are verified. A cluster of 80 CPU cores is used for this study.

  17. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied aerodynamic design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1988-01-01

    Several inverse methods have been compared and initial results indicate that differences in results are primarily due to coordinate systems and fuselage representations and not to design procedures. Further, results from a direct-inverse method that includes 3-D wing boundary layer effects, wake curvature, and wake displacement are presented. These results show that boundary layer displacements must be included in the design process for accurate results.

  18. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  19. 3-D Inverse Teleseismic Scattered Wave Imaging using the Kirchhoff Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Levander, A.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a 3-D teleseismic imaging technique for scattered elastic wavefields using the Kirchhoff approximation. Kirchhoff migration/inversion have been well developed in exploration seismology within the inverse scattering framework (e.g. Miller et al., 1987; Beylkin and Burridge, 1990) to image subsurface structure that generates secondary wavefields caused by localized heterogeneities. Application of this method in global seismology has been largely limited to 2-D images made with 1-D reference models due to high computational cost and the lack of adequately dense receiver arrays (Bostock, 2002, Poppeliers and Pavlis, 2003; Frederiksen and Revenaugh, 2004; Cao et al., 2010). The deployment of the USArray Transportable and Flexible arrays in the United States and dense array recordings in other countries motivate developing teleseismic scattered wavefield imaging with the Kirchhoff approximation for 3-D velocity models for both scalar and vector wavefields to improve upper mantle imaging. Following Bostock's development of the 2-D problem (2002), we derive the 3-D P-to-S scattering inversion formula by phrasing the inverse problem in terms of the generalized Radon transform (GRT) and singular functions of discontinuity surfaces. In the forward scattering modeling, we extend the method to utilize a 3-D migration velocity model by calculating 3-D finite-difference traveltimes, backprojected from the receivers using an eikonal solver. To demonstrate the relative accuracy of the inversion, we examine several synthetic cases with a variety of discontinuity surfaces (sinuous, dipping, dome- and crater-shaped discontinuity interfaces, point scatterers, etc.). The Kirchhoff GRT imaging can successfully recover the shapes of these structures very well. We compare our Kirchhoff approximation imaging with the Born-approximate results, as well as the common-conversion point (CCP) stacked receiver function imaging for the various synthetic cases, and show a field

  20. 3D LBFGS inversion of controlled source extremely low frequency electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Meng; Tan, Han-Dong; Wang, Kun-Peng

    2016-12-01

    The controlled source extremely low frequency (CSELF) electromagnetic method is characterized by extremely long and powerful sources and a huge measurement range. Its electromagnetic field can therefore be affected by the ionosphere and displacement current. Research on 3D forward modeling and inversion of CSELF electromagnetic data is currently in its infancy. This paper makes exploratory attempts to firstly calculate the 1D extremely low frequency electromagnetic field under ionosphere-air-earth coupling circumstances, and secondly analyze the propagation characteristics of the background electromagnetic field. The 3D staggered-grid finite difference scheme for solving for the secondary electric field is adopted and incorporated with the 1D modeling algorithm to complete 3D forward modeling. Considering that surveys can be carried out in the near field and transition zone for lower frequencies, the 3D Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) inversion of CSELF electromagnetic data is presented (in which the sources, or primary fields, are included), with the aim of directly inverting the impedance data, regardless of where it is acquired. Derivation of the objective functional gradient is the core component in the inversion. Synthetic tests indicate that the well-chosen approximation to the Hessian can significantly speed up the inversion. The model responses corresponding to the coexistence of conductive and resistive blocks show that the off-diagonal components of tensor impedance are much more sensitive to the resistivity variation than the diagonal components. In comparison with conventional scalar inversion, tensor inversion is superior in the recoveries of electric anomalies and background resistivity.

  1. 3D inversion of aeromagnetic Data on Las Tablas District, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista-Rodríguez, José A.; Caballero, Alberto; Pérez-Flores, Marco A.; Almaguer-Carmenates, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    We present a 3D model of Las Tablas District, Panama, obtained from the 3D inversion of aeromagnetic data, and constrained with information from surface geology, water wells and topography. The 3D model suggests the location, boundary, shape and depths of the sedimentary basin where the Mensabé and Salados rivers hydrogeological sub-basin is located. The model shows the connections between tectonics and the sedimentary basin, suggesting the probable areas for aquifers, the relations between them, their zone of recharge and discharge, and the probable zone of pollution. The inferred faults in the model may be the main recharge and discharge conduits for the groundwater and anthropogenic pollution. The geological and geometric characteristics shown in the 3D model are fundamental data for further hydrogeological and geophysical studies such as the location for future drinking water wells.

  2. 3-D wavelet compression and progressive inverse wavelet synthesis rendering of concentric mosaic.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Wu, Yunnan; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2002-01-01

    Using an array of photo shots, the concentric mosaic offers a quick way to capture and model a realistic three-dimensional (3-D) environment. We compress the concentric mosaic image array with a 3-D wavelet transform and coding scheme. Our compression algorithm and bitstream syntax are designed to ensure that a local view rendering of the environment requires only a partial bitstream, thereby eliminating the need to decompress the entire compressed bitstream before rendering. By exploiting the ladder-like structure of the wavelet lifting scheme, the progressive inverse wavelet synthesis (PIWS) algorithm is proposed to maximally reduce the computational cost of selective data accesses on such wavelet compressed datasets. Experimental results show that the 3-D wavelet coder achieves high-compression performance. With the PIWS algorithm, a 3-D environment can be rendered in real time from a compressed dataset.

  3. A MATLAB®-based program for 3D visualization of stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins: example application to the Vienna Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, 3D visualization of sedimentary basins has become increasingly popular. Stratigraphic and structural mapping is highly important to understand the internal setting of sedimentary basins. And subsequent subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. This study focused on developing a simple and user-friendly program which allows geologists to analyze and model sedimentary basin data. The developed program is aimed at stratigraphic and subsidence modelling of sedimentary basins from wells or stratigraphic profile data. This program is mainly based on two numerical methods; surface interpolation and subsidence analysis. For surface visualization four different interpolation techniques (Linear, Natural, Cubic Spline, and Thin-Plate Spline) are provided in this program. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. The numerical methods are computed in MATLAB® which is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment used extensively in academic, research, and industrial fields. This program consists of five main processing steps; 1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), 2) loading of well data, 3) stratigraphic modelling (depth distribution and isopach plots), 4) subsidence parameter input, and 5) subsidence modelling (subsided depth and subsidence rate plots). The graphical user interface intuitively guides users through all process stages and provides tools to analyse and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the visualization results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. All functions of this program are illustrated with a case study of Miocene sediments in the Vienna Basin. The basin is an ideal place to test this program, because sufficient data is

  4. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: application to an enhanced geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Linde, N.; Peacock, J.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, T.; Thiel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved. We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  5. Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

    2013-12-01

    Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

  6. 3-D inversion of gravity data in spherical coordinates with application to the GRAIL data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Chen, Chao; Li, Yaoguo

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of gravity data has been widely used to reconstruct the density distributions of ore bodies, basins, crust, lithosphere, and upper mantle. For global model of 3-D density structures of planetary interior, such as the Earth, the Moon, or Mars, it is necessary to use an inversion algorithm that operates in the spherical coordinates. We develop a 3-D inversion algorithm formulated with specially designed model objective function and radial weighting function in the spherical coordinates. We present regional and global synthetic examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm. The inverted results show density distribution features consistent with the true models. We also apply the algorithm to a set of lunar Bouguer gravity anomaly derived from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gravity field and obtain a lunar 3-D density distribution. High-density anomalies are clearly identified underlying lunar basins, a wide region of the lateral density heterogeneities that exist beneath the South Pole-Aitken basin are found, and low-density anomalies are distributed beneath the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane on the lunar far-side. The consistency of these results with those obtained independently from other existing methods verifies the newly developed algorithm.

  7. 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief via Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallero, J. L. G.; Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Bonvalot, S.; Fudym, O.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear gravity inversion in sedimentary basins is a classical problem in applied geophysics. Although a 2D approximation is widely used, 3D models have been also proposed to better take into account the basin geometry. A common nonlinear approach to this 3D problem consists in modeling the basin as a set of right rectangular prisms with prescribed density contrast, whose depths are the unknowns. Then, the problem is iteratively solved via local optimization techniques from an initial model computed using some simplifications or being estimated using prior geophysical models. Nevertheless, this kind of approach is highly dependent on the prior information that is used, and lacks from a correct solution appraisal (nonlinear uncertainty analysis). In this paper, we use the family of global Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimizers for the 3D gravity inversion and model appraisal of the solution that is adopted for basement relief estimation in sedimentary basins. Synthetic and real cases are illustrated, showing that robust results are obtained. Therefore, PSO seems to be a very good alternative for 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief when used in a sampling while optimizing approach. That way important geological questions can be answered probabilistically in order to perform risk assessment in the decisions that are made.

  8. Fast 3D inversion of airborne gravity-gradiometry data using Lanczos bidiagonalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting; Zhang, Dailei; Xu, Xuechun; Huang, Danian

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new fast inversion method for to process and interpret airborne gravity gradiometry data, which was based on Lanczos bidiagonalization algorithm. Here, we describe the application of this new 3D gravity gradiometry inversion method to recover a subsurface density distribution model from the airborne measured gravity gradiometry anomalies. For this purpose, the survey area is divided into a large number of rectangular cells with each cell possessing a constant unknown density. It is well known that the solution of large linear gravity gradiometry is an ill-posed problem since using the smoothest inversion method is considerably time consuming. We demonstrate that the Lanczos bidiagonalization method can be an appropriate algorithm to solve a Tikhonov solver time cost function for resolving the large equations within a short time. Lanczos bidiagonalization is designed to make the very large gravity gradiometry forward modeling matrices to become low-rank, which will considerably reduce the running time of the inversion method. We also use a weighted generalized cross validation method to choose the appropriate Tikhonov parameter to improve inversion results. The inversion incorporates a model norm that allows us to attain the smoothing and depth of the solution; in addition, the model norm counteracts the natural decay of the kernels, which concentrate at shallow depths. The method is applied on noise-contaminated synthetic gravity gradiometry data to demonstrate its suitability for large 3D gravity gradiometry data inversion. The airborne gravity gradiometry data from the Vinton Salt Dome, USE, were considered as a case study. The validity of the new method on real data is discussed with reference to the Vinton Dome inversion result. The intermediate density values in the constructed model coincide well with previous results and geological information. This demonstrates the validity of the gravity gradiometry inversion method.

  9. Fast 3D inversion of gravity data using solution space priorconditioned lanczos bidiagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalateh, Ali Nejati

    2017-01-01

    Inversion of gravity data is one of the most important steps in the quantitative interpretation of practical data. Inversion is a mathematical technique that automatically constructs a subsurface geophysical model from measured data, incorporating some priori information. Inversion of gravity data is time consuming because of increase in data and model parameters. Some efforts have been made to deal with this problem, one of them is using fast algorithms for solving system of equations in inverse problem. Lanczos bidiagonalization method is a fast algorithm that works based on Krylov subspace iterations and projection method, but cannot always provide a good basis for a projection method. So in this study, we combined the Krylov method with a regularization method applied to the low-dimensional projected problem. To achieve the goal, the orthonormal basis vectors of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) were used to build the low-dimensional subspace. The forward operator matrix replaced with a matrix of lower dimension, thus, the required memory and running time of the inverse modeling is decreased by using the proposed algorithm. It is shown that this algorithm can be appropriate to solve a Tikhonov cost function for inversion of gravity data. The proposed method has been applied on a noise-corrupted synthetic data and field gravity data (Mobrun gravity data) to demonstrate its reliability for three dimensional (3D) gravity inversion. The obtained results of 3D inversion both synthetic and field gravity data (Mobrun gravity data) indicate the proposed inversion algorithm could produce density models consistent with true structures.

  10. Analysis and 3D inversion of magnetotelluric crooked profile data from central Svalbard for geothermal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beka, Thomas I.; Smirnov, Maxim; Birkelund, Yngve; Senger, Kim; Bergh, Steffen G.

    2016-08-01

    Broadband (0.001-1000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data along a crooked profile collected to investigate the geothermal potential on Spitsbergen could not be fully explained by two-dimensional (2D) models; hence we interpret the data with three-dimensional (3D) inversion herein. To better accommodate 3D features and nearby off profile resistivity structures, the full MT impedance tensor data together with the tipper were inverted. As a model control, a detailed bathymetry is systematically incorporated in the inversion. Our results from testing different inversion settings emphasised that appropriately choosing and tuning the starting model, data error floor and the model regularization together are crucial to obtain optimum benefit from MT field data. Through the 3D inversion, we reproduced out of quadrant impedance components and obtained an overall satisfactory data fit (RMS = 1.05). The final 3D resistivity model displays a complex geology of the near surface region (< 1.5 km), which suggests fractures, localized and regional fault systems and igneous intrusions in the Mesozoic platform cover deposits. The Billefjorden fault zone is revealed as a consistent and deep rooted (> 2 km) conductive anomaly, confirming the regional nature of the fault. The fault zone is positioned between two uplifted basement blocks (> 1000 Ωm) of presumably pre-Devonian (Caledonian) metamorphic rocks, and the fault may have been responsible for deformation in the overlying Paleozoic-Mesozoic unit. Upper crustal conductive anomalies (< 10 Ωm) below the Paleozoic-Mesozoic succession in the western part of the 3D model are interpreted as part of a Devonian basin fill. These conductors are laterally and vertically bounded by resistive rocks, suggesting a conducive environment for deep geothermal heat storage. Having this scenario in an area of a known high heat-flow, deep faults and a thinned lithosphere makes the hypothesis on finding a technologically exploitable geothermal resource

  11. Large scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-02-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing for geological models or as direct input to groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay-units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity dataset and the borehole dataset in one variable. Finally, we use k means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the concept to the Norsminde survey in Denmark integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high resistive materials from information held in resistivity model and borehole observations respectively.

  12. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-11-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing of geological models, or as direct input into groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high-resistivity materials from information held in the resistivity model and borehole observations, respectively.

  13. Two reconstruction procedures for a 3D phaseless inverse scattering problem for the generalized Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klibanov, Michael V.; Romanov, Vladimir G.

    2016-01-01

    The 3D inverse scattering problem of the reconstruction of the unknown dielectric permittivity in the generalized Helmholtz equation is considered. Applications are in imaging of nanostructures and biological cells. The main difference with the conventional inverse scattering problems is that only the modulus of the scattering wave field is measured. The phase is not measured. The initializing wave field is the incident plane wave. On the other hand, in the previous recent works of the authors about the ‘phaseless topic’ the case of the point source was considered (Klibanov and Romanov 2015 J. Inverse Ill-Posed Problem 23 415-28 J. Inverse Ill-Posed Problem 23 187-93). Two reconstruction procedures are developed.

  14. 3D Motion Planning Algorithms for Steerable Needles Using Inverse Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Duindam, Vincent; Xu, Jijie; Alterovitz, Ron; Sastry, Shankar; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Steerable needles can be used in medical applications to reach targets behind sensitive or impenetrable areas. The kinematics of a steerable needle are nonholonomic and, in 2D, equivalent to a Dubins car with constant radius of curvature. In 3D, the needle can be interpreted as an airplane with constant speed and pitch rate, zero yaw, and controllable roll angle. We present a constant-time motion planning algorithm for steerable needles based on explicit geometric inverse kinematics similar to the classic Paden-Kahan subproblems. Reachability and path competitivity are analyzed using analytic comparisons with shortest path solutions for the Dubins car (for 2D) and numerical simulations (for 3D). We also present an algorithm for local path adaptation using null-space results from redundant manipulator theory. Finally, we discuss several ways to use and extend the inverse kinematics solution to generate needle paths that avoid obstacles. PMID:21359051

  15. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to <7 Hz), early arriving (principally transmitted) seismic data, to recover the macro (intermediate to long-wavelength) velocity structure. Although 2D FWI has been used to improve velocity models of subduction plate boundaries before, 3D FWI has not yet been attempted. 3D inversions have superior convergence and accuracy, as they sample the subsurface with multi-azimuth multiply-crossing wavefields. In this contribution we perform a suite of synthetic tests to investigate if 3D FWI could be used to better resolve physical property information along subduction margin plate boundaries using conventionally collected 3D seismic data. We base our analysis on the Muroto Basin area of the Nankai margin and investigate if the acquisition parameters and geometry of the subduction margin render 3D seismic data collected across

  16. 3-D Sound Propagation and Acoustic Inversions in Shallow Water Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    method is used to study canonical environmental models of shelfbreak front systems and nonlinear internal wave ducts. The WHOI 3D Parabolic-Equation...localization methods with normal mode theory have been established for localizing low frequency, broadband signals in a shallow water environment. Gauss ...approach for low-frequency broadband sound source localization in a shallow-water ocean is established. Gauss -Markov inverse theory is used in both

  17. Sensitivity study of 3-D modeling for multi-D inversion of surface NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsa, Grandis, Hendra

    2012-06-01

    Geophysical field method of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) allows a direct determination of hydrogeological parameters of the subsurface. The amplitude of the SNMR signal is directly linked to the amount of mobile water. The relaxation behaviour of the signal correlates with pore sizes and hydraulic conductivities of an aquifer. For improving capability and reliability of SNMR method we have presented a forward modeling scheme of 3-D water content and decay time structures that can be used for multi-D interpretation. Currently SNMR is carried out mainly with a 1-D working scheme using coinciding loops. For each sounding point using a coincident circular loop antenna, the amplitudes and decay times of the SNMR signal are the product of a three dimensional distribution of the water content and decay time in the subsurface and their sensitivity to the receiver. The antenna is moved at the surface and the SNMR relaxation signal are plotted as a function of the pulse moment and sounding point. The errors might be very large by neglecting the 2-D or even 3-D geometry of the structures which have to be considered in the analysis and inversion in the future. The results show that the 3-D modeling is reliable and flexible to be integrated into the 2-D/3-D inversion scheme for inverting surface NMR data to recover a multi-D distribution of water content and decay time of an aquifer.

  18. 3D resistivity inversion using an improved Genetic Algorithm based on control method of mutation direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Li, S. C.; Nie, L. C.; Wang, J.; L, X.; Zhang, Q. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional inversion method is the most commonly used procedure for three-dimensional (3D) resistivity inversion, which usually takes the linearization of the problem and accomplish it by iterations. However, its accuracy is often dependent on the initial model, which can make the inversion trapped in local optima, even cause a bad result. Non-linear method is a feasible way to eliminate the dependence on the initial model. However, for large problems such as 3D resistivity inversion with inversion parameters exceeding a thousand, main challenges of non-linear method are premature and quite low search efficiency. To deal with these problems, we present an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. In the improved GA method, smooth constraint and inequality constraint are both applied on the object function, by which the degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning is decreased. Some measures are adopted from others by reference to maintain the diversity and stability of GA, e.g. real-coded method, and the adaptive adjustment of crossover and mutation probabilities. Then a generation method of approximately uniform initial population is proposed in this paper, with which uniformly distributed initial generation can be produced and the dependence on initial model can be eliminated. Further, a mutation direction control method is presented based on the joint algorithm, in which the linearization method is embedded in GA. The update vector produced by linearization method is used as mutation increment to maintain a better search direction compared with the traditional GA with non-controlled mutation operation. By this method, the mutation direction is optimized and the search efficiency is improved greatly. The performance of improved GA is evaluated by comparing with traditional inversion results in synthetic example or with drilling columnar sections in practical example. The synthetic and practical examples illustrate that with the improved GA method we can eliminate

  19. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kılıç, Emre Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.

  20. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ < 10°) distances. Three component earthquake data is obtained from broadband seismic stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Center (KOERI, Turkey), Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN, Greece) and Earthquake Research Center of Turkey (AFAD-DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic

  1. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  2. 3D inversion of land-based CSEM data from the Ketzin CO2 storage formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayver, Alexander; Streich, Rita; Ritter, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    We present 3D inversion of land controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data collected across the CO2 storage test site at Ketzin, Germany. The CSEM data were generated by injecting currents into the earth at eight locations using a newly developed transmitter equipped with three grounded electrodes. Electric and magnetic field responses were recorded by 39 receivers along a line approximately perpendicular to the main geological trend. The survey aimed at imaging large-scale resistivity structure beyond the near-well region monitored by higher-resolution electrical techniques. Infrastructure present in the survey area, such as pipelines with impressed-current cathodic protection systems, power lines, and wind power plants cause strong noise in the data. The noise is effectively suppressed by adopting statistically robust processing techniques known from passive magnetotellurics. A newly developed Gauss-Newton type parallel distributed inversion scheme, which is based on a direct forward solver and explicitly calculates the full sensitivity matrix, is applied to recover subsurface conductivity images. As 3D inversion is demanding on computer time and memory, we run inversions on parallel distributed machines. We achieve good scalability by distributing computations and memory uniformly among the processes involved. We carry out cumulative sensitivity and resolution analyses for the sparse CSEM acquisition geometry. These studies indicate reasonable spatial coverage along the main survey line. Synthetic studies calculated for the real survey layout and representative conductivity models indicate that the magnetic field components are practically insensitive to resistive structures, whereas the electric field components resolve resistors and conductors similarly well. Because the magnetic field contributes little subsurface information, we concentrate on inverting the electric field, which is also more computer-efficient than inverting all components. We test

  3. The multi-scale 3D-1D compatibility scoring for inverse protein folding problem

    SciTech Connect

    Oniuka, Kentaro; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1994-12-31

    The applicability of the Multi-Scale Structure Description (MSSD) scheme to the inverse-folding problems was investigated. An MSSD represents a 3D protein structure with multiple symbolic sequences, where fine structures are represented with the sequence at low levels, the middle scale structural motifs at middle levels, and global topology at high levels. Each symbol in the symbolic sequence denotes a type of local structure of the level scale. The structure fragments are classified at each scale level respectively according to the shape and the environment around the fragments: how the structure is exposed to the solvent or buried in the molecule. I modeled the propensity of an amino-acid sequence to the structure fragment type (i.e., primary constraint) at each scale level. The local propensity is, therefore, modeled at small scale (low) levels, while the global propensity modeled at large scale (high) levels. Thus, superposing all the primary constraints, a 3D protein structure yields an amino-acid sequence profile. Evaluating the fit of an amino acid sequence to the profile derived from the known 3D protein structure, we can identify which 3D structure the given amino-acid sequence would fold into. I checked whether a sequence identifies its own structure over two hundred protein sequences. In many cases, an amino acid sequence identified its own 3D protein structure.

  4. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  5. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: Application to an enhanced geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Nicolas; Peacock, Jared R.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Thiel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved.We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  6. 3D Inversion of complex resistivity data: Case study on Mineral Exploration Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Jung-ho; Park, Sam-gyu; Park, My-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Complex resistivity (CR) method is a frequency domain induced polarization (IP) method. It is also known as Spectral IP (SIP) method, if wider frequencies are used in data acquisition and interpretation. Although it takes more times than conventional time domain IP method, its data quality is more stable because its data acquisition which measures amplitude and phase is done when the source current is being injected. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity (CR) method since several years ago and recently applied developed algorithms to various real field application. Due to tough terrain in our country, Profile survey and 2D interpretation were generally used. But to get more precise interpretation, three dimensional modeling and inversion algorithm is required. We developed three dimensional inversion algorithm for this purpose. In the inversion, we adopt the method of adaptive lagraingian multiplier which is automatically set based on the size of error misfit and model regularization norm. It was applied on the real data acquired for mineral exploration sites. CR data was acquired with the Zeta system, manufactured by Zonge Co. In the inversion, only the lower frequency data is used considering its quality and developed 3D inversion algorithm was applied to the acquired data set. Its results were compared to those of time domain IP data conducted at the same site. Resistivity image sections of CR and conventional resistivity method were almost identical. Phase anomalies were well matched with chargeability anomalies and the mining history of the test site. Each anomalies were well discriminated in 3D interpretation than those of 2D. From those experiments, we know that CR method was very effective for the mineral exploration.

  7. Earthquake source tensor inversion with the gCAP method and 3D Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Ross, Z.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and apply a method to invert earthquake seismograms for source properties using a general tensor representation and 3D Green's functions. The method employs (i) a general representation of earthquake potency/moment tensors with double couple (DC), compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), and isotropic (ISO) components, and (ii) a corresponding generalized CAP (gCap) scheme where the continuous wave trains are broken into Pnl and surface waves (Zhu & Ben-Zion, 2013). For comparison, we also use the waveform inversion method of Zheng & Chen (2012) and Ammon et al. (1998). Sets of 3D Green's functions are calculated on a grid of 1 km3 using the 3-D community velocity model CVM-4 (Kohler et al. 2003). A bootstrap technique is adopted to establish robustness of the inversion results using the gCap method (Ross & Ben-Zion, 2013). Synthetic tests with 1-D and 3-D waveform calculations show that the source tensor inversion procedure is reasonably reliable and robust. As initial application, the method is used to investigate source properties of the March 11, 2013, Mw=4.7 earthquake on the San Jacinto fault using recordings of ~45 stations up to ~0.2Hz. Both the best fitting and most probable solutions include ISO component of ~1% and CLVD component of ~0%. The obtained ISO component, while small, is found to be a non-negligible positive value that can have significant implications for the physics of the failure process. Work on using higher frequency data for this and other earthquakes is in progress.

  8. Joint earthquake source inversions using seismo-geodesy and 3-D earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Funning, G. J.

    2014-08-01

    A joint earthquake source inversion technique is presented that uses InSAR and long-period teleseismic data, and, for the first time, takes 3-D Earth structure into account when modelling seismic surface and body waves. Ten average source parameters (Moment, latitude, longitude, depth, strike, dip, rake, length, width and slip) are estimated; hence, the technique is potentially useful for rapid source inversions of moderate magnitude earthquakes using multiple data sets. Unwrapped interferograms and long-period seismic data are jointly inverted for the location, fault geometry and seismic moment, using a hybrid downhill Powell-Monte Carlo algorithm. While the InSAR data are modelled assuming a rectangular dislocation in a homogeneous half-space, seismic data are modelled using the spectral element method for a 3-D earth model. The effect of noise and lateral heterogeneity on the inversions is investigated by carrying out realistic synthetic tests for various earthquakes with different faulting mechanisms and magnitude (Mw 6.0-6.6). Synthetic tests highlight the improvement in the constraint of fault geometry (strike, dip and rake) and moment when InSAR and seismic data are combined. Tests comparing the effect of using a 1-D or 3-D earth model show that long-period surface waves are more sensitive than long-period body waves to the change in earth model. Incorrect source parameters, particularly incorrect fault dip angles, can compensate for systematic errors in the assumed Earth structure, leading to an acceptable data fit despite large discrepancies in source parameters. Three real earthquakes are also investigated: Eureka Valley, California (1993 May 17, Mw 6.0), Aiquile, Bolivia (1998 February 22, Mw 6.6) and Zarand, Iran (2005 May 22, Mw 6.5). These events are located in different tectonic environments and show large discrepancies between InSAR and seismically determined source models. Despite the 40-50 km discrepancies in location between previous geodetic and

  9. Advanced Multivariate Inversion Techniques for High Resolution 3D Geophysical Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Rowe, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We focus on the development and application of advanced multivariate inversion techniques to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle that satisfies several independent geophysical datasets. Building on previous efforts of joint invesion using surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity data, and receiver functions, we have added a fourth dataset, seismic body wave P and S travel times, to the simultaneous joint inversion method. We present a 3D seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle of northwest China resulting from the simultaneous, joint inversion of these four data types. Surface wave dispersion measurements are primarily sensitive to seismic shear-wave velocities, but at shallow depths it is difficult to obtain high-resolution velocities and to constrain the structure due to the depth-averaging of the more easily-modeled, longer-period surface waves. Gravity inversions have the greatest resolving power at shallow depths, and they provide constraints on rock density variations. Moreover, while surface wave dispersion measurements are primarily sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages, body wave receiver functions are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel-times. Addition of the fourth dataset, consisting of seismic travel-time data, helps to constrain the shear wave velocities both vertically and horizontally in the model cells crossed by the ray paths. Incorporation of both P and S body wave travel times allows us to invert for both P and S velocity structure, capitalizing on empirical relationships between both wave types’ seismic velocities with rock densities, thus eliminating the need for ad hoc assumptions regarding the Poisson ratios. Our new tomography algorithm is a modification of the Maceira and Ammon joint inversion code, in combination with the Zhang and Thurber TomoDD (double-difference tomography) program.

  10. Finite Element Based Anisotropic 3D Inversion of Marine CSEM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Byun, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to interpret three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) data, it is critical to accurately determine electrical anisotropy because ignoring anisotropy can produce misleading artifacts. In this study, we present an inversion method for 3D subsurface imaging in media with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic conductivity distribution. Direct solvers are incorporated both in the forward and inverse problems, For the forward problem, the vector Helmholtz equation for the secondary electric field is discretized on a hexahedral mesh using edge finite elements, then a direct sparse-matrix solver is chosen to effectively reuse its factorization both in the survey simulation and Jacobian computation. The inversion method is formulated as a functional optimization with an objective functional containing terms measuring data misfit and model structure by means of smoothness and anisotropy. These measures are efficiently incorporated through the use of an iteratively reweighted least-squares scheme. The objective functional is minimized by a Gauss-Newton approach using a direct dense-matrix solver. We demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the algorithm by testing it on synthetic data sets.

  11. 3D inversion of time-lapse CSEM data for reservoir monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Effective reservoir monitoring requires time-lapse reservoir information throughout the interwell volume. The ability to understand and control reservoir behavior over the course of production allows for optimization of reservoir performance and production strategies. Good monitoring information makes it possible to improve the timing and location of new drilling (for both production and injection wells), to recognize flow paths, and to map oil that has been bypassed. Recent studies have inferred the feasibility of time-lapse marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods for the monitoring of offshore oil and gas fields. However, quantitative interpretations to ascertain what reservoir information may be recovered have not been performed. The time-lapse CSEM inverse problem can be highly constrained since the geometry of the reservoir is established prior from high resolution seismic surveys, rock and fluid properties are measured from well logs, and multiple history matched production scenarios are contained in dynamic reservoir models. We present a 3D inversion study of synthetic time-lapse CSEM data modeled from dynamic reservoir simulations. We demonstrate that even with few constraints on the model, the hydrocarbon-water front can be recovered from 3D inversion.

  12. A hybrid method for inversion of 3D DC resistivity logging measurements.

    PubMed

    Gajda-Zagórska, Ewa; Schaefer, Robert; Smołka, Maciej; Paszyński, Maciej; Pardo, David

    This paper focuses on the application of hp hierarchic genetic strategy (hp-HGS) for solution of a challenging problem, the inversion of 3D direct current (DC) resistivity logging measurements. The problem under consideration has been formulated as the global optimization one, for which the objective function (misfit between computed and reference data) exhibits multiple minima. In this paper, we consider the extension of the hp-HGS strategy, namely we couple the hp-HGS algorithm with a gradient based optimization method for a local search. Forward simulations are performed with a self-adaptive hp finite element method, hp-FEM. The computational cost of misfit evaluation by hp-FEM depends strongly on the assumed accuracy. This accuracy is adapted to the tree of populations generated by the hp-HGS algorithm, which makes the global phase significantly cheaper. Moreover, tree structure of demes as well as branch reduction and conditional sprouting mechanism reduces the number of expensive local searches up to the number of minima to be recognized. The common (direct and inverse) accuracy control, crucial for the hp-HGS efficiency, has been motivated by precise mathematical considerations. Numerical results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method for the inversion of 3D DC resistivity logging measurements.

