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Sample records for 3-d turbulent particle

  1. Holographic particle velocimetry - A 3D measurement technique for vortex interactions, coherent structures and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui; Hussain, Fazle

    1991-10-01

    To understand the topology and dynamics of coherent structures (CS), the interactions of CS with fine-scale turbulence, and the effects of CS on entrainment, mixing and combustion, experimental tools are needed that can measure velocity (preferably vorticity) vector fields in both 3D space and time. While traditional measurement techniques are not able to serve this purpose, holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) appears to be promising. In a demonstration experiment, the instantaneous 3D velocity vector fields in some simple vortical flows have been obtained using the HPV technique. In this preliminary report, the principles of the HPV technique are illustrated and the key issues in its implementation are discussed.

  2. 3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 2, 15 July--15 October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4. Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

  3. 3D Wind Reconstruction and Turbulence Estimation in the Boundary Layer from Doppler Lidar Measurements using Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottner, L.; Baehr, C.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulent phenomena in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are characterized by small spatial and temporal scales which make them difficult to observe and to model.New remote sensing instruments, like Doppler Lidar, give access to fine and high-frequency observations of wind in the ABL. This study suggests to use a method of nonlinear estimation based on these observations to reconstruct 3D wind in a hemispheric volume, and to estimate atmospheric turbulent parameters. The wind observations are associated to particle systems which are driven by a local turbulence model. The particles have both fluid and stochastic properties. Therefore, spatial averages and covariances may be deduced from the particles. Among the innovative aspects, we point out the absence of the common hypothesis of stationary-ergodic turbulence and the non-use of particle model closure hypothesis. Every time observations are available, 3D wind is reconstructed and turbulent parameters such as turbulent kinectic energy, dissipation rate, and Turbulent Intensity (TI) are provided. This study presents some results obtained using real wind measurements provided by a five lines of sight Lidar. Compared with classical methods (e.g. eddy covariance) our technic renders equivalent long time results. Moreover it provides finer and real time turbulence estimations. To assess this new method, we suggest computing independently TI using different observation types. First anemometer data are used to have TI reference.Then raw and filtered Lidar observations have also been compared. The TI obtained from raw data is significantly higher than the reference one, whereas the TI estimated with the new algorithm has the same order.In this study we have presented a new class of algorithm to reconstruct local random media. It offers a new way to understand turbulence in the ABL, in both stable or convective conditions. Later, it could be used to refine turbulence parametrization in meteorological meso-scale models.

  4. Breakup of Finite-Size Colloidal Aggregates in Turbulent Flow Investigated by Three-Dimensional (3D) Particle Tracking Velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2016-01-12

    Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude.

  5. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  6. Apker Prize Lecture: Using 3D Printing and Stereoscopic Imaging to Measure the Alignment and Rotation of Anisotropic Particles in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Guy; Parsa, Shima; Kramel, Stefan; Ni, Rui; Voth, Greg

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a general methodology to experimentally measure the time-resolved Lagrangian orientation and solid body rotation rate of anisotropic particles with arbitrary aspect ratio from standard stereoscopic video image data. We apply these techniques to particles advected in a Rλ ~ 110 fluid flow, where turbulence is generated by two grids oscillating in phase. We use 3D printing technology to design and fabricate neutrally buoyant rods, crosses (two perpendicular rods), and jacks (three mutually perpendicular rods) with a largest dimension of 7 times the Kolmogorov length scale, which makes them good approximations to tracer particles. We have measured the mean square rotation rate, ṗiṗi , of particles spanning the full range of aspect ratios and obtained results that agree with direct numerical simulations. By measuring the full solid-body rotation of jacks, we provide a new, extensible way to directly probe the Lagrangian vorticity of a fluid. We also present direct measurements of the alignment of crosses with the direction of their solid body rotation rate vector--in agreement with direct numerical simulations. Supported by NSF grant DMR­1208990.

  7. FFT integration of instantaneous 3D pressure gradient fields measured by Lagrangian particle tracking in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; Schanz, D.; Gesemann, S.; Schröder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Pressure gradient fields in unsteady flows can be estimated through flow measurements of the material acceleration in the fluid and the assumption of the governing momentum equation. In order to derive pressure from its gradient, almost exclusively two numerical methods have been used to spatially integrate the pressure gradient until now: first, direct path integration in the spatial domain, and second, the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. Instead, we propose an alternative third method that integrates the pressure gradient field in Fourier space. Using a FFT function, the method is fast and easy to implement in programming languages for scientific computing. We demonstrate the accuracy of the integration scheme on a synthetic pressure field and apply it to an experimental example based on time-resolved material acceleration data from high-resolution Lagrangian particle tracking with the Shake-The-Box method.

  8. Ensemble 3D PTV for high resolution turbulent statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Nereida; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Astarita, Tommaso; Discetti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    A method to extract turbulent statistics from three-dimensional (3D) PIV measurements via ensemble averaging is presented. The proposed technique is a 3D extension of the ensemble particle tracking velocimetry methods, which consist in summing distributions of velocity vectors calculated on low image density samples and then extract the statistical moments from the velocity vectors within sub-volumes, with the size of the sub-volume depending on the desired number of particles and on the available number of snapshots. The extension to 3D measurements poses the additional difficulty of sparse velocity vectors distributions, thus requiring a large number of snapshots to achieve high resolution measurements with a sufficient degree of accuracy. At the current state, this hinders the achievement of single-voxel measurements, unless millions of samples are available. Consequently, one has to give up spatial resolution and live with still relatively large (if compared to the voxel) sub-volumes. This leads to the further problem of the possible occurrence of a residual mean velocity gradient within the sub-volumes, which significantly contaminates the computation of second order moments. In this work, we propose a method to reduce the residual gradient effect, allowing to reach high resolution even with relatively large interrogation spots, therefore still retrieving a large number of particles on which it is possible to calculate turbulent statistics. The method consists in applying a polynomial fit to the velocity distributions within each sub-volume trying to mimic the residual mean velocity gradient.

  9. Simultaneous 3D measurement of the translation and rotation of finite-size particles and the flow field in a fully developed turbulent water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Simon; Gibert, Mathieu; Bérut, Antoine; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2013-02-01

    We report a novel experimental technique that measures simultaneously in three dimensions the trajectories, the translation and the rotation of finite-size inertial particles together with the turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed by tracking the temporal evolution of small fluorescent tracer particles. The inertial particles consist of a super-absorbent polymer that renders them index and density matched with water and thus invisible. The particles are marked by inserting at various locations tracer particles into the polymer. Translation and rotation, as well as the flow field around the particle are recovered dynamically from the analysis of the marker and tracer particle trajectories. We apply this technique to study the dynamics of inertial particles much larger in size (Rp/η ≈ 100) than the Kolmogorov length scale η in a von Kármán swirling water flow (Rλ ≈ 400). We show, using the mixed (particle/fluid) Eulerian second-order velocity structure function, that the interaction zone between the particle and the flow develops in a spherical shell of width 2Rp around the particle of radius Rp. This we interpret as an indication of a wake induced by the particle. This measurement technique has many additional advantages that will make it useful to address other problems such as particle collisions, dynamics of non-spherical solid objects, or even of wet granular matter.

  10. Simultaneous 3D measurement of the translation and rotation of finite size particles and the flow field in a fully developed turbulent water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Mathieu; Klein, Simon; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    We report a novel experimental technique that measures simultaneously in three dimensions the trajectories, the translation, and the rotation of finite size inertial particles together with the turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed by tracking the temporal evolution of small fluorescent tracer particles. The inertial particles consist of a super-absorbent polymer that renders them index and density matched with water and thus invisible. The particles are marked by inserting at various locations tracer particles into the polymer. Translation and rotation, as well as the flow field around the particle are recovered dynamically from the analysis of the marker and tracer particle trajectories. We apply this technique to study the dynamics of inertial particles much larger in size (Rp / η ~ 100) than the Kolmogorov length scale η in a von Kármán swirling water flow (Rλ ~ 400). We show, using the mixed (particle/fluid) Eulerian second order velocity structure function, that the interaction zone between the particle and the flow develops in a spherical shell of width 2Rp around the particle of radius Rp. This we interpret as an indication of a wake induced by the particle. (http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.2181) This work was funded generously by the Max Planck Society and the Marie Curie Fellowship, Program PEOPLE - Call FP7-PEOPLE-IEF-2008 Proposal No 237521. Support from COST Action MP0806 is kindly acknowledged.

  11. First 3-D simulations of meteor plasma dynamics and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.

    2015-02-01

    Millions of small but detectable meteors hit the Earth's atmosphere every second, creating trails of hot plasma that turbulently diffuse into the background atmosphere. For over 60 years, radars have detected meteor plasmas and used these signals to infer characteristics of the meteoroid population and upper atmosphere, but, despite the importance of meteor radar measurements, the complex processes by which these plasmas evolve have never been thoroughly explained or modeled. In this paper, we present the first fully 3-D simulations of meteor evolution, showing meteor plasmas developing instabilities, becoming turbulent, and inhomogeneously diffusing into the background ionosphere. These instabilities explain the characteristics and strength of many radar observations, in particular the high-resolution nonspecular echoes made by large radars. The simulations reveal how meteors create strong electric fields that dig out deep plasma channels along the Earth's magnetic fields. They also allow researchers to explore the impacts of the intense winds and wind shears, commonly found at these altitudes, on meteor plasma evolution. This study will allow the development of more sophisticated models of meteor radar signals, enabling the extraction of detailed information about the properties of meteoroid particles and the atmosphere.

  12. (abstract) 3D Electromagnetic Plasma Particle Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Liewer, P. C.; Lyster, P.; Decyk, V. K.

    1993-01-01

    A 3D electromagnetic plasma particle-in-cell code has been developed using the General Concurrent PIC algorithm. The GCPIC algorithm uses a domain decomposition to divide the computation among the processors. Particles must be exchanged between processors as they move. The efficiencies for 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional partitions of the three dimensional domain are compared, and the algorithm is found to be very efficient even when a large fraction (e.g., 30%) of the particles must be exchanged at every time step. This PIC code has been used to perform simulations of a variety of space plasma physics problems. Results of three applications will be discussed: 1) plasma disturbances induced by moving conducting bodies in a magnetized plasma; 2) plasma plume interactions; and 3) solar wind termination shock.

  13. 3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has shown that 3D critical layers drive self-sustaining behavior of exact coherent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations (Wang et al. 2007; Hall and Sherwin 2010; Park and Graham 2015). This study investigates the role of 3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows. 3D critical layer effects are identified in instantaneous snapshots of turbulent boundary layers in both experimental and DNS data (Wu et al. 2014). Additionally, a 3D critical layer effect is demonstrated to appear using only a few resolvent response modes from the resolvent analysis of McKeon and Sharma 2010, with phase relationships appropriately chosen. Connections are sought to the thin shear layers observed in turbulent boundary layers (Klewicki and Hirschi 2004; Eisma et al. 2015) and to amplitude modulation observations (Mathis et al. 2009; Duvvuri and McKeon 2014). This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060. The support of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) summer program at Stanford is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. 3D View of Mars Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a 3D representation of the pits seen in the first Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, images sent back from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Red represents the highest point and purple represents the lowest point.

    The particle in the upper left corner shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a rounded particle about one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across. It is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Jeffrey W.

    1989-01-01

    Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.

  16. ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.

  17. Anisotropic Particles in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg A.; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic particles are common in many industrial and natural turbulent flows. When these particles are small and neutrally buoyant, they follow Lagrangian trajectories while exhibiting rich orientational dynamics from the coupling of their rotation to the velocity gradients of the turbulence field. This system has proven to be a fascinating application of the fundamental properties of velocity gradients in turbulence. When particles are not neutrally buoyant, they experience preferential concentration and very different preferential alignment than neutrally buoyant tracer particles. A vast proportion of the parameter range of anisotropic particles in turbulence is still unexplored, with most existing research focusing on the simple foundational cases of axisymmetric ellipsoids at low concentrations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and in turbulent channel flow. Numerical simulations and experiments have recently developed a fairly comprehensive picture of alignment and rotation in these cases, and they provide an essential foundation for addressing more complex problems of practical importance. Macroscopic effects of nonspherical particle dynamics include preferential concentration in coherent structures and drag reduction by fiber suspensions. We review the models used to describe nonspherical particle motion, along with numerical and experimental methods for measuring particle dynamics.