  13. Solving Dirac equations on a 3D lattice with inverse Hamiltonian and spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z. X.; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2017-02-01

    A new method to solve the Dirac equation on a 3D lattice is proposed, in which the variational collapse problem is avoided by the inverse Hamiltonian method and the fermion doubling problem is avoided by performing spatial derivatives in momentum space with the help of the discrete Fourier transform, i.e., the spectral method. This method is demonstrated in solving the Dirac equation for a given spherical potential in a 3D lattice space. In comparison with the results obtained by the shooting method, the differences in single-particle energy are smaller than 10-4 MeV, and the densities are almost identical, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the present method. The results obtained by applying this method without any modification to solve the Dirac equations for an axial-deformed, nonaxial-deformed, and octupole-deformed potential are provided and discussed.

  14. High-resolution imaging of crustal melts using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, M.; Morgan, J. V.

    2013-12-01

    A newly practical seismic imaging technique, 3D full-waveform inversion (FWI), now has the ability to image zones of melt and melt pathways throughout the crust with a better resolution than any other geophysical method. 3D FWI has recently changed practice within the petroleum industry where it is used to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface that are both interpreted directly and used to improve the migration of deeper reflections. This technology has been spectacularly successful in improving the imaging of reservoirs beneath shallow heterogeneities produced by, for example, gas clouds, buried fluvial channels, carbonate reefs and salt bodies. During FWI, the sub-surface model is recovered principally by using the low-frequency transmitted, refracted portion of the wavefield which is most sensitive to the macro-velocity structure. In the petroleum industry, these inversions are now routinely performed using long-offset surface-streamer and ocean-bottom data to maximum source-receiver offsets of about 15 km, leading to a maximum penetration depth of around 5 km. Using longer offsets, it is possible to extend this technology to image deeper crustal targets. Localised zones of partial melt produce large changes in p-wave and s-wave properties that are restricted in their spatial extent, and that therefore form ideal targets for 3D FWI. We have performed a suite of tests to explore the use of 3D FWI in imaging melt distribution beneath the active volcano of Montserrat. We built a model of the subsurface using a 3D travel-time tomographic model obtained from the SEA CALIPSO experiment. We added two magma chambers in accordance with a model obtained using surface-elevation changes and geochemical data. We used a wide-angle, wide-azimuth acquisition geometry to generate a fully-elastic synthetic seismic dataset, added noise, and inverted the windowed transmitted arrivals only. We used an elastic code for the forward

  15. Towards Automated Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion in Australia Using 3D Structural Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.; Sambridge, M.; Kennett, B. L.; Gorbatov, A.

    2009-12-01

    There is significant seismic activity in the region around Australia, largely due to the plate boundaries to the north and to the east of the mainland. This seismicity poses serious seismic and tsunamigenic hazard in a wider region, and risk to coastal areas of Australia, and is monitored by Geoscience Australia (GA) using a network of permanent broadband seismometers within Australia. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems were established by the Australian Government and have been using the waveforms from the GA seismological network. The permanent instruments are augmented by non-GA seismic stations based both within and outside of Australia. In particular, seismic moment tensor (MT) solutions for events around Australia as well as local distances are useful for both warning systems and geophysical studies in general. These monitoring systems, however, currently use only one dimensional, spherically-symmetric models of the Earth for source parameter determination. Recently, a novel 3D model of Australia and the surrounding area has been developed from spectral element simulations [1], taking into account not only velocity heterogeneities, but also radial anisotropy and seismic attenuation. This development, inter alia, introduces the potential of providing significant improvements in MT solution accuracy. Allowing reliable MT solutions with reduced dependence on non-GA stations is a secondary advantage. We studied the feasibility of using 1D versus 3D structural models. The accuracy of the 3D model has been investigated, confirming that these models are in most cases superior to the 1D models. A full MT inversion method using a point source approximation was developed as the first step, keeping in mind that for more complex source time functions, a finite source inversion will be needed. Synthetic experiments have been performed with random noise added to the signal to test the code in the both 1D and 3D setting, using a precomputed library of structural Greens

  16. 3-D inversion of airborne electromagnetic data parallelized and accelerated by local mesh and adaptive soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dikun; Oldenburg, Douglas W.; Haber, Eldad

    2014-03-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods are highly efficient tools for assessing the Earth's conductivity structures in a large area at low cost. However, the configuration of AEM measurements, which typically have widely distributed transmitter-receiver pairs, makes the rigorous modelling and interpretation extremely time-consuming in 3-D. Excessive overcomputing can occur when working on a large mesh covering the entire survey area and inverting all soundings in the data set. We propose two improvements. The first is to use a locally optimized mesh for each AEM sounding for the forward modelling and calculation of sensitivity. This dedicated local mesh is small with fine cells near the sounding location and coarse cells far away in accordance with EM diffusion and the geometric decay of the signals. Once the forward problem is solved on the local meshes, the sensitivity for the inversion on the global mesh is available through quick interpolation. Using local meshes for AEM forward modelling avoids unnecessary computing on fine cells on a global mesh that are far away from the sounding location. Since local meshes are highly independent, the forward modelling can be efficiently parallelized over an array of processors. The second improvement is random and dynamic down-sampling of the soundings. Each inversion iteration only uses a random subset of the soundings, and the subset is reselected for every iteration. The number of soundings in the random subset, determined by an adaptive algorithm, is tied to the degree of model regularization. This minimizes the overcomputing caused by working with redundant soundings. Our methods are compared against conventional methods and tested with a synthetic example. We also invert a field data set that was previously considered to be too large to be practically inverted in 3-D. These examples show that our methodology can dramatically reduce the processing time of 3-D inversion to a practical level without losing resolution

  17. 3D linear inversion of magnetic susceptibility data acquired by frequency domain EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiesson, J.; Tabbagh, A.; Simon, F.-X.; Dabas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low induction number EMI instruments are able to simultaneously measure a soil's apparent magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity. This family of dual measurement instruments is highly useful for the analysis of soils and archeological sites. However, the electromagnetic properties of soils are found to vary over considerably different ranges: whereas their electrical conductivity varies from ≤ 0.1 to ≥ 100 mS/m, their relative magnetic permeability remains within a very small range, between 1.0001 and 1.01 SI. Consequently, although apparent conductivity measurements need to be inverted using non-linear processes, the variations of the apparent magnetic susceptibility can be approximated through the use of linear processes, as in the case of the magnetic prospection technique. Our proposed 3D inversion algorithm starts from apparent susceptibility data sets, acquired using different instruments over a given area. A reference vertical profile is defined by considering the mode of the vertical distributions of both the electrical resistivity and of the magnetic susceptibility. At each point of the mapped area, the reference vertical profile response is subtracted to obtain the apparent susceptibility variation dataset. A 2D horizontal Fourier transform is applied to these variation datasets and to the dipole (impulse) response of each instrument, a (vertical) 1D inversion is performed at each point in the spectral domain, and finally the resulting dataset is inverse transformed to restore the apparent 3D susceptibility variations. It has been shown that when applied to synthetic results, this method is able to correct the apparent deformations of a buried object resulting from the geometry of the instrument, and to restore reliable quantitative susceptibility contrasts. It also allows the thin layer solution, similar to that used in magnetic prospection, to be implemented. When applied to field data it initially delivers a level of contrast

  18. 3D Self-Potential Inversion for Monitoring DNAPL Contaminant Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Sogade, J.; Vichabian, Y.; Morgan, F. D.

    2005-05-01

    Self-potential (SP) data are collected over an area known to be contaminated with Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The field experiment consists of approximately 100 SP measurements on a surface grid and in four boreholes, and is repeated after one year. DNAPLs are known to undergo redox reactions during their degradation in the environment, which is often biologically mediated. Self-potential geophysics is employed in this study because of its sensitivity to the in-situ biochemical processes that degrade the contaminants. These reactions provide an electrochemical source that is manifested as an SP signature at the measurement locations remote from the contaminated areas. 3D inversion of the SP data is therefore needed to spatially locate the distribution of sources, which is related to contaminant presence. The inversion incorporates the 3D resistivity structure collected at the same site, and is better constrained in depth by using borehole data and regularization. Ground truth information taken after the first field experiment provides concentration data with depth for several DNAPL species in five boreholes. There is a good correlation between the ground truth data and SP source inversion, though this comparison is limited by several factors: the difference in resolution of the ground truth and inverted data, and the dependence of the redox processes on other constituents that were not measured during the ground truthing, such as oxygen content or microbial presence. Inversion of the second year's dataset provides information on the changes in the contaminant distribution, either due to natural degradation or ongoing remediation.

  19. 3D inversion based on multi-grid approach of magnetotelluric data from Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.; Korja, T. J.; Egbert, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we investigate the geoelectrical structure of the cratonic margin of Fennoscandian Shield by means of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements carried out in Northern Norway and Sweden during summer 2011-2012. The project Magnetotellurics in the Scandes (MaSca) focuses on the investigation of the crust, upper mantle and lithospheric structure in a transition zone from a stable Precambrian cratonic interior to a passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian Orogen and the Scandes Mountains in western Fennoscandia. Recent MT profiles in the central and southern Scandes indicated a large contrast in resistivity between Caledonides and Precambrian basement. The alum shales as a highly conductive layers between the resistive Precambrian basement and the overlying Caledonian nappes are revealed from this profiles. Additional measurements in the Northern Scandes were required. All together data from 60 synchronous long period (LMT) and about 200 broad band (BMT) sites were acquired. The array stretches from Lofoten and Bodo (Norway) in the west to Kiruna and Skeleftea (Sweden) in the east covering an area of 500x500 square kilometers. LMT sites were occupied for about two months, while most of the BMT sites were measured during one day. We have used new multi-grid approach for 3D electromagnetic (EM) inversion and modelling. Our approach is based on the OcTree discretization where the spatial domain is represented by rectangular cells, each of which might be subdivided (recursively) into eight sub-cells. In this simplified implementation the grid is refined only in the horizontal direction, uniformly in each vertical layer. Using multi-grid we manage to have a high grid resolution near the surface (for instance, to tackle with galvanic distortions) and lower resolution at greater depth as the EM fields decay in the Earth according to the diffusion equation. We also have a benefit in computational costs as number of unknowns decrease. The multi-grid forward

  20. 3-D inversion of synthetic marine magnetotelluric data: resolution and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, N.; Baba, K.; Siripunvaraporn, W.; Uyeshima, M.; Utada, H.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) observation is carried out by using an increasing number of ocean bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs) not only along a line but also in 2-D array. Thus, imaging electrical conductivity structures under the seafloor in 3-D is now feasible. A 3-D approach is indispensable especially for marine MT data, because the electric and magnetic fields observed at the seafloor are heavily distorted by the rugged seafloor topography and the distribution of land and sea which are generally 3-D. It is very important to incorporate the topography in a 3-D model for an accurate estimation of the conductivity structure beneath seafloor that is generally more resistive than seawater by several orders of magnitude. WSINV3DMT (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) is one of 3-D inversion codes that are now of practical use, but the original WSINV3DMT is not applicable to marine MT data because of two reasons. 1) MT responses are calculated only at the boundary corresponding to the Earth surface. 2) We have to use fine mesh design because an observation site must locate exactly at the center of the top surface of a block, which needs large memory that even a highest performance computer can not handle. We propose an extended version of the WSINV3DMT by solving the two problems shown above so that it can be applied to the marine MT data. The extended version of the WSINV3DMT is tested using synthetic models including a 3-D anomaly, seawater and topographic variation. Here shown is an example of a checkerboard test by using a model in which 10 ohm-m and 100 ohm-m blocks are put alternately in both horizontal and vertical directions. The model is composed of 5 blocks in horizontal directions and of 4 blocks in vertical direction with a background of a 31.6 ohm-m half-space below actual topography. The calculation area in the inversion is 7440 × 7440 × 1008 km, and is discretized at 35 blocks in the x and y directions, and 69 blocks in the z

  1. 3D CSEM data inversion using Newton and Halley class methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M.; Hansen, K. R.; Morten, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    For the first time in 3D controlled source electromagnetic data inversion, we explore the use of the Newton and the Halley optimization methods, which may show their potential when the cost function has a complex topology. The inversion is formulated as a constrained nonlinear least-squares problem which is solved by iterative optimization. These methods require the derivatives up to second order of the residuals with respect to model parameters. We show how Green's functions determine the high-order derivatives, and develop a diagrammatical representation of the residual derivatives. The Green's functions are efficiently calculated on-the-fly, making use of a finite-difference frequency-domain forward modelling code based on a multi-frontal sparse direct solver. This allow us to build the second-order derivatives of the residuals keeping the memory cost in the same order as in a Gauss-Newton (GN) scheme. Model updates are computed with a trust-region based conjugate-gradient solver which does not require the computation of a stabilizer. We present inversion results for a synthetic survey and compare the GN, Newton, and super-Halley optimization schemes, and consider two different approaches to set the initial trust-region radius. Our analysis shows that the Newton and super-Halley schemes, using the same regularization configuration, add significant information to the inversion so that the convergence is reached by different paths. In our simple resistivity model examples, the convergence speed of the Newton and the super-Halley schemes are either similar or slightly superior with respect to the convergence speed of the GN scheme, close to the minimum of the cost function. Due to the current noise levels and other measurement inaccuracies in geophysical investigations, this advantageous behaviour is at present of low consequence, but may, with the further improvement of geophysical data acquisition, be an argument for more accurate higher-order methods like those

  2. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Levander, Alan Richard; Zelt, Colin A.

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  3. The 3D inversion of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minty, Brian; Brodie, Ross

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for the inversion of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric line data to a regular grid of radioelement concentration estimates on the ground. The method incorporates the height of the aircraft, the 3D terrain within the field of view of the spectrometer, the directional sensitivity of rectangular detectors, and a source model comprising vertical rectangular prisms with the same horizontal dimensions as the required grid cell size. The top of each prism is a plane surface derived from a best-fit plane to the digital elevation model of the earth's surface within each grid cell area. The method is a significant improvement on current methods, and gives superior interpolation between flight lines. It also eliminates terrain effects that would normally remain in the data after the conventional processing of these data assuming a flat-earth model.

  4. 3-D Inversion of MT Data for Imaging Deformation Fronts in NW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślęzak, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Waldemar; Nowożyński, Krzysztof; Brasse, Heinrich

    2016-07-01

    The Pomerania region (northwest part of Poland) occupies a significant position, where the largest European tectonic boundary is situated. This is the area of the contact between the East European Craton (EEC) and the Paleozoic Platform (PP) and it is known as the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The TESZ was formed during Paleozoic time as a consequence of the collision of several crustal units and it extends from the Black Sea in the southeast to the British Isles in the northwest. It is a region of key importance for our understanding of the tectonic history of Europe. Previous magnetotelluric (MT) results, based on 2-D inverse modeling, show that the contact zone is of lithospheric discontinuity character and there are distinct differences in geoelectric structures between the Precambrian EEC, transitional zone (TESZ), and the younger PP. The presence of a significant conductor at mid and lower crustal depths was also shown. Thus, the main aim of the research presented here was to obtain detailed, 3-D images of electrical conductivity in the crust and upper mantle and its regional distribution below the TESZ in the northwest part of Poland. To accomplish this task we applied the latest 3-D inversion codes, which allowed us to get more realistic model geometries. Additionally, to confirm and complement the study, the Horizontal Magnetic Tensor (HMT) analysis was realized. This method gives us an opportunity to efficiently locate the position of well-conducting structures. As a result we obtain a clearer, three-dimensional model of conductivity distribution, where highly conductive rock complexes appear which we tentatively connected to deformation fronts.

  5. A review on the systematic formulation of 3-D multiparameter full waveform inversion in viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengliang; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Virieux, Jean

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study 3-D multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) in viscoelastic media based on the generalized Maxwell/Zener body including arbitrary number of attenuation mechanisms. We present a frequency-domain energy analysis to establish the stability condition of a full anisotropic viscoelastic system, according to zero-valued boundary condition and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle: the real-valued stiffness matrix becomes a complex-valued one in Fourier domain when seismic attenuation is taken into account. We develop a least-squares optimization approach to linearly relate the quality factor with the anelastic coefficients by estimating a set of constants which are independent of the spatial coordinates, which supplies an explicit incorporation of the parameter Q in the general viscoelastic wave equation. By introducing the Lagrangian multipliers into the matrix expression of the wave equation with implicit time integration, we build a systematic formulation of multiparameter FWI for full anisotropic viscoelastic wave equation, while the equivalent form of the state and adjoint equation with explicit time integration is available to be resolved efficiently. In particular, this formulation lays the foundation for the inversion of the parameter Q in the time domain with full anisotropic viscoelastic properties. In the 3-D isotropic viscoelastic settings, the anelastic coefficients and the quality factors using bulk and shear moduli parametrization can be related to the counterparts using P and S velocity. Gradients with respect to any other parameter of interest can be found by chain rule. Pioneering numerical validations as well as the real applications of this most generic framework will be carried out to disclose the potential of viscoelastic FWI when adequate high-performance computing resources and the field data are available.

  6. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  7. Review on applications of 3D inverse design method for pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Junlian; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-05-01

    The 3D inverse design method, which methodology is far superior to the conventional design method that based on geometrical description, is gradually applied in pump blade design. However, no complete description about the method is outlined. Also, there are no general rules available to set the two important input parameters, blade loading distribution and stacking condition. In this sense, the basic theory and the mechanism why the design method can suppress the formation of secondary flow are summarized. And also, several typical pump design cases with different specific speeds ranging from centrifugal pump to axial pump are surveyed. The results indicates that, for centrifugal pump and mixed pump or turbine, the ratio of blade loading on the hub to that on the shroud is more than unit in the fore part of the blade, whereas in the aft part, the ratio is decreased to satisfy the same wrap angle for hub and shroud. And the choice of blade loading type depends on the balancing of efficiency and cavitation. If the cavitation is more weighted, the better choice is aft-loaded, otherwise, the fore-loaded or mid-loaded is preferable to improve the efficiency. The stacking condition, which is an auxiliary to suppress the secondary flow, can have great effect on the jet-wake outflow and the operation range for pump. Ultimately, how to link the design method to modern optimization techniques is illustrated. With the know-how design methodology and the know-how systematic optimization approach, the application of optimization design is promising for engineering. This paper summarizes the 3D inverse design method systematically.

  8. 3D elastic full waveform inversion: case study from a land seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, Jean; Marti, David; Rodriguez, Juan-Esteban; Marzan, Ignacio; Ferrer, Miguel; Gutierrez, Natalia; Farres, Albert; Hanzich, Mauricio; de la Puente, Josep; Carbonell, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is one of the most advanced processing methods that is recently reaching a mature state after years of solving theoretical and technical issues such as the non-uniqueness of the solution and harnessing the huge computational power required by realistic scenarios. BSIT (Barcelona Subsurface Imaging Tools, www.bsc.es/bsit) includes a FWI algorithm that can tackle with very complex problems involving large datasets. We present here the application of this system to a 3D dataset acquired to constrain the shallow subsurface. This is where the wavefield is the most complicated, because most of the wavefield conversions takes place in the shallow region and also because the media is much more laterally heterogeneous. With this in mind, at least isotropic elastic approximation would be suitable as kernel engine for FWI. The current study explores the possibilities to apply elastic isotropic FWI using only the vertical component of the recorded seismograms. The survey covers an area of 500×500 m2, and consists in a receivers grid of 10 m×20 m combined with a 250 kg accelerated weight-drop as source on a displaced grid of 20 m×20 m. One of the main challenges in this case study is the costly 3D modeling that includes topography and substantial free surface effects. FWI is applied to a data subset (shooting lines 4 to 12), and is performed for 3 frequencies ranging from 15 to 25 Hz. The starting models are obtained from travel-time tomography and the all computation is run on 75 nodes of Mare Nostrum supercomputer during 3 days. The resulting models provide a higher resolution of the subsurface structures, and show a good correlation with the available borehole measurements. FWI allows to extend in a reliable way this 1D knowledge (borehole) to 3D.

  9. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Lopez-Caballero, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work we present the evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. We analyze the behavior of a fluid in a closed cavity where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The experimental volume is a closed cylinder (diameter of 20 cm) where two impellers rotate in opposite directions. A key characteristic of this setup the high stability of the propellers (the instantaneous fluctuations are below 0 . 1 %). We have performed PIV and LDA measurements of the velocity fields. Typical characteristics of the turbulent flow in this setup are: turbulence intensity 50 % , the Reλ = 900 , the Taylor microscale λT = 1 . 8 mm and the integral scale LI = 15 mm. The analysis of the data series reveal that below the injection scales an inverse cascade can be identified (-1/3 in time, -7/3 in space) that can be explained as the transfer of angular momentum between the diferent fluid layers. A. de la Torre, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 99 (2007) 054101. M. Lopez-Caballero, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 110 (2013) 124501.

  10. KOALA: 3-D shape of asteroids from multi-data inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Merline, W. J.; Drummond, J. D.; Durech, J.; Berthier, J.; Conrad, A.

    2011-10-01

    We describe our on-going observing program to determine the physical properties of asteroids from groundbased facilities. We combine disk-resolved images from adaptive optics, optical lightcurves, and stellar occultations to put tighter constraints on the spin, 3-D shape, and size of asteroids. We will discuss the relevance of the determination of physical properties to help understand the asteroid population (e.g., density, composition, and non-gravitational forces). We will then briefly describe our multi-data inversion algorithm KOALA (Carry et al. 2010a, Kaasalainen 2011, see also Kaasalainen et al., same meeting), which allows the determination of certain physical properties of an asteroid from the combination of different techniques of observation. A comparison of results obtained with KOALA on asteroid (21) Lutetia, prior to the ESA Rosetta flyby, with the high spatial resolution images returned from that flyby, will then be presented, showing the high accuracy of KOALA inversion. Finally, we will describe our current development of the algorithm, and focus on examples of other asteroids currently being studied with KOALA.

  11. Structure of the Rambler Rhyolite, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland: Inversions using UBC-GIF Grav3D and Mag3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, B.; Morris, B.; Ugalde, H.

    2011-09-01

    Hosted within the Pacquet Harbour Group (PHG) on the Baie Verte Peninsula of north-central Newfoundland, the Rambler rhyolite is a 487 Ma unit of felsic tuffs, flows and subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The PHG has been affected by multiple phases of deformation with the youngest D4 deformation event producing broad northeast plunging upright cross folds in the Rambler rhyolite. Fold culminations on the upper bounding surface of the rhyolite host Cu +/- Au volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (e.g. Rambler and Ming mines). Geophysical inversions of recently acquired high resolution gravity and magnetic data have been implemented to determine the extent of the fold axis (dome) at depth. To direct the outcome of the inversion process towards a more geologically reasonable solution this study outlines a procedure which permits the inclusion of known geological and geophysical constraints into the input (reference) model for inversion using the MAG3D and GRAV3D algorithms provided by the University of British Columbia Geophysical Inversion Facility. Reference model constraints included surficial geological contacts as defined by aeromagnetic data, and subsurface distribution of physical property variations from a series of drill-hole logs. The output (computed) model images the surface of the rhyolite dome as dipping roughly 40° to the northeast as a series of voxels with density values ranging from 2.71 to 2.75 g/cm3. While previously published ore deposit models parallel this structure in the near surface, results from these inversions suggest deeper exploration may be favorable. Magnetic inversion modeling has not provided any insight into dome morphology however it outlines the distribution of gabbroic dykes surrounding the dome.

  12. An optimal transport approach for seismic tomography: application to 3D full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Mérigot, Q.; Oudet, E.; Virieux, J.

    2016-11-01

    the L 2 distance, in 2D and 3D contexts.

  13. Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    radially anisotropic structure: new insights into present and past states of the Australasian upper mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 290, 270-280. Hingee, M., Tkalčić, H., Fichtner A., Sambridge, M., 2011. Moment tensor inversion using a 3-D structural model: Applications for the Australian region, Geophys. J. Int., 184(2), 949-964.

  14. High-resolution imaging and inversion of 3D GPR data for layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slob, Evert

    2013-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is increasingly being used to provide quantitative information of layered structures. For application in civil engineering these can be roads, highway pavements, airport runways, bridges, tunnels, or buildings. Monitoring is important for the management and safety of these structures. Standard imaging uses a modeled wavefield extrapolator to image the data and the quality of the image depends heavily on the quality of the modeled extrapolator. Usually, data inversion is implemented by minimizing a cost function involving the measured data and the modeled data. The model is modified such that data computed from the model fits to the measured data. The data itself is not used, except as a measure of the model data fit. A recently developed alternative method is to use results from inverse scattering theory to first construct an image while all multiple reflections are simultaneously eliminated from the data. This image can be constructed from surface reflection data if the data allows separating the subsurface reflection response from the down going emitted field. For 3D waves in a layered medium this requires knowledge of all horizontal electric and magnetic field components. If the data is properly sampled the solution is unique. In layered media the plane wave decomposition allows computing the image for each angle of incidence separately as a function of image time that is equal to the one-way intercept time. Once the image is constructed for all available angles of incidence a simple matrix inversion leads to the desired electric permittivity and magnetic permeability values in each layer. Finally these values provide interval velocities that can be used to convert image time to depth and the inverse problem is solved. The theory requires infinite bandwidth frequency domain data, which is equivalent to measuring the true impulse response. This is not possible in practice and numerical results show that data with finite bandwidths can be

  15. Understanding how Fault-bounded Blocks Deform in 3D by Inverse Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouen, G.; White, N.

    2004-05-01

    Normal faults play a crucial role in modifying basin stratigraphy. At the exploration scale, the internal deformation of tilted blocks is governed by the three-dimensional geometry of large-scale faults which bound these blocks. At the reservoir scale, the geometry and growth of normal faulting control the deformation of strata and the compartmentalisation of reservoir intervals. Despite their importance, large-scale normal faults are often difficult to image. The purpose of structural validation is two-fold: to determine the 3D shape of normal faults and to investigate the relationship between fault geometry and deformed stratigraphy including the intra-block faults. We have developed methods for tackling structural validation at a variety of scales in two and three dimensions. The cornerstone of our approach is the use of geophysical inverse theory to calculate optimal fault geometries from deformed strata. This approach allows us to focus on key questions: does a solution exist? Are there several possible solutions or just one unique one? In a complex normal fault system, which part of the fault controls the motion responsible for the deformation in the hanging-wall? Traditional forward modelling cannot answer these fundamental issues. We have applied the inversion on seismic data in particularly complex areas in the northern North Sea. The aims of this project are to determine the geometry of the basin-bounding fault, to assess the likelihood of out-of-plane motion as well as understanding the mode of deformation leading to the complexity of the present structure. Closely spaced inverse models show that the basin-bounding fault on the UK side is steeper and more planar than previously thought. This method also helped us to have a better view of what could have been the cause of the organisation and density of the intra-block faulting where it occurs. The North Cormorant study has shown how inverse modelling can yield important, quantitative, insights. Our

  16. New 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion using global magnetic integral and local differential equation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.; Zuo, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a new 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic (EM) modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm. The algorithm consists of: (a) a new magnetic integral equation instead of the electric integral equation to solve the electromagnetic forward modeling and inverse problem; (b) a collocation finite element method for solving the magnetic integral and a Galerkin finite element method for the magnetic differential equations; (c) a nonlinear regularizing optimization method to make the inversion stable and of high resolution; and (d) a new parallel 3D modeling and inversion using a global integral and local differential domain decomposition technique (GILD). The new 3D nonlinear electromagnetic inversion has been tested with synthetic data and field data. The authors obtained very good imaging for the synthetic data and reasonable subsurface EM imaging for the field data. The parallel algorithm has high parallel efficiency over 90% and can be a parallel solver for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic modeling and inversion. The parallel GILD algorithm can be extended to develop a high resolution and large scale seismic and hydrology modeling and inversion in the massively parallel computer.

  17. Stratigraphic architecture and fault offsets of alluvial terraces at Te Marua, Wellington fault, New Zealand, revealed by pseudo-3D GPR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauprêtre, S.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.

    2013-08-01

    earthquake slips on faults are commonly determined by measuring morphological offsets at current ground surface. Because those offsets might not always be well preserved, we examine whether the first 10 m below ground surface contains relevant information to complement them. We focus on the Te Marua site, New Zealand, where 11 alluvial terraces have been dextrally offset by the Wellington fault. We investigated the site using pseudo-3D Ground Penetrating Radar and also produced a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the zone to constrain the surface slip record. The GPR data reveal additional information: (1) they image the 3D stratigraphic architecture of the seven youngest terraces and show that they are strath terraces carved into graywacke bedrock. Each strath surface is overlain by 3-5 m of horizontally bedded gravel sheets, including two pronounced and traceable reflectors; (2) thanks to the multilayer architecture, terrace risers and channels are imaged at three depths and their lateral offsets can be measured three to four times, constraining respective offsets and their uncertainties more reliably; and (3) the offsets are better preserved in the subsurface than at the ground surface, likely due to subsequent erosion-deposition on the latter. From surface and subsurface data, we infer that Te Marua has recorded six cumulative offsets of 2.9, 7.6, 18, 23.2, 26, and 31 m (± 1-2 m). Large earthquakes on southern Wellington fault might produce 3-5 m of slip, slightly less than previously proposed. Pseudo-3D GPR thus provides a novel paleoseismological tool to complement and refine surface investigations.

  18. Simultaneous inversion of 3D velocity structure, hypocenter locations, and reflector geometry in Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Leiph Alexander

    We develop and apply a non-linear inversion of direct and wide-angle reflection travel times for 3-D P-wave velocity structure, earthquake hypocenters, and reflector geometry under NW Washington focusing on the structure of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The first-arrival travel times are derived from both active-source experiments and from local earthquakes. The reflection arrivals were picked from data collected during the 1998 Wet SHIPS active-source experiment, which consisted of air-gun sources within the inland water-ways of NW Washington and SW British Columbia to land-based stations. Our inversion procedure reduces the well-known trade-off between reflector position and the velocities above it by the combination of simultaneous inversion and adequate crossing paths. We interpret the wide-angle reflector as the Moho of the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. The relocated intraslab earthquakes separate into two groups: those located up-dip of the 45km reflector depth contour generally lie below the reflector in material whose velocity exceeds 7.7km/s, placing them within the subducting mantle, while those down-dip of this contour occur within material whose velocities are 6.8--7.5km/s, placing them within subducted oceanic crust. We interpret these groups of earthquakes as resulting from serpentine dehydration in the subducted mantle and the basalt to eclogite transformation in the subducted crust. We have performed velocity checkerboard, slab velocity resolution, and parameter sensitivity tests to estimate our ability to resolve the relationship among the reflector, intraslab hypocenters, and slab velocity structure. These tests indicate we have the necessary resolvability and can distinguish the relative locations among the velocities, reflector, and intraslab hypocenters within the subducting slab to +/-2km. The occurrence of events within the subducted mantle geometrically allows for larger magnitude earthquakes than could occur if they were confined to

  19. Chern insulators without band inversion in Mo S2 monolayers with 3 d adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xinyuan; Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Jiayong; Xue, Yang; Li, Yun; Yang, Zhongqin

    2017-02-01

    Electronic and topological properties of Mo S2 monolayers endowed with 3 d transition metal (TM) adatoms (V-Fe) are explored by using ab initio methods and k .p models. Without the consideration of the Hubbard U interaction, the V, Cr, and Fe adatoms tend to locate on the top of the Mo atoms, while the most stable site for the Mn atom is at the hollow position of the Mo-S hexagon. After the Hubbard U is applied, the most stable sites of all the systems become the top of the Mo atoms. Chern insulators without band inversion are achieved in these systems. The V and Fe adsorption systems are the best candidates to produce the topological states. The k .p model calculations indicate that these topological states are determined by the TM magnetism, the C3 v crystal field from the Mo S2 substrate, and the TM atomic spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The special two-meron pseudospin texture is found to contribute to the topology. The apparent difference between the Berry curvatures for the V and Fe adsorption systems is also explored. Our results widen the understanding of the Chern insulators and are helpful for the applications of the Mo S2 monolayers in the future electronics and spintronics.