  18. Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis

    2015-10-01

    Sonic boom is one of the key issues to be considered in the development of future supersonic or hypersonic civil aircraft concepts. The classical sonic boom, typical for Concorde with an N-wave shape and a ground amplitude of the order of 100 Pa, prevents overland flight. Future concepts target carefully shaped sonic booms with low amplitude weak shocks. However, sonic boom when perceived at the ground level is influenced not only by the aircraft characteristics, but also by atmospheric propagation. In particular, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom propagation near the ground is not well characterized. Flight tests performed as early as the 1960s demonstrated that classical sonic booms are sensitive to atmospheric turbulence. However, this sensitivity remains only partially understood. This is related to the fact that i) turbulence is a random process that requires a statistical approach, ii) standard methods used to predict sonic booms, mainly geometrical acoustics based on ray tracing, are inadequate within the turbulent planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the ray theory fails to predict the acoustical field in many areas of interest, such as caustics or shadow zones. These zones are of major interest for sonic boom acceptability (highest levels, lateral extent of zone of impact). These limitations outline the need for a numerical approach that is sufficiently efficient to perform a large number of realizations for a statistical approach, but that goes beyond the limitations of ray theory. With this in view, a 3D one-way numerical method solving a nonlinear scalar wave equation established for heterogeneous, moving and absorbing atmosphere, is used to assess the effects of a 3D kinematic turbulence on sonic boom in various configurations. First, a plane N-wave is propagated in the free field through random realizations of kinematic fluctuations. Then the case of a more realistic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is investigated, with a mean

  19. Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7  ×  50.0  ×  14.4 mm3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of  <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and

  20. Impulsive reconnection: 3D onset and stagnation in turbulent paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason A; Intrator, Thomas P; Weber, Tom; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lazarian, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Reconnection processes are ubiquitous in solar coronal loops, the earth's magnetotail, galactic jets, and laboratory configurations such as spheromaks and Z pinches. It is believed that reconnection dynamics are often closely linked to turbulence. In these phenomena, the bursty onset of reconnection is partly determined by a balance of macroscopic MHD forces. In a turbulent paradigm, it is reasonable to suppose that there exist many individual reconnection sites, each X-line being finite in axial extent and thus intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The balance between MHD forces and flux pile-up continuously shifts as mutually tangled flux ropes merge or bounce. The spatial scale and thus the rate of reconnection are therefore intimately related to the turbulence statistics both in space and in time. We study intermittent 3D reconnection along spatially localized X-lines between two or more flux ropes. The threshold of MHD instability which in this case is the kink threshold is varied by modifying the line-tying boundary conditions. For fast inflow speed of approaching ropes, there is merging and magnetic reconnection which is a well known and expected consequence of the 2D coalescence instability. On the other hand, for slower inflow speed the flux ropes bounce. The threshold appears to be the Sweet Parker speed v{sub A}/S{sup 1/2}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed and S is the Lundquist number. Computations by collaborators at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and LANL complement the experiment.

  1. CVS Decomposition of 3D Homogeneous Turbulence Using Orthogonal Wavelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai; Pellegrino, Giulio; Wray, A. A.; Rogallo, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the filtering used in Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) decomposition with an orthogonal wavelet basis, with the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) or Fourier filtering. Both methods are applied to a field of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data of 3D forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence at microscale Reynolds number R(sub lambda) = 168. We show that, with only 3%N retained modes, CVS filtering separates the coherent vortex tubes from the incoherent background flow. The latter is structureless, has an equipartition energy spectrum, and has a Gaussian velocity probability distribution function (PDF) and an exponential vorticity PDF. On the other hand, the Fourier basis does not extract the coherent vortex tubes cleanly and leaves organized structures in the residual high wavenumber modes whose PDFs are stretched exponentials for both the velocity and the vorticity.

  2. 3D Wind: Quantifying wind speed and turbulence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Wang, H.; Crippa, P.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating measurements and modeling of wind characteristics for wind resource assessment and wind farm control is increasingly challenging as the scales of wind farms increases. Even offshore or in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there are significant gradients of both wind speed and turbulence intensity on scales that typify large wind farms. Our project is, therefore, focused on (i) improving methods to integrate remote sensing and in situ measurements with model simulations to produce a 3-dimensional view of the flow field on wind farm scales and (ii) investigating important controls on the spatiotemporal variability of flow fields within the coastal zone. The instrument suite deployed during the field experiments includes; 3-D sonic and cup anemometers deployed on meteorological masts and buoys, anemometers deployed on tethersondes and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, multiple vertically-pointing continuous-wave lidars and scanning Doppler lidars. We also integrate data from satellite-borne instrumentation - specifically synthetic aperture radar and scatterometers and output from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Spatial wind fields and vertical profiles of wind speed from WRF and from the full in situ observational suite exhibit excellent agreement in a proof-of-principle experiment conducted in north Indiana particularly during convective conditions, but showed some discrepancies during the breakdown of the nocturnal stable layer. Our second experiment in May 2013 focused on triangulating a volume above an area of coastal water extending from the port in Cleveland out to an offshore water intake crib (about 5 km) and back to the coast, and includes extremely high resolution WRF simulations designed to characterize the coastal zone. Vertically pointing continuous-wave lidars were operated at each apex of the triangle, while the scanning Doppler lidar scanned out across the water over 90 degrees azimuth angle. Preliminary results pertaining to

  3. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Particle-Reinforced Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H.; Lissenden, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Deformation in particle-reinforced aluminum has been simulated using three distinct types of finite element model: a three-dimensional repeating unit cell, a three-dimensional multi-particle model, and two-dimensional multi-particle models. The repeating unit cell model represents a fictitious periodic cubic array of particles. The 3D multi-particle (3D-MP) model represents randomly placed and oriented particles. The 2D generalized plane strain multi-particle models were obtained from planar sections through the 3D-MP model. These models were used to study the tensile macroscopic stress-strain response and the associated stress and strain distributions in an elastoplastic matrix. The results indicate that the 2D model having a particle area fraction equal to the particle representative volume fraction of the 3D models predicted the same macroscopic stress-strain response as the 3D models. However, there are fluctuations in the particle area fraction in a representative volume element. As expected, predictions from 2D models having different particle area fractions do not agree with predictions from 3D models. More importantly, it was found that the microscopic stress and strain distributions from the 2D models do not agree with those from the 3D-MP model. Specifically, the plastic strain distribution predicted by the 2D model is banded along lines inclined at 45 deg from the loading axis while the 3D model prediction is not. Additionally, the triaxial stress and maximum principal stress distributions predicted by 2D and 3D models do not agree. Thus, it appears necessary to use a multi-particle 3D model to accurately predict material responses that depend on local effects, such as strain-to-failure, fracture toughness, and fatigue life.

  4. Optofluidic fabrication for 3D-shaped particles

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Kevin S.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chung, Aram J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional (3D)-shaped particles could play unique roles in biotechnology, structural mechanics and self-assembly. Current methods of fabricating 3D-shaped particles such as 3D printing, injection moulding or photolithography are limited because of low-resolution, low-throughput or complicated/expensive procedures. Here, we present a novel method called optofluidic fabrication for the generation of complex 3D-shaped polymer particles based on two coupled processes: inertial flow shaping and ultraviolet (UV) light polymerization. Pillars within fluidic platforms are used to deterministically deform photosensitive precursor fluid streams. The channels are then illuminated with patterned UV light to polymerize the photosensitive fluid, creating particles with multi-scale 3D geometries. The fundamental advantages of optofluidic fabrication include high-resolution, multi-scalability, dynamic tunability, simple operation and great potential for bulk fabrication with full automation. Through different combinations of pillar configurations, flow rates and UV light patterns, an infinite set of 3D-shaped particles is available, and a variety are demonstrated. PMID:25904062

  5. Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence model.

  6. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-22

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  7. Inverse Cascades Sustained by the Transfer Rate of Angular Momentum in a 3D Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caballero, Miguel; Burguete, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In homogeneous 3D turbulence, the energy conservation produces a direct cascade from large to small scales, although in 2D, it produces an inverse cascade pointing towards small wave numbers. In this Letter, we present the first evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. Two counterrotating flows collide in a central region where very large fluctuations are produced, generating a turbulent drag that transfers the external torque between different fluid layers.

  8. Particle acceleration at 3D reconnecting magnetic separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threlfall, James; Neukirch, Thomas; Parnell, Clare; Stevenson, Julie

    2015-04-01

    We present results of test particle orbit calculations in three different environments which model separator reconnection in three dimensions. The test particle (electron and proton) orbits are calculated using the relativistic guiding centre approximation. We investigate test particle orbits in a time-dependent (analytical) electro-magnetic field configuration [detailed in Threlfall et al. (A&A, in press); arXiv:1410.6465]. These results are also compared with orbits based upon large-scale 3D MHD simulations of both a single reconnecting magnetic separator and an observationally driven 3D model of a solar active region which contains several topological features of interest, including separators. We discuss how the test-particle orbits and the energy gain depend on the initial conditions, and how observations (for example, of solar flares) may be used to constrain model parameters.

  9. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.

  10. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bergonzo, P.; Caylar, B.; Forcolin, G.; Haughton, I.; Hits, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Phan, S.; Pomorski, M.; Smith, D. S.; Tyzhnevyi, V.; Wallny, R.; Whitehead, D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel device using single-crystal chemical vapour deposited diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond detector is presented. The electrodes of the device were fabricated with laser assisted phase change of diamond into a combination of diamond-like carbon, amorphous carbon and graphite. The connections to the electrodes of the device were made using a photo-lithographic process. The electrical and particle detection properties of the device were investigated. A prototype detector system consisting of the 3D device connected to a multi-channel readout was successfully tested with 120 GeV protons proving the feasibility of the 3D diamond detector concept for particle tracking applications for the first time.

  11. 3D effects on energetic particle confinement and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the confinement and stability of energetic particle (EP) populations in 3D magnetic configurations is crucial to the future of all toroidal devices. Tokamaks will have weak symmetry-breaking effects from discrete coils, heterogeneous distributions of ferritic materials and non-symmetric (ELM/RWM) control coils, while stellarators and helical RFP states have dominant 3D features by design. Significant EP issues for 3D systems include: modifications of the plasma equilibrium and potential amplification of field errors, asymmetry enhanced EP losses and their impact both on wall heat loads and the confined EP distribution, 3D modifications to the Alfvén gap and mode structure, and the stability properties of EP-destabilized Alfvén modes. 3D equilibria that resolve localized TBM (test blanket module) asymmetries have now been developed for DIII-D and ITER. Such symmetry breaking leads to enhanced EP losses and focused wall deposition. 3D effects also modify the Alfvén spectrum by increasing the number of possibilities for mode coupling and introducing new gap structures, including the helical and mirror gaps, fine scale ripple-induced gaps and continuum crossing gaps. Improved methods have recently been developed for evaluating these modes and their stability, taking into account the large number of coupled modes and finite orbit width effects. Successful Alfvén mode identifications have been made for a range of stellarators, including W7-AS, LHD, HSX and TJ-II. A comprehensive understanding of energetic particle physics with 3D effects is a necessary prerequisite for wall protection, plasma control and flexibility and for new diagnostic development possibilities in future ignited systems.

  12. Phoresis-induced clustering of particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Fouxon, Itzhak; Krug, Dominik; van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Holzner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate phoresis-induced clustering of non-inertial particles in turbulent flows. Phoretic mechanisms such as thermophoresis, chemotaxis or diffusiophroesis are known to create a particle drift with respect to the fluid. Theory, based on the framework of weakly compressible flow, predicts that particles in turbulence streaked by salinity gradients experience a diffusiophoretic drift and will thus form particle cluster. An inclined gravity current setup is used to analyse clustering due to the diffusiophoretic effect in turbulent flow experimentally. Simultaneous 3D particle tracking velocimetry and laser induced fluorescent measurements provide the full Lagrangian velocity field and the local salt concentration in the observed 3D domain. Two independent methods show consistent evidence of the theoretically predicted particle clustering in turbulence. This clustering mechanism can provide the key to the understanding of spontaneous clustering phenomena such as the formation of marine snow in the ocean.

  13. Characteristics of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1991-01-01

    Three dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow at low to medium jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios are computed with a finite volume numerical procedure which utilizes a second-moment closure model to approximate the Reynolds stresses. A multigrid method is used to accelerate the convergence rate of the procedure. Comparison of the computations to measured data show good qualitative agreement. All trends are correctly predicted, though there is some uncertainty on the height of penetration of the jet. The evolution of the vorticity field is used to explore the jet-crossflow interaction.

  14. 3D Evolution of Lower Hybrid Turbulence in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Gurudas; Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional evolution of the lower hybrid turbulence driven by a spatially localized ion ring beam perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in space plasmas is considered. It is shown that the quasi-linear saturation model breaks down when the nonlinear rate of scattering by thermal electron is larger than linear damping rates, which can occur even for low wave amplitudes. The evolution is found to be essentially a three-dimensional phenomenon, which cannot be accurately explained by two-dimensional simulations. An important feature missed in previous studies of this phenomenon is the nonlinear conversion of electrostatic lower hybrid waves into electromagnetic whistler and magnetosonic waves and the consequent energy loss due to radiation from the source region that can result in unique low-amplitude saturation with extended saturation time. It is shown that when the realistic nonlinear effects are considered the net energy that can be permanently extracted from the ring beam is larger. The results are applied to anticipate the outcome of a planned experiment that will seed lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere and monitor its evolution. NRL Base Program.

  15. 3D Lagrangian Model of Particle Saltation in an Open Channel Flow with Emphasis on Particle-Particle Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2012-12-01

    -dimensional (HR3D) velocity field can be used as a representation of near bed open-channel flows. Both approaches are used to simulate saltating sediment particles using a 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model. This tracking model is composed by generalized sub-models for particle collision with the bed, bed-roughness representation, and particle free-flight between wall collisions. We analyze the hydrodynamic forces (drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset, Magnus and buoyancy) involved in particle saltation. For validation purposes, we compare our simulation results with experimental data from Niño and García (1998) and Lee and Hsu (1994). Finally we use the logarithmic velocity profile to analyze the importance of particle-particle collision using a sub-model based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during collision. We analyze simulation results with different particle sizes within the sand range, different flow intensities, and different particle concentrations, in terms of particle diffusion and changes in velocity, rotation and trajectory during collision. To identify the importance of particle-particle collisions, simulations with and without collision among particles were carried out.