  20. Statistical Inverse Ray Tracing for Image-Based 3D Modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubao; Cooper, David B

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation and solution to image-based 3D modeling (aka "multi-view stereo") based on generative statistical modeling and inference. The proposed new approach, named statistical inverse ray tracing, models and estimates the occlusion relationship accurately through optimizing a physically sound image generation model based on volumetric ray tracing. Together with geometric priors, they are put together into a Bayesian formulation known as Markov random field (MRF) model. This MRF model is different from typical MRFs used in image analysis in the sense that the ray clique, which models the ray-tracing process, consists of thousands of random variables instead of two to dozens. To handle the computational challenges associated with large clique size, an algorithm with linear computational complexity is developed by exploiting, using dynamic programming, the recursive chain structure of the ray clique. We further demonstrate the benefit of exact modeling and accurate estimation of the occlusion relationship by evaluating the proposed algorithm on several challenging data sets.

  1. 3D near-to-surface conductivity reconstruction by inversion of VETEM data using the distorted Born iterative method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.L.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) subsurface imaging by using inversion of data obtained from the very early time electromagnetic system (VETEM) was discussed. The study was carried out by using the distorted Born iterative method to match the internal nonlinear property of the 3D inversion problem. The forward solver was based on the total-current formulation bi-conjugate gradient-fast Fourier transform (BCCG-FFT). It was found that the selection of regularization parameter follow a heuristic rule as used in the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm so that the iteration is stable.

  2. 3D stratigraphic forward modelling of Shu'aiba Platform stratigraphy in the Bu Hasa Field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Lokier, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of three dimensional sequence stratigraphic forward modelling of the Aptian age Shu'aiba Formation from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Shu'aiba Formation lies within the uppermost part of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group and forms one of the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoir intervals of the Middle East with production dating back to the 1960's. The Shu'aiba Formation developed as a series of laterally-extensive shallow-water carbonate platforms in an epeiric sea that extended over the northern margin of the African-Arabian Plate. This shallow sea was bounded by the Arabian Shield to the west and the passive margin with the Neo-Tethys Ocean towards the north and east (Droste, 2010). The exposed Arabian Shield acted as a source of siliciclastic sediments to westernmost regions, however, more offshore areas were dominated by shallow-water carbonate deposition. Carbonate production was variously dominated by Lithocodium-Baccinella, orbitolinid foraminifera and rudist bivalves depending on local conditions. While there have been numerous studies of this important stratigraphic interval (for examples see van Buchem et al., 2010), there has been little attempt to simulate the sequence stratigraphic development of the formation. During the present study modelling was undertaken utilising the CARBONATE-3D stratigraphic forward modelling software (Warrlich et al., 2008; Warrlich et al., 2002)) thus allowing for the control of a diverse range of internal and external parameters on carbonate sequence development. This study focuses on platform development in the onshore Bu Hasa Field - the first giant oilfield to produce from the Shu'aiba Formation in Abu Dhabi. The carbonates of the Bu Hasa field were deposited on the southwest slope of the intra-shelf Bab Basin, siliciclastic content is minor. Initially these carbonates were algal dominated with rudist mounds becoming increasingly important over time (Alsharhan, 1987

  3. Regional conductivity structure of Cascadia from 3D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Patro, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired in a series of temporary arrays deployed across the continental US through EMScope, a part of the USArray component of EarthScope. Initial deployments in 2006 and 2007 acquired data at 110 sites covering the US Pacific Northwest. The MT sites, distributed with the same nominal spacing as the USArray seismic transportable array (~75 km), produced data in the period range 10- 20,000s of very good to excellent quality. The most striking and robust feature revealed by 3D inversion of this dataset is an extensive lower crustal conductor covering most of the study area southeast of a line running from the California border at the coast to the Blue Mountains of Northeastern Oregon. The conductance of this layer, which is about 15 km thick with a top at roughly 20 km depth, exceeds 3000 S beneath the he Northwest Basin and Range (BR) province of southeastern Oregon. The high conductivity in this region is inferred to result from fluids - including possibly partial melt at depth - associated with magmatic underplating and BR extension. The lower crust is much more resistive beneath the Coast Range, Willamette Valley and Puget Lowlands of Western Washington and Oregon, and beneath the Columbia Plateau. This area of resistive crust, which was derived from a large fragment of thickened oceanic lithosphere that was accreted to North America at approximately 48 Ma ("Siletzia"), is revealed by geological and geodetic studies to be strong, accommodating tectonic stresses through rigid block rotations. In contrast, the area to the southeast characterized by high conductivity in the lower crust is actively deforming, consistent with an important role for fluids in weakening of continental crust. The resistive Siletzia crust is broken by an elongated N-S zone of high conductivity beneath the Cascade volcanoes. High conductivities beneath the volcanoes also most likely reflect the presence of interconnected fluids, in this case released

  4. Creating bio-inspired hierarchical 3D-2D photonic stacks via planar lithography on self-assembled inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Aizenberg, Joanna; Lončar, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Structural hierarchy and complex 3D architecture are characteristics of biological photonic designs that are challenging to reproduce in synthetic materials. Top-down lithography allows for designer patterning of arbitrary shapes, but is largely restricted to planar 2D structures. Self-assembly techniques facilitate easy fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, but controllable defect-integration is difficult. In this paper we combine the advantages of top-down and bottom-up fabrication, developing two techniques to deposit 2D-lithographically-patterned planar layers on top of or in between inverse-opal 3D photonic crystals and creating hierarchical structures that resemble the architecture of the bright green wing scales of the butterfly, Parides sesostris. These fabrication procedures, combining advantages of both top-down and bottom-up fabrication, may prove useful in the development of omnidirectional coloration elements and 3D-2D photonic crystal devices.

  5. A new model of the Arctic crustal thickness from 3D gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Gaina, C.; Minakov, A.; Kashubin, S.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable increase of new data collections and compilations for the Arctic region during the last decade motivate for a re-evaluation of our knowledge about the crustal structure and the tectonic evolution of the Arctic basins. 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling methods in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012); lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density are integrated in the algorithm for derive the crustal thickness of the High Arctic region. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2015) was modified according to the most recent published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. Derived crustal thickness and Moho depth grids cover the area northward from 66° N and fit within a few kilometres with seismic crustal models for the most parts of the High Arctic region. Greater misfit in Moho depth between our results and seismic study (Chain & Lebedeva-Ivanova, 2015) under the northern Canada Basin suggest exceptional property of crust or/and mantel in this part of the Basin. Assumed mantle density of 3.25 kg/cm3provide the best fit for the region; it may indicate pervasive subcontinental lithospheric mantle (Goldstein et al., 2008) under the whole Arctic region. New results show a possible crustal connection between the Alpha and the Lomonosov ridges near the Canadian margin. The deepest Moho depth of c.34 km for Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge System is observed under the southern Mendeleev Ridge. The derived crustal thickness and Moho depth show a substantial improvement from the publicly available grids (CRUST1 (Laske et al., 2013

  6. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data using SL0 sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaohai

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method dedicated to the interpretation of full gravity gradient tensor data, based on SL0 sparse recovery inversion. The SL0 sparse recovery method aims to find out the minimum value of the objective function to fit the data function and to solve the non-zero solution to the objective function. Based on continuous iteration, we can easily obtain the final global minimum (namely the property and space attribute of the inversion target). We consider which type of tensor data combination produces the best inversion results based on the inversion results of different full gravity gradient tensor data combinations (separate tensor data and combined tensor data). We compare the recovered models obtained by inverting the different combinations of different gravity gradient tensor components to understand how different component combinations contribute to the resolution of the recovered model. Based on the comparison between the SL0 sparse recovery inversion results and the smoothest and focusing inversion results of the full gravity gradient tensor data, we show that SL0 sparse recovery inversion can obtain more stable and efficient inversion results with relatively sharp edge information, and that this method can also produce a stable solution of the inverse problem for complex geological structures. This new method to resolve very large full gravity gradient tensor datasets has the considerable advantage of being highly efficient; the full gravity gradient tensor inversion requires very little time. This new method is very effective in explaining the full gravity tensor which is very sensitive to small changes in local anomaly. The numerical simulation and inversion results of the compositional model indicates that including multiple components for inversion increases the resolution of the recovered density model and improves the structure delineation. We apply our inversion method to invert the gravity gradient tensor survey data from the Vinton salt

  7. Joint Stochastic Inversion of Pre-Stack 3D Seismic Data and Well Logs for High Resolution Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Verdin, C.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the successful implementation of a new 3D AVA stochastic inversion algorithm to quantitatively integrate pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs. The stochastic inversion algorithm is used to characterize flow units of a deepwater reservoir located in the central Gulf of Mexico. Conventional fluid/lithology sensitivity analysis indicates that the shale/sand interface represented by the top of the hydrocarbon-bearing turbidite deposits generates typical Class III AVA responses. On the other hand, layer- dependent Biot-Gassmann analysis shows significant sensitivity of the P-wave velocity and density to fluid substitution. Accordingly, AVA stochastic inversion, which combines the advantages of AVA analysis with those of geostatistical inversion, provided quantitative information about the lateral continuity of the turbidite reservoirs based on the interpretation of inverted acoustic properties (P-velocity, S-velocity, density), and lithotype (sand- shale) distributions. The quantitative use of rock/fluid information through AVA seismic amplitude data, coupled with the implementation of co-simulation via lithotype-dependent multidimensional joint probability distributions of acoustic/petrophysical properties, yields accurate 3D models of petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Finally, by fully integrating pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs, the vertical resolution of inverted products is higher than that of deterministic inversions methods.

  8. Seismic moment tensor inversion using 3D velocity model and its application to the 2013 Lushan earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    Source inversion of small-magnitude events such as aftershocks or mine collapses requires use of relatively high frequency seismic waveforms which are strongly affected by small-scale heterogeneities in the crust. In this study, we developed a new inversion method called gCAP3D for determining general moment tensor of a seismic source using Green's functions of 3D models. It inherits the advantageous features of the "Cut-and-Paste" (CAP) method to break a full seismogram into the Pnl and surface-wave segments and to allow time shift between observed and predicted waveforms. It uses grid search for 5 source parameters (relative strengths of the isotropic and compensated-linear-vector-dipole components and the strike, dip, and rake of the double-couple component) that minimize the waveform misfit. The scalar moment is estimated using the ratio of L2 norms of the data and synthetics. Focal depth can also be determined by repeating the inversion at different depths. We applied gCAP3D to the 2013 Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake and its aftershocks using a 3D crustal-upper mantle velocity model derived from ambient noise tomography in the region. We first relocated the events using the double-difference method. We then used the finite-differences method and reciprocity principle to calculate Green's functions of the 3D model for 20 permanent broadband seismic stations within 200 km from the source region. We obtained moment tensors of the mainshock and 74 aftershocks ranging from Mw 5.2 to 3.4. The results show that the Lushan earthquake is a reverse faulting at a depth of 13-15 km on a plane dipping 40-47° to N46° W. Most of the aftershocks occurred off the main rupture plane and have similar focal mechanisms to the mainshock's, except in the proximity of the mainshock where the aftershocks' focal mechanisms display some variations.

  9. Realistic 3D coherent transfer function inverse filtering of complex fields

    PubMed Central

    Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih M.; Arfire, Cristian; Kou, Shan Shan; Boss, Daniel; Bergoënd, Isabelle; Depeursinge, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique for three-dimensional (3D) image processing of complex fields. It consists in inverting the coherent image formation by filtering the complex spectrum with a realistic 3D coherent transfer function (CTF) of a high-NA digital holographic microscope. By combining scattering theory and signal processing, the method is demonstrated to yield the reconstruction of a scattering object field. Experimental reconstructions in phase and amplitude are presented under non-design imaging conditions. The suggested technique is best suited for an implementation in high-resolution diffraction tomography based on sample or illumination rotation. PMID:21833359

  10. Realistic 3D coherent transfer function inverse filtering of complex fields.

    PubMed

    Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih M; Arfire, Cristian; Kou, Shan Shan; Boss, Daniel; Bergoënd, Isabelle; Depeursinge, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel technique for three-dimensional (3D) image processing of complex fields. It consists in inverting the coherent image formation by filtering the complex spectrum with a realistic 3D coherent transfer function (CTF) of a high-NA digital holographic microscope. By combining scattering theory and signal processing, the method is demonstrated to yield the reconstruction of a scattering object field. Experimental reconstructions in phase and amplitude are presented under non-design imaging conditions. The suggested technique is best suited for an implementation in high-resolution diffraction tomography based on sample or illumination rotation.

  11. 3D Gravity Inversion of Northern Sinai Peninsula: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.

    2014-07-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has attracted the attention of many geological and geophysical studies as it is influenced and bounded by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of the Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Additionally, the shear zones inside Sinai such as the Ragabet El-Naam and Minsherah-Abu Kandu Shear Zones. Each of these major tectonic events has affected dramatically the structure evolution of the northern Sinai area. The present paper estimates the 3D density contrast model using the gravity data of northern Sinai. The estimated 3D density contrast model elucidated the peculiarities of the main structural elements in the region. The estimated 3D density contrast model showed the high and low gravity anomalies that form the main mountains and main valleys in northern Sinai. The estimated low density zones are in agreement with the inferred faults resulting from the first horizontal derivative. Comparing the 3D model with the tectonic history of the region and the results of the first horizontal derivative and least square separation increased the reliability of the model.

  12. 3-D Sound Propagation and Acoustic Inversions in Shallow Water Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-19

    fixed arc-length grid.] 10 Modeling comparisons Propagate over seamount , off center Source at 250 m, 100Hz 4 cases - (1) Nx2D, (2) Cartesian, (3...cylindrical PE. Figure 2. PE model comparisons I Sound propagation over a seamount are computed by different 3-D PE models, including (1) Nx2- D (2

  13. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-02-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2-5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  14. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank Geothermal Field Imaged by 3-D Full-tensor MT Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2016-11-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2 - 5 Ohm-m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT dataset as well as the degree of modeling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60o) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modeling to test the best fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally-controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  15. Influence of 3D Teleseismic Body Waves in the Finite-Fault Source Inversion of Subduction Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladen, A.; Monteiller, V.

    2014-12-01

    Most large earthquakes are generated in subduction zones. To study the complexity of these events, teleseismic body waves offer many advantages over other types of data: they allow to study both the temporal and spatial evolution of slip during the rupture, they don't depend on the presence of nearby land and they allow to study earthquakes regardless of their location. Since the development of teleseismic finite-fault inversion in the 1980th, teleseismic body waves have been simulated using 1D velocity models to take into account propagation effects at the source. Yet, subduction zones are known to be highly heterogeneous: they are characterized by curved and dipping structures, strong seismic velocity contrasts, strong variations of topography and height of the water column. The main reason for relying on a 1D approximation is the computational cost of 3D simulations. And while forward simulations of teleseismic waves in a 3D Earth are only starting to be tractable on modern computers at the frequency range of interest (0.1Hz or shorter), finite-fault source studies require a large number of these simulations. In this work, we present a new and efficient approach to compute 3D teleseismic body waves, in which the full 3D propagation is only computed in a regional domain using discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method, while the rest of the seismic wave field is propagated in a background axisymmetric Earth. The regional and global wave fields are matched using the so-called Total-Field/Scattered-Field technique. This new simulation approach allows us to study the waveform complexities resulting from 3D propagation and investigate how they could improve the resolution and reduce the non-uniqueness of finite-fault inversions.

  16. Electromagnetic Response Inversion for a 3D Distribution of Conductivity/Dielect

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory

    2001-10-24

    NLCGCS inverts electromagnetic responses for a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity within the earth for geophysical applications using single processor computers. The software comes bundled with a graphical user interface to aid in model construction and analysis and viewing of earth images. The solution employs both dipole and finite size source configurations for harmonic oscillatory sources. A new nonlinear preconditioner is included in the solution to speed up solution convergence.

  17. An inverse hyper-spherical harmonics-based formulation for reconstructing 3D volumetric lung deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Anand P.; Min, Yugang; Mudur, Sudhir P.; Rastogi, Abhinav; Ruddy, Bari H.; Shah, Amish; Divo, Eduardo; Kassab, Alain; Rolland, Jannick P.; Kupelian, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    A method to estimate the deformation operator for the 3D volumetric lung dynamics of human subjects is described in this paper. For known values of air flow and volumetric displacement, the deformation operator and subsequently the elastic properties of the lung are estimated in terms of a Green's function. A Hyper-Spherical Harmonic (HSH) transformation is employed to compute the deformation operator. The hyper-spherical coordinate transformation method discussed in this paper facilitates accounting for the heterogeneity of the deformation operator using a finite number of frequency coefficients. Spirometry measurements are used to provide values for the airflow inside the lung. Using a 3D optical flow-based method, the 3D volumetric displacement of the left and right lungs, which represents the local anatomy and deformation of a human subject, was estimated from 4D-CT dataset. Results from an implementation of the method show the estimation of the deformation operator for the left and right lungs of a human subject with non-small cell lung cancer. Validation of the proposed method shows that we can estimate the Young's modulus of each voxel within a 2% error level.

  18. Structural results for La Palma island using 3-D gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, A. G.; FernáNdez, J.; GonzáLez, P. J.; Rundle, J. B.; Prieto, J. F.; Arjona, A.

    2009-05-01

    A recent gravity survey composed of 317 bench marks all over the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) is used, in combination with satellite data for regional aspects, to obtain results about structural properties of the island connected with the tectonic environment and local volcanism. To that end, a nonlinear three-dimensional gravity inversion approach is considered. The inversion scheme provides, in a nonsubjective form, the geometry of the anomalous bodies constructed in a random growth process. Results from the inversion can be interpreted in the framework of the geologic evolution of this ocean island volcano as a complex composite volcano with a large central body with high-density corresponding to the older intrusive part of the basalt complex. New unexpected features are enlightened, such as large thermal anomalies in the upper mantle southward of La Palma, as well as fracture en echelon zones associable to a slow active process of dislocation related to the recent volcanism in the southern half of the island. The results obtained for La Palma as a test site testify to the usefulness of the developed gravity inversion methodology for structural studies on islands in general.

  19. Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies in Salihli (Turkey) Geothermal Area Using 3-D Inversion and Edge Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous geophysical methods used to investigate geothermal areas. The major purpose of this magnetic survey is to locate the boudaries of active hydrothermal system in the South of Gediz Graben in Salihli (Manisa/Turkey). The presence of the hydrothermal system had already been inferred from surface evidence of hydrothermal activity and drillings. Firstly, 3-D prismatic models were theoretically investigated and edge detection methods were utilized with an iterative inversion method to define the boundaries and the parameters of the structure. In the first step of the application, it was necessary to convert the total field anomaly into a pseudo-gravity anomaly map. Then the geometric boudaries of the structures were determined by applying a MATLAB based software with 3 different edge detection algorithms. The exact location of the structures were obtained by using these boundary coordinates as initial geometric parameters in the inversion process. In addition to these methods, reduction to pole and horizontal gradient methods were applied to the data to achieve more information about the location and shape of the possible reservoir. As a result, the edge detection methods were found to be successful, both in the field and as theoretical data sets for delineating the boundaries of the possible geothermal reservoir structure. The depth of the geothermal reservoir was determined as 2,4 km from 3-D inversion and 2,1 km from power spectrum methods.

  20. Waveform inversion for 3-D earth structure using the Direct Solution Method implemented on vector-parallel supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2004-08-01

    We implement the Direct Solution Method (DSM) on a vector-parallel supercomputer and show that it is possible to significantly improve its computational efficiency through parallel computing. We apply the parallel DSM calculation to waveform inversion of long period (250-500 s) surface wave data for three-dimensional (3-D) S-wave velocity structure in the upper and uppermost lower mantle. We use a spherical harmonic expansion to represent lateral variation with the maximum angular degree 16. We find significant low velocities under south Pacific hot spots in the transition zone. This is consistent with other seismological studies conducted in the Superplume project, which suggests deep roots of these hot spots. We also perform simultaneous waveform inversion for 3-D S-wave velocity and Q structure. Since resolution for Q is not good, we develop a new technique in which power spectra are used as data for inversion. We find good correlation between long wavelength patterns of Vs and Q in the transition zone such as high Vs and high Q under the western Pacific.

  1. Global Snow Mass Measurements and the Effect of Stratigraphic Detail on Inversion of Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Davenport, Ian; Gurney, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Snow provides large seasonal storage of freshwater, and information about the distribution of snow mass as snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for hydrological planning and detecting climate change impacts. Large regional disagreements remain between estimates from reanalyses, remote sensing and modelling. Assimilating passive microwave information improves SWE estimates in many regions, but the assimilation must account for how microwave scattering depends on snow stratigraphy. Physical snow models can estimate snow stratigraphy, but users must consider the computational expense of model complexity versus acceptable errors. Using data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cold Land Processes Experiment and the Helsinki University of Technology microwave emission model of layered snowpacks, it is shown that simulations of the brightness temperature difference between 19 and 37 GHz vertically polarised microwaves are consistent with advanced microwave scanning radiometer-earth observing system and special sensor microwave imager retrievals once known stratigraphic information is used. Simulated brightness temperature differences for an individual snow profile depend on the provided stratigraphic detail. Relative to a profile defined at the 10-cm resolution of density and temperature measurements, the error introduced by simplification to a single layer of average properties increases approximately linearly with snow mass. If this brightness temperature error is converted into SWE using a traditional retrieval method, then it is equivalent to ±13 mm SWE (7 % of total) at a depth of 100 cm. This error is reduced to ±5.6 mm SWE (3 % of total) for a two-layer model.

  2. Full-wave Moment Tensor and Tomographic Inversions Based on 3D Strain Green Tensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-31

    G. Jahnke, Wave propagation in 3D spherical sections: effects of subduction zones , Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 132, 219-234, 2002. Komastitsch, D...is at scales smaller than the Fresnel zone . For example, a 1-Hz P/Pn wave recorded by a receiver ~1000 km from the source has a Fresnel zone width...approach, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., abstract T11E-06 Invited, 2008b. Sigloch, K., N. McQuarrie, G. Nolet, Two-stage subduction

  3. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    An inverse wing design method was developed around an existing transonic wing analysis code. The original analysis code, TAWFIVE, has as its core the numerical potential flow solver, FLO30, developed by Jameson and Caughey. Features of the analysis code include a finite-volume formulation; wing and fuselage fitted, curvilinear grid mesh; and a viscous boundary layer correction that also accounts for viscous wake thickness and curvature. The development of the inverse methods as an extension of previous methods existing for design in Cartesian coordinates is presented. Results are shown for inviscid wing design cases in super-critical flow regimes. The test cases selected also demonstrate the versatility of the design method in designing an entire wing or discontinuous sections of a wing.

  4. Development and Tuning of a 3-D Stochastic Inversion Methodology for the European Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Norway and is subdivided into four tectonic nappes. Obduction started in the Vendian to Middle Cambrian and lasted until the Silurian . 2008...10 and 150 s period were combined with existing data provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder. This new data set was inverted for maps...showing the 2D group-velocity distribution of Love and Rayleigh waves for specific periods . Using a Monte Carlo inversion technique (Shapiro and

  5. Optimization of computations for adjoint field and Jacobian needed in 3D CSEM inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehiya, Rahul; Singh, Arun; Gupta, Pravin K.; Israil, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present the features and results of a newly developed code, based on Gauss-Newton optimization technique, for solving three-dimensional Controlled-Source Electromagnetic inverse problem. In this code a special emphasis has been put on representing the operations by block matrices for conjugate gradient iteration. We show how in the computation of Jacobian, the matrix formed by differentiation of system matrix can be made independent of frequency to optimize the operations at conjugate gradient step. The coarse level parallel computing, using OpenMP framework, is used primarily due to its simplicity in implementation and accessibility of shared memory multi-core computing machine to almost anyone. We demonstrate how the coarseness of modeling grid in comparison to source (comp`utational receivers) spacing can be exploited for efficient computing, without compromising the quality of the inverted model, by reducing the number of adjoint calls. It is also demonstrated that the adjoint field can even be computed on a grid coarser than the modeling grid without affecting the inversion outcome. These observations were reconfirmed using an experiment design where the deviation of source from straight tow line is considered. Finally, a real field data inversion experiment is presented to demonstrate robustness of the code.

  6. 3D Inversion of Gravity Anomalies for the Interpretation of Sedimentary Basins using Variable Density Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Concern about sedimentary basins is generally related to their genetic and economic significance. Analysis of sedimentary basins requires the acquisition of data through outcrop studies and subsurface investigations that encompass drilling and geophysics. These data are commonly analysed by computer-assisted techniques. One of these methods is based on analysing gravity anomalies to compute the depth of sedimentary basin-basement rock interface. Sedimentary basins produce negative gravity anomalies, because they have mostly lower densities than that of the surrounding basement rocks. Density variations in a sedimentary fill increase rapidly at shallower depths then gradually reach the density of surrounding basement rocks due to the geostatic pressure i.e. compaction. The decrease of the density contrast can be easily estimated by a quadratic function. Hence, if the densities are chosen properly and the regional background is removed correctly, the topographical relief of the sedimentary basin-basement rock interface might be estimated by the inversion of the gravity data using an exponential density-depth relation. Three dimensional forward modelling procedure can be carried out by introducing a Cartesian coordinate system, and placing vertical prisms just below observation points on the grid plane. Depth to the basement, namely depths to the bottom of the vertical prisms are adjusted in an iterative manner by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated residual gravity anomalies. In this study, we present a MATLAB-based inversion code for the interpretation of sedimentary basins by approximating the topographical relief of sedimentary basin-basement rock interfaces. For a given gridded residual gravity anomaly map, the procedure estimates the bottom depths of vertical prisms by considering some published formulas and assumptions. The utility of the developed inversion code was successfully tested on theoretically produced gridded gravity data set

  7. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  8. Relative stability of normal vs. inverse spinel for 3d transition metal oxides as lithium intercalation cathodes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Wolverton, C

    2013-05-07

    Spinel oxides represent an important class of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Two major variants of the spinel crystal structure are normal and inverse. The relative stability of normal and inverse ordering at different stages of lithiation has important consequences in lithium diffusivity, voltage, capacity retention and battery life. In this paper, we investigate the relative structural stability of normal and inverse structures of the 3d transition metal oxide spinels with first-principles DFT calculations. We have considered ternary spinel oxides LixM2O4 with M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni in both lithiated (x = 1) and delithiated (x = 0) conditions. We find that for all lithiated spinels, the normal structure is preferred regardless of the metal. We observe that the normal structure for all these oxides has a lower size mismatch between octahedral cations compared to the inverse structure. With delithiation, many of the oxides undergo a change in stability with vanadium in particular, showing a tendency to occupy tetrahedral sites. We find that in the delithiated oxide, only vanadium ions can access a +5 oxidation state which prefers tetrahedral coordination. We have also calculated the average voltage of lithiation for these spinels. The calculated voltages agree well with the previously measured and calculated values, wherever available. For the yet to be characterized spinels, our calculation provides voltage values which can motivate further experimental attention. Lastly, we observe that all the normal spinel oxides of the 3d transition metal series have a driving force for a transformation to the non-spinel structure upon delithiation.

  9. Dirac Circles and Quantum Hall Effect in 3D Inversion-Symmetric Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, Benjamin J.; Kim, Youngkuk; Kane, C. L.

    2015-03-01

    In the presence of inversion and time-reversal symmetries, materials with weak spin-orbit coupling may host topologically protected Dirac line nodes. A band inversion transition in these systems can produce a line node which closes on itself and forms a protected Dirac circle. The surfaces parallel to this circle host zero-energy puddles in momentum space which are flat if the inverting bands have the same effective mass. In cases with differing effective masses, the surface modes disperse, but the bulk Dirac circle remains gapless. Adding an external magnetic field perpendicular to this circle creates surface Landau levels, whose number can be controlled by tuning the field strength. When a new level is created or destroyed, the bulk becomes gapless and the zero-temperature bulk conductivity displays a sharp peak. The sequence of conductivity peaks describes an unusual manifestation of the integer quantum hall effect. We characterize surface and bulk transport as a function of magnetic field strength and in the presence of disorder.

  10. A numerical method for the inverse problem of cell traction in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, G.; Preziosi, L.; Ambrosi, D.

    2012-09-01

    Force traction microscopy is an inversion method that allows us to obtain the stress field applied by a living cell on the environment on the basis of a pointwise knowledge of the displacement produced by the cell itself. This classical biophysical problem, usually addressed in terms of Green’s functions, can be alternatively tackled in a variational framework. In such a case, a variation of the error functional under suitable regularization is operated in view of its minimization. This setting naturally suggests the introduction of a new equation, based on the adjoint operator of the elasticity problem. In this paper, we illustrate a numerical strategy of the inversion method that discretizes the partial differential equations associated with the optimal control problem by finite elements. A detailed discussion of the numerical approximation of a test problem (with known solution) that contains most of the mathematical difficulties of the real one allows a precise evaluation of the degree of confidence that one can achieve in the numerical results.

  11. Identification of groundwater parameters at Columbus, Mississippi, using a 3D inverse flow and transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlebo, H.C.; Rosbjerg, D.; Hill, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive amount of data including hydraulic heads, hydraulic conductivities and concentrations of several solutes from controlled injections have been collected during the MADE 1 and MADE 2 experiments at a heterogeneous site near Columbus, Mississippi. In this paper the use of three-dimensional inverse groundwater models including simultaneous estimation of flow and transport parameters is proposed to help identify the dominant characteristics at the site. Simulations show that using a hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from 2187 borehole flowmeter tests directly in the model produces poor matches to the measured hydraulic heads and tritium concentrations. Alternatively, time averaged hydraulic head maps are used to define zones of constant hydraulic conductivity to be estimated. Preliminary simulations suggest that in the case of conservative transport many, but not all, of the major plume characteristics can be explained by large-scale heterogeneity in recharge and hydraulic conductivity.

  12. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the direct-inverse wing design method in curvilinear coordinates has been made. This includes the remedying of a spanwise oscillation problem and the assessment of grid skewness, viscous interaction, and the initial airfoil section on the final design. It was found that, in response to the spanwise oscillation problem that designing at every other spanwise station produced the best results for the cases presented, a smoothly varying grid is especially needed for the accurate design at the wing tip, the boundary layer displacement thicknesses must be included in a successful wing design, the design of high and medium aspect ratio wings is possible with this code, and the final airfoil section designed is fairly independent of the initial section.