  16. Resolution improvement by 3D particle averaging in localization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeken, Jordi; Johnson, Hannah; Lidke, Diane S.; Liu, Sheng; Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P. J.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by recent developments in localization microscopy that applied averaging of identical particles in 2D for increasing the resolution even further, we discuss considerations for alignment (registration) methods for particles in general and for 3D in particular. We detail that traditional techniques for particle registration from cryo electron microscopy based on cross-correlation are not suitable, as the underlying image formation process is fundamentally different. We argue that only localizations, i.e. a set of coordinates with associated uncertainties, are recorded and not a continuous intensity distribution. We present a method that owes to this fact and that is inspired by the field of statistical pattern recognition. In particular we suggest to use an adapted version of the Bhattacharyya distance as a merit function for registration. We evaluate the method in simulations and demonstrate it on 3D super-resolution data of Alexa 647 labelled to the Nup133 protein in the nuclear pore complex of Hela cells. From the simulations we find suggestions that for successful registration the localization uncertainty must be smaller than the distance between labeling sites on a particle. These suggestions are supported by theoretical considerations concerning the attainable resolution in localization microscopy and its scaling behavior as a function of labeling density and localization precision.

  17. Development of a 3D particle treecode for plasma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Benjamin; Christlieb, Andrew; Krasny, Robert

    2008-11-01

    In this work we present a fully 3-D Boundary Integral Treecode (BIT). We apply the method to several classic problems such as sheath formation and 3D simulations of a Penning trap. In addition, we investigate the ability of the solver to naturally capture Coloumb scattering. A key point in the investigation is to understand the effect of different types of regularizations, and how to appropriately incorporate the regularization in the BIT framework. This work builds on substantial efforts in 1- and 2-D. [1] R. Krasny and K. Lindsay, A particle method and adaptive treecode for vortex sheet motion in 3-D flow, JCP, Vol. 172, No. 2, 879-907 [2] K. Matyash, R. Schneider, R. Sydora, and F. Taccogna, Application of a Grid-Free Kinetic Model to the Collisionless Sheath, Contrib. Plasma Phys, Vol. 48, No. 1-3, 116-120 (2008) [3] K. Cartwright and A. Christlieb, Boundary Integral Corrected Particle in Cell, SIAM Journal on Sci. Comput., submitted [4] A. Christlieb, R. Krasny, B. Ong and J. Qiu, A Step Towards Addressing Temporal Multi-scale Problems in Plasma Physics, in prep.

  18. High fidelity digital inline holographic PTV for 3D flow measurements: from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional PIV and PTV provides the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other commercialized 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (namely DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. Here we will report our latest work on improving DIH-PTV method through an integration of deconvolution algorithm, iterative removal method and GPU computation to overcome some of abovementioned limitations. We will also present the application of our DIH-PTV for measurements in the following sample cases: (i) flows in bio-filmed microchannel with 50-60 μm vector spacing within sampling volumes of 1 mm (streamwise) x 1 mm (wall-normal) x 1 mm (spanwise); (ii) turbulent flows over smooth and rough surfaces (1.1 mm vector spacing within 15 mm x 50 mm x 15 mm); (iii) 3D distribution and kinematics of inertial particles in turbulent air duct flow.

  19. Flare Particle Escape in 3D Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Masson, Sophie; DeVore, C. R.

    2015-04-01

    Among the most important, but least understood forms of space weather are the so-called Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, which can be especially hazardous to deep-space astronauts. These energetic particles are generally believed to be produced by the flare reconnection that is the primary driver of solar eruptive events (SEE). A key point is that in the standard model of SEEs, the particles should remain trapped in the coronal flare loops and in the ejected plasmoid, the CME. However, flare-accelerated particles frequently reach the Earth long before the CME does. In previous 2.5D calculations we showed how the external reconnection that is an essential element of the breakout model for CME initiation could lead to the escape of flare-accelerated particles. The problem, however, is that in 2.5D this reconnection also tends to destroy the plasmoid, which disagrees with the observation that SEP events are often associated with well-defined plasmoids at 1 AU known as “magnetic clouds”. Consequently, we have extended our model to a fully 3D topology that includes a multi-polar coronal field suitable for a breakout SEE near a coronal hole region. We performed high-resolution 3D MHD numerical simulations with the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS). Our results demonstrate that the model allows for the effective escape of energetic particles from deep within an ejecting well-defined plasmoid. We show how the complex interactions between the flare and breakout reconnection reproduce all the main observational features of SEEs and SEPs. We discuss the implications of our calculations for the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions, which will measure SEEs and SEPs near the Sun, thereby, mitigating propagation effects.This research was supported, in part, by the NASA SR&T and TR&T Programs.

  20. Orientation statistics of non-spherical particles sedimenting in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramel, Stefan; Tierney, Lydia; Rees, Wyatt; Voth, Greg A.; Menon, Udayshankar; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Donald L.

    2016-11-01

    We study the sedimentation of non-spherical particles in turbulence. The particle orientation is determined by a competition between inertial torques causing a preferential alignment and turbulence randomizing the orientation. The relative importance is quantified by a settling number SF defined as the ratio of the tumbling-rate from inertial torques and from turbulence. The experiments focus on the orientation statistics of particles formed from several slender arms, including fibers and particles with three arms in planar symmetry (triads), which allows us to study alignment of both fibers and disk-like particles. We measure the time-resolved 3D orientations of the particles along with the fluid velocity field around them in a vertical water tunnel. An active jet array with 40 individually controllable jets enables us to adjust the turbulence intensity and observe the transition from strongly aligned particles to randomized orientations as SF is decreased. Results are compared to simulations and theory based on slender body theory.

  1. Micromagnetic investigation of low-symmetry 3D particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-02-01

    Investigating the anisotropies of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial for further development of magnetic data storage media, MRAM, magnetic logical circuits, or magnetic quantum cellular automata. Former theoretical and experimental examinations have revealed the possibility to gain highly symmetric nanoparticles with increased numbers of magnetic states per storage element. In a recent project, we have investigated low-symmetry T-shaped 2D and 3D particles from iron using the micromagnetic simulation software MAGPAR which is based on solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation of motion for a mesh built from tetrahedral finite elements. To examine the influence of the reduced symmetry, simulations were performed on the 3D double-T particle with the field applied in different directions in the x-y base plane, ranging from 0 to 180° in 5° steps. Additionally, the external magnetic field was rotated laterally under different angles with respect to the x-y plane, i.e. 5°, 22.5°, and 45°. Similar simulations were executed for the 2D single-T particle. Our results show the strong impact of the shape anisotropy and the respective possibility to tailor magnetic anisotropies according to the desired behaviour by modifying the nanoparticles’ form.

  2. Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows

    SciTech Connect

    Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel

    2014-12-10

    The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.

  3. 3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2016-05-01

    A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.

  4. Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin

    2011-06-01

    The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used (realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.

  5. Numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuparu, Adrian; Holotescu, Sorin

    2011-06-01

    The influence of turbulence models on the 3D unsteady flow in a combustion chamber with a central bluff body is analyzed. Three different turbulence models are used ( realizable k-ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model and Large Eddy Simulation) and a comparison is made on the evolution of the velocity field over time. The numerical simulation of the gas flow in the combustion chamber was performed using FLUENT 6.3 software and the computational geometry, consisting of a structured mesh with 810,000 cells, was built using the pre-processor GAMBIT 2.4. The extent of the recirculation region behind the bluff body was determined for each turbulence model.

  6. Optimizing Stellarators for Energetic Particle Confinement using BEAMS3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgert, Peter; Drevlak, Michael; Lazerson, Sam; Gates, David; White, Roscoe

    2015-11-01

    Energetic particle (EP) loss has been called the ``Achilles heel of stellarators,'' (Helander, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 087001 (2014)) and there is a great need for magnetic configurations with improved EP confinement. In this study we utilize a newly developed capability of the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT: the ability to optimize EP confinement via an interface with guiding center code BEAMS3D (McMillan et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56, 095019 (2014)). Using this new tool, optimizations of the W7-X experiment and ARIES-CS reactor are performed where the EP loss fraction is one of many target functions to be minimized. In W7-X, we simulate the experimental NBI system using realistic beam geometry and beam deposition physics. The goal is to find configurations with improved neutral beam deposition and energetic particle confinement. These calculations are compared to previous studies of W7-X NBI deposition. In ARIES-CS, we launch 3.5 MeV alpha particles from a near-axis flux surface using a uniform grid in toroidal and poloidal angle. As these particles are born from D-T reactions, we consider an isotropic distribution in velocity space. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Using 3-D shaping to manipulate ITG turbulence saturation in stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegna, C. C.; Terry, P. W.

    2016-10-01

    A frontier research area for stellarator design is to develop methods to alter turbulent transport. In this work, efforts are developed to understand how 3-D shaping can be used to affect turbulent transport saturation physics. To accomplish this goal, we utilize a paradigm for turbulent saturation that relies on zonal flow mediated transfer of energy from linear instability to damped eigenmodes. A simplified 3-field fluid model for ion temperature gradient turbulence is developed that allows for the presence of general 3-D geometry. The crucial nonlinear physics is associated with the triplet interaction of a linear instability, a zonal flow and a damped mode. The most vigorous interaction occurs when the three-wave frequency mismatch of these three modes is minimized, connoting a large nonlinear interaction time with saturated turbulence levels proportional to the three-wave frequency mismatch. Initial studies will be geared toward how 3-D geometry can be used to minimize this frequency mismatch. Research supported by U. S. DoE under Grant Nos. DE-FG02-99ER54546 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.

  8. 3-D Particle Simulation of Current Sheet Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2015-11-01

    The electrostatic (ES) and electromagnetic (EM) instabilities of a Harris current sheet are investigated using a 3-D linearized (δf) gyrokinetic (GK) electron and fully kinetic (FK) ion (GeFi) particle simulation code. The equilibrium magnetic field consists of an asymptotic anti-parallel Bx 0 and a guide field BG. The ES simulations show the excitation of lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI) at the current sheet edge. The growth rate of the 3-D LHDI is scanned through the (kx ,ky) space. The most unstable modes are found to be at k∥ = 0 for smaller ky. As ky increases, the growth rate shows two peaks at k∥ ≠ 0 , consistent with analytical GK theory. The eigenmode structure and growth rate of LHDI obtained from the GeFi simulation agree well with those obtained from the FK PIC simulation. Decreasing BG, the asymptotic βe 0, or background density can destabilize the LHDI. In the EM simulation, tearing mode instability is dominant in the cases with ky kx , there exist two unstable modes: a kink-like (LHDI) mode at the current sheet edge and a sausage-like mode at the sheet center. The results are compared with the GK eigenmode theory and the FK simulation.

  9. On 3D reconstruction of bubbles in volcanic ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.; Mulukutla, G.; Kiely, C.

    2007-12-01

    Bubbles in volcanic ash particles are primarily represented by the remnants of films and plateau borders from disrupting foam. Without preservation of complete bubbles, measuring bubble size distributions a challenging task, but one for which we have taken a novel approach. Concavities in ash particles retain a record of bubble sizes in the curvature of their concave surfaces that resulted from bubble fragmentation and quenching during energetic magma eruptions. We have used two methods to measure bubble fragment curvature on the basis of 3D reconstruction of ash particle surfaces. One is based on High Resolution X-Ray Tomography (HRXRT) and the second one is based on stereo images from tilting Scattered Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both methods allow the creation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of the ash particle surfaces which in turn are used to identify and measure vertical cross-sectional profiles of the individual bubble fragments ("craters"). Function fit analysis for circular or elliptical functions are applied to each bubble cross sectional profile in two orthogonal directions to reconstruct sizes of the original, complete bubbles. The method allows measurement of submicron (SEM; XUM), micron or larger (HRXRT) bubbles in ash particles. The bubble size distributions so obtained can provide valuable insights regarding magma dynamics and vesiculation that lead to explosive eruptions, as well as the processes of fragmentation in eruption columns. There are no previous systematic information/databases of vesiculation metrics for explosive silicic eruptions, but this new method can be used to produce these and thus provide better insights into prehistoric eruption styles for volcanic hazard assessment.

  10. Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2000-01-01

    USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.