  13. Hall-Effect Sign Inversion in a Realizable 3D Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Bückmann, Tiemo; Kern, Christian; Wegener, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Briane and Milton proved mathematically the existence of three-dimensional isotropic metamaterials with a classical Hall coefficient that is negative with respect to that of all of the metamaterial constituents. Here, we significantly simplify their blueprint towards an architecture composed of only a single-constituent material in vacuum or air, which can be seen as a special type of porosity. We show numerically that the sign of the Hall voltage is determined by a separation parameter between adjacent tori. This qualitative behavior is robust even for only a small number of metamaterial unit cells. The combination of simplification and robustness brings experimental verification of this striking sign inversion into reach. Furthermore, we provide a simple intuitive explanation of the underlying physical mechanism.

  14. Inversion of multi-frequency electromagnetic induction data for 3D characterization of hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosten, T.R.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Schultz, G.M.; Curtis, G.P.; Lane, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) instruments provide rapid, noninvasive, and spatially dense data for characterization of soil and groundwater properties. Data from multi-frequency EMI tools can be inverted to provide quantitative electrical conductivity estimates as a function of depth. In this study, multi-frequency EMI data collected across an abandoned uranium mill site near Naturita, Colorado, USA, are inverted to produce vertical distribution of electrical conductivity (EC) across the site. The relation between measured apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and hydraulic conductivity (K) is weak (correlation coefficient of 0.20), whereas the correlation between the depth dependent EC obtained from the inversions, and K is sufficiently strong to be used for hydrologic estimation (correlation coefficient of -0.62). Depth-specific EC values were correlated with co-located K measurements to develop a site-specific ln(EC)-ln(K) relation. This petrophysical relation was applied to produce a spatially detailed map of K across the study area. A synthetic example based on ECa values at the site was used to assess model resolution and correlation loss given variations in depth and/or measurement error. Results from synthetic modeling indicate that optimum correlation with K occurs at ~0.5m followed by a gradual correlation loss of 90% at 2.3m. These results are consistent with an analysis of depth of investigation (DOI) given the range of frequencies, transmitter-receiver separation, and measurement errors for the field data. DOIs were estimated at 2.0??0.5m depending on the soil conductivities. A 4-layer model, with varying thicknesses, was used to invert the ECa to maximize available information within the aquifer region for improved correlations with K. Results show improved correlation between K and the corresponding inverted EC at similar depths, underscoring the importance of inversion in using multi-frequency EMI data for hydrologic estimation. ?? 2011.

  15. 3D non-linear inversion of magnetic anomalies caused by prismatic bodies using differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkaya, Çağlayan; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2017-01-01

    3D non-linear inversion of total field magnetic anomalies caused by vertical-sided prismatic bodies has been achieved by differential evolution (DE), which is one of the population-based evolutionary algorithms. We have demonstrated the efficiency of the algorithm on both synthetic and field magnetic anomalies by estimating horizontal distances from the origin in both north and east directions, depths to the top and bottom of the bodies, inclination and declination angles of the magnetization, and intensity of magnetization of the causative bodies. In the synthetic anomaly case, we have considered both noise-free and noisy data sets due to two vertical-sided prismatic bodies in a non-magnetic medium. For the field case, airborne magnetic anomalies originated from intrusive granitoids at the eastern part of the Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) which is composed of various kinds of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks, have been inverted and interpreted. Since the granitoids are the outcropped rocks in the field, the estimations for the top depths of two prisms representing the magnetic bodies were excluded during inversion studies. Estimated bottom depths are in good agreement with the ones obtained by a different approach based on 3D modelling of pseudogravity anomalies. Accuracy of the estimated parameters from both cases has been also investigated via probability density functions. Based on the tests in the present study, it can be concluded that DE is a useful tool for the parameter estimation of source bodies using magnetic anomalies.

  16. Enhanced imaging of CO2 at the Ketzin storage site: Inversion of 3D time-lapse seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Götz, J.; Ivanova, A.; Juhlin, C.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Lüth, S.; Yang, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Ketzin test site, located near Berlin, is Europe's longest-operating on-shore CO2 storage site. As of December 2011, more than 56,000 tons of food grade CO2 has been injected since June 2008 in an anticlinal structure of the Northeast German Basin. The target reservoir consists of porous, brine bearing sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at approximately 630 to 650 m depth. In order to enhance the understanding of the structural geometry of the site and to investigate the extension of the CO2-plume, several geophysical monitoring methods are being applied at Ketzin, among these are active seismic measurements, geoelectrics and borehole measurements. Among the various seismic techniques (e.g. 2D reflection surveys, crosshole tomography, Vertical Seismic Profiling, 2D- and 3D-Moving Source Profiling) employed at this pilot site, 3D time-lapse reflection surveys are an important component. The baseline 3D survey was acquired in 2005 and the first repeat measurements were performed in 2009 after injection of about 22,000 tons of CO2. The second repeat survey is planned to be carried out in fall 2012. These measurements allow the time-lapse signature of the injected CO2 to be imaged. The time-lapse amplitude variation attributed to the injected CO2 in the reservoir matches, considering detection limits of seismic surface measurements, the expected distribution of the CO2 plume derived from reservoir simulations. Previous attempts towards a quantitative interpretation were based on integrative considerations of different types of geophysical measurements using strict assumptions and characterized by large error bars. In order to increase the resolution and reliability of the data and to improve estimation of rock properties and especially to enhance the imaging resolution of the CO2-plume, the time-lapse 3D seismic data have now been inverted for seismic impedances with different methods, which is the focus of this presentation. One difficulty

  17. Ultrasonic simulation—Imagine3D and SimScan: Tools to solve the inverse problem for complex turbine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, H. D.; Ciorau, P.; Owen, D.; Hazelton, T.; Dunning, G.

    2000-05-01

    Two ultrasonic simulation packages: Imagine 3D and SIMSCAN have specifically been developed to solve the inverse problem for blade root and rotor steeple of low-pressure turbine. The software was integrated with the 3D drawing of the inspected parts, and with the dimensions of linear phased-array probes. SIMSCAN simulates the inspection scenario in both optional conditions: defect location and probe movement/refracted angle range. The results are displayed into Imagine 3-D, with a variety of options: rendering, display 1:1, grid, generated UT beam. The results are very useful for procedure developer, training and to optimize the phased-array probe inspection sequence. A spreadsheet is generated to correlate the defect coordinates with UT data (probe position, skew and refracted angle, UT path, and probe movement). The simulation models were validated during experimental work with phased-array systems. The accuracy in probe position is ±1 mm, and the refracted/skew angle is within ±0.5°. Representative examples of phased array focal laws/probe movement for a specific defect location, are also included.

  18. 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments in high resolution imaging technology of subsurface objects involves a combination of different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic). A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data due to their differing physical nature. For example, in conducting media, which is typical of the Earth's interior, EM energy propagation is defined by a diffusive mechanism and may be characterized by two specific length scales: wavelength and skin depth. However, the propagation of seismic signals is a multiwave process and is characterized by a set of wavelengths. Thus, to consistently treat seismic and electromagnetic data an additional length scale is needed for seismic data that does not directly depend on a wavelength and describes a diffusive process, similar to EM wave propagation in the subsurface. Works by Brown et al.(2005), Shin and Cha(2008), and Shin and Ha(2008) suggest that an artificial damping of seismic wave fields via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach to obtain a seismic data that have similar spatial resolution to EM data. The key benefit of such transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets: seismic (Brown et al.,2005; Shin and Cha,2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman,2008; Newman et al.,2010). With the recent interest in the Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion, 3D fourth and second-order finite-difference schemes for modeling of seismic wave propagation have been developed (Petrov and Newman, 2010). Incorporation of attenuation and anisotropy into a velocity model is a necessary step for a more realistic description of subsurface media. Here we consider the extension of our method which includes attenuation and VTI anisotropy. Our approach is based on the integro-interpolation technique for velocity-stress formulation. Seven

  19. 3D imaging of soil apparent electrical conductivity from VERIS data using a 1D spatially constrained inversion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Moral García, Francisco; Rebollo Castillo, Francisco Javier; Monteiro Santos, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Maps of apparent electrical conductivity of the soil are commonly used in precision agriculture to indirectly characterize some important properties like salinity, water, and clay content. Traditionally, these studies are made through an empirical relationship between apparent electrical conductivity and properties measured in soil samples collected at a few locations in the experimental area and at a few selected depths. Recently, some authors have used not the apparent conductivity values but the soil bulk conductivity (in 2D or 3D) calculated from measured apparent electrical conductivity through the application of an inversion method. All the published works used data collected with electromagnetic (EM) instruments. We present a new software to invert the apparent electrical conductivity data collected with VERIS 3100 and 3150 (or the more recent version with three pairs of electrodes) using the 1D spatially constrained inversion method (1D SCI). The software allows the calculation of the distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity in the survey area till a depth of 1 m. The algorithm is applied to experimental data and correlations with clay and water content have been established using soil samples collected at some boreholes. Keywords: Digital soil mapping; inversion modelling; VERIS; soil apparent electrical conductivity.

  20. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3-D elastic orthorhombic media: an inversion prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-09-01

    Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  1. Numerical simulation and inversion of MT fields in the 3D electric conductivity model of the Vesuvius volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spichak, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possibilities for three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) sounding of local objects contained in the Earth's crust are estimated in a case study of the magma chamber of the Vesuvius volcano. Stochastic inversion of the model MT data by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method has shown that the most efficient approach is not simultaneous but successive estimation of the geometry and the depth of the anomaly and the assessment of the conductivity distribution within the anomalous region. A zone of equivalence is revealed between the a priori estimate of the depth of the anomalous zone and the a posteriori distribution of electric conductivity within it. Based on the present estimation and previous results, an algorithm for determination of the parameters of local crustal anomaly is proposed.

  2. Improved water and lipid suppression for 3D PRESS CSI using RF band selective inversion with gradient dephasing (BASING).

    PubMed

    Star-Lack, J; Nelson, S J; Kurhanewicz, J; Huang, L R; Vigneron, D B

    1997-08-01

    A T1 insensitive solvent suppression technique-band selective inversion with gradient dephasing (BASING)-was developed to suppress water and lipids for 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). BASING, which consists of a frequency selective RF inversion pulse surrounded by spoiler gradient pulses of opposite signs, was used to dephase stopband resonances and minimally impact passband metabolites. Passband phase linearity was achieved with a dual BASING scheme. Using the Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm, a highpass filter was designed to suppress water and rephase the lactate methyl doublet independently of TE, and water/lipid bandstop filters were designed for the brain and prostate. Phantom and in vivo experimental 3D PRESS CSI data were acquired at 1.5 T to compare BASING with CHESS and STIR suppression. With BASING, the measured suppression factor was over 100 times higher than with CHESS or STIR causing baseline distortions to be removed. It was shown that BASING can be incorporated into a variety of sequences to offer improved suppression in the presence of B1 and T1 inhomogeneites.

  3. Gravity data inversion to determine 3D topographycal density contrast of Banten area, Indonesia based on fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhari, Ayuty; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The 3D inversion gravity anomaly to estimate topographical density using a matlab source code from gridded data provided by Parker Oldenburg algorithm based on fast Fourier transform was computed. We extend and improved the source code of 3DINVERT.M invented by Gomez Ortiz and Agarwal (2005) using the relationship between Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform from the topography density. We gave density contrast between the two media to apply the inversion. FFT routine was implemented to construct amplitude spectrum to the given mean depth. The results were presented as new graphics of inverted topography density, the gravity anomaly due to the inverted topography and the difference between the input gravity data and the computed ones. It terminates when the RMS error is lower than pre-assigned value used as convergence criterion or until maximum of iterations is reached. As an example, we used the matlab program on gravity data of Banten region, Indonesia.

  4. Inverse current-source density method in 3D: reconstruction fidelity, boundary effects, and influence of distant sources.

    PubMed

    Łeski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel K; Tereszczuk, Joanna; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Kublik, Ewa; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of the continuous current-source density in bulk tissue from a finite set of electrode measurements is a daunting task. Here we present a methodology which allows such a reconstruction by generalizing the one-dimensional inverse CSD method. The idea is to assume a particular plausible form of CSD within a class described by a number of parameters which can be estimated from available data, for example a set of cubic splines in 3D spanned on a fixed grid of the same size as the set of measurements. To avoid specificity of particular choice of reconstruction grid we add random jitter to the points positions and show that it leads to a correct reconstruction. We propose different ways of improving the quality of reconstruction which take into account the sources located outside the recording region through appropriate boundary treatment. The efficiency of the traditional CSD and variants of inverse CSD methods is compared using several fidelity measures on different test data to investigate when one of the methods is superior to the others. The methods are illustrated with reconstructions of CSD from potentials evoked by stimulation of a bunch of whiskers recorded in a slab of the rat forebrain on a grid of 4x5x7 positions.

  5. 3D multi-observable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, J. C.; Fullea, J.; Yang, Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Jones, A. G.; Connolly, J.; Lebedev, S.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution imaging and characterization of the thermal and compositional structure of the lithospheric and sublithospheric upper mantle are the basis for understanding the formation and evolution of the lithosphere and the interaction between the crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere systems. Unfortunately, such imaging and characterization using available geophysical-geochemical methods still present unsolved and technically challenging problems. In this contribution we present a new full-3D multi-observable inversion method particularly designed for high-resolution (regional) thermal and compositional mapping of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle. Ambient noise tomography, multiple plane wave earthquake tomography, magnetotelluric, thermal, thermodynamic, and potential field modelling are all combined in a single thermodynamic-geophysical framework and appraised within a general probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation. This circumvents the problems of strong non-linearity involved in traditional inversions, provides highly refined seismic information, minimizes the problem of trade-off between temperature and composition in wave speeds, offers critical insights into incompatibilities between traditional stand-alone methods, and takes advantage of a priori local geochemical information. Both synthetic models and preliminary results in real-case examples will be used to discuss the benefits, robustness, and limitations of this method.

  6. 3D modeling inversion calculation of magnetic data using iterative reweighted least squares at the Lau basin, Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, H. R.; Park, C.; Park, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We performed the marine magnetic and the bathymetry survey in the Lau basin for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in October 2009. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry datasets by using Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY(Marine Magnetics Co.) and Multi-Beam Echo Sounder EM120(Kongsberg Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly and reduction to the pole(RTP). The Lau basin is one of the youngest back-arc basins in the Southwest Pacific. This region was a lot of hydrothermal activities and hydrothermal deposits. In particular, Tofua Arc(TA) in the Lau basin consists of various and complex stratovolcanos(from Massoth et al., 2007).), We calculated the magnetic susceptibility distribution of the TA19-1 seamount(longitude:176°23.5'W, latitude: 22°42.5'W)area using the RTP data by 3-D magnetic inversion from Jung's previous study(2013). Based on 2D 'compact gravity inversion' by Last & Kubik(1983), we expend it to the 3D algorithm using iterative reweighted least squares method with some weight matrices. The used weight matrices are two types: 1) the minimum gradient support(MGS) that controls the spatial distribution of the solution from Porniaguine and Zhdanov(1999); 2) the depth weight that are used according to the shape of subsurface structures. From the modeling, we derived the appropriate scale factor for the use of depth weight and setting magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, we have to enter a very small error value to control the computation of the singular point of the inversion model that was able to be easily calculated for modeling. In addition, we applied separately weighted value for the correct shape and depth of the magnetic source. We selected the best results model by change to converge of RMS. Compared between the final modeled result and RTP values in this study, they are generally similar to the each other. But the input values and the modeled values have slightly little difference

  7. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco Revealed from 3-D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The overarching objectives of the second phase of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROSCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) project are (i) to provide new electrical conductivity constraints on the crustal and lithospheric structures of the Atlas Mountains, and (ii) to test the hypotheses for explaining the observation of a 'missing' mantle root inferred from surface heat flow, gravity and geoid anomalies, elevation and seismic data modeling (i.e. Zeyen et al., 2005; Teixell et al., 2005; Fullea et al., 2010). We present the results from three-dimensional (3-D) MT inversion of data from two MT profiles employing the parallel version of Modular system for Electromagnetic inversion (ModEM; Egbert & Kelbert, 2012) code. For the profile in eastern Morocco, passing through Midelt, a distinct conductivity difference between the Middle-High Atlas (conductive) and Anti Atlas (resistive) correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to the uppermost mantle (approximately 55 km). In all inverse solutions, the crust and the upper mantle show a resistive signature (750 Ωm - 1,000 Ωm) beneath the Anti Atlas to a depth of 100 km, which is the part of stable West African Craton. Our results are at variance with the proposed thin lithosphere beneath the Middle-High Atlas as we see no evidence for a shallow asthenosphere. Our second profile lies in western Morocco traversing through Marrakech. For the first time, the electrical resistivity distribution in the crust and in the upper mantle of Western High Atlas has been studied. Our 3-D resistivity model shows that conductive (1-20 Ωm) western High Atlas is confined by two resistive basins (>1,000 Ωm), Souss basin to the south and Houz basin to the north. At the southern boundary of the western High Atlas

  8. OpenHVSR: imaging the subsurface 2D/3D elastic properties through multiple HVSR modeling and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignardi, S.; Mantovani, A.; Abu Zeid, N.

    2016-08-01

    OpenHVSR is a computer program developed in the Matlab environment, designed for the simultaneous modeling and inversion of large Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR or H/V) datasets in order to construct 2D/3D subsurface models (topography included). The program is designed to provide a high level of interactive experience to the user and still to be of intuitive use. It implements several effective and established tools already present in the code ModelHVSR by Herak (2008), and many novel features such as: -confidence evaluation on lateral heterogeneity -evaluation of frequency dependent single parameter impact on the misfit function -relaxation of Vp/Vs bounds to allow for water table inclusion -a new cost function formulation which include a slope dependent term for fast matching of peaks, which greatly enhances convergence in case of low quality HVSR curves inversion -capability for the user of editing the subsurface model at any time during the inversion and capability to test the changes before acceptance. In what follows, we shall present many features of the program and we shall show its capabilities on both simulated and real data. We aim to supply a powerful tool to the scientific and professional community capable of handling large sets of HSVR curves, to retrieve the most from their microtremor data within a reduced amount of time and allowing the experienced scientist the necessary flexibility to integrate into the model their own geological knowledge of the sites under investigation. This is especially desirable now that microtremor testing has become routinely used. After testing the code over different datasets, both simulated and real, we finally decided to make it available in an open source format. The program is available by contacting the authors.

  9. On the Estimation Accuracy of the 3D Body Center of Mass Trajectory during Human Locomotion: Inverse vs. Forward Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the “true” dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates. PMID:28337148

  10. Modeling Coastal Salinity in Quasi 2D and 3D Using a DUALEM-421 and Inversion Software.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gareth; Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando Acacio; Triantafilis, John

    2015-01-01

    Rising sea levels, owing to climate change, are a threat to fresh water coastal aquifers. This is because saline intrusions are caused by increases and intensification of medium-large scale influences including sea level rise, wave climate, tidal cycles, and shifts in beach morphology. Methods are therefore required to understand the dynamics of these interactions. While traditional borehole and galvanic contact resistivity (GCR) techniques have been successful they are time-consuming. Alternatively, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FEM) induction is potentially useful as physical contact with the ground is not required. A DUALEM-421 and EM4Soil inversion software package are used to develop a quasi two- (2D) and quasi three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic conductivity images (EMCI) across Long Reef Beach located north of Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. The quasi 2D models discern: the dry sand (<10 mS/m) associated with the incipient dune; sand with fresh water (10 to 20 mS/m); mixing of fresh and saline water (20 to 500 mS/m), and; saline sand of varying moisture (more than 500 mS/m). The quasi 3D EMCIs generated for low and high tides suggest that daily tidal cycles do not have a significant effect on local groundwater salinity. Instead, the saline intrusion is most likely influenced by medium-large scale drivers including local wave climate and morphology along this wave-dominated beach. Further research is required to elucidate the influence of spring-neap tidal cycles, contrasting beach morphological states and sea level rise.

  11. On the Estimation Accuracy of the 3D Body Center of Mass Trajectory during Human Locomotion: Inverse vs. Forward Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pavei, Gaspare; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Minetti, Alberto E

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of body center of mass (BCoM) 3D trajectory during locomotion is crucial to the mechanical understanding of the different gaits. Forward Dynamics (FD) obtains BCoM motion from ground reaction forces while Inverse Dynamics (ID) estimates BCoM position and speed from motion capture of body segments. These two techniques are widely used by the literature on the estimation of BCoM. Despite the specific pros and cons of both methods, FD is less biased and considered as the golden standard, while ID estimates strongly depend on the segmental model adopted to schematically represent the moving body. In these experiments a single subject walked, ran, (uni- and bi-laterally) skipped, and race-walked at a wide range of speeds on a treadmill with force sensors underneath. In all conditions a simultaneous motion capture (8 cameras, 36 markers) took place. 3D BCoM trajectories computed according to five marker set models of ID have been compared to the one obtained by FD on the same (about 2,700) strides. Such a comparison aims to check the validity of the investigated models to capture the "true" dynamics of gaits in terms of distance between paths, mechanical external work and energy recovery. Results allow to conclude that: (1) among gaits, race walking is the most critical in being described by ID, (2) among the investigated segmental models, those capturing the motion of four limbs and trunk more closely reproduce the subtle temporal and spatial changes of BCoM trajectory within the strides of most gaits, (3) FD-ID discrepancy in external work is speed dependent within a gait in the most unsuccessful models, and (4) the internal work is not affected by the difference in BCoM estimates.

  12. The application of seismic stratigraphic methods on exploration 3D seismic data to define a reservoir model in OPL 210, Deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnhild, L.; Ventris, P.; Osahon, G.

    1995-08-01

    OPL 210 lies in deepwater on the northwestern flank of the Niger Delta. The partners in this block are Allied Energy and The Statoil and BP Alliance. The license has a 5 year initial exploration phase and carries a 2 well commitment. At present the database comprises a 1 x 1 km grid of 2D seismic across the block, and 450 sq. km of 3D in an area of special interest. A larger 3D survey is planned for 1995. Little is known about the reservoir in the deep water, but we expect our main target to be ponded slope and basin turbidites. As such the bulk of the shelf well data available has little or no relevance to the play type likely to be encountered. Prior to drilling, seismic stratigraphy has been one of several methods used to generate a consistent predictive reservoir model. The excellent quality and high resolution of the 3D data have allowed identification and detailed description of several distinctive seismic facies. These facies are described in terms of their internal geometries and stacking patterns. The geometries are then interpreted based on a knowledge of depositional processes from analog slope settings. This enables a predictive model to be constructed for the distribution of reservoir within the observed facies. These predictions will be tested by one of the first wells drilled in the Nigerian deepwater in mid 1995.

  13. Structure of Alluvial Valleys from 3-D Gravity Inversion: The Low Andarax Valley (Almería, Spain) Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Antonio G.; Carmona, Enrique; García-Jerez, Antonio; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Prieto, Juan F.; Fernández, José; Luzón, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a gravimetric study (based on 382 gravimetric stations in an area about 32 km2) of a nearly flat basin: the Low Andarax valley. This alluvial basin, close to its river mouth, is located in the extreme south of the province of Almería and coincides with one of the existing depressions in the Betic Cordillera. The paper presents new methodological work to adapt a published inversion approach (GROWTH method) to the case of an alluvial valley (sedimentary stratification, with density increase downward). The adjusted 3D density model reveals several features in the topography of the discontinuity layers between the calcareous basement (2,700 kg/m3) and two sedimentary layers (2,400 and 2,250 kg/m3). We interpret several low density alignments as corresponding to SE faults striking about N140-145°E. Some detected basement elevations (such as the one, previously known by boreholes, in Viator village) are apparently connected with the fault pattern. The outcomes of this work are: (1) new gravimetric data, (2) new methodological options, and (3) the resulting structural conclusions.

  14. 3D density model of the upper mantle of Asia based on inversion of gravity and seismic tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; Stolk, Ward; Tesauro, Magdala; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

    2016-11-01

    We construct a new-generation 3D density model of the upper mantle of Asia and its surrounding areas based on a joint interpretation of several data sets. A recent model of the crust combining nearly all available seismic data is employed to calculate the impact of the crust on the gravity anomalies and observed topography and to estimate the residual mantle anomalies and residual topography. These fields are jointly inverted to calculate the density variations in the lithosphere and upper mantle down to 325 km. As an initial approximation, we estimate density variations using a seismic tomography model. Seismic velocity variations are converted into temperatures and then to density variations based on mineral physics constraints. In the Occam-type inversion, we fit both the residual mantle gravity anomalies and residual topography by finding deviations to the initial model. The obtained corrections improve the resolution of the initial model and reflect important features of the mantle structure that are not well resolved by the seismic tomography. The most significant negative corrections of the upper mantle density, found in the Siberian and East European cratons, can be associated with depleted mantle material. The most pronounced positive density anomalies are found beneath the Tarim and South Caspian basins, Barents Sea, and Bay of Bengal. We attribute these anomalies to eclogites in the uppermost mantle, which have substantially affected the evolution of the basins. Furthermore, the obtained results provide evidence for the presence of eclogites in the oceanic subducting mantle lithosphere.

  15. 3D structural cartography based on magnetic and gravity data inversion - Case of South-West Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hichem, Boubekri; Mohamed, Hamoudi; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Ivan, Priezzhev; Karim, Allek

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of 3D aeromagnetic and gravity data inversion across the West African Craton (WAC) in South West Algeria. Although the used data have different origins and resolutions, the performed manual and automatic interpretation for each dataset shows a good correlation with some earlier geological studies of the region, major structural aspects of the locality, as well as other new structural features. Many curved faults parallel to the suture zone indicate the presence of terranes or the metacratonization of the WAC and a related fault network of great importance with NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The mega shear zones from north to south, which are visible at the surface in the Hoggar, are also observed along the Saharan Platform. The fact that these faults are observed since the Cambro-Ordovician in all crust (including the Saharan Basins) indicates that this area, which is situated on the border of the WAC, remained active during the entire period of time.

  16. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    -Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

  17. Global 3-D imaging of mantle electrical conductivity based on inversion of observatory C-responses - I. An approach and its verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, Alexey; Semenov, Alexey

    2012-06-01

    We present a novel frequency-domain inverse solution to recover the 3-D electrical conductivity distribution in the mantle. The solution is based on analysis of local C-responses. It exploits an iterative gradient-type method - limited-memory quasi-Newton method - for minimizing the penalty function consisting of data misfit and regularization terms. The integral equation code is used as a forward engine to calculate responses and data misfit gradients during inversion. An adjoint approach is implemented to compute misfit gradients efficiently. Further improvements in computational load come from parallelizing the scheme with respect to frequencies, and from setting the most time-consuming part of the forward calculations - calculation of Green's tensors - apart from the inversion loop. Convergence, performance, and accuracy of our 3-D inverse solution are demonstrated with a synthetic numerical example. A companion paper applies the strategy set forth here to real data.

  18. Improvements, Evaluation, and Application of 1D Vetem Inversion and Development and Application of 3D Vetem Inversion to Waste Pits at The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Cho Chew

    2004-10-27

    The project aim was the improvement, evaluation, and application of one dimensional (1D) inversion and development and application of three dimensional (3D) inversion to processing of data collected at waste pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inversion methods were intended mainly for the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system which was designed to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5m) subsurface through electrically conductive soils.

  19. Three dimensional electrical conductivity model of the Northwestern US derived from 3-D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.

    2011-12-01

    Long period (10-20,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired in a series of temporary arrays deployed across the continental United States through the EMScope component of EarthScope. MT deployments in 2006-2011 have acquired data at 325 sites on an approximately regular grid, with the same nominal spacing as the USArray broadband seismic transportable array (~70 km). The MT sites span a rectangular area from NW Washington to NW Colorado. Here we present results of a 3-D inversion of the full data set. A number of conductive and resistive features appear consistently in the crust and upper mantle in essentially all of a large suite of 3-D inverse solutions. Extensive areas of high conductivity are found in the lower crust (up to a depth of ~ 40 km) beneath the Basin & Range in southeastern Oregon, as imaged by Patro and Egbert (2008). In our new model, this feature extends further to the south and to the east, where it merges with somewhat deeper (uppermost mantle) conductivities beneath the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain. This deeper feature, which extends from Yellowstone to the SW into northeastern Nevada, coincides with the track of the Yellowstone hotspot discussed e.g., in Smith et. al. (2008). The lower crust and the uppermost mantle in the northeastern part of the domain, covering the area from eastern Washington to Montana and continuing south to Wyoming, is generally resistive, with a few localized exceptions. This resistive zone coincides with high velocities discussed and interpreted, e.g., by Yang et. al. (2008) as thick, stable Proterozoic lithosphere. A number of large-scale anomalous features also appear consistently in the upper mantle, at depths of ~ 50 km to 300 km. Most striking is a zone of high resistivity on the western edge of the domain, beneath western Oregon, Washington and northern California in the area occupied by oceanic lithosphere of the Juan de Fuca Plate, which has subducted beneath the relatively more conductive

  20. New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano(Indonesia), derived from 3D restricted inversion of long-offsettransient electromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan, L.; Hordt, Andreas; Scholl,Carsten; Tezkan, Bulent

    2006-06-14

    Three long-offset transient electromagnetic (LOTEM) surveyswerecarried out at the active volcano Merapi in Central Java (Indonesia)during the years 1998, 2000, and 2001. The measurements focused on thegeneral resistivity structure of the volcanic edifice at depths of 0.5-2km and the further investigation of a southside anomaly. The measurementswere insufficient for a full 3D inversion scheme, which could enable theimaging of finely discretized resistivity distributions. Therefore, astable, damped least-squares joint-inversion approach is used to optimize3D models with a limited number of parameters. The mode ls feature therealistic simulation of topography, a layered background structure, andadditional coarse 3D blocks representing conductivity anomalies.Twenty-eight LOTEM transients, comprising both horizontal and verticalcomponents of the magnetic induction time derivative, were analyzed. Inview of the few unknowns, we were able to achieve reasonable data fits.The inversion results indicate an upwelling conductor below the summit,suggesting hydrothermal activity in the central volcanic complex. Ashallow conductor due to a magma-filled chamber, at depths down to 1 kmbelow the summit, suggested by earlier seismic studies, is not indicatedby the inversion results. In conjunction with an anomalous-density model,derived from arecent gravity study, our inversion results provideinformation about the southern geological structure resulting from amajor sector collapse during the Middle Merapi period. The density modelallows to assess a porosity range andthus an estimated vertical salinityprofile to explain the high conductivities on a larger scale, extendingbeyond the foothills of Merapi.

  1. 3D gravity inversion and thermodynamic modelling reveal properties of shallow silicic magma reservoir beneath Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Fournier, Dominique; Witter, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    Active, large volume, silicic magma systems are potentially the most hazardous form of volcanism on Earth. Knowledge of the location, size, and physical properties of silicic magma reservoirs, is therefore important for providing context in which to accurately interpret monitoring data and make informed hazard assessments. Accordingly, we present the first geophysical image of the Laguna del Maule volcanic field magmatic system, using a novel 3D inversion of gravity data constrained by thermodynamic modelling. The joint analysis of gravity and thermodynamic data allows for a rich interpretation of the magma system, and highlights the importance of considering the full thermodynamic effects on melt density, when interpreting gravity models of active magmatic systems. We image a 30 km3, low density, volatile rich magma reservoir, at around 2 km depth, containing at least 85% melt, hosted within a broader 115 km3 body interpreted as wholly or partially crystallised (>70% crystal) cumulate mush. Our model suggests a magmatic system with shallow, crystal poor magma, overlying deeper, crystal rich magma. Even though a large density contrast (-600 kg/m3) with the surrounding crust exists, the lithostatic load is 50% greater than the magma buoyancy force, suggesting buoyancy alone is insufficient to trigger an eruption. The reservoir is adjacent to the inferred extension of the Troncoso fault and overlies the location of an intruding sill, driving present day deformation. The reservoir is in close proximity to the 2.0 km3 Nieblas (rln) eruption at 2-3 ka, which we calculate tapped approximately 7% of the magma reservoir. However, we suggest that the present day magma system is not large enough to have fed all post-glacial eruptions, and that the location, or size of the system may have migrated or varied over time, with each eruption tapping only a small aliquot of the available magma. The presence of a shallow reservoir of volatile rich, near liquidus magma, in close

  2. Deep electrical resistivity structure of the northwestern U.S. derived from 3-D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, Naser M.; Egbert, Gary D.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Kelbert, Anna; Schultz, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Long period (10-20,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired across the continental USA on a quasi-regular grid of ˜70 km spacing as an electromagnetic component of the National Science Foundation EarthScope/USArray Program. These data are sensitive to fluids, melts, and other orogenic indicators, and thus provide a valuable complement to other components of EarthScope. We present and interpret results of 3-D MT data inversion from 325 sites acquired from 2006-2011 to provide a regional scale view of electrical resistivity from the middle crust to nearly the mantle transition zone, covering an area from NW Washington to NW Colorado. Beneath the active extensional subprovinces in the south-central region, on average we see a resistive upper crust, and then extensive areas of low resistivity in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. Further below, much of the upper half of the upper mantle appears moderately resistive, then subsequently the lower upper mantle becomes moderately conductive. This column suggests a dynamic process of moderately hydrated and fertile deeper upper mantle upwelling during extension, intersection of that material with the damp solidus causing dehydration and melting, and upward exodus of generated mafic melts to pond and exsolve saline fluids near Moho levels. Lithosphere here is very thin. To the east and northeast, thick sections of resistive lithosphere are imaged under the Wyoming and Medicine Hat Cratons. These are punctuated with numerous electrically conductive sutures presumably containing graphitic or sulfide-bearing meta-sediments deeply underthrust and emplaced during ancient collisions. Below Cascadia, the subducting Juan de Fuca and Gorda lithosphere appears highly resistive. Suspected oceanic lithosphere relicts in the central NW part of the model domain also are resistive, including the accreted “Siletzia” terrane beneath the Coast Ranges and Columbia Embayment, and the seismically fast “slab curtain” beneath

  3. Deep electrical resistivity structure of the Northwestern U. S. derived from 3-D inversion of USArray Magnetotelluric data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Egbert, G. D.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Kelbert, A.; Schultz, A.

    2013-12-01

    Long period (10-20,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired across the continental USA on a quasi-regular grid of ~70 km spacing as an electromagnetic component of the National Science Foundation EarthScope/USArray Program. These data are sensitive to fluids, melts, and other orogenic indicators, and thus provide a valuable complement to other components of EarthScope. We present and interpret results of 3-D MT data inversion from 325 sites acquired from 2006-2011 to provide a regional scale view of electrical resistivity from the middle crust to nearly the mantle transition zone, covering an area from NW Washington to NW Colorado. Extensive areas of low resistivity are imaged in the lower crust and uppermost mantle beneath the extensional provinces, most plausibly explained by underplated, hybridized magmas and associated exsolved highly saline fluids. These pervasive low resistivities show aligned or 'streaky' textures roughly parallel to seismic fast-axes, possibly reflecting widespread flow induced alignment of melt in this area. Thick sections of resistive lithosphere imaged in the eastern and northeastern part of the domain coincide spatially with the Wyoming and Medicine Hat Cratons. Sutures bounding these cratonic blocks are electrically conductive most likely due to meta-sediments emplaced during ancient collisions. Below the Cascadia forearc, the subducting Juan de Fuca and Gorda lithosphere appears highly resistive. Other resistive zones in the NW part of the domain may denote relict oceanic lithosphere: the accreted 'Siletzia' terrane beneath the Coast Ranges and Columbia Embayment, and the seismically fast 'slab curtain' beneath eastern Idaho interpreted by others as stranded Farallon lithosphere. Quasi-horizontal patches of low resistivity in the deep crust beneath the Cascade volcanic arc and fore-arc likely represent fluids evolved from breakdown of hydrous minerals in the down-going slab. In the backarc, low resistivities concentrate in

  4. Next-generation seismic experiments - II: wide-angle, multi-azimuth, 3-D, full-waveform inversion of sparse field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Joanna; Warner, Michael; Arnoux, Gillean; Hooft, Emilie; Toomey, Douglas; VanderBeek, Brandon; Wilcock, William

    2016-02-01

    3-D full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an advanced seismic imaging technique that has been widely adopted by the oil and gas industry to obtain high-fidelity models of P-wave velocity that lead to improvements in migrated images of the reservoir. Most industrial applications of 3-D FWI model the acoustic wavefield, often account for the kinematic effect of anisotropy, and focus on matching the low-frequency component of the early arriving refractions that are most sensitive to P-wave velocity structure. Here, we have adopted the same approach in an application of 3-D acoustic, anisotropic FWI to an ocean-bottom-seismometer (OBS) field data set acquired across the Endeavour oceanic spreading centre in the northeastern Pacific. Starting models for P-wave velocity and anisotropy were obtained from traveltime tomography; during FWI, velocity is updated whereas anisotropy is kept fixed. We demonstrate that, for the Endeavour field data set, 3-D FWI is able to recover fine-scale velocity structure with a resolution that is 2-4 times better than conventional traveltime tomography. Quality assurance procedures have been employed to monitor each step of the workflow; these are time consuming but critical to the development of a successful inversion strategy. Finally, a suite of checkerboard tests has been performed which shows that the full potential resolution of FWI can be obtained if we acquire a 3-D survey with a slightly denser shot and receiver spacing than is usual for an academic experiment. We anticipate that this exciting development will encourage future seismic investigations of earth science targets that would benefit from the superior resolution offered by 3-D FWI.

  5. Joint 3D seismic travel time and full channel electrical resistivity inversion with cross gradient structure constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Near surface geophysical exploration for the purpose of engineering design or construction For this reason, geophysical imaging demands a higher resolution and a better quantitative interpretation. Seismic travel time tomography and direct current resistivity tomography are two main methods for the near surface survey. Because of the limited coverage of observation system and the complex physical relationship between physical parameters and observations, individual geophysical method suffers issues of non-uniqueness and resolution limitation to some degree. We have developed a joint inversion method to combine seismic travel time tomography and full channel resistivity tomography. For the full channel resistivity survey, it uses two electrodes for power supply and all the other electrodes for recording. Compared with the traditional resistivity method, it collects more data and has a better model converge. Our joint inversion strategy relies on the structure constraint enforced through minimizing cross gradients between seismic velocity and resistivity models (Gallardo, 2003). For resistivity tomography, sensitivity kernels are obtained through the adjoint method by solving the electrostatic field equation with the finite-difference method. For seismic travel time tomography, ray paths and travel times are calculated using the fast marching method. We have tested our joint inversion method for a 2D cross-hole problem where two small zones with high and low velocity/resistivity anomalies. Seismic/electrical sources/receivers are installed in two boreholes. For separate seismic inversion, the smearing effect is evident and two anomaly zones are distorted and misplaced. For separate electric resistivity inversion, although two anomaly zones are positioned correctly their values are not accurate. By joint inversion, two velocity anomaly zones are clearly imaged and the smearing effect is greatly reduced. In comparison, for the resistivity model, the two anomaly zones

  6. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

  7. The effect of particle size, morphology and C-rates on 3D structured Co3O4 inverse opal conversion mode anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, David; Geaney, Hugh; Carroll, Elaine; Garvey, Shane; Lonergan, Alex; O’Dwyer, Colm

    2017-02-01

    Engineering Co3O4 nanoparticles into highly ordered, 3D inverse opal (IO) structures is shown to significantly improve their performance as more efficient conversion mode Li-ion anode materials. By comparison with Co3O4 microparticles, the advantages of the porous anode architecture are clearly shown. The inverse opal material markedly enhances specific capacity and capacity retention. The impact of various C rates on the rate of the initial charge demonstrates that higher rate charging (10 C) was much less destructive to the inverse opal structure than charging at a slow rate (0.1 C). Slower C rates that affect the IO structure resulted in higher specific capacities (more Li2O) as well as improved capacity retention. The IO structures cycle as CoO, which improves Coulombic efficiency and limits volumetric changes, allowing rate changes more efficiently. This work demonstrates how 3D IOs improve conversion mode anode material performance in the absence of additive or binders, thus enhancing mass transport of Li2O charge–discharge product through the open structure. This effect mitigates clogging by structural changes at slow rates (high capacity) and is beneficial to the overall electrochemical performance.

  8. Joint inversion of 3-D seismic, gravimetric and magnetotelluric data for sub-basalt imaging in the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heincke, B.; Moorkamp, M.; Jegen, M.; Hobbs, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Imaging of sub-basalt sediments with reflection seismic techniques is limited due to absorption, scattering and transmission effects and the presence of peg-leg multiples. Although many of the difficulties facing conventional seismic profiles can be overcome by recording long offset data resolution of sub-basalt sediments in seismic sections is typically still largely restricted. Therefore multi-parametric approaches in general and joint inversion strategies in particular (e.g. Colombo et al., 2008, Jordan et al., 2012) are considered as alternative to gain additional information from sub-basalt structures. Here, we combine in a 3-D joint inversion first-arrival time tomography, FTG gravity and MT data to identify the base basalt and resolve potential sediments underneath. For sub-basalt exploration the three methods complement each other such that the null space is reduced and significantly better resolved models can be obtained than would be possible by the individual methods: The seismic data gives a robust model for the supra-basalt sediments whilst the gravity field is dominated by the high density basalt and basement features. The MT on the other hand is sensitive to the conductivity in both the supra- and sub-basalt sediments. We will present preliminary individual and joint inversion result for a FTG, seismic and MT data set located in the Faroe-Shetland basin. Because the investigated area is rather large (~75 x 40 km) and the individual data sets are relatively huge, we use a joint inversion framework (see Moorkamp et al., 2011) which is designed to handle large amount of data/model parameters. This program has moreover the options to link the individual parameter models either petrophysically using fixed parameter relationships or structurally using the cross-gradient approach. The seismic data set consists of a pattern of 8 intersecting wide-angle seismic profiles with maximum offsets of up to ~24 km. The 3-D gravity data set (size :~ 30 x 30 km) is

  9. Inverse Planning Approach for 3-D MRI-Based Pulse-Dose Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chajon, Enrique; Dumas, Isabelle; Touleimat, Mahmoud B.Sc.; Magne, Nicolas; Coulot, Jeremy; Verstraet, Rodolfe; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) software for the optimization of dose distribution in patients with cervix carcinoma treated with MRI-based pulsed-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients treated with a technique using a customized vaginal mold were selected. Dose-volume parameters obtained using the IPSA method were compared with the classic manual optimization method (MOM). Target volumes and organs at risk were delineated according to the Gynecological Brachytherapy Group/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations. Because the pulsed dose rate program was based on clinical experience with low dose rate, dwell time values were required to be as homogeneous as possible. To achieve this goal, different modifications of the IPSA program were applied. Results: The first dose distribution calculated by the IPSA algorithm proposed a heterogeneous distribution of dwell time positions. The mean D90, D100, and V100 calculated with both methods did not differ significantly when the constraints were applied. For the bladder, doses calculated at the ICRU reference point derived from the MOM differed significantly from the doses calculated by the IPSA method (mean, 58.4 vs. 55 Gy respectively; p = 0.0001). For the rectum, the doses calculated at the ICRU reference point were also significantly lower with the IPSA method. Conclusions: The inverse planning method provided fast and automatic solutions for the optimization of dose distribution. However, the straightforward use of IPSA generated significant heterogeneity in dwell time values. Caution is therefore recommended in the use of inverse optimization tools with clinical relevance study of new dosimetric rules.

  10. Solid-liquid phase transitions in 3D systems with the inverse-power and Yukawa potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Koss, X. G.

    2016-03-01

    The melting of face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal lattices was studied analytically and numerically for the systems of particles interacting via the inverse-power-law and Yukawa potentials. New approach is proposed for determination of the solid-liquid phase transitions in these systems. The suggested approach takes into account a nonlinearity (anharmonicity) of pair interaction forces and allows to correctly predict the conditions of melting of the systems with various isotropic pair interaction potentials. The obtained results are compared with the existing theoretical and numerical data.

  11. Towards 3D multi-scale teleseismic and gravity data inversion using hybrid DSM/SPECFEM technique : application to the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roland; Monteiller, Vadim; Chevrot, Sébastien; Wang, Yi; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Dufréchou, Grégory

    2015-04-01

    We describe here a method of inversion applied to seismic data sets constrained by gravity data at the regional scale. This will allow us to obtain robust models of P and S wave velocities but also of density, providing key constraints on the composition and thermal state of the lithosphere. Our approach relies on teleseimic waves, which illuminate the medium from below. We have developped a hybrid method in which a wave propagation method at the global scale (DSM/Direct solution method) is coupled with a spectral element method at the regional scale (Monteiller et al. 2013). With the spectral element method, we are able to model the 3D wave propagation effects in a computational domain of 400km long x 400km wide and 200 km deep, for an incident teleseismic wavefront introduced at the boundaries of this domain with periods as short as 2 s. The DSM global method allows to compute this incident field for a spherical Earth model. We use a multi-scale joint inversion of both gravity and seismic waveform data, accounting for the long wavelengths of the gravity field taken from a global model. In terms of inversion technique, we have validated an adjoint method for the inversion of seismic waveforms. An optimized BFGS inversion technique is used to minimize the difference between observed and computed full waveforms. The gradient of the misfit function gives the direction over which the model must be perturbed to minimize this difference. At each step of the inversion procedure we choose an optimal step length that accelerates the minimization. This is the crucial ingredient that allows us to build an efficient iterative full waveform inversion. We have extended this method by incorporating gravity data provided by the BGI/Bureau Gravimétrique International into the inversion. If the waveforms allow us to constrain the seismic velocities, they are less sensitive to the structure in density, which gives independent and crucial information to constrain the nature of rocks

  12. Imaging the Roots of Geothermal Systems: 3-D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Array Data in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E. A.; Caldwell, G.; Bannister, S. C.; Hill, G.; Bennie, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), located in the central North Island of New Zealand, is a rifted arc that contains more than 20 liquid-dominated high-temperature geothermal systems, which together discharge ~4.2 GW of heat at the surface. The shallow (upper ~500 m) extent of these geothermal systems is marked by low-resistivity, mapped by tens-of-thousands of DC resistivity measurements collected throughout the 1970's and 80's. Conceptual models of heat transport through the brittle crust of the TVZ link these low-resistivity anomalies to the tops of vertically ascending plumes of convecting hydrothermal fluid. Recently, data from a 40-site array of broadband seismometers with ~4 km station spacing, and an array of 270 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) measurements with ~2 km station spacing, have been collected in the south-eastern part of the TVZ in an experiment to image the deep structure (or roots) of the geothermal systems in this region. Unlike DC resistivity, these MT measurements are capable of resolving the resistivity structure of the Earth to depths of 10 km or more. 2-D and 3-D models of subsets of these MT data have been used to provide the first-ever images of quasi-vertical low-resistivity zones (at depths of 3-7 km) that connect with the near-surface geothermal fields. These low-resistivity zones are interpreted to represent convection plumes of high-temperature fluids ascending within fractures, which supply heat to the overlying geothermal fields. At the Rotokawa, Ngatamariki and Ohaaki geothermal fields, these plumes extend to a broad layer of low-resistivity, inferred to represent a magmatic, basal heat source located below the seismogenic zone (at ~7-8 km depth) that drives convection in the brittle crust above. Little is known about the mechanisms that transfer heat into the hydrothermal regime. However, at Rotokawa, new 3-D resistivity models image a vertical low-resistivity zone that lies directly beneath the geothermal field. The top of this

  13. TU-F-BRF-04: Registration of 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography and X-Ray Fluoroscopy Using An Inverse Geometry X-Ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, M; Hatt, C; Tomkowiak, M; Raval, A; Funk, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for the fusion of 3D echocardiography and Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) fluoroscopy to assist with catheter device and soft tissue visualization during interventional procedures. Methods: SBDX is a technology for low-dose inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy that performs digital tomosynthesis at multiple planes in real time. In this study, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images were fused with SBDX images by estimating the 3D position and orientation (the “pose”) of the TEE probe within the x-ray coordinate system and then spatially transforming the TEE image data to match this pose. An initial pose estimate was obtained through tomosynthesis-based 3D localization of points along the probe perimeter. Position and angle estimates were then iteratively refined by comparing simulated projections of a 3D probe model against SBDX x-ray images. Algorithm performance was quantified by imaging a TEE probe in different known orientations and locations within the x-ray field (0-30 degree tilt angle, up to 50 mm translation). Fused 3D TEE/SBDX imaging was demonstrated by imaging a tissue-mimicking polyvinyl alcohol cylindrical cavity as a catheter was navigated along the cavity axis. Results: Detected changes in probe tilt angle agreed with the known changes to within 1.2 degrees. For a 50 mm translation along the source-detector axis, the detected translation was 50.3 mm. Errors for in-plane translations ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 mm. In a fused 3D TEE/SBDX display, the catheter device was well visualized and coincident with the device shadow in the TEE images. The TEE images portrayed phantom boundaries that were not evident under x-ray. Conclusion: Registration of soft tissue anatomy derived from TEE imaging and device imaging from SBDX x-ray fluoroscopy is feasible. The simultaneous 3D visualization of these two modalities may be useful in interventional procedures involving the navigation of devices to soft tissue anatomy.

  14. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  15. Jurassic extension and Cenozoic inversion tectonics in the Asturian Basin, NW Iberian Peninsula: 3D structural model and kinematic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzkeda, Hodei; Bulnes, Mayte; Poblet, Josep; García-Ramos, José Carlos; Piñuela, Laura

    2016-09-01

    We constructed a geological map, a 3D model and cross-sections, carried out a structural analysis, determined the stress fields and tectonic transport vectors, restored a cross section and performed a subsidence analysis to unravel the kinematic evolution of the NE emerged portion of the Asturian Basin (NW Iberian Peninsula), where Jurassic rocks crop out. The major folds run NW-SE, normal faults exhibit three dominant orientations: NW-SE, NE-SW and E-W, and thrusts display E-W strikes. After Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic thermal subsidence, Middle Jurassic doming occurred, accompanied by normal faulting, high heat flow and basin uplift, followed by Upper Jurassic high-rate basin subsidence. Another extensional event, possibly during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, caused an increment in the normal faults displacement. A contractional event, probably of Cenozoic age, led to selective and irregularly distributed buttressing and fault reactivation as reverse or strike-slip faults, and folding and/or offset of some previous faults by new generation folds and thrusts. The Middle Jurassic event could be a precursor of the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic opening that occurred from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, whereas the Cenozoic event would be responsible for the Pyrenean and Cantabrian ranges and the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay.

  16. Regional conductivity structures of the northwestern segment of the North American Plate derived from 3-D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.

    2010-12-01

    Long period (10-20,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data are being acquired in a series of temporary arrays deployed across the continental United States through EMScope, a component of EarthScope, a multidisciplinary decade-long project to study the structure and evolution of the North American Continent. MT deployments in 2006-2010 have so far acquired data at 237 sites on an approximately regular grid, with the same nominal spacing as the USArray broadband seismic transportable array (~70 km), covering the Northwestern US, from the Oregon-Washington coast across the Rocky Mountains, into Montana and Wyoming. Preliminary 3-D inversion results (Patro and Egbert; 2008), based on data from the 110 westernmost “Cascadia” sites collected in the first two years, revealed extensive areas of high conductivity in the lower crust beneath the Northwest Basin and Range (NBR), inferred to result from fluids (including possibly partial melt at depth) associated with magmatic underplating, and beneath the Cascade Mountains, probably due to fluids released by the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we extend this study, refining and further testing the preliminary results from Cascadia, and extending the inversion domain to the East, to include all of the EarthScope data. Although site spacing is very broad, distinct regional structures are clearly evident even in simple maps of apparent resistivity, phase and induction vectors. For the 3-D inversion we are using the parallelized version of our recently developed Modular Code (ModEM), which supports Non-Linear Conjugate Gradient and several Gauss-Newton type schemes. Our initial 3-D inversion results using 212 MT sites, fitting impedances and vertical field transfer functions (together and separately) suggest several conductive and resistive structures which appear to be stable and required by the measured data. These include: - A conductive structure elongated in the N-S direction underneath the volcanic arc of the Cascadia

  17. Identification of source velocities on 3D structures in non-anechoic environments: Theoretical background and experimental validation of the inverse patch transfer functions method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucejo, M.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2010-08-01

    In noise control, identification of the source velocity field remains a major problem open to investigation. Consequently, methods such as nearfield acoustical holography (NAH), principal source projection, the inverse frequency response function and hybrid NAH have been developed. However, these methods require free field conditions that are often difficult to achieve in practice. This article presents an alternative method known as inverse patch transfer functions, designed to identify source velocities and developed in the framework of the European SILENCE project. This method is based on the definition of a virtual cavity, the double measurement of the pressure and particle velocity fields on the aperture surfaces of this volume, divided into elementary areas called patches and the inversion of impedances matrices, numerically computed from a modal basis obtained by FEM. Theoretically, the method is applicable to sources with complex 3D geometries and measurements can be carried out in a non-anechoic environment even in the presence of other stationary sources outside the virtual cavity. In the present paper, the theoretical background of the iPTF method is described and the results (numerical and experimental) for a source with simple geometry (two baffled pistons driven in antiphase) are presented and discussed.

  18. Full source tensor inversions of San Jacinto fault zone earthquakes using 3D Green's functions with the gCAP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Graves, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    We perform a full source tensor inversion of several M > 4 earthquakes that occurred in the San Jacinto fault zone in southern California, with an emphasis on resolving signatures of volumetric source changes. A previous study on these events with Green's functions based on a 1D velocity model identified statistically significant explosive isotropic components (Ross et al. 2015). Here we use the SCEC 3D Community Velocity Model to derive Green's functions with source-receiver reciprocity and finite-difference calculations based on the code of Graves (1996). About 50 stations are used at epicentral distances of up to 55 km. The inversions are performed using the 'generalized Cut and Paste' method, which includes CLVD and isotropic components (Zhu and Ben-Zion 2013). The derived source tensors are compared to the results of the previous study based on the simplified 1D velocity model. The results are analyzed with bootstrap analysis to estimate uncertainties involved. Additional tests are performed using synthetic waveforms to study the effects of neglecting various features on the source inversions.

  19. Photonic bandgap extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals based on the TiO2 inverse opal architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijun; Liu, Wenfang; Tang, Junjie; Chen, Sheng-Li; Dong, Peng

    2014-04-15

    A photonic bandgap (PBG) extension of surface-disordered 3D photonic crystals (PCs) based on the TiO2 inverse opal (TiO2-IO) architecture has been demonstrated. By using a liquid phase deposition (LPD) process based on the controlled hydrolysis of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid, an extra layer of TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited onto the internal surface of the air voids in the TiO2-IOs to increase their surface roughness, thereby introducing surface disorder in the 3D order structures. The PBG relative width of surface-disordered TiO2-IOs has been broadened significantly, and, compared to the original TiO2-IO, its largest rate of increase (27%) has been obtained. It was found that the PBG relative width increased rapidly at first and then to a much slower rate of change with increase of the duration of the LPD time. A possible cause for this finding is discussed in this Letter.

  20. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal–epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT. PMID:26973862

  1. Different scenarios for inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from double-ring infiltrometer data using HYDRUS-2D/3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Parisa; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Shirani, Hossein; Nodoushan, Ali Reza Mohammadi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, HYDRUS-2D/3D was used to simulate ponded infiltration through double-ring infiltrometers into a hypothetical loamy soil profile. Twelve scenarios of inverse modelling (divided into three groups) were considered for estimation of Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters. In the first group, simulation was carried out solely using cumulative infiltration data. In the second group, cumulative infiltration data plus water content at h = -330 cm (field capacity) were used as inputs. In the third group, cumulative infiltration data plus water contents at h = -330 cm (field capacity) and h = -15 000 cm (permanent wilting point) were used simultaneously as predictors. The results showed that numerical inverse modelling of the double-ring infiltrometer data provided a reliable alternative method for determining soil hydraulic parameters. The results also indicated that by reducing the number of hydraulic parameters involved in the optimization process, the simulation error is reduced. The best one in infiltration simulation which parameters α, n, and Ks were optimized using the infiltration data and field capacity as inputs. Including field capacity as additional data was important for better optimization/definition of soil hydraulic functions, but using field capacity and permanent wilting point simultaneously as additional data increased the simulation error.

  2. A high-order 3D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data - Application to the western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-01-01

    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  3. 3-D magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on SMP computers - Part I: forward problem and parameter Jacobians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm, which we call HexMT, for 3-D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permit incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used throughout, including the forward solution, parameter Jacobians and model parameter update. In Part I, the forward simulator and Jacobian calculations are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequencies or small material admittivities, the E-field requires divergence correction. With the help of Hodge decomposition, the correction may be applied in one step after the forward solution is calculated. This allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization and source vector solutions are computed using the MKL PARDISO library, which shows good scalability through 24 processor cores. The factorized matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the Jacobians of electromagnetic (EM) field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure, several synthetic topographic models and the natural topography of Mount Erebus in Antarctica. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of EM waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run-time tests of the parallelized algorithm indicate that for meshes as large as 176 × 176 × 70 elements, MT forward responses and Jacobians can be calculated in ˜1.5 hr per frequency. Together with an efficient inversion parameter step described in Part II, MT inversion problems of 200-300 stations are computable with total run times

  4. Volume estimation of rift-related magmatic features using seismic interpretation and 3D inversion of gravity data on the Guinea Plateau, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardell, Dominik A.

    The two end-member concept of mantle plume-driven versus far field stress-driven continental rifting anticipates high volumes of magma emplaced close to the rift-initiating plume, whereas relatively low magmatic volumes are predicted at large distances from the plume where the rifting is thought to be driven by far field stresses. We test this concept at the Guinea Plateau, which represents the last area of separation between Africa and South America, by investigating for rift-related volumes of magmatism using borehole, 3D seismic, and gravity data to run structural 3D inversions in two different data areas. Despite our interpretation of igneous rocks spanning large areas of continental shelf covered by the available seismic surveys, the calculated volumes in the Guinea Plateau barely match the magmatic volumes of other magma-poor margins and thus endorse the aforementioned concept. While the volcanic units on the shelf seem to be characterized more dominantly by horizontally deposited extrusive volcanic flows distributed over larger areas, numerous paleo-seamounts pierce complexly deformed pre and syn-rift sedimentary units on the slope. As non-uniqueness is an omnipresent issue when using potential field data to model geologic features, our method faced some challenges in the areas exhibiting complicated geology. In this situation less rigid constraints were applied in the modeling process. The misfit issues were successfully addressed by filtering the frequency content of the gravity data according to the depth of the investigated geology. In this work, we classify and compare our volume estimates for rift-related magmatism between the Guinea Fracture Zone (FZ) and the Saint Paul's FZ while presenting the refinements applied to our modeling technique.

  5. 3-D multiobservable probabilistic inversion for the compositional and thermal structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle: III. Thermochemical tomography in the Western-Central U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rawlinson, Nicholas; Yang, Yingjie; Schutt, Derek L.; Jones, Alan G.; Fullea, Javier; Griffin, William L.

    2016-10-01

    We apply a novel 3-D multiobservable probabilistic tomography method that we have recently developed and benchmarked, to directly image the thermochemical structure of the Colorado Plateau and surrounding areas by jointly inverting P wave and S wave teleseismic arrival times, Rayleigh wave dispersion data, Bouguer anomalies, satellite-derived gravity gradients, geoid height, absolute (local and dynamic) elevation, and surface heat flow data. The temperature and compositional structures recovered by our inversion reveal a high level of correlation between recent basaltic magmatism and zones of high temperature and low Mg# (i.e., refertilized mantle) in the lithosphere, consistent with independent geochemical data. However, the lithospheric mantle is overall characterized by a highly heterogeneous thermochemical structure, with only some features correlating well with either Proterozoic and/or Cenozoic crustal structures. This suggests that most of the present-day deep lithospheric architecture reflects the superposition of numerous geodynamic events of different scale and nature to those that created major crustal structures. This is consistent with the complex lithosphere-asthenosphere system that we image, which exhibits a variety of multiscale feedback mechanisms (e.g., small-scale convection, magmatic intrusion, delamination, etc.) driving surface processes. Our results also suggest that most of the present-day elevation in the Colorado Plateau and surrounding regions is the result of thermochemical buoyancy sources within the lithosphere, with dynamic effects (from sublithospheric mantle flow) contributing only locally up to ˜15-35%.