  11. Mimicking Natural Laminar to Turbulent Flow Transition: A Systematic CFD Study Using PAB3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    2005-01-01

    For applied aerodynamic computations using a general purpose Navier-Stokes code, the common practice of treating laminar to turbulent flow transition over a non-slip surface is somewhat arbitrary by either treating the entire flow as turbulent or forcing the flow to undergo transition at given trip locations in the computational domain. In this study, the possibility of using the PAB3D code, standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and the Girimaji explicit algebraic stresses model to mimic natural laminar to turbulent flow transition was explored. The sensitivity of flow transition with respect to two limiters in the standard k-epsilon turbulence model was examined using a flat plate and a 6:1 aspect ratio prolate spheroid for our computations. For the flat plate, a systematic dependence of transition Reynolds number on background turbulence intensity was found. For the prolate spheroid, the transition patterns in the three-dimensional boundary layer at different flow conditions were sensitive to the free stream turbulence viscosity limit, the reference Reynolds number and the angle of attack, but not to background turbulence intensity below a certain threshold value. The computed results showed encouraging agreements with the experimental measurements at the corresponding geometry and flow conditions.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Particle Deagglomeration using Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köksoy, Çaǧatay; Ertunç, Özgür; Hüttner, Sebastian; Wachtel, Herbert; Delgado, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The effect of turbulence on powder aerosol deagglomeration was investigated. Two impinging jets were used to generate turbulence. Lactose particles, whose fully dispersed fine particle fraction (FPF) - number percentage of the particles whose diameter smaller than 5 μm- is above 90 %, were applied as aerosol powder. The particle size distribution after the dispersion unit were measured by using phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) and turbulence level were quantified at the impingement point of two jets with laser Doppler anemometer. As the turbulence level increases turbulent time and length scales decrease, and the ratio of fine particle fraction (FPF) increases from 36% to 86%.

  13. Analysis of thoracic aorta hemodynamics using 3D particle tracking velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-09-22

    Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta.

  14. Multigrid acceleration and turbulence models for computations of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1992-01-01

    A multigrid method is presented for the calculation of three-dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow. Turbulence closure is achieved with either the standard k-epsilon model or a Reynolds stress model (RSM). Multigrid acceleration enables convergence rates which are far superior to that for a single grid method to be obtained with both turbulence models. With the k-epsilon model the rate approaches that for laminar flow, but with RSM it is somewhat slower. The increased stiffness of the system of equation in the latter may be responsible. Computed results with both turbulence models are compared to experimental data for a pair of opposed jets in crossflow. Both models yield reasonable agreement for the mean flow velocity, but RSM yields better predictions of the Reynolds stresses.

  15. Explicit 3D continuum fracture modeling with smooth particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.

    1993-01-01

    Impact phenomena shaped our solar system. As usual for most solar system processes, the scales are far different than we can address directly in the laboratory. Impact velocities are often much higher than we can achieve, sizes are often vastly larger, and most impacts take place in an environment where the only gravitational force is the mutual pull of the impactors. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique has been applied in the past to the simulations of giant impacts. In these simulations, the colliding objects were so massive (at least a sizeable fraction of the Earth's mass) that material strength was negligible compared to gravity. This assumption can no longer be made when the bodies are much smaller. To this end, we have developed a 3D SPH code that includes a strength model to which we have added a von Mises yielding relation for stresses beyond the Hugoniot Elastic Limit. At the lower stresses associated with brittle failure, we use a rate-dependent strength based on the nucleation of incipient flaws whose number density is given by a Weibull distribution. Following Grady and Kipp and Melosh et al., we introduce a state variable D ('damage'), 0 less than D less than 1, which expresses the local reduction in strength due to crack growth under tensile loading. Unfortunately for the hydrodynamics, Grady and Kipp's model predicts which fragments are the most probable ones and not the ones that are really formed. This means, for example, that if a given laboratory experiment is modeled, the fragment distribution obtained from the Grady-Kipp theory would be equivalent to a ensemble average over many realizations of the experiment. On the other hand, the hydrodynamics itself is explicit and evolves not an ensemble average but very specific fragments. Hence, there is a clear incompatibility with the deterministic nature of the hydrodynamics equations and the statistical approach of the Grady-Kipp dynamical fracture model. We remedy these shortcomings

  16. 3-D Lagrangian Measurements of Suspended Particles in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Tse, I.; Variano, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    San Francisco Bay often appears brown. Its high suspended sediment concentrations give it the potential to move and mix large amounts of sediments from one environment, such as an urban stormwater outflow, to another, such as a wetland undergoing restoration. These sediments can carry with them persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals such as PCBs, mercury, or emerging contaminants. To predict sediment fate, almost all physical models describe the transport of suspended sediment with the advection-diffusion equation, which requires knowledge of the water currents and the diffusivity of sediment. Methods for estimating diffusivity to use in the model are not typically satisfying, and there remain fundamental questions about the accuracy and applicability of the typical approximation methods. We have developed a new tool that measures 3D tracks of suspended sediment in-situ, from which we compute diffusivity directly. We present here the results of the first deployment, in San Francisco Bay near the Berkeley shore. This site has highly active sediment and is important for transfer of sediment-associated contaminants, and sediment diffusivity is sensitive to wind, waves, tides and turbulence. We investigate these relationships using our preliminary, proof-of-concept, data. It also provides the foundation for future investigations of the behavior of sediment diffusivity and particle trajectories in different environments and the underlying theory of solute diffusivity in real-world conditions. In addition, these data enable the analysis of whether sediment particles in San Francisco Bay exhibit the 'preferential clustering' observed for some inertial particles in turbulent flow.

  17. Evaluation of Full Reynolds Stress Turbulence Models in FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudek, Julianne C.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2017-01-01

    Full seven-equation Reynolds stress turbulence models are promising tools for today’s aerospace technology challenges. This paper examines two such models for computing challenging turbulent flows including shock-wave boundary layer interactions, separation and mixing layers. The Wilcox and the SSG/LRR full second-moment Reynolds stress models have been implemented into the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes Three Dimensional) unstructured Navier-Stokes code and were evaluated for four problems: a transonic two-dimensional diffuser, a supersonic axisymmetric compression corner, a compressible planar shear layer, and a subsonic axisymmetric jet. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and results computed using the more commonly used Spalart-Allmaras (SA) one-equation and the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST-V) two-equation turbulence models.

  18. Multigrid acceleration and turbulence models for computations of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1991-01-01

    A multigrid method is presented for the calculation of three-dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow. Turbulence closure is achieved with either the standard k-epsilon model or a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Multigrid acceleration enables convergence rates which are far superior to that for a single grid method. With the k-epsilon model the rate approaches that for laminar flow, but with RSM it is somewhat slower. The increased stiffness of the system of equations in the latter may be responsible. Computed results with both turbulence models are compared with experimental data for a pair of opposed jets in crossflow. Both models yield reasonable agreement with mean flow velocity but RSM yields better prediction of the Reynolds stresses.

  19. Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Lopez-Caballero, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work we present the evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. We analyze the behavior of a fluid in a closed cavity where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The experimental volume is a closed cylinder (diameter of 20 cm) where two impellers rotate in opposite directions. A key characteristic of this setup the high stability of the propellers (the instantaneous fluctuations are below 0 . 1 %). We have performed PIV and LDA measurements of the velocity fields. Typical characteristics of the turbulent flow in this setup are: turbulence intensity 50 % , the Reλ = 900 , the Taylor microscale λT = 1 . 8 mm and the integral scale LI = 15 mm. The analysis of the data series reveal that below the injection scales an inverse cascade can be identified (-1/3 in time, -7/3 in space) that can be explained as the transfer of angular momentum between the diferent fluid layers. A. de la Torre, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 99 (2007) 054101. M. Lopez-Caballero, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 110 (2013) 124501.

  20. Direct simulation of particle dispersion in a decaying isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elghobashi, S.; Truesdell, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a numerical investigation of the dispersion of solid particles in decaying isotropic turbulence are presented. The 3D time-dependent velocity field of a homogeneous nonstationary turbulence is computed using the method of direct numerical simulation (DNS). The dispersion characteristics of three different solid particles (corn, copper, and glass) injected in the flow are obtained by integrating the complete equation of particle motion along the instantaneous trajectories of 22-cubed particles for each particle type, and then by performing ensemble averaging. Good agreement was achieved between the present DNS results and the measured time development of the mean-square displacement of the particles. Questions of how and why the dispersion statistics of a solid particle differ from those of its corresponding fluid point and surrounding fluid and what influences inertia and gravity have on these statistics are also discussed.

  1. Evidence of Toroidally Localized Turbulence with Applied 3D Fields in the DIII-D Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R S; Shafer, M W; Ferraro, N M; McKee, G R; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Canik, J M; Paz-Soldan, C; Nazikian, R; Unterberg, E A

    2016-09-23

    New evidence indicates that there is significant 3D variation in density fluctuations near the boundary of weakly 3D tokamak plasmas when resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to suppress transient edge instabilities. The increase in fluctuations is concomitant with an increase in the measured density gradient, suggesting that this toroidally localized gradient increase could be a mechanism for turbulence destabilization in localized flux tubes. Two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations find that, although changes to the magnetic field topology are small, there is a significant 3D variation of the density gradient within the flux surfaces that is extended along field lines. This modeling agrees qualitatively with the measurements. The observed gradient and fluctuation asymmetries are proposed as a mechanism by which global profile gradients in the pedestal could be relaxed due to a local change in the 3D equilibrium. These processes may play an important role in pedestal and scrape-off layer transport in ITER and other future tokamak devices with small applied 3D fields.

  2. Evidence of toroidally localized turbulence with applied 3D fields in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Wilcox, R. S.; Shafer, M. W.; Ferraro, N. M.; ...

    2016-09-21

    New evidence indicates that there is significant 3D variation in density fluctuations near the boundary of weakly 3D tokamak plasmas when resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to suppress transient edge instabilities. The increase in fluctuations is concomitant with an increase in the measured density gradient, suggesting that this toroidally localized gradient increase could be a mechanism for turbulence destabilization in localized flux tubes. Two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations find that, although changes to the magnetic field topology are small, there is a significant 3D variation of the density gradient within the flux surfaces that is extended along field lines. This modeling agreesmore » qualitatively with the measurements. The observed gradient and fluctuation asymmetries are proposed as a mechanism by which global profile gradients in the pedestal could be relaxed due to a local change in the 3D equilibrium. In conclusion, these processes may play an important role in pedestal and scrape-off layer transport in ITER and other future tokamak devices with small applied 3D fields.« less

  3. Evidence of toroidally localized turbulence with applied 3D fields in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R. S.; Shafer, M. W.; Ferraro, N. M.; McKee, G. R.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Canik, J. M.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2016-09-21

    New evidence indicates that there is significant 3D variation in density fluctuations near the boundary of weakly 3D tokamak plasmas when resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to suppress transient edge instabilities. The increase in fluctuations is concomitant with an increase in the measured density gradient, suggesting that this toroidally localized gradient increase could be a mechanism for turbulence destabilization in localized flux tubes. Two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations find that, although changes to the magnetic field topology are small, there is a significant 3D variation of the density gradient within the flux surfaces that is extended along field lines. This modeling agrees qualitatively with the measurements. The observed gradient and fluctuation asymmetries are proposed as a mechanism by which global profile gradients in the pedestal could be relaxed due to a local change in the 3D equilibrium. In conclusion, these processes may play an important role in pedestal and scrape-off layer transport in ITER and other future tokamak devices with small applied 3D fields.

  4. Resolving the 3D velocity field inside a Roughness Sublayer in a turbulent channel flow using HPIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic holographic PIV is used to measure the 3D velocity field within the roughness sublayer of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ of 3400. Recording holograms through a rough surface is facilitated by matching the optical refractive index of the rough wall with that of the working fluid, a concentrated solution of NaI in water. The pyramidal roughness height is k=0.45mm, the sample volume size is 3.2x1.8x1.8mm^3, the long dimension being in the streamwise direction, and the wall-normal range is -0.33particles, and in the current data, 5000 particles are tracked per hologram pair. The resulting unstructured vectors are interpolated onto a regular 3D grid to obtain vectors with a spacing of 60μm or 8.5 wall units. The data show that at y/k<0.5, there is a preferred channeling of the flow along paths that circumvent the pyramid crest lines. Planar vorticity distribution from different perspectives as well as 3D isosurfaces show that the near wall region is flooded by quasi-streamwise vortices that are aligned at shallow angles and have a typical streamwise extent of 1-2k.

  5. Acceleration of particles in imbalanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Teaca, Bogdan; Weidl, Martin S; Jenko, Frank; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    The present work investigates the acceleration of test particles, relevant to the solar-wind problem, in balanced and imbalanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (terms referring here to turbulent states possessing zero and nonzero cross helicity, respectively). These turbulent states, obtained numerically by prescribing the injection rates for the ideal invariants, are evolved dynamically with the particles. While the energy spectrum for balanced and imbalanced states is known, the impact made on particle heating is a matter of debate, with different considerations giving different results. By performing direct numerical simulations, resonant and nonresonant particle accelerations are automatically considered and the correct turbulent phases are taken into account. For imbalanced turbulence, it is found that the acceleration rate of charged particles is reduced and the heating rate diminished. This behavior is independent of the particle gyroradius, although particles that have a stronger adiabatic motion (smaller gyroradius) tend to experience a larger heating.

  6. Turbulence Statistics Over 3D Roughness in a Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph; Schultz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This study focuses on the near-wall flow field within a turbulent channel flow over a rough surface. Performing experiments in a facility containing a fluid with the same refractive index as the acrylic rough plate facilitates PIV measurements very near the wall. Presently, the flow in the vicinity of uniformly distributed 0.45mm high pyramids at Reτ=3400-5418 is resolved at a vector spacing of 63um, ˜9 wall units. Data in a streamwise-wall-normal plane shows that below one roughness height, there is an upsurge of , and there are substantial spatial variations in , and , which rapidly diminish father from the wall. All Reynolds stress components peak above the forward face of roughness, with peaked slightly downstream of the others. The in-plane turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production peaks deep in the roughness sublayer, especially near the pyramid crest. Both U/x and -U/y are significant contributors. Measurements in a streamwise-spanwise plane located within the roughness sublayer show spatial variability of and , and their contributions to TKE production.

  7. 3-D PARTICLE TRANSPORT WITHIN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study trajectories of inhaled particulate matter (PM) were simulated within a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the human upper respiratory tract (URT). The airways were described by computer-reconstructed images of a silicone rubber cast of the human head, throat...

  8. Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-epsilon turbulence model.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Li, Wei-min; Deng, Yong-sen; Wang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    The standard three dimensional(3D) k-epsilon turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of 3D turbulent flow past a complete marine hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2011-12-01

    A high-resolution computational framework was recently developed by Kang et al (Adv. Water Resour., submitted) for simulating three-dimensional (3D), turbulent flow past real-life, complete marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine configurations. In this model the complex turbine geometry is resolved by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method, which solves the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear domains with embedded arbitrarily complex, moving and/or stationary immersed boundaries (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007). Turbulence is simulated using the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach adapted in the context of the CURVIB method, with a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations used to reconstruct boundary conditions near all solid surfaces (Kang et al., 2011). The model can resolve the flow patterns generated by the rotor and all stationary components of the turbine as well as the interactions of the flow structures with the channel bed. We apply this model to carry out LES of the flow past the model-size hydrokinetic turbine deployed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory main channel. The mean velocities and second-order turbulence statistics measured in the downstream wake using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) are compared with the LES results. The comparisons show that the computed mean velocities and turbulent stresses are in good agreement with the measurements. The high-resolution LES data are used to explore physically important downstream flow characteristics such as the time-averaged wake structure, recovery of cross-sectionally averaged power potential, near-bed scour potential, etc. This work is supported by Verdant Power.

  10. Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Near Wall Flow Structure of a Low Reynolds Number 3-D Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, J. L.; Simpson, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques were used to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over a range of low Reynolds numbers. The goals of this research were (1) an increased understanding of the flow physics in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers,(2) to observe and quantify differences between 2D and 3D TBL flow structures, and (3) to document Reynolds number effects for 3D TBLs. The LDV data have provided results detailing the turbulence structure of the 2D and 3D TBLs. These results include mean Reynolds stress distributions, flow skewing results, and U and V spectra. Effects of Reynolds number for the 3D flow were also examined. Comparison to results with the same 3D flow geometry but at a significantly higher Reynolds number provided unique insight into the structure of 3D TBLs. While the 3D mean and fluctuating velocities were found to be highly dependent on Reynolds number, a previously defined shear stress parameter was discovered to be invariant with Reynolds number. The hydrogen bubble technique was used as a flow visualization tool to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D TBLs. Both the quantitative and qualitative results displayed larger turbulent fluctuations with more highly concentrated vorticity regions for the 2D flow.

  12. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chau, C.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Costa, S.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D`Alessandro, R.; de Boer, W.; Dehning, B.; Dobos, D.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gonella, L.; Gorišek, A.; Graber, L.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hidas, D.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; McFadden, N.; McGoldrick, G.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Oh, A.; Olivero, P.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sapinski, M.; Scaringella, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Schreiner, T.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shimchuk, G.; Smith, D. S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weilhammer, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, results towards the development of a 3D diamond sensor are presented. Conductive channels are produced inside the sensor bulk using a femtosecond laser. This electrode geometry allows full charge collection even for low quality diamond sensors. Results from testbeam show that charge is collected by these electrodes. In order to understand the channel growth parameters, with the goal of producing low resistivity channels, the conductive channels produced with a different laser setup are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Turbulence modeling for subsonic separated flows over 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Aaron M.

    Accurate predictions of turbulent boundary layers and flow separation through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are becoming more and more essential for the prediction of loads in the design of aerodynamic flight components. Standard eddy viscosity models used in many commercial codes today do not capture the nonequilibrium effects seen in a separated flow and thus do not generally make accurate separation predictions. Part of the reason for this is that under nonequilibrium conditions such as a strong adverse pressure gradient, the history effects of the flow play an important role in the growth and decay of turbulence. More recent turbulence models such as Olsen and Coakley's Lag model and Lillard's lagRST model seek to simulate these effects by lagging the turbulent variables when nonequilibrium effects become important. The purpose of the current research is to assess how these nonequilibrium turbulence models capture the separated regions on various 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings. Nonequilibrium models including the Lag model and the lagRST model are evaluated in comparison with three baseline models (Spalart-Allmaras, Wilcox's k-omega, and Menter's SST) using a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. Tuning the model coefficients of the Lag and lagRST models is also explored. Results show that the various lagRST formulations display an improvement in velocity profile predictions over the standard RANS models, but have trouble capturing the edge of the boundary layer. Experimental separation location measurements were not available, but several trends are noted which may be useful to tuning the model coefficients in the future.

  14. Particle-Vortex Duality from 3D Bosonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, Andreas; Tong, David

    2016-07-01

    We show how particle-vortex duality in d =2 +1 dimensions arises as part of an intricate web of relationships between different field theories. The starting point is "bosonization," a conjectured duality that uses flux attachment to transmute the statistics of relativistic particles. From this seed, we derive many old and new dualities. These include particle-vortex duality for bosons as well as the recently discovered counterpart for fermions.

  15. Clustering of vertically constrained passive particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pietro, Massimo; van Hinsberg, Michel A. T.; Biferale, Luca; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of small particles vertically confined, by means of a linear restoring force, to move within a horizontal fluid slab in a three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous isotropic turbulent velocity field. The model that we introduce and study is possibly the simplest description for the dynamics of small aquatic organisms that, due to swimming, active regulation of their buoyancy, or any other mechanism, maintain themselves in a shallow horizontal layer below the free surface of oceans or lakes. By varying the strength of the restoring force, we are able to control the thickness of the fluid slab in which the particles can move. This allows us to analyze the statistical features of the system over a wide range of conditions going from a fully 3D incompressible flow (corresponding to the case of no confinement) to the extremely confined case corresponding to a two-dimensional slice. The background 3D turbulent velocity field is evolved by means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Whenever some level of vertical confinement is present, the particle trajectories deviate from that of fluid tracers and the particles experience an effectively compressible velocity field. Here, we have quantified the compressibility, the preferential concentration of the particles, and the correlation dimension by changing the strength of the restoring force. The main result is that there exists a particular value of the force constant, corresponding to a mean slab depth approximately equal to a few times the Kolmogorov length scale η , that maximizes the clustering of the particles.

  16. 2-D/3-D ECE imaging data for validation of turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Park, Young-Seok; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Wang, Weixing; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.

    2015-11-01

    The 2-D/3-D KSTAR ECEI diagnostic can provide a local 2-D/3-D measurement of ECE intensity. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the ECEI data allows local estimation of frequency spectra S (f) , wavenumber spectra S (k) , wavernumber and frequency spectra S (k , f) , and bispectra b (f1 ,f2) of ECE intensity over the 2-D/3-D space, which can be used to validate turbulence simulations. However, the minimum detectable fluctuation amplitude and the maximum detectable wavenumber are limited by the temporal and spatial resolutions of the diagnostic system, respectively. Also, the finite measurement area of the diagnostic channel could introduce uncertainty in the spectra estimation. The limitations and accuracy of the ECEI estimated spectra have been tested by a synthetic ECEI diagnostic with the model and/or fluctuations calculated by GTS. Supported by the NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029881 and NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  17. 3D Continuum-Particle Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Sanith; Hornung, Richard; Garcia, Alejandro; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2001-06-01

    An adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme to model multi-scale, continuum-particle hydrodynamic flows is presented. AMAR ensures the particle description is applied exclusively in regions with high flow gradients and discontinous material interfaces, i.e. regions where the continuum flow assumptions are typically invalid. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used to model the particle regions on the finest grid of the adaptive hierarchy. The continuum flow is modelled using the compressible flow Euler equations and is solved using a second order Godunov scheme. Coupling is achieved by conservation of fluxes across the continuum-particle grid boundaries. The AMAR data structures are supported by a C++ object oriented framework (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure - SAMRAI) which allows for efficient parallel implementation. The scheme also extends to simulations of gas mixtures. Results for test cases are compared with theory and experiment.

  18. Detecting particles flowing through interdigitated 3D microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Elena; Rollo, Enrica; Kilchenmann, Samuel; Bellati, Francesco M; Accastelli, Enrico; Guiducci, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    Counting cells in a large microchannel remains challenging and is particularly critical for in vitro assays, such as cell adhesion assays. This paper addresses this issue, by presenting the development of interdigitated three-dimensional electrodes, which are fabricated around passivated pillarshaped silicon microstructures, to detect particles in a flow. The arrays of micropillars occupy the entire channel height and detect the passage of the particle through their gaps by monitoring changes in the electrical resistance. Impedance measurements were employed in order to characterize the electrical equivalent model of the system and to detect the passage of particles in real-time. Three different geometrical micropillar configurations were evaluated and numerical simulations that supported the experimental activity were used to characterize the sensitive volume in the channel. Moreover, the signal-to-noise-ratio related to the passage of a single particle through an array was plotted as a function of the dimension and number of micropillars.

  19. Delft3D turbine turbulence module v. 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-08-25

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, Delft3D-CEC includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK current energy conversion devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The Following is a description of Deltares’s open-source code Delft3D from which Delft3D-CEC is built upon. “Delft3D is a world leading 3D modeling suite to investigate hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphology and water quality for fluvial, estuarine and coastal environments. As per 1 January 2011, the Delft3D flow (FLOW), morphology (MOR) and waves (WAVE) modules are available in open source. The software is used and has proven his capabilities on many places around the world, like the Netherlands, USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, Venice, etc. The software is continuously improved and developed with innovating advanced modelling techniques as consequence of the research work of our institute and to stay world leading. The FLOW module is the heart of Delft3D and is a multi-dimensional (2D or 3D) hydrodynamic (and transport) simulation programme which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid or sperical coordinates. In 3D simulations, the vertical grid is defined following the so-called sigma coordinate approach or Z-layer approach. The MOR module computes sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. Both currents

  20. Online reconstruction of 3D magnetic particle imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, T.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging is a quantitative functional imaging technique that allows imaging of the spatial distribution of super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles at high temporal resolution. The raw data acquisition can be performed at frame rates of more than 40 volumes s-1. However, to date image reconstruction is performed in an offline step and thus no direct feedback is available during the experiment. Considering potential interventional applications such direct feedback would be mandatory. In this work, an online reconstruction framework is implemented that allows direct visualization of the particle distribution on the screen of the acquisition computer with a latency of about 2 s. The reconstruction process is adaptive and performs block-averaging in order to optimize the signal quality for a given amount of reconstruction time.

  1. 3-D Spreadsheet Simulation of a Modern Particle Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    A spreadsheet simulation of a modern particle detector has been developed and can be readily used as an instructional tool in the physics classroom. The spreadsheet creates a three-dimensional model that can be rotated and helical trajectories can be highlighted. An associated student worksheet is also presented.

  2. 3-D numerical simulations of eruption clouds: Effects of the environmental wind on the turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.

    2011-12-01

    During an explosive volcanic eruption, a mixture of volcanic gas and solid pyroclasts are ejected from a volcanic vent with a high temperature. As it rises, the mixture entrains ambient air owing to turbulent mixing. The entrained air expands by heating from the hot pyroclasts, and the eruption cloud (i.e., the ejected material plus the entrained air) rises as a buoyant plume. Because the plume height is principally determined by the balance between the thermal energy ejected at the vent and the work done in transporting the ejected material plus entrained air through the atmospheric stratification, it is controlled by the efficiency of turbulent mixing; as the amount of entrained air increases, the plume height decreases. In the 1-D models of eruption column (e.g., Woods, 1988), the plume height is calculated on the assumption that the mean inflow velocity across the edge of turbulent jet and/or plume is proportional to the mean vertical velocity (Morton et al., 1956). Experimental studies suggest that the proportionality constant (i.e., entrainment coefficient, k), which represents the efficiency of turbulent mixing, is about 0.10 for pure plumes when there is no wind. When an environmental wind is present, however, the interaction between a buoyant plume and the wind may enhance the entrainment of air and can significantly decrease the plume height (Bursik, 2001). In order to investigate the effects of wind on the vortical structures and the efficiency of turbulent mixing in an eruption cloud, we have carried out 3-D numerical simulations of eruption column which is ejected in a wind field. The simulation results indicate that a buoyant plume vertically rises as a "strong plume" (e.g., Bonadonna et al., 2003) when the wind velocity is low: the cloud reaches the neutral buoyancy level and overshoots until the upward momentum is exhausted. In this case, the plume height is consistent with prediction by the 1-D model with k~0.10. When the wind velocity is high, on

  3. Turbulence Modulation and Particle Segregation in a Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kee Onn; Toloui, Mostafa; Amili, Omid; Hong, Jiarong; Coletti, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden flows are ubiquitous in biological, environmental, and engineering flows, but our understanding of the mechanism by which particles modulate turbulence is incomplete. Simulations involve a wide range of scales, and shall be corroborated by measurements that reconstruct the motion of both the continuous and dispersed phases. We present experimental observations on the interaction between inertial particles and turbulent flow through a vertical channel in two-way coupled regime. The working fluid is air laden with size-selected glass particles, which we investigate by planar particle image velocimetry and digital inline holography. Unlike most previous experiments, we focus on a regime in which particle segregation and turbulence modulation are both strong. PIV shows that turbulence modulation is especially pronounced near the wall, where particles accumulate by turbophoresis. The segregation, however, is much weaker than what suggested by one-way coupled simulations. Results from digital holography confirm the trends in particle concentration and velocities, and additionally provide information on the three-dimensional clustering. The findings are compared to previous investigations and discussed in the context of modeling strategies.