  6. Source inversion analysis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using Green's functions calculated from a 3-D heterogeneous structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Maeda, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Kunugi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Source inversion analysis using near-source strong-motion records with an assumption of 1-D underground structure models has revealed the overall characteristics of the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake. This assumption for the structure model is acceptable because the seismic waves radiated during the Tohoku-Oki event were rich in the very-low-frequency contents lower than 0.05 Hz, which are less affected by the small-scale heterogeneous structure. The analysis using more reliable Green's functions even in the higher-frequency range considering complex structure of the subduction zone will illuminate more detailed rupture process in space and time and the transition of the frequency dependence of the wave radiation for the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this study, we calculate the near-source Green's functions using a 3-D underground structure model and perform the source inversion analysis using them. The 3-D underground structure model used in this study is the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2012). A curved fault model on the Pacific plate interface is discretized into 287 subfaults at ~20 km interval. The Green's functions are calculated using GMS (Aoi et al., 2004), which is a simulation program package for the seismic wave field by the finite difference method using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). Computational region is 136-146.2E in longitude, 34-41.6N in latitude, and 0-100 km in depth. The horizontal and vertical grid intervals are 200 m and 100 m, respectively, for the shallower region and those for the deeper region are tripled. The number of the total grids is 2.1 billion. We derive 300-s records by calculating 36,000 steps with a time interval of 0.0083 second (120 Hz sampling). It takes nearly one hour to compute one case using 48 Graphics Processing Units (GPU) on TSUBAME2.0 supercomputer owned by Tokyo Institute of Technology. In total, 574 cases are

  7. Ambient noise tomography of the Pyrenees and the surrounding regions: inversion for a 3-D Vs model in the presence of a very heterogeneous crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquet, Marie; Paul, Anne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Chevrot, Sébastien; Sylvander, Matthieu; Wolyniec, David; Pyrope Working Group

    2014-10-01

    The lithospheric architecture of the Pyrenees is still uncertain and highly debated. Here, we provide new constraints from a high-resolution 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Pyrenees and the adjacent foreland basins. This model is obtained from ambient noise tomography on records of temporary and permanent seismic arrays installed in southwestern France and northern Spain. We first computed group velocity maps for Rayleigh waves in the 5 to 55 s period range using noise correlation stacks at 1500-8500 station pairs. As the crust is very heterogeneous, poor results were obtained using a single starting model in a linearized inversion of group velocity dispersion curves for the shear wave structure. We therefore built a starting model for each grid node by full exploration of the model space. The resulting 3-D shear wave velocity model is compared to data from previous geophysical studies as a validation test. Despite the poor sensitivity of surface waves to seismic discontinuities, the geometry of the top of the basement and the Moho depth are retrieved well, except along the Cantabrian coast. Major reflectors of the ECORS deep seismic sounding profiles in the central and western Pyrenees coincide with sharp velocity gradients in our velocity model. We retrieve the difference between the thicker Iberian crust and the thinner European crust, the presence of low-velocity material of the Iberian crust underthrust beneath the European crust in the central Pyrenees, and the structural dissymmetry between the South Pyrenean Zone and the North Pyrenean Zone at the shallow crustal level. In the Labourd-Mauléon-Arzacq region (western Pyrenees), there is a high S-wave velocity anomaly at 20-30 km in depth, which might explain the positive Bouguer anomaly of the Labourd Massif. This high-velocity lower crust, which is also detected beneath the Parentis area, might be an imprint of the Albian-Aptian rifting phase. The southeastern part of the Massif Central has an unusual

  8. Waveform inversion for 3-D S-velocity structure of D'' beneath the Northern Pacific: possible evidence for a remnant slab and a passive plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Kawai, Kenji; Geller, Robert J.; Borgeaud, Anselme F. E.; Konishi, Kensuke

    2016-12-01

    We conduct waveform inversion to infer the three-dimensional (3-D) S-velocity structure in the lowermost 400 km of the mantle (the D'' region) beneath the Northern Pacific region. Our dataset consists of about 20,000 transverse component broadband body-wave seismograms observed at North American stations for 131 intermediate and deep earthquakes which occurred beneath the western Pacific subduction region. We use S, ScS, and other phases that arrive between them. Resolution tests indicate that our methods and dataset can resolve the velocity structure in the target region with a horizontal scale of about 150 km and a vertical scale of about 50 km. The 3-D S-velocity model obtained in this study shows three prominent features: (1) prominent sheet-like lateral high-velocity anomalies up to ˜3% faster than the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) with a thickness of ˜200 km, whose lower boundary is ˜150 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB). (2) A prominent low-velocity anomaly block located to the west of the Kamchatka peninsula, which is ˜2.5% slower than PREM, immediately above the CMB beneath the high-velocity anomalies. (3) A relatively thin (˜300 km) low-velocity structure continuous from the low-velocity anomaly "(2)" to at least 400 km above the CMB. We also detect a continuous low-velocity anomaly from the east of the Kamchatka peninsula at an altitude of 50 km above the CMB to the far east of the Kuril islands at an altitude of 400 km above the CMB. We interpret these features respectively as: (1) remnants of slab material where the bridgmanite to Mg-post-perovskite phase transition may have occurred within the slab, (2, 3) large amounts of hot and less dense materials beneath the cold Kula or Pacific slab remnants just above the CMB which ascend and form a passive plume upwelling at the edge of the slab remnants.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Lithospheric structure and geodynamic evolution of the northern Molucca Sea area constrained by 3-D gravity field inversion of a combined sea-surface and satellite gravity dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Tiberi, C.; Diament, M.; Deplus, C.; Mikhailov, V.; Louat, R.; Tikhotsky, S.; Gvishiani, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Molucca Sea extending from northeastern Indonesia to southern Philippines islands, is a zone of oceanic basin closure between two opposite-facing subduction zones. This convergence results in the collision of two subduction zones, which style evolves from the southern to the northern parts of the Molucca Sea. In order to provide new insights into the present-day lithospheric structures in the Molucca Sea area, we inverted satellite and sea-surface gravity data into an iterative scheme including a priori seismological data. The seismological data were collected from two networks of Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS). These data allowed us to locate local seismic events and to build 3D tomographic images. We relate these results to the different stages of collision. The gravity data consists of combined sea-surface and satellite derived gravity. We used Kolmogorov-Wiener optimal (mean-square) filter to extract the gravity signal associated with lithospheric structures, then analyzed it to determine main regional features of lithospheric structure. For this purpose we employed a selection of Euler solutions based on a new clustering technique. To identify the geometry and nature of lithospheric structures, we also performed a 3-D gravity inversion for the northern Molucca Sea data, introducing our tomographic model as an independent constraint. The combination of both methods permits us to obtain a coherent image of the lithospheric structure. The results of this study illustrate the heterogeneity of lithospheric units in the northern Molucca Sea, which results from the collision between the Sangihe margin and lithospheric fragments from the Phillipine plate such as the Snellius plateau or the Halmahera volcanic arc. Three phenomena can explain the observed lithospheric structure: 1) the rupture of the Molucca Sea plate, accompanied by the appearance at the surface of slices of oceanic crust, favoring the development of suture zones as the collision evolves, 2) the

  10. Can we trace the eastern Gondwanan margin in Australia? New perspectives from transdimensional inversion of ambient noise for 3D shear velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Although the notion of Rodinia is quite well accepted in the geoscience community, the location and nature of the eastern continental margin of the Gondwana fragment in Australia is still vague and remains one of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology. Moreover, most post-Rodinian reconstructions models choose not to tackle the ';Tasmanian challenge', and focus only on the tectonic evolution of mainland southeast Australia, thereby conveniently ignoring the wider tectonic implications of Tasmania's complex geological history. One of the chief limitations of the tectonic reconstructions in this region is a lack of information on Paleozoic (possibly Proterozoic) basement structures. Vast Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic cover sequences obscure older outcrops and limit the power of direct observational techniques. In response to these challenges, our effort is focused on ambient seismic noise for imaging 3D crustal shear velocity structure using surface waves, which is capable of illuminating basement structure beneath younger cover. The data used in this study is sourced from the WOMBAT transportable seismic array, which is compounded by around 650 stations spanning the majority of southeastern Australia, including Tasmania and several islands in Bass Strait. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which group velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component of the empirical Green's functions (EGFs). Group dispersion measurements from the EGFs have been inverted using a novel hierarchical, transdimensional, Bayesian algorithm to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps at different periods from 2 to 30 s. The new approach has several advantages in that the number and distribution of model parameters are implicitly controlled by the data, in which the noise is treated as unknown in the inversion. This

  11. A framework for inverse planning of beam-on times for 3D small animal radiotherapy using interactive multi-objective optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvert, Marleen; van Hoof, Stefan J.; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Advances in precision small animal radiotherapy hardware enable the delivery of increasingly complicated dose distributions on the millimeter scale. Manual creation and evaluation of treatment plans becomes difficult or even infeasible with an increasing number of degrees of freedom for dose delivery and available image data. The goal of this work is to develop an optimisation model that determines beam-on times for a given beam configuration, and to assess the feasibility and benefits of an automated treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy. The developed model determines a Pareto optimal solution using operator-defined weights for a multiple-objective treatment planning problem. An interactive approach allows the planner to navigate towards, and to select the Pareto optimal treatment plan that yields the most preferred trade-off of the conflicting objectives. This model was evaluated using four small animal cases based on cone-beam computed tomography images. Resulting treatment plan quality was compared to the quality of manually optimised treatment plans using dose-volume histograms and metrics. Results show that the developed framework is well capable of optimising beam-on times for 3D dose distributions and offers several advantages over manual treatment plan optimisation. For all cases but the simple flank tumour case, a similar amount of time was needed for manual and automated beam-on time optimisation. In this time frame, manual optimisation generates a single treatment plan, while the inverse planning system yields a set of Pareto optimal solutions which provides quantitative insight on the sensitivity of conflicting objectives. Treatment planning automation decreases the dependence on operator experience and allows for the use of class solutions for similar treatment scenarios. This can shorten the time required for treatment planning and therefore increase animal throughput. In addition, this can improve treatment standardisation and

  12. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  13. 3D coseismic deformation inversion of Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake with D-InSAR and the fault movement model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Wu, J. C.; Guo, L. Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Tan, H. B.; Shen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Conventional D-InSAR (Differential SAR Interferometry) can only monitor 1-D surface deformation along LOS (line of sight) direction. In order to overcome this limitation and extract 3-D coseismic displacement, we combine the LOS displacement derived from D-InSAR technology, the OKADA elastic half space dislocation model theory, jointly the surface rupture distribution by field investigations and the fault model inverted by GPS, level data and gravity survey to retrieve the directions of surface co-seismic displacement, and then have got Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake 3D displacement. Firstly, thirty six L-band PALSAR images of six adjacent ascending tracks are processed with D-InSAR technology to obtain the coseismic displacements along LOS direction. According to the OKADA model and the thrust fault movement model of the Long-Men-Shan Fault , we specify the three directions of surface coseismic displacements. And thus the 3D coseismic displacement field is then recovered by using LOS displacement and relevant geometric projection formulas, obviously including horizontal displacements field and vertical deformation contour maps. By comparing with the 3D displacement estimated from OKADA dislocation model and fault model, the displacement retrieved in this study can give more detail, and reflect seismic characteristics more truly.

  14. Joint inversion of 9C 3D seismic data for reservoir characterization in the Bakken Formation, Banner Field, Mountrail County, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreeprasertkul, Kritti

    Joint PP and SS seismic inversion is a geophysical analysis method that uses the variation in reflectivity of PP and SS seismic data to derive elastic properties of the subsurface and specifically reservoir properties. The major objective of this research is to characterize the elastic properties of the Bakken petroleum system at Banner Field, Mountrail County, North Dakota using joint PP and SS seismic inversion. The combination of PP and SS data into the inversion process helped improve the accuracy of inversion results by increasing the correlation coefficient by 10 percent on both P- and S- impedance. Results from this analysis show a variation in elastic properties from the western part to the eastern portion of the study area. The western part is interpreted to be higher in shale volume, porosity and maturity. Additionally, the natural fracture network is an integral part of a tight oil reservoir. The existence and delineation of natural fractures coincides with faults that have been delineated within the reservoir interval. The elastic parameters and structural detailing from this study has been used to delineate a potential exploration opportunity in the Three Forks Formation on the west side of the survey.

  15. Inversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  16. Improved border sharpness of post-infarct scar by a novel self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution 3D whole-heart inversion recovery magnetic resonance approach.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Tobias; Piccini, Davide; Coppo, Simone; Chaptinel, Jerome; Ginami, Giulia; Vincenti, Gabriella; Stuber, Matthias; Schwitter, Juerg

    2016-12-01

    The border zone of post-infarction myocardial scar as identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has been identified as a substrate for arrhythmias and consequently, high-resolution 3D scar information is potentially useful for planning of electrophysiological interventions. This study evaluates the performance of a novel high-resolution 3D self-navigated free-breathing inversion recovery magnetic resonance pulse sequence (3D-SN-LGE) vs. conventional 2D breath-hold LGE (2D-LGE) with regard to sharpness of borders (SBorder) of post-infarction scar. Patients with post-infarction scar underwent two magnetic resonance examinations for conventional 2D-LGE and high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE acquisitions (both 15 min after 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol IV) at 1.5T. In the prototype 3D-SN-LGE sequence, each ECG-triggered radial steady-state-free-precession read-out segment is preceded by a non-slice-selective inversion pulse. Scar volume and SBorder were assessed on 2D-LGE and matching reconstructed high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE short-axis slices. In 16 patients (four females, 58 ± 10y) all scars visualized by 2D-LGE could be identified on 3D-SN-LGE (time between 2D-LGE and 3D-SN-LGE 48 ± 53 days). A good agreement of scar volume by 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE was found (Bland-Altman: -3.7 ± 3.4 ml, correlation: r = 0.987, p < 0.001) with a small difference in scar volume (20.5 (15.8, 35.2) ml vs. 24.5 (20.0, 41.9)) ml, respectively, p = 0.002] and a good intra- and interobserver variability (1.1 ± 4.1 and -1.1 ± 11.9 ml, respectively). SBorder of border "scar to non-infarcted myocardium" was superior on 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE: 0.180 ± 0.044 vs. 0.083 ± 0.038, p < 0.001. Detection and quantification of myocardial scar by 3D-SN-LGE is feasible and accurate in comparison to 2D-LGE. The high spatial resolution of the 3D sequence improves delineation of scar borders.

  17. Rapid processing of data based on high-performance algorithms for solving inverse problems and 3D-simulation of the tsunami and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinin, I. V.; Kabanikhin, S. I.; Krivorotko, O. I.; Karas, A.; Khidasheli, D. G.

    2012-04-01

    We consider new techniques and methods for earthquake and tsunami related problems, particularly - inverse problems for the determination of tsunami source parameters, numerical simulation of long wave propagation in soil and water and tsunami risk estimations. In addition, we will touch upon the issue of database management and destruction scenario visualization. New approaches and strategies, as well as mathematical tools and software are to be shown. The long joint investigations by researchers of the Institute of Mathematical Geophysics and Computational Mathematics SB RAS and specialists from WAPMERR and Informap have produced special theoretical approaches, numerical methods, and software tsunami and earthquake modeling (modeling of propagation and run-up of tsunami waves on coastal areas), visualization, risk estimation of tsunami, and earthquakes. Algorithms are developed for the operational definition of the origin and forms of the tsunami source. The system TSS numerically simulates the source of tsunami and/or earthquakes and includes the possibility to solve the direct and the inverse problem. It becomes possible to involve advanced mathematical results to improve models and to increase the resolution of inverse problems. Via TSS one can construct maps of risks, the online scenario of disasters, estimation of potential damage to buildings and roads. One of the main tools for the numerical modeling is the finite volume method (FVM), which allows us to achieve stability with respect to possible input errors, as well as to achieve optimum computing speed. Our approach to the inverse problem of tsunami and earthquake determination is based on recent theoretical results concerning the Dirichlet problem for the wave equation. This problem is intrinsically ill-posed. We use the optimization approach to solve this problem and SVD-analysis to estimate the degree of ill-posedness and to find the quasi-solution. The software system we developed is intended to

  18. Location and moment tensor inversion of small earthquakes using 3D Green's functions in models with rugged topography: application to the Longmenshan fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yang; Chen, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    With dense seismic arrays and advanced imaging methods, regional three-dimensional (3D) Earth models have become more accurate. It is now increasingly feasible and advantageous to use a 3D Earth model to better locate earthquakes and invert their source mechanisms by fitting synthetics to observed waveforms. In this study, we develop an approach to determine both the earthquake location and source mechanism from waveform information. The observed waveforms are filtered in different frequency bands and separated into windows for the individual phases. Instead of picking the arrival times, the traveltime differences are measured by cross-correlation between synthetic waveforms based on the 3D Earth model and observed waveforms. The earthquake location is determined by minimizing the cross-correlation traveltime differences. We then fix the horizontal location of the earthquake and perform a grid search in depth to determine the source mechanism at each point by fitting the synthetic and observed waveforms. This new method is verified by a synthetic test with noise added to the synthetic waveforms and a realistic station distribution. We apply this method to a series of M W3.4-5.6 earthquakes in the Longmenshan fault (LMSF) zone, a region with rugged topography between the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and the western part of the Sichuan basin. The results show that our solutions result in improved waveform fits compared to the source parameters from the catalogs we used and the location can be better constrained than the amplitude-only approach. Furthermore, the source solutions with realistic topography provide a better fit to the observed waveforms than those without the topography, indicating the need to take the topography into account in regions with rugged topography.

  19. Geophysical Modeling in Eurasia: 2D Crustal P and LG Propagation; Upper- Mantle Shear Wave Propagation and Anisotropy; and 3D, Joint, Simultaneous Inversions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    nonunique properties of inversion methods, we may often find a solution for one data type, but we must acknowledge that, although it can predict behavior...of density prisms and a suite of 1D fundamental mode group velocities. (a) A single cell with its input geographic coordinate system . (b) For a...H. K., H. Kanamori, P. C. Jennings, and C. Kissling (Eds.) (2002). International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology (CD-ROM