  4. 3D MHD SIMULATION OF FLARE SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN A TURBULENT CURRENT SHEET MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Cécere, M.; Zurbriggen, E.; Costa, A.; Schneiter, M.

    2015-07-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper, using 3D MHD simulations we investigate whether the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced, triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give an account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy, provided by a reconnection event, is required. We suggest that there may be a closed relation between characteristic SAD sizes and CS widths that must be satisfied to obtain an observable SAD.

  5. Multilevel local refinement and multigrid methods for 3-D turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.; Huang, T.T.

    1996-12-31

    A numerical approach based on multigrid, multilevel local refinement, and preconditioning methods for solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. 3-D turbulent flow around an underwater vehicle is computed. 3 multigrid levels and 2 local refinement grid levels are used. The global grid is 24 x 8 x 12. The first patch is 40 x 16 x 20 and the second patch is 72 x 32 x 36. 4th order artificial dissipation are used for numerical stability. The conservative artificial compressibility method are used for further improvement of convergence. To improve the accuracy of coarse/fine grid interface of local refinement, flux interpolation method for refined grid boundary is used. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data. The local refinement can improve the prediction accuracy significantly. The flux interpolation method for local refinement can keep conservation for a composite grid, therefore further modify the prediction accuracy.

  6. Implementation of a kappa-epsilon turbulence model to RPLUS3D code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitsomboon, Tawit

    1992-01-01

    The RPLUS3D code has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) project. The code has the ability to solve three dimensional flowfields with finite rate combustion of hydrogen and air. The combustion process of the hydrogen-air system are simulated by an 18 reaction path, 8 species chemical kinetic mechanism. The code uses a Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition numerical algorithm as its basis, making it a very efficient and robust code. Except for the Jacobian matrix for the implicit chemistry source terms, there is no inversion of a matrix even though a fully implicit numerical algorithm is used. A k-epsilon turbulence model has recently been incorporated into the code. Initial validations have been conducted for a flow over a flat plate. Results of the validation studies are shown. Some difficulties in implementing the k-epsilon equations to the code are also discussed.

  7. Full 3D correlation tensor computed from double field stereoscopic PIV in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Coudert, Sebastien; Stanislas, Michel; Delville, Joel

    2011-04-01

    The turbulence structure near a wall is a very active subject of research and a key to the understanding and modeling of this flow. Many researchers have worked on this subject since the fifties Hama et al. (J Appl Phys 28:388-394, 1957). One way to study this organization consists of computing the spatial two-point correlations. Stanislas et al. (C R Acad Sci Paris 327(2b):55-61, 1999) and Kahler (Exp Fluids 36:114-130, 2004) showed that double spatial correlations can be computed from stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) fields and can lead to a better understanding of the turbulent flow organization. The limitation is that the correlation is only computed in the PIV plane. The idea of the present paper is to propose a new method based on a specific stereoscopic PIV experiment that allows the computation of the full 3D spatial correlation tensor. The results obtained are validated by comparison with 2D computation from SPIV. They are in very good agreement with the results of Ganapthisubramani et al. (J Fluid Mech 524:57-80, 2005a).

  8. 3D Global Two-Fluid Simulations of Turbulence in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Dustin; Rogers, Barrett; Ricci, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    3D global two-fluid simulations are presented in an ongoing effort to identify and understand the physics of instabilities that arise in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA's Basic Science Facility. The LAPD, with its wide range of tunable parameters and device configurations, is ideally suited for studying space and laboratory plasmas. Moreover, the highly detailed and reproducible measurements of the LAPD lend themselves amicably to comparisons with simulations. Ongoing modeling is done using a modified version of the Global Braginskii Solver (GBS) [1] that models the plasma from source to edge region in a fully 3D two-fluid code. The reduced Braginskii equations are solved on a field-aligned grid using a finite difference method and 4th order Runge-Kutta time stepping and are parallelized on Dartmouth's Discovery cluster. Recent progress has been made to account for the thermionic cathode emission of fast electrons at the source, the axial dependence of the plasma source, and it is now possible to vary the potential on the front and side walls. Preliminary results, seen from the density and temperature profiles, show that the low frequency Kelvin Helmholtz instability still dominates the turbulence in the device.[4pt] [1] B. Rogers and P. Ricci. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104:225002, 2010

  9. Decaying versus stationary turbulence in particle-laden isotropic turbulence: Heavy particle statistics modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsamie, Abouelmagd H.; Lee, Changhoon

    2013-03-01

    The current paper examines the heavy particle statistics modification by two-way interaction in particle-laden isotropic turbulence in an attempt to interpret their statistics modification using the information of modulated turbulence. Moreover, we clarify the distinctions of this modification between decaying and stationary turbulence as an extension of our previous work [A. H. Abdelsamie and C. Lee, "Decaying versus stationary turbulence in particle-laden isotropic turbulence: Turbulence modulation mechanism," Phys. Fluids 24, 015106 (2012), 10.1063/1.3678332]. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) was carried out using 1283 grid points at a Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number of Rλ ˜ 70. The effect of O(10^6) solid particles with a different Stokes number (St) was implemented as a point-force approximation in the Navier-Stokes equation. Various statistics associated with particle dispersion are investigated, and the auto-correlations models which was provided by Jung et al. ["Behavior of heavy particles in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 77, 016307 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.016307] are extended in the current paper. DNS results reveal that the two-way coupling interaction enhances the fluid and heavy particle auto-correlation functions and the alignment between their velocity vectors for all Stokes numbers in decaying and stationary turbulence, but for different reasons. The modification mechanisms of particle dispersion statistics in stationary turbulence are different from those in decaying turbulence depending on the Stokes number, particularly for St <1.

  10. Marine particle aggregate breakup in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Matthew; Ackleson, Steven; Smith, Geoffrey

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of marine particle aggregate formation and breakup due to turbulence is studied experimentally. Aggregates of clay particles, initially in a quiescent aggregation tank, are subjected to fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers of up to 25,000. This flow arrangement simulates the exposure of marine aggregates in coastal waters to a sudden turbulent event. Particle size distributions are measured by in-situ sampling of the small-angle forward volume scattering function and the volume concentration of the suspended particulate matter is quantified through light attenuation measurements. Results are compared to measurements conducted under laminar and turbulent flow conditions. At low shear rates, larger sized particles indicate that aggregation initially governs the particle dynamics. Breakup is observed when large aggregates are exposed to the highest levels of shear in the experiment. Models describing the aggregation and breakup rates of marine particles due to turbulence are evaluated with the population balance equation and results from the simulation and experiment are compared. Additional model development will more accurately describe aggregation dynamics for remote sensing applications in turbulent marine environments.

  11. Simultaneous 3D location and size measurement of bubbles and sand particles in a flow using interferometric particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Ouldarbi, L; Pérret, G; Lemaitre, P; Porcheron, E; Coëtmellec, S; Gréhan, G; Lebrun, D; Brunel, M

    2015-09-01

    We present a system to characterize a triphasic flow in a 3D volume (air bubbles and solid irregular particles in water) using only one CCD sensor. A cylindrical interferometric out-of-focus imaging setup is used to determine simultaneously the 3D position and the size of bubbles and irregular sand particles in a flow. The 3D position of the particles is deduced from the ellipticity of their out-of-focus image. The size of bubbles is deduced from analysis of interference fringes. The characteristics of irregular sand particles are obtained from analysis of their speckle-like pattern. Experiments are confirmed by simulations.

  12. Particle-acceleration by turbulent magnetohydrodynamic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ambrosiano, J. J.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Test particles in a two dimensional, turbulent MHD simulation are found to undergo significant acceleration. The magnetic field configuration is a periodic sheet pinch which undergoes reconnection. The test particles are trapped in the reconnection region for times of order an Alfven transit time in the large electric fields that characterize the turbulent reconnection process at the relatively large magnetic Reynolds number used in the simulation. The maximum speed attained by these particles is consistent with an analytic estimate which depends on the reconnection electric field, the Alfven speed, and the ratio of Larmor period to the Alfven transit time.

  13. 3D reconstruction and particle acceleration properties of Coronal Shock Waves During Powerful Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Vourlidas, Angelos; Tylka, Allan J.; Pinto, Rui; Rouillard, Alexis; Tirole, Margot

    2016-07-01

    Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong pressure waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar and astrophysical contexts via various mechanisms such as diffusive-shock/shock-drift acceleration and betatron effects. In diffusive-shock acceleration, the efficacy of the process relies on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high Alfven Mach number) and on the orientation of the magnetic field upstream of the shock front. High-cadence, multipoint imaging using the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecrafts now permits the 3-D reconstruction of pressure waves formed during the eruption of coronal mass ejections. Using these unprecedented capabilities, some recent studies have provided new insights on the timing and longitudinal extent of solar energetic particles, including the first derivations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and Mach numbers of coronal shock waves. We will review these recent developments by focusing on particle events that occurred between 2011 and 2015. These new techniques also provide the opportunity to investigate the enigmatic long-duration gamma ray events.

  14. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  15. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Van Loo, Sven; Christie, Duncan; Collins, David

    2017-02-01

    We investigate giant molecular cloud collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of 3D, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region models that span the atomic-to-molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, especially: relative orientations between magnetic fields and density structures, like filaments; 13CO(J = 2-1), 13CO(J = 3-2), and 12CO(J = 8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra; and cloud virial parameters. We compare these results to observed Galactic clouds.

  16. Imaging of 3D Ocean Turbulence Microstructure Using Low Frequency Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, Alexander; Kolyukhin, Dmitriy; Keers, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade the technique of imaging the ocean structure with low-frequency signal (Hz), produced by air-guns and typically employed during conventional multichannel seismic data acquisition, has emerged. The method is based on extracting and stacking the acoustic energy back-scattered by the ocean temperature and salinity micro- and meso-structure (1 - 100 meters). However, a good understanding of the link between the scattered wavefield utilized by the seismic oceanography and physical processes in the ocean is still lacking. We describe theory and the numerical implementation of a 3D time-dependent stochastic model of ocean turbulence. The velocity and temperature are simulated as homogeneous Gaussian isotropic random fields with the Kolmogorov-Obukhov energy spectrum in the inertial subrange. Numerical modeling technique is employed for sampling of realizations of random fields with a given spatial-temporal spectral tensor. The model used is shown to be representative for a wide range of scales. Using this model, we provide a framework to solve the forward and inverse acoustic scattering problem using marine seismic data. Our full-waveform inversion method is based on the ray-Born approximation which is specifically suitable for the modelling of small velocity perturbations in the ocean. This is illustrated by showing a good match between synthetic seismograms computed using ray-Born and synthetic seismograms produced with a more computationally expensive finite-difference method.

  17. Particle motion in a turbulent serpentine channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Durbin, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Particle motion in serpentine passage was studied using direct numerical simulation coupled with Lagrangian particle tracking. In a straight, turbulent channel, eddies are responsible for particle deposition in the near-wall region. In a serpentine channel, particle inertia may be the dominant cause of high concentration near the outer bend in the curved section. However, turbulent convection is still important. This depends on the relative magnitude of particle Stokes number and turbulent time-scale. Particles with small Stokes number form a plume that leaves the inner bend and high concentration layers near both walls in the straight section before entering the bend. The high concentration layers remain thin, reminiscent of plane channel flow. Significant deposition of heavier particles in the straight section is only found on the side extended from the outer bend. There are two plumes at the entrance of bend because of the larger particle inertial and thicker layer of high concentration. Particle deposition in the curved section is also affected by particle-wall collision and simulation results of particulate impact and erosion will be presented.

  18. Lagrangian statistics of light particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Julián Martínez; Prakash, Vivek N.; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; (International CollaborationTurbulence Research)

    2012-05-01

    We study the Lagrangian velocity and acceleration statistics of light particles (micro-bubbles in water) in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Micro-bubbles with a diameter db = 340 μm and Stokes number from 0.02 to 0.09 are dispersed in a turbulent water tunnel operated at Taylor-Reynolds numbers (Reλ) ranging from 160 to 265. We reconstruct the bubble trajectories by employing three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the micro-bubble acceleration show a highly non-Gaussian behavior with flatness values in the range 23 to 30. The acceleration flatness values show an increasing trend with Reλ, consistent with previous experiments [G. Voth, A. La Porta, A. M. Crawford, J. Alexander, and E. Bodenschatz, "Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 469, 121 (2002)], 10.1017/S0022112002001842 and numerics [T. Ishihara, Y. Kaneda, M. Yokokawa, K. Itakura, and A. Uno, "Small-scale statistics in highresolution direct numerical simulation of turbulence: Reynolds number dependence of one-point velocity gradient statistics," J. Fluid Mech. 592, 335 (2007)], 10.1017/S0022112007008531. These acceleration PDFs show a higher intermittency compared to tracers [S. Ayyalasomayajula, Z. Warhaft, and L. R. Collins, "Modeling inertial particle acceleration statistics in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids. 20, 095104 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2976174 and heavy particles [S. Ayyalasomayajula, A. Gylfason, L. R. Collins, E. Bodenschatz, and Z. Warhaft, "Lagrangian measurements of inertial particle accelerations in grid generated wind tunnel turbulence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 144507 (2006)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.144507 in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the micro-bubble acceleration autocorrelation function decorrelates slower with increasing Reλ. We also compare our results with experiments in von Kármán flows and point-particle direct numerical simulations with periodic

  19. Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.

  20. Saltation of particles in turbulent channel flow.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunning; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Xu, Dong; Williams, John

    2014-05-01

    This paper numerically investigates particle saltation in a turbulent channel flow having a rough bed consisting of two to three layers of densely packed spheres. The Shields function is 0.065 which is just above the sediment entrainment threshold to give a bed-load regime. The applied methodology is a combination of three technologies, i.e., the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow; the combined finite-discrete element modeling of the deformation, movement, and collision of the particles; and the immersed boundary method for the fluid-solid interaction. It is shown that the presence of entrained particles significantly modifies the flow profiles of velocity, turbulent intensities, and shear stresses in the vicinity of a rough bed. The quasi-streamwise-aligned streaky structures are not observed in the near-wall region and the particles scatter on the rough bed owing to their large size. However, in the outer flow region, the turbulent coherent structures recover due to the weakening rough-bed effects and particle interferences. First- and second-order statistical features of particle translational and angular velocities, together with sediment concentration and volumetric flux density profiles, are presented. Several key parameters of the particle saltation trajectory are calculated and agree closely with published experimental data. Time histories of the hydrodynamic forces exerted upon a typical saltating particle, together with those of the particle's coordinates and velocities, are presented. A strong correlation is shown between the abruptly decreasing streamwise velocity and increasing vertical velocity at collision which indicates that the continuous saltation of large-grain-size particles is controlled by collision parameters such as particle incident angle, local bed packing arrangement, and particle density, etc.

  1. Mathieu beams as versatile light moulds for 3D micro particle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Alpmann, C; Bowman, R; Woerdemann, M; Padgett, M; Denz, C

    2010-12-06

    We present tailoring of three dimensional light fields which act as light moulds for elaborate particle micro structures of variable shapes. Stereo microscopy is used for visualization of the 3D particle assemblies. The powerful method is demonstrated for the class of propagation invariant beams, where we introduce the use of Mathieu beams as light moulds with non-rotationally-symmetric structure. They offer multifarious field distributions and facilitate the creation of versatile particle structures. This general technique may find its application in micro fluidics, chemistry, biology, and medicine, to create highly efficient mixing tools, for hierarchical supramolecular organization or in 3D tissue engineering.

  2. Test Particles, Test Modes and Drift Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2008-10-15

    Strong electrostatic turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by trapping or eddying of test particle trajectories produced by the ExB stochastic drift. Trapping is shown to produce non-standard statistics of trajectories: non-Gaussian distribution, memory effects and quasi-coherence. Two types of effects produced by trapping are analyzed. The first type concerns particle and energy transport and consists in very strong nonlinear modification of the diffusion coefficients. Anomalous diffusion regimes are obtained when the other components of the motion (particle collisions, plasma rotation, the motion along the confining magnetic field) do not destroy trajectory eddying. The second type of effects are evidenced by studying test modes on turbulent plasma. We show that trappyng provides the physical mechanism for the inverse cascade observed in drift turbulence.

  3. Characterizing heterogeneity among virus particles by stochastic 3D signal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nan; Gong, Yunye; Wang, Qiu; Zheng, Yili; Doerschuk, Peter C.

    2015-09-01

    In single-particle cryo electron microscopy, many electron microscope images each of a single instance of a biological particle such as a virus or a ribosome are measured and the 3-D electron scattering intensity of the particle is reconstructed by computation. Because each instance of the particle is imaged separately, it should be possible to characterize the heterogeneity of the different instances of the particle as well as a nominal reconstruction of the particle. In this paper, such an algorithm is described and demonstrated on the bacteriophage Hong Kong 97. The algorithm is a statistical maximum likelihood estimator computed by an expectation maximization algorithm implemented in Matlab software.

  4. The terminal velocity of volcanic particles with shape obtained from 3D X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Mele, Daniela; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Dürig, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    New experiments of falling volcanic particles were performed in order to define terminal velocity models applicable in a wide range of Reynolds number Re. Experiments were carried out with fluids of various viscosities and with particles that cover a wide range of size, density and shape. Particle shape, which strongly influences fluid drag, was measured in 3D by High-resolution X-ray microtomography, by which sphericity Φ3D and fractal dimension D3D were obtained. They are easier to measure and less operator dependent than the 2D shape parameters used in previous papers. Drag laws that make use of the new 3D parameters were obtained by fitting particle data to the experiments, and single-equation terminal velocity models were derived. They work well both at high and low Re (3 × 10- 2 < Re < 104), while earlier formulations made use of different equations at different ranges of Re. The new drag laws are well suited for the modelling of particle transportation both in the eruptive column, where coarse and fine particles are present, and also in the distal part of the umbrella region, where fine ash is involved in the large-scale domains of atmospheric circulation. A table of the typical values of Φ3D and D3D of particles from known plinian, subplinian and ash plume eruptions is presented. Graphs of terminal velocity as a function of grain size are finally proposed as tools to help volcanologists and atmosphere scientists to model particle transportation of explosive eruptions.

  5. On the dynamics of jellyfish locomotion via 3D particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Matthew; Kim, Jin-Tae; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) locomotion is experimentally studied via 3D particle tracking velocimetry. 3D locations of the bell tip are tracked over 1.5 cycles to describe the jellyfish path. Multiple positions of the jellyfish bell margin are initially tracked in 2D from four independent planes and individually projected in 3D based on the jellyfish path and geometrical properties of the setup. A cubic spline interpolation and the exponentially weighted moving average are used to estimate derived quantities, including velocity and acceleration of the jellyfish locomotion. We will discuss distinctive features of the jellyfish 3D motion at various swimming phases, and will provide insight on the 3D contraction and relaxation in terms of the locomotion, the steadiness of the bell margin eccentricity, and local Reynolds number based on the instantaneous mean diameter of the bell.

  6. Development of a 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, David; Rixon, Greg; Dabiri, Dana

    2006-11-01

    A novel 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) system has been designed and fabricated. By combining 3D Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (3DDPIV) and Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT) into one system, this technique provides simultaneous temperature and velocity data in a volume of ˜1x1x0.5 in^3 using temperature sensitive liquid crystal particles as flow sensors. Two high-intensity xenon flashlamps were used as illumination sources. The imaging system consists of six CCD cameras, three allocated for measuring velocity, based on particle motion, and three for measuring temperature, based on particle color. The cameras were optically aligned using a precision grid and high-resolution translation stages. Temperature calibration was then performed using a precision thermometer and a temperature-controlled bath. Results from proof-of-concept experiments will be presented and discussed.

  7. Clustering of floating particles in stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, Guido; de Lillo, Filippo; Musacchio, Stefano; Sozza, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    We study the dynamics of small floating particles transported by stratified turbulence in presence of a mean linear density profile as a simple model for the confinement and the accumulation of plankton in the ocean. By means of extensive direct numerical simulations we investigate the statistical distribution of floaters as a function of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem. We find that vertical confinement of particles is mainly ruled by the degree of stratification, with a weak dependency on the particle properties. Conversely, small scale fractal clustering, typical of non-neutral particles in turbulence, depends on the particle relaxation time and is only weakly dependent on the flow stratification. The implications of our findings for the formation of thin phytoplankton layers are discussed.

  8. Elastically bound particle in a turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    The results of a direct numerical simulation of the behavior of a finite-size spherical particle subject to a linear elastic force in a turbulent flow are described. The turbulence is obtained by a physical space linear forcing due to Lundgren (see also Rosales and Meneveau, PoF 2005). The fluid-particle interaction is simulated by means of the Physalis method which permits the accurate calculation of hydrodynamic forces and couples acting on the particle using a fixed Cartesian grid. We vary the particle size with respect to the integral length scale along with the spring constant and therefore the natural frequency of the oscillator. Some results of a similar calculation with torsional springs and a fixed particle center will also be described. Funding provided by the IMPACT institute, the Netherlands.

  9. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-15

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  10. Alignment of 3-D optical coherence tomography scans to correct eye movement using a particle filtering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2012-07-01

    Eye movement artifacts occurring during 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning is a well-recognized problem that may adversely affect image analysis and interpretation. A particle filtering algorithm is presented in this paper to correct motion in a 3-D dataset by considering eye movement as a target tracking problem in a dynamic system. The proposed particle filtering algorithm is an independent 3-D alignment approach, which does not rely on any reference image. 3-D OCT data is considered as a dynamic system, while the location of each A-scan is represented by the state space. A particle set is used to approximate the probability density of the state in the dynamic system. The state of the system is updated frame by frame to detect A-scan movement. The proposed method was applied on both simulated data for objective evaluation and experimental data for subjective evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of the x-movement detection were 98.85% and 99.43%, respectively, in the simulated data. For the experimental data (74 3-D OCT images), all the images were improved after z-alignment, while 81.1% images were improved after x-alignment. The proposed algorithm is an efficient way to align 3-D OCT volume data and correct the eye movement without using references.

  11. Observation of toroidal variation of density gradients and turbulence in DIII-D with 3D fields during ELM suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R. S.; Schafer, M. W.; Canik, J. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Wingen, A.; Ferraro, N. M.; McKee, G. R.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2016-10-01

    Significant 3D variation in broadband density fluctuations is observed using beam emission spectroscopy and Doppler backscattering near the boundary of weakly 3D plasmas in DIII-D when non-axisymmetric fields are applied to suppress ELMs. The increase in fluctuations is concomitant with an increase in the density gradient measured using profile reflectometry, suggesting that this toroidally localized density gradient could be a mechanism for turbulence destabilization in localized flux tubes. Although changes to magnetic surface topology are shown to be too small to affect turbulence stability directly, two-fluid M3D-C1 simulations find that there is a significant 3D variation of density within flux surfaces in the pedestal. These modeled local density changes modify the local pressure- and density- gradient scale lengths, and measured turbulence is shown to increase on flux tubes with larger gradients. Work supported by the US DOE under contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-08ER54999 and DE-FG02-08ER54984.

  12. Snowflakes as inertial particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Filippo; Nemes, Andras; Dasari, Teja; Hong, Jiarong; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first direct measurements of trajectories and settling velocity of snow particles in the atmospheric surface layer. During a nocturnal snowfall we deploy an imaging system consisting of a searchlight and high speed cameras to illuminate and track thousands of snowflakes over a 7 m by 4 m vertical plane. We simultaneously characterize their shape and size using digital holography, while recording the air turbulence properties via sonic anemometry. We show that, in the meteorological conditions in object, the snowflake motion exhibits hallmark features identified by fundamental studies of particle-laden turbulence in both the Lagrangian and the Eulerian framework. The acceleration distribution displays stretched exponential tails, and by comparing with previous laboratory and computational studies we infer the Stokes number and aerodynamic response time of the snowflakes. The fall speed is found to be much greater than the expected value in still air, indicating that turbulence enhances settling according to the preferential sweeping mechanism. These observations demonstrate the major role of turbulence in determining the snow fall speed, and create the basis for leveraging results from particle-laden turbulence research towards improved snow precipitation models.

  13. Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Werner, Gregory; Zhdankin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process that converts magnetic energy into particle kinetic energy. ``Relativistic'' reconnection is of interest in astrophysical contexts because it can accelerate particles to relativistic energies high enough for synchrotron (or inverse Compton) emission to explain observed high-energy radiation. After several 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection in pair plasmas demonstrated power-law electron-energy spectra extending to high energies, a few 3D simulations surprisingly confirmed the robustness of nonthermal particle acceleration, despite fundamental differences, such as the development of the relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) in 3D. We present a comprehensive PIC study of 3D relativistic pair-plasma reconnection characterizing the effect of the third dimension. We investigate how reconnection dynamics and particle acceleration depend on guide magnetic field Bz and on the simulation box length Lz in the third dimension. We find that, while the RDKI does indeed grow in 3D reconnection, it does not inhibit particle acceleration, even in the absence of guide field. This work was funded by NSF, DOE, and NASA.

  14. MODELING STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THROUGH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 3D-MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2013-09-01

    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  15. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; ...

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  16. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.