  20. A 3D algorithm based on the combined inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves for imaging and monitoring of shallow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYIn recent years there has been increasing interest in the study of seismic noise interferometry as it can provide a complementary approach to active source or earthquake based methods for imaging and continuous monitoring the shallow structure of the Earth. This meaningful information is extracted from wavefields propagating between those receiver positions at which seismic noise was recorded. Until recently, noise-based imaging relied mostly on Rayleigh waves. However, considering similar wavelengths, a combined use of Rayleigh and Love wave tomography can succeed in retrieving velocity heterogeneities at depth due to their different sensitivity kernels. Here we present a novel one-step algorithm for simultaneously inverting Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion data aiming at identifying and describing complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity structures. The algorithm may help to accurately and efficiently map the shear-wave velocities and the Poisson ratio of the surficial soil layers. In the high-frequency range, the scattered part of the correlation functions stabilizes sufficiently fast to provide a reliable estimate of the velocity structure not only for imaging purposes but also allows for changes in the medium properties to be monitored. Such monitoring can be achieved with a high spatial resolution in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and with a time resolution as small as a few hours. In this article, we describe a recent array experiment in a volcanic environment in Solfatara (Italy) and we show that this novel approach has identified strong velocity variations at the interface between liquids and gas-dominated reservoirs, allowing localizing a region which is highly dynamic due to the interaction between the deep convection and its surroundings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAG...103..104K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAG...103..104K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity <span class="hlt">inversion</span> and Euler deconvolution to delineate the hydro-tectonic regime in El-Arish area, northern Sinai Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Sinai Peninsula occupies a part of the arid zone belt of northern Africa and southwestern Asia. The largest ephemeral stream in the Sinai Peninsula is called Wadi El-Arish, which winds down northward to the Mediterranean Sea. The delta of Wadi El-Arish has been built by the heavy floods of the Wadi. The Quaternary aquifer is the main water supply of the delta of Wadi El-Arish and its vicinities. The combined action of aridity and extensive pumping from the Quaternary aquifer led to a noticeable increase in groundwater salinity. The hydrochemistry and isotope hydrology confirm that the Quaternary aquifer is recharged by an old saline groundwater from the Pre-Quaternary. A hydrogeological connection between Quaternary and Pre-Quaternary aquifers in the form of fault(s) should exist to explain the hydro-tectonic regime of this area. The Bouguer gravity map shows the high gravity anomaly of the doubly plunging anticline of Risan Aniza Mountain to the south of El-Arish area, which is a part of the Syrian Arc System of northern Sinai Peninsula. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density contrast model, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Euler deconvolution, horizontal derivative and least square separation have been performed. The findings showed that (1) two deep regional faults extending NE-SW, surround the Risan Aniza anticline, and (2) two deep local N-S faults are in the area of Delta Wadi El-Arish. These deep faults are proposed to bring the deep Cretaceous aquifer into contact with the shallow Quaternary aquifer and work as a hydrogeological connection between both aquifers. The present hypothesis has some geological evidences from the subsurface lithology of the nearby wells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PEPI..119...25T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PEPI..119...25T"><span>Complete synthetic seismograms for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous Earth models computed using modified DSM operators and their applicability to <span class="hlt">inversion</span> for Earth structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>We compute complete (including both body and surface waves) synthetic seismograms for laterally and vertically heterogeneous Earth models using the Direct Solution Method (DSM). We use the optimally accurate modified operators derived by Geller and Takeuchi [Geller, R.J., Takeuchi, N., 1995. A new method for computing highly accurate DSM synthetic seismograms. Geophys. J. Int. 123, 449-470] and extended to spherical coordinates by Takeuchi et al. [Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Cummins, P.R., 1996. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1175-1178] and Cummins et al. [Cummins, P.R., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., 1997. Computation of complete synthetic seismograms for laterally heterogenous models using the Direct Solution Method. Geophys. J. Int. 130, 1-16] for 1- and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models, respectively. In this study we greatly reduce the CPU time by treating the laterally heterogeneous structure as a perturbation to a spherically symmetric model (i.e., using the Born approximation). Note, however, that (1) our methods do not require the use of the Born approximation and (2) the reference model for the Born approximation is not required to be spherically symmetric. The synthetic seismograms in this paper are computed using the first-order Born approximation. However, accuracy can be greatly improved by using higher order terms of the Born series; theoretical results are presented in this paper, and some preliminary numerical examples are presented in this volume by Igel et al. [Igel, H., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Megnin, C., Bunge, H.P., Clévédé, E., Dalkolmo, J., Romanowicz, B., 1998. The COSY project: verification of global seismic modeling algorithms, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., this issue].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V41B2185W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V41B2185W"><span>Detailed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> S-wave velocity beneath the High Lava Plains, Oregon, from 2-plane-wave Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">inversions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, L. S.; Forsyth, D. W.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon represent an unusual track of bimodal volcanism extending from the southeastern-most corner of the state to its current position beneath the Newberry Volcano on the eastern margin of the Cascades. The silicic volcanism is time progressive along this track, beginning some 15 Ma near the Owyhee plateau and then trending to the north east. The timing and location of the start of the HLP coincides with that of the initial volcanism associated with the Yellowstone/Snake River Plain track (YSRP). While the YSRP has often been interpreted as the classic intra-continental hot spot track, the HLP, which trends almost normal to absolute plate motion, is harder to explain. This study uses the 100+ stations associated with the HLP seismic deployment together with another ~100 Earthscope Transportable Array stations (TA) to perform a high resolution <span class="hlt">inversion</span> for Rayleigh wave phase velocities using the 2-plane-wave methodology of Forsyth and Li (2004). Because of the comparatively small grid spacing of this study, we are able to discern much finer scale structures than studies looking at the entire western U.S. with only TA stations. Preliminary results indicate very low velocities across the study area, especially at upper mantle depths. Especially low velocities are seen beneath the Owyhee plateau and along both the HLP and YSRP tracks. Final details about the exact geometries of these features will help constrain possible scenarios for the formation of the HLP volcanic sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8492K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8492K"><span>Probabilistic point source <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of strong-motion data in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> media using pattern recognition: A case study for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Käufl, Paul; Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Despite the ever increasing availability of computational power, real-time source <span class="hlt">inversions</span> based on physical modeling of wave propagation in realistic media remain challenging. We investigate how a nonlinear Bayesian approach based on pattern recognition and synthetic <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Green's functions can be used to rapidly invert strong-motion data for point source parameters by means of a case study for a fault system in the Los Angeles Basin. The probabilistic <span class="hlt">inverse</span> mapping is represented in compact form by a neural network which yields probability distributions over source parameters. It can therefore be evaluated rapidly and with very moderate CPU and memory requirements. We present a simulated real-time <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of data for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills event. Initial estimates of epicentral location and magnitude are available ˜14 s after origin time. The estimate can be refined as more data arrive: by ˜40 s, fault strike and source depth can also be determined with relatively high certainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..617E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..617E"><span>Investigation of the deep crustal structure and magmatic activity at the NW Hellenic Volcanic Arc with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> aeromagnetic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> and seimotectonic analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Chailas, Stylianos; Stamatakis, Michael</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We report the results of a joint analysis of geophysical (aeromagnetic) and seismotectonic data, applied to the investigation of the deep structure, magmatic activity and geothermal potential of the north-western stretches of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). The HVA is usually considered to be a single arcuate entity stretching from Sousaki (near Corinth) at the NW, to Nisyros Island at the SE. However, different types of and their ages indicate the presence of two different volcanic groups. Our study focuses on the northern part of the west (older) volcanic group and includes the Crommyonian (Sousaki) volcanic field at the west end of Megaris peninsula (east margin on the contemporary Corinth Rift), the Aegina and Methana volcanic complex at the Saronic Gulf, where typical Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanics predominate, and the Argolid peninsula to the south and south-west. In addition to the rocks associated with Quaternary volcanism, the study area includes a series of Mesozoic ultramafic (ophiolitic) outcrops at the Megaris peninsula, to the north and north-east of the Crommyonian volcanic field, as well as throughout the Argolid. A major deep structural and tectonic feature of the study area, and one with profound influence on crustal deformation and the evolution of rapidly deforming extensional structures like the Corinth Rift and the Saronic Gulf, is the local geometry and dynamics of the African oceanic crust subducting beneath the Aegean plate. Locally, the subducting slab has a NNW strike and ENE plunge, with the dip angle changing rapidly (steepening) approx. beneath the Argolid. The aeromagnetic data was extracted from the recently (re)compiled aeromagnetic map of Greece (Chailas et al, 2010) and was inverted with the UBC-GIF magnetic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> suite (Li and Oldenburg, 1996). The <span class="hlt">inversion</span> included rigorous geological constraints introduced by means of numerous in-situ magnetic susceptibility measurements. The <span class="hlt">inversion</span> has imaged several isolated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1011P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1011P"><span><span class="hlt">Inversion</span> for rupture properties based upon <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> directivity effect and application to deep earthquakes in the Sea of Okhotsk region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Rupture properties, such as rupture direction, length, propagation speed and source duration, provide important insights into earthquake mechanisms. One approach to estimate these properties is to investigate the body-wave duration that depends upon the relative location of the station with respect to the rupture direction. Under the assumption that the propagation is unilateral, the duration can be expressed as a function of the dip and azimuth of the rupture. Examination of duration measurements with respect to both the take-off angle and the azimuth is crucial to obtain robust estimates of rupture parameters, especially for nearly vertical rupture propagation. Moreover, limited data coverage, such as using only teleseismic data, can bias the source duration estimate for dipping ruptures, and this bias can map into estimates of other source properties such as rupture extent and rupture speed. Based upon this framework, we introduce an <span class="hlt">inversion</span> scheme that uses the duration measurements to obtain four parameters: the source duration, a measure of the rupture extent and speed, and dip and azimuth of the rupture propagation. The method is applied to two deep-focus events in the Sea of Okhotsk region, an Mw 7.7 event that occurred on 2012 August 14 and an Mw 8.3 event from 2013 May 24. The source durations are 26 ± 1 and 37 ± 1 s, and rupture speeds are 49 ± 4 per cent and 26 ± 3 per cent of shear wave speed for the Mw 7.7 and 8.3 events, respectively. The azimuths of the two ruptures are parallel to the trench, but are in opposite directions. The dips of the Mw 7.7 and 8.3 events are constrained to be 48° ± 8° downdip and 19° ± 8° updip, respectively. The fit to the data is significantly poorer for the Mw 8.3 event than the Mw 7.7 event, suggesting that the unilateral rupture may not be a good assumption. The analysis is expanded into a multi-episode model, and a secondary episode is determined for the Mw 8.3 event in the southeast direction. The two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41A2364C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41A2364C"><span>A Multi-scale Finite-frequency Approach to the <span class="hlt">Inversion</span> of Reciprocal Travel Times for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Velocity Structure beneath Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Y.; Hung, S.; Kuo, B.; Kuochen, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Taiwan is one of the archetypical places for studying the active orogenic process in the world, where the Luzon arc has obliquely collided into the southwest China continental margin since 5 Ma ago. Because of the lack of convincing evidence for the structure in the lithospheric mantle and at even greater depths, several competing models have been proposed for the Taiwan mountain-building process. With the deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) on the seafloor around Taiwan from the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamic Research) and IES seismic experiments, the aperture of the seismic network is greatly extended to improve the depth resolution of tomographic imaging, which is critical to illuminate the nature of the arc-continent collision and accretion in Taiwan. In this study, we use relative travel-time residuals between a collection of teleseismic body wave arrivals to tomographically image the velocity structure beneath Taiwan. In addition to those from common distant earthquakes observed across an array of stations, we take advantage of dense seismicity in the vicinity of Taiwan and the source and receiver reciprocity to augment the data coverage from clustered earthquakes recorded by global stations. As waveforms are dependent of source mechanisms, we carry out the cluster analysis to group the phase arrivals with similar waveforms into clusters and simultaneously determine relative travel-time anomalies in the same cluster accurately by a cross correlation method. The combination of these two datasets would particularly enhance the resolvability of the tomographic models offshore of eastern Taiwan, where the two subduction systems of opposite polarity are taking place and have primarily shaped the present tectonic framework of Taiwan. On the other hand, our <span class="hlt">inversion</span> adopts an innovation that invokes wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization and finite-frequency theory. Not only does this approach make full use of frequency-dependent travel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S41B2744B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S41B2744B"><span>Anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Crustal Velocity Structure of Idaho/ Oregon from a Joint <span class="hlt">Inversion</span> of Group and Phase Velocities of Love and Rayleigh Waves from Ambient Seismic Noise: Results from the IDOR Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M. E.; Hongsresawat, S.; VanDecar, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present new <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> radially anisotropic and isotropic crustal velocity models beneath central Idaho and eastern Oregon. We produced the velocity models from Love and horizontal component Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity measurements on the IDaho/ORegon (IDOR) Passive seismic network, 86 broadband seismic stations, dataset using ambient noise tomography and the methods of Gallego et. al (2010) and Lin et. al (2008). We calculated inter-station group/phase velocities in narrow frequency bands from travel-time measurements of the rotated stacked horizontal component cross-correlations (bandpass filtered between 2 and 30 seconds), which we used to invert for velocity structure beneath the network. We derived group and phase velocity maps for each frequency band using the damped least-squares <span class="hlt">inversion</span> method of Tarantola (2005), and then jointly inverted for velocity with depth. Moho depths are prescribed in the joint <span class="hlt">inversions</span> based on receiver functions, also from the IDOR seismic data, and provides a starting crustal velocity model. Goals of our work include refining models of crustal structure in the accreted Blue Mountain terranes in the western study area; determining the depth extent of the Salmon River Suture/West Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), which crosses north-south through the middle of the network; determining the architecture of the Idaho batholith, an extensive largely crustal-derived pluton; and examining the nature of the autochthonous (?) North American crust and lithosphere beneath and east of the batholith.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P"><span>Europeana and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pletinckx, D.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hype creates a lot of interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. People go to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies, but are we ready to use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a general public and use interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> learning objects, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tourist information or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/249783','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/249783"><span>Building the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir characterization, Permian basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tinker, S.W.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir characterization is a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir model is largely a function of the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework. Interpreting the correct <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling process. Sequence and seismic <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> interpretation provide the best <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326969-correspondence-revisited','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326969-correspondence-revisited"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2066M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2066M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulien Ohlmann, Odile</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Today the industry offers a chain of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> products. Learning to "read" and to "create in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization, to learn <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grammar, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=X+AND+rays&pg=6&id=EJ663163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=X+AND+rays&pg=6&id=EJ663163"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hastings, S. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202.1362O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202.1362O"><span>Efficient <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> frequency-domain mono-parameter full-waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of ocean-bottom cable data: application to Valhall in the visco-acoustic vertical transverse isotropic approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Operto, S.; Miniussi, A.; Brossier, R.; Combe, L.; Métivier, L.; Monteiller, V.; Ribodetti, A.; Virieux, J.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Computationally efficient <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> frequency-domain full waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span> (FWI) is applied to ocean-bottom cable data from the Valhall oil field in the visco-acoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) approximation. Frequency-domain seismic modelling is performed with a parallel sparse direct solver on a limited number of computer nodes. A multiscale imaging is performed by successive <span class="hlt">inversions</span> of single frequencies in the 3.5-10 Hz frequency band. The vertical wave speed is updated during FWI while density, quality factor QP and anisotropic Thomsen's parameters δ and ɛ are kept fixed to their initial values. The final FWI model shows the resolution improvement that was achieved compared to the initial model that was built by reflection traveltime tomography. This FWI model shows a glacial channel system at 175 m depth, the footprint of drifting icebergs on the palaeo-seafloor at 500 m depth, a detailed view of a gas cloud at 1 km depth and the base cretaceous reflector at 3.5 km depth. The relevance of the FWI model is assessed by frequency-domain and time-domain seismic modelling and source wavelet estimation. The agreement between the modelled and recorded data in the frequency domain is excellent up to 10 Hz although amplitudes of modelled wavefields propagating across the gas cloud are overestimated. This might highlight the footprint of attenuation, whose absorption effects are underestimated by the homogeneous background QP model (QP = 200). The match between recorded and modelled time-domain seismograms suggests that the <span class="hlt">inversion</span> was not significantly hampered by cycle skipping. However, late arrivals in the synthetic seismograms, computed without attenuation and with a source wavelet estimated from short-offset early arrivals, arrive 40 ms earlier than the recorded seismograms. This might result from dispersion effects related to attenuation. The repeatability of the source wavelets inferred from data that are weighted by a linear gain with offset is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5453647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5453647"><span><span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> traps 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This volume contains studies of fields with traps that are mainly <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> in nature. Structure plays a role in the traps of several fields, but overall, it is clear that the main trapping features with the group of fields in this volume are <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span>. The first six fields in this volume, Alabama Ferry, Rospo Mare, Walker Creek, Bindley, Lexington, and Newburg/South Westhope, have carbonate reservoirs. The latter two of these, Lexington and Newburg/South Westhope, also have sandstone reservoirs. The remaining fields, East Texas, East Clinton, Stockholm Southwest, Sorrento, Port Acres, and Lagoa Parda, have only sandstone reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1325198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1325198"><span>AE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Spong, Donald A</p> <p>2016-06-20</p> <p>AE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ098572.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ098572.pdf"><span>Teaching with <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stefanich, Greg P.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Presents two exercises modeled after the ice age puzzle described in the ESCP textbook, including formation of terminal moraines and kettle lakes and intersection of normal faults with gold-quartz veins. Indicates that the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> profiles are usable in teaching earth science, geography, general science, and topographic problems. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287545"><span>Walker Ranch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert J. Mellors</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..161M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..161M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Seismic Interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Gregory F.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2006O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2006O"><span>Radiochromic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oldham, Mark</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose measurement in general.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326984-bootstrapping-fermions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326984-bootstrapping-fermions"><span>Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326984','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326984"><span>Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C<sub>T</sub>. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062024&hterms=86-2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D86-2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062024&hterms=86-2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D86-2"><span>Venus in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plaut, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7750E..09C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7750E..09C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Our group has concentrated on development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752138"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steerable wavelets in practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monogenic analysis. We also propose a new <span class="hlt">inverse</span>-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving <span class="hlt">inverse</span> problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13E2655A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13E2655A"><span>Crustal Deformation Analysis Using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> FE High-fidelity Model with a Fast Computation Method and Its Application to <span class="hlt">Inversion</span> Analysis of Fault Slip in the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hori, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Crustal deformation analysis is important in order to understand the interplate coupling and coseismic fault slips. To perform it more accurately, we need a high-fidelity crustal structure model. However, in spite of accumulated crustal data, models with simplified flat shapes or relatively low resolution have been used, because the computation cost using high-fidelity models with a large degree-of-freedom (DOF) could be significantly high. Especially, estimation of the interplate coupling and coseismic fault slip requires the calculation of Green's function (the response displacement due to unit fault slip). To execute this computation in a realistic time, we need to reduce the computation cost. The objectives of our research is following: (1)To develop a method to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element (FE) models which represent heterogeneous crustal layers with the complex shape of crustal structure; (2)To develop a fast FE analysis method to perform crustal deformation analysis many times using single computation node, supposing the use of a small-scale computation environment. We developed an automatic FE model generation method using background grids with high quality meshes in a large area by extending the method of (Ichimura et al, 2009). We used Finite Element Method (FEM) because it has an advantage in representing the shape. Hybrid meshes consisting of tetrahedral and voxel elements are generated; the former is used when the interface surfaces and the grids intersect so that the shape of the crust is represented well, while the latter is used in the homogeneous areas. Also, we developed a method for crustal deformation analysis due to fault slip, which solves the FEM equation Ku=f assuming that the crust is an elastic body. To compute it fast, firstly we solved the problem by CG method with a simple preconditioning, parallelizing it by OpenMP. However, this computation took a long time, so we improved the method by introducing Multigrid Method (Saam, 2003) to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239896"><span>RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2015-08-24</p> <p>In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and <span class="hlt">inverse</span> folding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239896-rag-search-tool-rna-substructures','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239896-rag-search-tool-rna-substructures"><span>RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A search tool for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> substructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...</p> <p>2015-08-24</p> <p>In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural fragments. The objects in RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> consist of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures translated into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search tool then compares a query RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction, structure/function inference and <span class="hlt">inverse</span> folding.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00683&hterms=ski&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dski','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00683&hterms=ski&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dski"><span>Twin Peaks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.<p/>The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2433..290F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2433..290F"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fung, Y. C.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Audio System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surgical Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00692&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00692&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.</p> <p>1991-03-30</p> <p>We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19627832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19627832"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain measurement in soft tissue: demonstration of a novel <span class="hlt">inverse</span> finite element model algorithm on MicroCT images of a tissue phantom exposed to negative pressure wound therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilkes, R; Zhao, Y; Cunningham, K; Kieswetter, K; Haridas, B</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study describes a novel system for acquiring the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field in soft tissue at sub-millimeter spatial resolution during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Recent research in advanced wound treatment modalities theorizes that microdeformations induced by the application of sub-atmospheric (negative) pressure through V.A.C. GranuFoam Dressing, a reticulated open-cell polyurethane foam (ROCF), is instrumental in regulating the mechanobiology of granulation tissue formation [Saxena, V., Hwang, C.W., Huang, S., Eichbaum, Q., Ingber, D., Orgill, D.P., 2004. Vacuum-assisted closure: Microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114, 1086-1096]. While the clinical response is unequivocal, measurement of deformations at the wound-dressing interface has not been possible due to the inaccessibility of the wound tissue beneath the sealed dressing. Here we describe the development of a bench-test wound model for microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging of deformation induced by NPWT and an algorithm set for quantifying the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strain field at sub-millimeter resolution. Microdeformations induced in the tissue phantom revealed average tensile strains of 18%-23% at sub-atmospheric pressures of -50 to -200 mmHg (-6.7 to -26.7 kPa). The compressive strains (22%-24%) and shear strains (20%-23%) correlate with 2D FEM studies of microdeformational wound therapy in the reference cited above. We anticipate that strain signals quantified using this system can then be used in future research aimed at correlating the effects of mechanical loading on the phenotypic expression of dermal fibroblasts in acute and chronic ulcer models. Furthermore, the method developed here can be applied to continuum deformation analysis in other contexts, such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture via confocal microscopy, full scale CT and MRI imaging, and in machine vision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9718E..26C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9718E..26C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> differential phase contrast microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We demonstrate three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast <span class="hlt">inversion</span> method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0EK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0EK"><span>Intraoral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Here a new set-up of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=Diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=Diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiamond"><span>'Diamond' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <p/> Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. <p/> On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed. <p/> The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin"><span>Prominent rocks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/483878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/483878"><span>Coherence cube technology adds geologic insight to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morris, D.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) seismic technology is now widely applied to assess the risk associated with hydrocarbon trap definition, including faulting, <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> features, and reservoir description. Critical new technologies to exploit the wealth of information contained within <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic have recently begun to emerge; most notably, coherence cube technology, developed by Amoco Production Research and licensed to Coherence Technology Co. (CTC). Coherence cube processing produces interpretable images of faults and subtle <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> features, such as buried deltas, river channels, and beaches, by quantifying seismic coherence attributes. The technique has important implications for geophysical, geological, and reservoir engineering applications. The paper discusses how coherency works, applications, and an example in delineating southern North Sea faulting.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825256"><span>INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC <span class="hlt">INVERSION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of <span class="hlt">inversion</span> algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span> algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span> algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2353..549L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2353..549L"><span>Two axes of the human eye and <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of the retinal layers: the basis for the interpretation of the retina as a phase-grating-optical cellular <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lauinger, Norbert</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>The question of why the human eye has two axes, a photopic visual axis and an eye axis, is just as justified as the one of why the fovea is not on the eye axis, but instead is on the visual axis. An optical engineer would have omitted the second axis and placed the fovea on the eye axis. The answer to the question of why the design of the real eye differs from the logic of the engineer is found in its prenatal development. The biaxial design was the only possible consequence of the decision to invert the retinal layers. Accordingly, this is of considerable importance. It in turn forms the basis of the interpretation of the retinal nuclear layers as a cellular <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase grating, and can provide a diffraction-optical interpretation of adaptive effects (Purkinje shift), aperture phenomena (Stiles-Crawford effects I and II) in photopic vision, and visual acuity data in photopic and scotopic vision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21E..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21E..03P"><span>Effect of a low-velocity sedimentary cover on the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity models derived from <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of local arrival times. An example from the New Madrid seismic zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>When applying seismic tomography to local arrival times from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel times should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of the synthetic times produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3479T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3479T"><span>Coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake from joint <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of GPS and InSAR data for slip within a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tung, Sui; Masterlark, Timothy</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We derive a coseismic slip model of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake on the basis of GPS and line-of-sight displacements from ALOS-2 descending interferograms, using Green's functions calculated with a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite element model (FEM). The FEM simulates a nonuniform distribution of elastic material properties and a precise geometric configuration of the irregular topographical surface. The rupturing fault is modeled as a low-angle and north dipping surface within the Main Frontal Thrust along the convergent margin of the Himalayas. The optimal model that inherits heterogeneous material properties provides a significantly better solution than that in a homogenous domain at the 95% confidence interval. The best fit solution for the domain having a nonuniform distribution of material properties reveals a rhombus-shaped slip zone of three composite asperities. Slip is primarily concentrated at a depth of 15 km with both dip-slip (maximum 6.54 m) and strike-slip (maximum 2.0 m) components, giving rise to a geodetic-based moment of 1.09 × 1021 Nm in general agreement with the seismological estimate. The optimal relative weights among GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) are deduced from a new method, MC-HVCE which combines a Monte Carlo search and a Helmert Method of Variance Components Estimation. This method determines the relative weights in a systemic approach which preserves the intrinsic solution smoothness. The joint solution is significantly better than those inverted from each individual data set. This methodology allows us to integrate multiple data sets of geodetic observations with seismic tomography, in an effort to achieve a better understanding of seismic ruptures within crustal heterogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.2721X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.2721X"><span>Variations in axial magma lens properties along the East Pacific Rise (9°30'N-10°00'N) from swath <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic imaging and 1-D waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Min; Pablo Canales, J.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Carton, Helene; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Mutter, John C.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We use three-dimensional multistreamer seismic reflection data to investigate variations in axial magma lens (AML) physical properties along the East Pacific Rise between 9°30'N and 10°00'N. Using partial-offset stacks of P- and S-converted waves reflecting off the top of the AML, we image four 2-4 km long melt-rich sections spaced 5-10 km from each other. One-dimensional waveform <span class="hlt">inversion</span> indicates that the AML in a melt-rich section is best modeled with a low Vp (2.95-3.23 km/s) and Vs (0.3-1.5 km/s), indicating >70% melt fraction. In contrast, the AML in a melt-poor section requires higher Vp (4.52-4.82 km/s) and Vs (2.0-3.0 km/s), which indicates <40% melt fraction. The thicknesses of the AML are constrained to be 8-32 m and 8-120 m at the melt-rich and -poor sites, respectively. Based on the AML melt-mush segmentation imaged in the area around the 2005-2006 eruption, we infer that the main source of this eruption was a 5 km long section of the AML between 9°48'N and 51'N. The eruption drained most of the melt in this section of the AML, leaving behind a large fraction of connected crystals. We estimate that during the 2005-2006 eruption, a total magma volume of 9-83 × 106 m3 was extracted from the AML, with a maximum of 71 × 106 m3 left unerupted in the crust as dikes. From this, we conclude that an eruption of similar dimensions to the 2005-2006, one would be needed with a frequency of years to decades in order to sustain the long-term average seafloor spreading rate at this location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy in Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...540A..92L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...540A..92L"><span>Spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.html</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program—Virtual USA in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614965R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614965R"><span>The Galicia <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experiment: an Introduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield <span class="hlt">inversion</span> (the recording of the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARL16003V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARL16003V"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Buckligami: Digital Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and create these by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744"><span>LLNL-Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839"><span>Market study: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A market study of a proposed version of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W"><span>Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J. R.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy in Europe. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7237E..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7237E..05P"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report on the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in dentistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user's manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and sample command files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..867K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..867K"><span>Tracking earthquake source evolution in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by <span class="hlt">inverse</span> slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39934"><span>How <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, 3-C seismic characterized a carbonate reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arestad, J.F.; Mattocks, B.W.; Davis, T.L.; Benson, R.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) at the Colorado School of Mines has pioneered research into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, 3-C (multicomponent) reflection seismology for nearly a decade utilizing both P-wave and S-wave sources. Multicomponent-seismic surveys provide significantly more information about petroleum reservoirs than compressional-wave surveys. Initial <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, 3-C surveys acquired by RCP were targeted at characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The current phase of the project is oriented towards utilizing shear waves to discriminate lithologic and diagenetic changes within <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> reservoirs where compressional-seismic data has not be effective. The Joffre field, Nisku reservoir, is the site of RCP`s ongoing multidisciplinary research effort in Western Canada. The research team is directed by Colorado School of Mines faculty with graduate team members from geology, geophysics and petroleum engineering departments. While this study is still in progress, some key findings and directions of this research are reported here. The following topics will be discussed: Joffre field <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, 3-C survey; compressional wave <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technique; shear-wave <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technique; converted-wave <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technique; reservoir characterization, and future directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..08A"><span>Unassisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>With the rapid growth of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture has become a critical part of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> feature set on mobile phones. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347286','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347286"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8933G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8933G"><span>Norwegian Offshore <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Lexicon (NORLEX)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Norwegian Offshore <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967629"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polymer scaffold arrays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment and cells cultured in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> format.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6970E..0OL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6970E..0OL"><span>Autofocus for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee-Elkin, Forest</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C"><span>Combinatorial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mechanical Metamaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521"><span>Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185"><span>Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..5ED','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..5ED"><span>From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the last few years <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, realized with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269477"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inverse</span> method for designing turbomachine blades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dang, T.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>To meet the goal of 60% plant-cycle efficiency or better set in the ATS Program for baseload utility scale power generation, several critical technologies need to be developed. One such need is the improvement of component efficiencies. This work addresses the issue of improving the performance of turbo-machine components in gas turbines through the development of an advanced three-dimensional and viscous blade design system. This technology is needed to replace some elements in current design systems that are based on outdated technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S"><span>YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: exploring stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gaming for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theater gaming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311"><span>Speaking Volumes About <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801545"><span>Macrophage podosomes go <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617026"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Nanodevices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Petal, terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development, involves general development activities in the ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+wall&id=EJ467779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+wall&id=EJ467779"><span>The World of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mayshark, Robin K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are given. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1096219','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1096219"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing: Exploring Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087"><span>SNL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>Face</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya</p> <p>2007-07-20</p> <p>This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=2&id=EJ1091305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=2&id=EJ1091305"><span>Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S31A2040R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S31A2040R"><span>Investigation of surface wave amplitudes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Q models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruan, Y.; Zhou, Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> techniques. We calculate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite-frequency sensitivity of surface-wave amplitude to perturbations in wave speed and anelasticity (Q) which fully account for the effects of elastic focusing, attenuation, anelastic focusing as well as measurement techniques. We show that amplitude perturbations calculated using wave speed and Q sensitivity kernels agree reasonably well with SEM measurements and therefore the sensitivity kernels can be used in a joint <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of seismic phase delays and amplitudes to simultaneously image high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> wave speed and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Q structures in the upper mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050"><span>TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Heat Transfer Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, W.E.</p> <p>1992-03-04</p> <p>TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/838184','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/838184"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of tensors and vectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.</p> <p>2005-02-17</p> <p>Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor <span class="hlt">inverse</span> problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560355','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560355"><span>Reduction of Thermal Conductivity by Nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Phononic Crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized <span class="hlt">inverse</span> participation ratio in nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystal. PMID:23378898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23378898"><span>Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized <span class="hlt">inverse</span> participation ratio in nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phononic crystal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L"><span>Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Robotic Hand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317338"><span>Comparing swimsuits in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner and traditional measuring methods. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967"><span>Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scene Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.</p> <p>1999-10-12</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>The structure of clusters of some new carbon <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........47W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........47W"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic image processing for interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Xinming</p> <p></p> <p>Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=valvular+heart+disease&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvalvular%2Bheart%2Bdisease','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=valvular+heart+disease&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvalvular%2Bheart%2Bdisease"><span>[Real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920"><span>GPU-Accelerated Denoising in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (GD<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K"><span>Magmatic Systems in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets. These <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5122Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5122Z"><span><span class="hlt">Stratigraphical</span> characterization of the Anthropocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zalasiewicz, Jan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Anthropocene, currently under analysis as a potential addition to the Geological Time Scale, has been interpreted in a wide variety of ways since the term was first introduced into scientific debate by Paul Crutzen in 2000. If it is to become a formal geological time unit, it must be functional as both a geochronological unit (an 'abstract time' unit, for example, an Epoch) and a chronostratigraphical unit (the corresponding material 'time-rock' unit, a Series). The most compelling evidence collated to date by the Anthropocene Working Group comprises a range of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> proxies of physical (e.g. anthropogenic rock and mineral types), chemical (e.g. C, N isotopic changes, radionuclides, pesticides) and biological (species invasions, extinctions, assemblage changes) character; together these suggest that the most effective boundary may be placed around the mid-20th century. Formalisation will depend not just on the weight of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> evidence (already considerable) but also on perceived utility. As regards wider societal implications, the succession of phenomena associated with this concept strongly suggest that it will be associated with significant Earth system change for the foreseeable future, by contrast with the general stability of Holocene times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..725Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B1..725Z"><span>a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Model and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Point Cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Model and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object retrieval and <span class="hlt">inverse</span> procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404"><span>Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Mark W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MARK14004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MARK14004B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanostructuring of Semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blick, Robert</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lies&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lies&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlies"><span>What Lies Ahead (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhTea..54..150M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhTea..54..150M"><span>Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclean"><span>A Clean Adirondack (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1330345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1330345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Shelby Cobra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Love, Lonnie</p> <p>2015-01-09</p> <p>ORNL's newly printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721923R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721923R"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Asteroids for Outreach Astronomy Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, April</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printed asteroids provide new opportunities for outreach astronomy education due to their low cost, interactive potential, and high interest value. Telescopes are expensive, bulky, fragile, and cannot be used effectively during the day. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printing of asteroids combines exciting new technology with astronomy, appealing to a broader audience. The printed models are scientifically accurate, as their shapes have been modeled using light-curve <span class="hlt">inversion</span> techniques using and occultation data to provide a jumping off point for discussions of these advanced and exciting topics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..357F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198..357F"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an <span class="hlt">inversion</span> process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inversion</span> results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> OOA can deal with realistic <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> histogram of the real data was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465"><span>Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (PAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed bionic ears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C</p> <p>2013-06-12</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Ears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. PMID:23635097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..12D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..12D"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured illumination microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.micropress.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/micropen2/index.php?globalnav=article_detail&issue_id=310&article_id=1888','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.micropress.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/micropen2/index.php?globalnav=article_detail&issue_id=310&article_id=1888"><span>North American Commission on <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Nomenclature Note 66: records of <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Commission, 2003-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Easton, Robert M.; Catuneanu, Octavian; Donovan, Art D.; Fluegeman, Richard H.; Hamblin, A.P.; Harper, Howard; Lasca, Norman P.; Morrow, Jared R.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sadler, Peter; Scott, Robert W.; Tew, Berry H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Note 66 summarizes activities of the North American Commission on <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Nomenclature (NACSN) from November 2003 to October 2013 and is condensed from the minutes of the NACSN’s 58th to 68th annual meetings1. The purposes of the Commission are to develop statements of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> principles,recommend procedures applicable to the classification and nomenclature of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> and related units, review problems in classifying and naming <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> and related units, and formulate expressions of judgment on these matters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T43A1100S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T43A1100S"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fault Geometry and Basin Evolution in the Northern Continental Borderland Offshore Southern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schindler, C. S.; Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Grids of recently released high-quality industry multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data, combined with bathymetry and offshore well data are used to map digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fault surfaces and <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> reference horizons in the northern Continental Borderland offshore of southern California. This area experienced large-scale oblique crustal extension and translation associated with the initiation and development of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of structure and stratigraphy can thus be used to better understand and evaluate regional patterns of uplift, subsidence, fault interaction and other aspects of plate boundary deformation. Our mapping in Santa Cruz basin and on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge reveals an unusual pattern of faulting, folding and basin subsidence. This subsidence is significant (up to 3-4 km since early-Miocene time) and is responsible for the development of several major Borderland basins. Vertical motions can be estimated from an early-Miocene unconformity that likely represents a paleo-horizontal, near-paleo-sea-level erosional surface. As such, it can be used to reconstruct Borderland forearc geometry prior to rifting, subsidence and subsequent basin <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. Major findings to date include: (a) a better characterization of the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry and pinch-out of the eastern edge of the northern forearc Nicolas terrane and its implications for Borderland basin development, plate reconstructions, and vertical motions associated with oblique rifting; (b) recognition that the East Santa Cruz Basin fault, previously thought to be a predominantly high-angle, large- displacement right-slip fault representing the eastern edge of the Nicolas terrane, is in fact a series of reactivated right-stepping, NE-dipping reverse-separation faults; (c) discovery that NW-striking faults associated with Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge bend west into a horse-tail structure to interact with and contribute to the southern frontal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Graphene Aerogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong</p> <p>2016-04-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a graphene aerogel with true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391897"><span>Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithostratigraphical models of porous aquifers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithostratigraphic model of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14134B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14134B"><span>Quasi <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dispersion experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakucz, P.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527"><span>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Michael B</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1330345','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1330345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Shelby Cobra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Love, Lonnie</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>ORNL's newly printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting"><span>Supernova Remnant in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p> wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model using all of this information. A program called <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model. Commercial software was then used to create the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fly-through. <p/> The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. <p/> This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. <p/> High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4634564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4634564"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Conventional <span class="hlt">inverse</span>-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. In this paper we present a computationally tractable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging using simulated array measurements from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110512"><span>Advancements in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David</p> <p>2013-06-23</p> <p>:24,000 scale detailed geologic map and cross-sections, 2D seismic reflection profiles and other geophysical data, and downhole temperature data. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic model based on these data consists of 61 fault planes, 25 distinct <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units, and 2 intrusive bodies. Geothermal fluids are produced from a left step-over/relay ramp within the Brady’s Fault Zone (BFZ). Under local stress conditions, fault segments that strike NNE-to-NE are most likely to slip and/or dilate, and therefore transmit geothermal fluids. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model defines the locations of discrete fault intersections within the BFZ and indicates that the densest zones of structurally controlled fracture permeability are ~10-to-10s of meters in diameter and plunge ~55° NW-NNW beneath the heart of the BFZ step over. The locations of high intersection density, high fault slip and dilation tendency, high subsurface temperature, and lithologies known to support high fracture permeability are combined to produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ‘fairway’ maps useful in both assessments of geothermal resource potential and for defining drilling targets. Astor Pass is located on the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, ~80 km north of Reno, NV. It is a prospective ‘greenfield’ geothermal area, and thus subsurface data are relatively sparse. Available data include: two relatively deep wells (~1400 m) and one shallower well (~500 m) with lithologies interpreted from drill cuttings, several 2D seismic reflection profiles, a 1:24,000 scale geologic map and cross-section, a shallow temperature survey, and downhole temperature data. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling based on these data has defined 19 distinct fault planes and 16 <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units. Based on the stress field calculated from borehole breakouts, drilling induced tensile cracks and petal-centerline cracks in the two relatively deep wells, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> slip and dilation tendency analysis indicates that northerly striking fault segments are most likely to slip and/or dilate, and therefore transmit geothermal fluids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev spin liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hermanns, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5..587S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5..587S"><span>Crowdsourcing Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011109"><span>[<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8618E..0PZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8618E..0PZ"><span>An interactive multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The progresses in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information. They yield a realistic representation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display and user interaction system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007688"><span>Application of TIMS data in <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lang, H. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data for unraveling the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> sequence of a western interior, North American foreland basin. The TIMS data can be used to determine the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> distribution of minerals that are diagnostic of specific depositional distribution. The thematic mapper (TM) and TIMS data were acquired in the Wind River/Bighorn area of central Wyoming in November 1982, and July 1983, respectively. Combined image processing, photogeologic, and spectral analysis methods were used to: map strata; construct <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> columns; correlate data; and identify mineralogical facies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptLE..51.1310L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptLE..51.1310L"><span>Optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an <span class="hlt">inverse</span> process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA264825','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA264825"><span>Laser Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Volumetric Display System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..209W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..209W"><span>True <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Images and Their Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image, especially a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> oblique image, it has true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images and the applications of true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images in a couple of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modeling projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and Its Urologic Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+systems&pg=5&id=EJ748295','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+systems&pg=5&id=EJ748295"><span>Teaching Geography with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. We developed and presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1101114','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1101114"><span>Expanding Geometry Understanding with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the rise of personal desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers have become readily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6803E..0RE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6803E..0RE"><span>Beowulf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engle, Rob</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> formats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows. In particular, we examine the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D textures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=landfills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlandfills','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=landfills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlandfills"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Perspective Pasadena, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSMOS23A..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSMOS23A..06E"><span>Punctuated <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Appearance of Cold-Water Coral Reefs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberli, G. P.; Correa, T.; Massaferro, J. L.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Existing and new data acquired with an AUV document a high abundance of cold-water coral mounds in the bottom of the Straits of Florida (SoF). These mounds display a large variability of shapes and heights. The abundance and variability encountered in these and modern cold-water coral mounds elsewhere is in stark contrast to lack of reported ancient cold-water coral reefs. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> distribution suggests that cold-water corals punctuate the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> record with times of bloom and times of near complete absence. In the Florida Bahamas region, for example, the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> distribution is non-uniform. Preliminary age dating of the modern coral mounds produce ages of a few hundred to 1300 years for corals at the surface of the mounds. Sub-bottom profiles and seismic data across the investigated mound fields reveal that the "modern" mounds root in Pleistocene strata but are absent in the Pliocene strata below. Cores taken during ODP Legs 101 and 166 in the SoF confirm the punctuated appearance as deep-water coral rubble was penetrated only in the Pleistocene and in the upper Oligocene strata. The vast occurrence of Oligocene cold-water coral mounds is also visible on a 2-D seismic line in the northern SoF and on a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic survey in the southwestern portion of the SoF. In this latter data set a mid-Miocene and the base of Tertiary seismic horizon also image mounded features. These spikes in reef development indicate that environmental conditions were only occasionally favorable for reef growth. The punctuated appearance is surprising as the core and seismic data document continuous current activity since the late Miocene in the SoF. We speculate that the "modern" bloom of cold-water coral reefs in the Pleistocene coincides with the onset of the large barrier reef systems in the Australia and Belize.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501046"><span>Sampling of finite elements for sparse recovery in large scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrical impedance tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Javaherian, Ashkan; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Moeller, Knut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study proposes a method to improve performance of sparse recovery <span class="hlt">inverse</span> solvers in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrical impedance tomography (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EIT), especially when the volume under study contains small-sized inclusions, e.g. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of breast tumours. Initially, a quadratic regularized <span class="hlt">inverse</span> solver is applied in a fast manner with a stopping threshold much greater than the optimum. Based on assuming a fixed level of sparsity for the conductivity field, finite elements are then sampled via applying a compressive sensing (CS) algorithm to the rough blurred estimation previously made by the quadratic solver. Finally, a sparse <span class="hlt">inverse</span> solver is applied solely to the sampled finite elements, with the solution to the CS as its initial guess. The results show the great potential of the proposed CS-based sparse recovery in improving accuracy of sparse solution to the large-size <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EIT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH"><span>Case study: Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: benefits of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing for 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Handy Turner, Tara</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitors were available and few software packages provided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA595014','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA595014"><span>Development of a Compact & Easy-to-Use <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Camera for High Speed Turbulent Flow Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-05</p> <p>the 2-D Radon transform to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space, i.e., the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Radon transform. It is proposed that the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Radon transform also has an <span class="hlt">inverse</span> as does the 2-D...Nishimura, D.G., Principles of magnetic resonance imaging. 1996: Stanford University. 41. Deans, S.R., The Radon transform and some of its applications...2007: DoverPublications. com. 42. Averbuch, A. and Y. Shkolnisky, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fourier based discrete Radon transform. Applied and Computational Harmonic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/413525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/413525"><span>Mini <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for shallow gas reconnaissance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The Mini <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of gas charged bodies. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARH35004L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARH35004L"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team</p> <p></p> <p>Constructing three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> silicon based Tepuis, constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> wax printing and the latest home designed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> bio-printer. Although <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..122...41Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..122...41Q"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> change detection - Approaches and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data acquisition and generation, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> aspects of the data. The inclusion of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data for change detection (termed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, we discuss important issues in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058"><span>RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tutorials for GMS users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was developed from the single-species transport code, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and GMS on a routine basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3615G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3615G"><span>Some debatable problems of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gladenkov, Yury</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Russian geologists perform large-scale geological mapping in Russia and abroad. Therefore we urge unification of legends of geological maps compiled in different countries. It seems important to continuously organize discussions on problems of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> classification. 1. The <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> schools (conventionally called "European" and "American") define "stratigraphy" in different ways. The former prefers "single" stratigraphy that uses data proved by many methods. The latter divides stratigraphy into several independent <span class="hlt">stratigraphers</span> (litho-, bio-, magneto- and others). Russian geologists classify <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units into general (chronostratigraphic) and special (in accordance with a method applied). 2. There exist different interpretations of chronostratigraphy. Some <span class="hlt">stratigraphers</span> suppose that a chronostratigraphic unit corresponds to rock strata formed during a certain time interval (it is somewhat formalistic because a length of interval is frequently unspecified). Russian specialists emphasize the historical-geological background of chronostratigraphic units. Every <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> unit (global and regional) reflects a stage of geological evolution of biosphere and stratisphere. 3. In the view of Russian <span class="hlt">stratigraphers</span>, the main <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units may have different extent: a) global (stage), b) regional (regional stage,local zone), and c) local (suite). There is no such hierarchy in the ISG. 4. Russian specialists think that local "lithostratigraphic" units (formations) which may have diachronous boundaries are not chronostratigraphic ones in strict sense (actually they are lithological bodies). In this case "lithostratigraphy" can be considered as "prostratigraphy" and employed in initial studies of sequences. Therefore, a suite is a main local unit of the Russian Code and differs from a formation, although it is somewhat similar. It does not mean that lithostratigraphy is unnecessary. Usage of marker horizons, members and other bodies is of great help</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53N..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53N..07C"><span>Advances toward field application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydraulic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.; Kitanidis, P. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Hydraulic tomography (HT) is a technique that shows great potential for aquifer characterization and one that holds the promise of producing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydraulic property distributions, given suitable equipment. First suggested over 15 years ago, HT assimilates distributed aquifer pressure (head) response data collected during a series of multiple pumping tests to produce estimates of aquifer property variability. Unlike traditional curve-matching analyses, which assume homogeneity or "effective" parameters within the radius of influence of a hydrologic test, HT analysis relies on numerical models with detailed heterogeneity in order to invert for the highly resolved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter distribution that jointly fits all data. Several numerical and laboratory investigations of characterization using HT have shown that property distributions can be accurately estimated between observation locations when experiments are correctly designed - a property not always shared by other, simpler 1D characterization approaches such as partially-penetrating slug tests. HT may represent one of the best methods available for obtaining detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> aquifer property descriptions, especially in deep or "hard" aquifer materials, where direct-push methods may not be feasible. However, to date HT has not yet been widely adopted at contaminated field sites. We believe that current perceived impediments to HT adoption center around four key issues: 1) A paucity in the scientific literature of proven, cross-validated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field applications 2) A lack of guidelines and best practices for performing field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HT experiments; 3) Practical difficulty and time commitment associated with the installation of a large number of high-accuracy sampling locations, and the running of a large number of pumping tests; and 4) Computational difficulty associated with solving large-scale <span class="hlt">inverse</span> problems for parameter identification. In this talk, we present current results in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HT research that addresses these four issues</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43E4939N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43E4939N"><span>Complex tephra dispersion from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plume modeling using ATHAM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, B. C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Most volcanic hazard assessments are based on a classic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> tool for tephra deposits that relies on a simple integral model to explain the eruption plume. While this tool is adequate for first-order predictions of tephra deposition under no-wind conditions, the simplifying assumptions make it unreliable for ambient winds >10 m/s. Advances in computational power now make it possible to improve the <span class="hlt">inversion</span> tool using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fluid dynamics. We do this with the physics-based Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM) to model tephra dispersion and deposition from volcanic eruption columns. The model, when run in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, is able to capture the complex morphology of bent plumes. Tephra distributions produced by these morphologies differ significantly from distributions created by idealized advection solutions, reflecting the effects of counter-rotating vortex pairs, puffing modes, or plume bifurcation. The modeled tephra deposition better captures the complex effects of wind-plume interaction, allowing us to update classic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> tools with more realistic weak plume conditions consistent with typical historical explosive eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2787...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2787...62A"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement for rapid prototyping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Optical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement can realize both. Classical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARA44008G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARA44008G"><span>Designing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structure by 5-7 Kirigami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Xingting; Cho, Yigil; Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel; Kamien, Randall</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this talk is to explore how one can create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 2D materials through the art of kirigami. Kirigami expands upon origami by allowing not only folds, but also cuts, into materials. If we take an incompressible material such as paper and remove a hole from it, the paper will buckle into the third dimension once that hole is sealed in order to relieve strain. Thus, orienting cuts and folds in certain places throughout a sheet of paper can influence its ``pop-up,'' <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure. To narrow down the <span class="hlt">inverse</span> design problem, we confined ourselves to making only one kind of cut (which we call the ``5-7 cut'') on a honeycomb grid, and we show how this single cut can give rise to arbitrarily complex three dimensional structures. A simple set of rules exists: (a) one 5-7 cut divides the material into 2 sections which can choose to pop-up or down independently of each other, (b) rows of uniform cuts must pop up or down in unison, giving (nearly) arbitrary 2D structure, and (c) the 5-7 cuts can be arranged in various ways to create 6 basic pop-up ``modes,'' which can then be arranged to give (nearly) arbitrary <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure. These simple rules allow a framework for designing targeted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure from an initial 2D sheet of material. This work was supported by NSF EFRI-ODISSEI Grant EFRI 13-31583.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAMDS...3...58T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAMDS...3...58T"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization on Workspace of Parallel Manipulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Yoshito; Yokomichi, Isao; Ishii, Junko; Makino, Toshiaki</p> <p></p> <p>In parallel mechanisms, the form and volume of workspace also change variously with the attitude of a platform. This paper presents a method to search for the workspace of parallel mechanisms with 6-DOF and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of the workspace. Workspace is a search for the movable range of the central point of a platform when it moves with a given orientation. In order to search workspace, geometric analysis based on <span class="hlt">inverse</span> kinematics is considered. Plots of 2D of calculations are compared with those measured by position sensors. The test results are shown to have good agreement with simulation results. The workspace variations are demonstrated in terms of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 2D plots for prototype mechanisms. The workspace plots are created with OpenGL and Visual C++ by implementation of the algorithm. An application module is developed, which displays workspace of the mechanism in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images. The effectiveness and practicability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization on workspace are successfully demonstrated by 6-DOF parallel mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA515632','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA515632"><span>Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-24</p> <p>Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626607','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626607"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Microperfusion Model of ADPKD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Stratasys <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663679"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> carotid plaque MR Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parker, Dennis L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570784','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570784"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Extensions for Trustworthy Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span>- <span class="hlt">D</span> Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on <span class="hlt">3</span>- <span class="hlt">D</span> integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With <span class="hlt">3</span>- <span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535073','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535073"><span>Hardware Trust Implications of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores <span class="hlt">3</span>- <span class="hlt">D</span> applications and their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364720"><span>Digital holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This feature issue on Digital Holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9036E..29O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9036E..29O"><span>Dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra using commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNS23A1640S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNS23A1640S"><span>Complex Resistivity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging for Ground Reinforcement Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Induced polarization (IP) method is used for mineral exploration and generally classified into two categories, time and frequency domain method. IP method in frequency domain measures amplitude and absolute phase to the transmitted currents, and is often called spectral induced polarization (SIP) when measurement is made for the wide-band frequencies. Our research group has been studying the modeling and <span class="hlt">inversion</span> algorithms of complex resistivity method since several years ago and recently started to apply this method for various field applications. We already completed the development of 2/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">inversion</span> program and developing another algorithm to use wide-band data altogether. Until now complex resistivity (CR) method was mainly used for the surface or tomographic survey of mineral exploration. Through the experience, we can find that the resistivity section from CR method is very similar with that of conventional resistivity method. Interpretation of the phase section is generally well matched with the geological information of survey area. But because most of survey area has very touch and complex terrain, 2D survey and interpretation are used generally. In this study, the case study of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CR survey conducted for the site where ground reinforcement was done to prevent the subsidence will be introduced. Data was acquired with the Zeta system, the complex resistivity measurement system produced by Zonge Co. using 8 frequencies from 0.125 to 16 Hz. 2D survey was conducted for total 6 lines with 5 m dipole spacing and 20 electrodes. Line length is 95 meter for every line. Among these 8 frequency data, data below 1 Hz was used considering its quality. With the 6 line data, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inversion</span> was conducted. Firstly 2D interpretation was made with acquired data and its results were compared with those of resistivity survey. Resulting resistivity image sections of CR and resistivity method were very similar. Anomalies in phase image section showed good agreement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432453"><span>A parallel algorithm for solving the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Schroedinger equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strickland, Michael; Yager-Elorriaga, David</p> <p>2010-08-20</p> <p>We describe a parallel algorithm for solving the time-independent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Schroedinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We introduce an optimized parallelization scheme that reduces communication overhead between computational nodes. We demonstrate that the compute time, t, scales <span class="hlt">inversely</span> with the number of computational nodes as t {proportional_to} (N{sub nodes}){sup -0.95} {sup {+-} 0.04}. This makes it possible to solve the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Schroedinger equation on extremely large spatial lattices using a small computing cluster. In addition, we present a new method for precisely determining the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of quantum states based on a symmetry constraint on the FDTD initial condition. Finally, we discuss the usage of multi-resolution techniques in order to speed up convergence on extremely large lattices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117i8005H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117i8005H"><span>Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Granular Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Andrade, J. E.; Wright, J.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising <span class="hlt">inverse</span> relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847"><span>FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - A Companion to Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koenig, Patti</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer program, written in the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to use Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for constructing three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)-appearing graphics. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects or load representations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207828"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9828E..06H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9828E..06H"><span>An aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper provides an overview of an aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology. A series of aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287543','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287543"><span>West Flank Coso FORGE Magnetotelluric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version of the MT data for the West Flank FORGE area.The Coso geothermal field has had three Magnetotelluric (MT) datasets collected including surveys in 2003, 2006, and 2011. The final collection, in 2011, expanded the survey to the west and covers the West Flank of FORGE area.This most recent data set was collected by Schlumberger/WesternGeco and inverted by the WesternGeco GeoSolutions Integrated EM Center of Excellence in Milan, Italy; the 2003 and 2006 data were integrated for these <span class="hlt">inversions</span> in the present study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MAR.S1082R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MAR.S1082R"><span>Probability Density Function at the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Anderson Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Alberto; Vasquez, Louella J.; Roemer, Rudolf</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The probability density function (PDF) for the wavefunction amplitudes is studied at the metal-insulator transition of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Anderson model, for very large systems up to L^3=240^3. The implications of the multifractal nature of the state upon the PDF are presented in detail. A formal expression between the PDF and the singularity spectrum f(α) is given. The PDF can be easily used to carry out a numerical multifractal analysis and it appears as a valid alternative to the more usual approach based on the scaling law of the general <span class="hlt">inverse</span> participation rations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6589112','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6589112"><span>Forward <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world's most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is <span class="hlt">inversely</span> modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the <span class="hlt">inverse</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/427021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/427021"><span>Forward <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world`s most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is <span class="hlt">inversely</span> modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the <span class="hlt">inverse</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8979E..0OZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8979E..0OZ"><span>Integration of real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image acquisition and multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Seamless integration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display systems offers enhanced experience in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects displayed on a glasses-free <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system. A prototype of the integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system is built to demonstrate the real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display capability of our proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&id=EJ1082225','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&id=EJ1082225"><span>Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geovisualization in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate how immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geostatistical Mapping Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun</p> <p>1999-02-09</p> <p>This software provides accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir modeling tools and high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1111854','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printer&id=EJ1111854"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing. What's the Harm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Health concerns from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004"><span>Topology dictionary for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach that achieves <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video consists of a stream of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> videos. We showcase an application for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663815"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic control for mobile devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dna&pg=5&id=ED567764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dna&pg=5&id=ED567764"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Molecular Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymers&pg=6&id=EJ1082413','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymers&pg=6&id=EJ1082413"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484244','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484244"><span>Infrastructure for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging Test Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-05-11</p> <p>analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshing. Fig. 5: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning result In</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=5&id=EJ915469','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=5&id=EJ915469"><span>Wow! <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Content Awakens the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, Dan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>From her first encounter with stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=2&id=EJ982397','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=2&id=EJ982397"><span>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vision in Teaching Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zabunov, Svetoslav</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf"><span>Pathways for Learning from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to find out if <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ968847','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=4&id=EJ968847"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, or Not to Be?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norbury, Keith</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079"><span>Static & Dynamic Response of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Jerry</p> <p>1996-07-15</p> <p>NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a large deformations <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExG....46..112F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExG....46..112F"><span>Rapid approximate <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of airborne TEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inversion</span> of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in such cases, belying the need for `exact' <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> AEM <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when <span class="hlt">inversion</span> is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' <span class="hlt">inversion</span> if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D <span class="hlt">inversion</span> at each ATEM data location above a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> performs <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inversion</span> on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM <span class="hlt">inverse</span> problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D <span class="hlt">inversions</span> combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429"><span>BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666"><span>Fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Silicon Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.</p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors is also briefly reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6135..142D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6135..142D"><span>2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> switchable displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays is the ability to switch between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34d5007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34d5007H"><span>6D Interpretation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We show that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity exists. More generally, we interpret <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790"><span>Biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria</p> <p>2016-01-20</p> <p>The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347593','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347593"><span>Quon <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language for quantum information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......129N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......129N"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Development of SIUE Campus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nellutla, Shravya</p> <p></p> <p>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer graphics software for designing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5221698','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5221698"><span>Pathways for Learning from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to find out if <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation were on emotions and immersion, with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ"><span>The psychology of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>With <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> production. In our second study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002552&hterms=matrix+code&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmatrix%2Bcode','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002552&hterms=matrix+code&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmatrix%2Bcode"><span>MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/EM-ANIMATE - MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WITH ANIMATION CODE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shaeffer, J. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Model of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic model consists of 10 <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and <span class="hlt">stratigraphically</span> highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting of tissues and organs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> functional living tissues. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for the Radiologist.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing as it relates to their field, including types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies and materials used to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671424"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for the Radiologist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing as it relates to their field, including types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies and materials used to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557154"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging in forensic odontology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter</p> <p>2010-06-16</p> <p>This paper describes the investigation of a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methods. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methods of image capture were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPJP8121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPJP8121G"><span>NUBEAM developments and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> halo modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Recent developments related to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo simulation design will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316"><span>Optically rewritable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liquid crystal displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image can be refreshed, on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bi-stable display, security elements, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17257334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17257334"><span><span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> control of flow and transport characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edington, Dwaine; Poeter, Eileen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ground water flow and travel time are dependent on <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> architecture, which is governed by competing processes that control the spatial and temporal distribution of accommodation and sediment supply. Accommodation is the amount of space in which sediment may accumulate as defined by the difference between the energy gradient and the topographic surface. The temporal and spatial distribution of accommodation is affected by processes that change the distribution of energy (e.g., sea level or subsidence). Fluvial <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units, generated by FLUVSIM (a <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> simulator based on accommodation and sediment supply), with varying magnitudes and causes of accommodation, were incorporated into a hydraulic regime using MODFLOW (a ground water flow simulator), and particles were tracked using MODPATH (a particle-tracking algorithm). These experiments illustrate that the dominant type of accommodation process influences the degree of continuity of <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> units and thus affects ground water flow and transport. When the hydraulic gradient is parallel to the axis of the fluvial system in the depositional environment, shorter travel times occur in low-total accommodation environments and longer travel times in high-total accommodation environments. Given the same total accommodation, travel times are longer when sea-level change is the dominant process than those in systems dominated by subsidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packaging for integrated circuit systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system designs: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923614K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923614K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, Brian R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present the refinement of a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891"><span>A high capacity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316"><span>How We <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Print Aerogel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-23</p> <p>A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002585','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002585"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736"><span>An Improved Version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krasnykh, Anatoly</p> <p>2003-07-29</p> <p>An improved version of the TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft11009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft11009N"><span>RHOCUBE: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions modeling code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>RHOCUBE models <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630"><span>Explicit <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Hydrodynamic FEM Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-07</p> <p>DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA511473','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA511473"><span>"Phase-Enhanced" <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Snapshot ISAR Imaging and Interferometric SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-12-28</p> <p>ESC-TR-2007-067 Technical Report 1135 <« Phase-Enhanced" <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Snapshot ISAR Imaging and Interferometric SAR J.T. Mayhan 28 December 2009 Lincoln...document when it is no longer needed. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory ttPhase-Lnhanced,, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Snapshot ISAR Imaging and...<span class="hlt">inverse</span> synthetie aperture radar ( ISAR ) images based on recent developments in high resolution spectral estimation theory. Because this technique requires</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587944','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587944"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-HIM: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> -HIM: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002552&hterms=radian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002552&hterms=radian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradian"><span>MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/EM-ANIMATE - MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WITH ANIMATION CODE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shaeffer, J. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix <span class="hlt">inversion</span>. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&pg=7&id=EJ1113956','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&pg=7&id=EJ1113956"><span>Do-It-Yourself: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology is widely…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609658"><span>Optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing in forensic medicine: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> documentation of skin and bone injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard</p> <p>2003-11-26</p> <p>Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080"><span>XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Xflow: combining declarative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the Web with generic data flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have combined XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which provides declarative, interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAG...106...23Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAG...106...23Z"><span>Theoretical assessment of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> magnetotelluric method for oil and gas exploration: Synthetic examples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Kun; Wei, Wenbo; Lu, Qingtian; Dong, Hao; Li, Yanqing</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In petroleum explorations, seismic reflection technique has been almost always the preferred method for its high exploration depth and resolution. However, with the development of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">inversion</span> and interpretation schemes, much potential has been shown in MT method dealing with complex geological structures as in oil and gas exploration. In this study, synthetic geophysical models of petroleum reservoir structures are modeled and utilized to demonstrate that feasibility of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> MT technique for hydrocarbon exploration. A series of typical reservoir structure models are constructed and used to generate synthetic MT and seismic data to test the capabilities of 2-D/<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> MT and 2-D seismic <span class="hlt">inversion</span> techniques. According to the <span class="hlt">inversion</span> comparison, in addition to correctly retrieve the original forward model, the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> MT method also has some advantages over the reflective seismology method, which suffered from the lack of reflection wave and multiple wave problems. With the presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> high resolution MT <span class="hlt">inversion</span> method, MT techniques should be employed as one of the first choices for petroleum explorations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6964338','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6964338"><span>Architecture of delta plain deposits in a sequence <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> framework: The upper carboniferous of eastern Kentucky</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buter, S.J. )</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Fluvio-deltaic sequences of the Upper Carboniferous Four Corners formation in the Appalachian basin of eastern Kentucky are reinterpreted using sequence <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> techniques. A data set of correlated large-scale road-cut exposures and continuous coring records was processed and used in a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) reservoir modeling program in order to obtain a detailed model of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> architecture of the <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> succession. The architecture of the sediment bodies is related to the position within the depositional system. The 140-m-thick Four Corners formation comprises three facies associations, which are cyclically organized. The boundaries between the cycles are formed by erosive surfaces, and are developed as lowstand incised valleys. A subsequent base-level rise resulted in the infilling of these valleys with amalgamated stacked channel deposits (early transgressive systems tract). Flood plain aggradation and extensive peat accumulation occurred during progressive rise (transgressive systems tracts). Marine flooding took place in the upper part of the sequence (late transgressive systems tract) and was followed by prograding mouthbar deposits during base-level stabilization (highstand). The sequence <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> approach to these Upper Carboniferous cyclothems highlights the importance of relative sea level changes and may improve our understanding of sediment body geometries and architecture, resulting in more accurate predictive geological reservoir models of the subsurface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663125','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663125"><span>Quantifying modes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036197"><span>Modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc"><span>Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKpMcQ0q_fU','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKpMcQ0q_fU"><span>Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg"><span>Future Engineers <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Print Timelapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjAfIs9fnR8','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjAfIs9fnR8"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Animation of Typhoon Bopha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001145"><span>DNA biosensing with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin</p> <p>2017-01-16</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025653"><span>Designing Biomaterials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim</p> <p>2016-10-10</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26869728"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for Tissue Engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing facilitated tissue fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHKpt0oBwqI','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHKpt0oBwqI"><span>TRMM <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Flyby of Ingrid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943"><span>Quantifying Modes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for Tissue Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677"><span>Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145962"><span>Nonlaser-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.</p> <p>1994-11-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging refers to methods that generate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rfwUobblPg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rfwUobblPg"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulated flyby. Cred...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>While <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMSP43C..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMSP43C..02C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Numerical Simulations of the Breakout Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choe, G. S.; Cheng, C. Z.; Lee, J.; Lynch, B. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>We present the continuing progress of the numerical simulations of the breakout model for coronal mass ejection initiation. To validate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical ARMS code we have run the 2.5D breakout problem and compare the eruption to the published 2D results. The ARMS 2.5D CME also forms a large magnetic island ahead of the erupting plasmoid due to the code's excellent maintenance of equatorial symmetry. Progress on the fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> breakout problem is also discussed. To build up enough magnetic free energy for an eruption the active region field must be strong with a steep gradient near the polarity <span class="hlt">inversion</span> line and the shear must be highly concentrated there. This requires adaptive griding techniques. In the current simulation, the active region to background field ratio is 20-to-1 and the neutral line is long compared to the active region width. We present the evolution of this topology under Br-conserving shearing flow and discuss implications for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> eruption. This work is supported by NASA and ONR. BJL is supported by NASA GSRP grant NGT5-50453.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptLE..49..376D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptLE..49..376D"><span>A flexible fast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> profilometry based on modulation measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dou, Yunfu; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Yanfei; Wang, Ying</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a flexible fast profilometry based on modulation measurement. Two orthogonal gratings through a beam splitter are vertically projected on an object surface, and the measured object is placed between the imaging planes of the two gratings. Then the image of the object surface modulated by the orthogonal gratings can be obtained by a CCD camera in the same direction as the grating projection. This image is processed by the operations consisting of performing the Fourier transform, spatial frequency filtering and <span class="hlt">inverse</span> Fourier transform. Using the modulation distributions of two grating patterns, we can reconstruct the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of the object. In the measurement process, we only need to capture one fringe pattern, so it is faster than the MMP and remains the advantages of it. In the article, the principle of this method, the setup of the measurement system, some simulations and primary experiment results are given. The simulative and experimental result proves it can restore the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of the complex object fast and comparatively accurate. Because only one fringe pattern is needed in the testing, our method has a promising extensive application prospect in real-time acquiring and dynamic measurement of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data of complex objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........39Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT........39Y"><span>Digital acquisition system for high-speed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yafuso, Eiji</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>High-speed digital three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) imagery is possible using multiple independent charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with sequentially triggered acquisition and individual field storage capability. The system described here utilizes sixteen independent cameras, providing versatility in configuration and image acquisition. By aligning the cameras in nearly coincident lines-of-sight, a sixteen frame two-dimensional (2-D) sequence can be captured. The delays can be individually adjusted lo yield a greater number of acquired frames during the more rapid segments of the event. Additionally, individual integration periods may be adjusted to ensure adequate radiometric response while minimizing image blur. An alternative alignment and triggering scheme arranges the cameras into two angularly separated banks of eight cameras each. By simultaneously triggering correlated stereo pairs, an eight-frame sequence of stereo images may be captured. In the first alignment scheme the camera lines-of-sight cannot be made precisely coincident. Thus representation of the data as a monocular sequence introduces the issue of independent camera coordinate registration with the real scene. This issue arises more significantly using the stereo pair method to reconstruct quantitative <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> spatial information of the event as a function of time. The principal development here will be the derivation and evaluation of a solution transform and its <span class="hlt">inverse</span> for the digital data which will yield a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> spatial mapping as a function of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S42A..02E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S42A..02E"><span>Northern California Seismic Attenuation: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q <span class="hlt">inversions</span>, using existing hypocenters and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9803E..0VL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9803E..0VL"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The <span class="hlt">inversion</span> problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature field reconstruction mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28343411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28343411"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation software and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro</p> <p>2017-03-27</p> <p>To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hepatectomy simulation by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA553040','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA553040"><span>Microfabricating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structures by Laser Origami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-09</p> <p>technique generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20530817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20530817"><span>Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...136..353A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...136..353A"><span>Seismic random noise attenuation via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> block matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amani, Sajjad; Gholami, Ali; Javaheri Niestanak, Alireza</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The lack of signal to noise ratio increases the final errors of seismic interpretation. In the present study, we apply a new non-local transform domain method called "3 Dimensional Block Matching (3DBM)" for seismic random noise attenuation. Basically, 3DBM uses the similarities through the data for retrieving the amplitude of signal in a specific point in the f-x domain, and because of this, it is able to preserve discontinuities in the data such as fractures and faults. 3DBM considers each seismic profile as an image and thus it can be applied to both pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. It uses the block matching clustering method to gather similar blocks contained in 2D data into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> groups in order to enhance the level of correlation in each <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> array. By applying a 2D transform and 1D transform (instead of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transform) on each array, we can effectively attenuate the noise by shrinkage of the transform coefficients. The subsequent <span class="hlt">inverse</span> 2D transform and <span class="hlt">inverse</span> 1D transform yield estimates of all matched blocks. Finally, the random noise attenuated data is computed using the weighted average of all block estimates. We applied 3DBM on both synthetic and real pre-stack and post-stack seismic data and compared it with a Curvelet transform based denoising method which is one of the most powerful methods in this area. The results show that 3DBM method eventuates in higher signal to noise ratio, lower execution time and higher visual quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S23C0183H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S23C0183H"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Attenuation Structure around the SAFOD site, Parkfield, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Roecker, S.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We are developing models of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> attenuation structure, both Qp and Qs, for a region about 15 km square centered on SAFOD. We are analyzing local earthquake data collected in 2001 and 2002 from the UW/RPI PASO array, the UC-Berkeley HRSN, and USGS seismic network stations around Parkfield. We determine the P- or S-wave t* values for an individual local earthquake for each of the observing stations by fitting observed spectra using a joint <span class="hlt">inversion</span> for a common corner frequency, low-frequency amplitude, and t*. Within our initial data set, we examine 575 events recorded at up to 111 stations and obtain over 19000 P- wave t* values. We use these t* values in simul2000 and tomoDD to perform the <span class="hlt">inversion</span> to obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, frequency-independent Qp model of the attenuation structure, using an existing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vp model and associated event locations. We will use this same procedure to obtain the Qs structure. In our preliminary Qp structure results, we observe a high Qp feature (about 250) at 0-8 km depth on the southwest side of the fault. We associate this feature with the high density, high velocity Salinian basement rocks. We also see a moderate Qp feature (about 150) in the fault zone that encompasses the hypocenters of our events. On the northeast side of the fault, we observe Qp values generally increasing with depth, from 125 at the surface to 200 at 8 km. We will present our final Qp and Qs models, identify major features within the two, and discuss how these features relate to the findings of other geophysical studies in the area (seismic velocity, electrical resistivity, anisotropy). We will discuss how these features relate to the nature of the crust in that area, including the local geology, presence of fluids, fracturing, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..09Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..09Z"><span>Auto convergence for stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Viewing comfort is an important concern for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> capable consumer electronics such as <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> camera. It significantly improves <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> viewing comfort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B6..267M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B6..267M"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170569"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian</p> <p>2014-10-28</p> <p>Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> traction force microscopy (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TFM) framework. Utilizing this new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viscoelastic TFM (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2892..120Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2892..120Y"><span>Focus-distance-controlled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>There is a phenomenon that a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV. We can watch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV without eyeglasses. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3012..256Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3012..256Y"><span>Focus-distance-controlled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>There is a phenomenon that a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV. We can watch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV without eyeglasses. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9272E..09K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9272E..09K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerwien, N.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10142E..1FG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10142E..1FG"><span>Fabrication of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photonic structures using laser lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaso, P.; Jandura, D.; Pudis, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we demonstrate possibilities of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing technology based on two photon polymerization. We used three-dimensional dip-in direct-laser-writing (DLW) optical lithography to fabricate 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical structures for optoelectronics and for optical sensing applications. DLW lithography allows us use a non conventional way how to couple light into the waveguide structure. We prepared ring resonator and we investigated its transmission spectral characteristic. We present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">inverse</span> opal structure from its design to printing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Finally, SEM images of some prepared photonic crystal structures were performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981148','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4981148"><span>The NIH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Prints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models suitable for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, the NIH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003235','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130003235"><span>CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>, and NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA572339','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA572339"><span>2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Sequences at the Adriatic and Rhone Continental Margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-09-30</p> <p>tectonics, and their influences on sequence architecture. John Swenson, with assistance from Chris Paola, Juan Fedele, myself and others have jointly...and Chris Paola of the University of Minnesota. This provides an improved estimation of the sand/mud ration and thus the mean grain size for non...Karson, E. Mullenbach, J. Swenson, C. Nittrouer, B. Murray, G. Spinelli , C. Fulthorpe, D. O’Grady, G. Parker, N. Driscoll, R. Burger, C. Paola, D</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630101','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630101"><span>2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modeling of the <span class="hlt">Stratigraphic</span> Sequences at the Adriatic and Rhone Continental Margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-09-30</p> <p>tectonics, and their influences on sequence architecture. John Swenson, with assistance from Chris Paola, Juan Fedele, I and others are jointly...fluvial dynamics, which includes channel belt and overbank deposition, has been developed by Juan Fedele and Chris Paola of the University of Minnesota...Nittrouer, B. Murray, G. Spinelli , C. Fulthorpe, D. O’Grady, G. Parker, N. Driscoll, R. Burger, C. Paola, D. Orange, M. Wolinsky, M. Field, C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1163670','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1163670"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D</p> <p>2014-11-11</p> <p>Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed <span class="hlt">Inverse</span> Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the <span class="hlt">inverse</span> problem of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> convolution by executing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> susceptibility volume from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phase volume by performing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6964563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6964563"><span>The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> marine systems as an exploration tool in the offshore Niger Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Idowu, A.O. )</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>From inception in 1984, three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) marine surveys have been used widely for field development where commercial hydrocarbons were known to exist in Nigeria. The high-trace density and full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> migration provide a data set that allows detailed interpretation of complex geologic structures and, in many cases, provides good <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> information as well. The result has been better placement of development wells, making field development more efficient and cost effective. Previous application of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> method (i.e., reconaissance <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) as an exploration tool in 1987 has demonstrated its effectiveness for predrilling detailing of prospects in offshore Niger Delta in a situation where a large volume of seismic data were acquired at relatively reduced unit costs. The technique involves acquiring data along a line every 200 m spacing, while interpretation in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data processing is applied for subsequent <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> migration. Based on pattern recognition of events on the input traces, the links are established to allow traces to be formed between input locations by comparing several attributes of events on neighboring traces. A case history example from the offshore Niger delta shows that the collection costs for the reconnaissance <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> method are comparable to two-dimensional detailing based on similar line kilometer and time duration for the survey. A trade-off between cost and technical specifications can be programmed by focusing on the geologic objective. The technique brings the advantage of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> methods, but not their costs, to the exploration phase of the search for petroleum, and it is highly recommended for exploration in frontier areas, particularly the deep offshore of the Niger Delta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........51R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........51R"><span>Self assembled structures for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, Madhav</p> <p></p> <p>Three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019590','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100019590"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Tool for Tecplot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alter, Stephen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26a5003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26a5003S"><span>A microfluidic device for 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/800800','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/800800"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Seismic Exploration Project, Ute Indian Tribe, Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Uintah County, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eckels, Marc T.</p> <p>2002-09-09</p> <p>The objectives of this North Hill Creek <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic survey were to: (1) cover as large an area as possible with available budget; (2) obtain high quality data throughout the depth range of the prospective geologic formations of 2,000' to 12,000' to image both gross structures and more subtle structural and <span class="hlt">stratigraphic</span> elements; (3) overcome the challenges posed by a hard, reflective sandstone that cropped out or was buried just a few feet below the surface under most of the survey area; and (4) run a safe survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005261','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005261"><span>ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hyperspectral Image Compression Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Software has been developed to implement the ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> algorithm. ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects progressive, three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5005..126T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5005..126T"><span>Full-color holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>A holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image produced by the holographic color <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26724184"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bioprinting is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an