  17. Analysis of a 3-D system function measured for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmer, Jürgen; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Gleich, Bernhard; Borgert, Jörn

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tomographic imaging approach that can quantitatively map magnetic nanoparticle distributions in vivo. It is capable of volumetric real-time imaging at particle concentrations low enough to enable clinical applications. For image reconstruction in 3-D MPI, a system function (SF) is used, which describes the relation between the acquired MPI signal and the spatial origin of the signal. The SF depends on the instrumental configuration, the applied field sequence, and the magnetic particle characteristics. Its properties reflect the quality of the spatial encoding process. This work presents a detailed analysis of a measured SF to give experimental evidence that 3-D MPI encodes information using a set of 3-D spatial patterns or basis functions that is stored in the SF. This resembles filling 3-D k-space in magnetic resonance imaging, but is faster since all information is gathered simultaneously over a broad acquisition bandwidth. A frequency domain analysis shows that the finest structures that can be encoded with the presented SF are as small as 0.6 mm. SF simulations are performed to demonstrate that larger particle cores extend the set of basis functions towards higher resolution and that the experimentally observed spatial patterns require the existence of particles with core sizes of about 30 nm in the calibration sample. A simple formula is presented that qualitatively describes the basis functions to be expected at a certain frequency.

  18. Particle Acceleration and Heating by Turbulent Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, Loukas; Pisokas, Theophilos; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent flows in the solar wind, large-scale current sheets, multiple current sheets, and shock waves lead to the formation of environments in which a dense network of current sheets is established and sustains “turbulent reconnection.” We constructed a 2D grid on which a number of randomly chosen grid points are acting as scatterers (i.e., magnetic clouds or current sheets). Our goal is to examine how test particles respond inside this large-scale collection of scatterers. We study the energy gain of individual particles, the evolution of their energy distribution, and their escape time distribution. We have developed a new method to estimate the transport coefficients from the dynamics of the interaction of the particles with the scatterers. Replacing the “magnetic clouds” with current sheets, we have proven that the energization processes can be more efficient depending on the strength of the effective electric fields inside the current sheets and their statistical properties. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles only for the stochastic Fermi process. We have shown that the evolution of the particles inside a turbulent reconnecting volume is not a solution of the FP equation, since the interaction of the particles with the current sheets is “anomalous,” in contrast to the case of the second-order Fermi process.

  19. Dynamic particle accumulation structure (PAS) in half-zone liquid bridge Reconstruction of particle motion by 3-D PTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, I.; Abe, Y.; Noguchi, K.; Kawamura, H.

    Three-dimensional (3-D) velocity field reconstruction of oscillatory thermocapillary convections in a half-zone liquid bridge with a radius of O (1 mm) was carried out by applying 3-D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Simultaneous observation of the particles suspended in the bridge by two CCD cameras was carried out by placing a small cubic beam splitter above a transparent top rod. The reconstruction of the 3-D trajectories and the velocity fields of the particles in the several types of oscillatory-flow regimes were conducted successfully for sufficiently long period without losing particle tracking. With this application the present authors conducted a series of experiments focusing upon the collapse and re-formation process of the PAS by mechanically disturbing fully developed PAS.

  20. Nonlinear evolution of 3D-inertial Alfvén wave and turbulent spectra in Auroral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinawa, M. L.; Modi, K. V.; Sharma, R. P.

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated nonlinear interaction of three dimensional (3D) inertial Alfvén wave and perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave for low β-plasma ( β≪ m e / m i ). We have developed the set of dimensionless equations in the presence of ponderomotive nonlinearity due to 3D-inertial Alfvén wave in the dynamics of perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave. Stability analysis and numerical simulation has been carried out to study the effect of nonlinear coupling on the formation of localized structures and turbulent spectra, applicable to auroral region. The results reveal that the localized structures become more and more complex as the nonlinear interaction progresses. Further, we have studied the turbulent spectrum which follows spectral index (˜ k -3.57) at smaller scales. Relevance of the obtained results has been shown with the observations received by various spacecrafts like FAST, Hawkeye and Heos 2.

  1. HPIV based volumetric 3D flow description in the roughness sublayer of a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microscopic HPIV is utilized to resolve the 3D flow in the roughness sublayer of a boundary layer over a rough wall at Reτ=3400, consisting of pyramidal elements with height of k=0.45mm and 3.3mm wavelength. Typically, ~7000 particles are tracked in a 3.2 ×2.1 ×1.8mm3 volume, whose wall-normal extent is -0.2 < y / k < 4.67, y=0 being the roughness peak. These measurements are facilitated by matching the refractive index of the fluid with that of the acrylic rough wall. Results show that the sublayer is flooded by complex coherent structures scaled between 1-2 k. They are mostly aligned with roughness grooves, but some wrap around the pyramids, and stretch to a streamwise orientation by a relatively fast channeling flow that develops between the pyramid ridgelines. Occasionally, structures eject away from the roughness sublayer at a steep angle to the mean flow. Using the 300 realizations processed so far, the spatial variations in mean velocity and Reynolds stresses are compared to 2D PIV results, and trends generally (but not always) agree. In particular, there is a rapid increase in all Reynolds stress components close y=0. Conditional sampling is used to extract statistically significant structures. Sponsored by ONR (grant No. 000140-91-10-0-7).

  2. Role of head of turbulent 3-D density currents in mixing during slumping regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    A fundamental study was conducted to shed light on entrainment and mixing in buoyancy-driven Boussinesq density currents. Large-eddy simulation was performed on lock-exchange (LE) release density currents—an idealized test bed to generate density currents. As dense fluid was released over a sloping surface into an ambient lighter fluid, the dense fluid slumps to the bottom and forms a characteristic head of the current. The dynamics of the head dictated the mixing processes in LE currents. The key contribution of this study is to resolve an ongoing debate on mixing: We demonstrate that substantial mixing occurs in the early stages of evolution in an LE experiment and that entrainment is highly inhomogeneous and unsteady during the slumping regime. Guided by the flow physics, entrainment is calculated using two different but related perspectives. In the first approach, the entrainment parameter (E) is defined as the fraction of ambient fluid displaced by the head that entrains into the current. It is an indicator of the efficiency in which ambient fluid is displaced into the current and it serves as an important metric to compare the entrainment of dense currents over different types of surfaces, e.g., roughness configuration. In the second approach, E measures the net entrainment in the current at an instantaneous time t over the length of the current. Net entrainment coefficient is a metric to compare the effects of flow dynamical conditions, i.e., lock-aspect ratio that dictates the fraction of buoyancy entering the head, and also the effect of the sloping angle. Together, the entrainment coefficient and the net entrainment coefficient provide an insight into the entrainment process. The "active" head of the current acts as an engine that mixes the ambient fluid with the existing dense fluid, the 3-D lobes and clefts on the frontal end of the current causes recirculation of the ambient fluid into the current, and Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are the mixers that

  3. Computer Vision Tracking Using Particle Filters for 3D Position Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    5 2.2 Photogrammetry ...focus on particle filters. 2.2 Photogrammetry Photogrammetry is the process of determining 3-D coordinates through images. The mathematical underpinnings...of photogrammetry are rooted in the 1480s with Leonardo da Vinci’s study of perspectives [8, p. 1]. However, digital photogrammetry did not emerge

  4. Automated 3D trajectory measuring of large numbers of moving particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai Shan; Zhao, Qi; Zou, Danping; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2011-04-11

    Complex dynamics of natural particle systems, such as insect swarms, bird flocks, fish schools, has attracted great attention of scientists for years. Measuring 3D trajectory of each individual in a group is vital for quantitative study of their dynamic properties, yet such empirical data is rare mainly due to the challenges of maintaining the identities of large numbers of individuals with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We here present an automatic and efficient algorithm to track 3D motion trajectories of large numbers of moving particles using two video cameras. Our method solves this problem by formulating it as three linear assignment problems (LAP). For each video sequence, the first LAP obtains 2D tracks of moving targets and is able to maintain target identities in the presence of occlusions; the second one matches the visually similar targets across two views via a novel technique named maximum epipolar co-motion length (MECL), which is not only able to effectively reduce matching ambiguity but also further diminish the influence of frequent occlusions; the last one links 3D track segments into complete trajectories via computing a globally optimal assignment based on temporal and kinematic cues. Experiment results on simulated particle swarms with various particle densities validated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. As real-world case, our method successfully acquired 3D flight paths of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) group comprising hundreds of freely flying individuals.

  5. 3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...

  6. Secondary reconnection, energisation and turbulence in dipolarisation fronts: results of a 3D kinetic simulation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DF) are formed by reconnection outflows interacting with the pre-existing environment. These regions are host of important energy exchanges [1], particle acceleration [2] and a complex structure and evolution [3]. Our recent work has investigated these regions via fully kinetic 3D simulations [4]. As reported recently on Nature Physics [3], based on 3D fully kinetic simulations started with a well defined x-line, we observe that in the DF reconnection transitions towards a more chaotic regime. In the fronts an instability devel- ops caused by the local gradients of the density and by the unfavourable acceleration and field line curvature. The consequence is the break up of the fronts in a fashion similar to the classical fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the formation of "fingers" of plasma and embedded magnetic fields. These fingers interact and produce secondary reconnection sites. We present several different diagnostics that prove the existence of these secondary reconnection sites. Each site is surrounded by its own electron diffusion region. At the fronts the ions are generally not magnetized and considerable ion slippage is present. The discovery we present is that electrons are also slipping, forming localized diffusion regions near secondary reconnection sites [1]. The consequence of this discovery is twofold. First, the instability in the fronts has strong energetic implications. We observe that the energy transfer locally is very strong, an order of magnitude stronger than in the "X" line. However, this energy transfer is of both signs as it is natural for a wavy rippling with regions of magnetic to kinetic and regions of kinetic to magnetic energy conversion. Second, and most important for this session, is that MMS should not limit the search for electron diffusion regions to the location marked with X in all reconnection cartoons. Our simulations predict more numerous and perhaps more easily measurable electron diffusion

  7. PAB3D: Its History in the Use of Turbulence Models in the Simulation of Jet and Nozzle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2006-01-01

    This is a review paper for PAB3D s history in the implementation of turbulence models for simulating jet and nozzle flows. We describe different turbulence models used in the simulation of subsonic and supersonic jet and nozzle flows. The time-averaged simulations use modified linear or nonlinear two-equation models to account for supersonic flow as well as high temperature mixing. Two multiscale-type turbulence models are used for unsteady flow simulations. These models require modifications to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k-epsilon) model with a RANS/LES transition function, dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) formulation. All of these models are implemented in the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D. This paper discusses computational methods, code implementation, computed results for a wide range of nozzle configurations at various operating conditions, and comparisons with available experimental data. Very good agreement is shown between the numerical solutions and available experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions.

  8. Continuous dielectrophoretic particle separation using a microfluidic device with 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yankai; Ren, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic separation device combining 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles to continuously separate particles experiencing strong positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) from particles experiencing weak positive DEP, or from particles experiencing negative DEP. The separation is achieved by first focusing the particle mixture into a narrow stream by a hydrodynamic focusing flow, and then deviating them into different outlets by AC DEP. The vaulted obstacles facilitate the separation by both increasing the non-uniformity of the electric field, and influencing the particles to move in regions strongly affected by DEP. The 3D electrodes give rise to a spatially non-uniform electric field and extend DEP effect to the channel height. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the obstacles on electric field distribution and particle trajectories so as to optimize the obstacle height and compare with the experimental results. The performance of the device is assessed by separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from 10 μm particles in different flow rates by positive DEP and negative DEP, and also separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from yeast cells using only positive DEP. The experimental observation shows a reasonable agreement with numerical simulation results.

  9. Numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer past a backward-facing step: 2D/3D RANS versus IDDES solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, E. M.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schur, N. A.; Zaitsev, D. K.; Smirnov, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution covers results of numerical study of air flow and heat transfer past a backward-facing step at the Reynolds number of 28,000. The numerical simulation was carried out under conditions of the experiments of Vogel&Eaton (1985), where nominally 2D fluid dynamics and heat transfer in a channel with expansion ratio of 1.25 was investigated. Two approaches were used for turbulence modelling. First, the Menter SST turbulence model was used to perform refined 2D and 3D RANS steady-state computations. The 3D analysis was undertaken to evaluate effects of boundary layers developing on the sidewalls of the experimental channel. Then, 3D time-dependent computations were carried out using the vortex-resolving IDDES method and applying the spanwise-periodicity conditions. Comparative computations were performed using an in-house finite-volume code SINF/Flag-S and the ANSYS Fluent. The codes produced practically identical RANS solutions, showing in particular a difference of 4% in the central-line peak Stanton number calculated in 2D and 3D cases. The IDDES results obtained with two codes are in a satisfactory agreement. Comparing with the experimental data, the IDDES produces the best agreement for the wall friction, whereas the RANS solutions show superiority in predictions of the local Stanton number distribution.

  10. Turbulence computations with 3-D small-scale additive turbulent decomposition and data-fitting using chaotic map combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, Sudip

    1997-01-01

    Although the equations governing turbulent fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes (N.S.) equations, have been known for well over a century and there is a clear technological necessity in obtaining solutions to these equations, turbulence remains one of the principal unsolved problems in physics today. It is still not possible to make accurate quantitative predictions about turbulent flows without relying heavily on empirical data. In principle, it is possible to obtain turbulent solutions from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the N.-S. equations. The author first provides a brief introduction to the dynamics of turbulent flows. The N.-S. equations which govern fluid flow, are described thereafter. Then he gives a brief overview of DNS calculations and where they stand at present. He next introduces the two most popular approaches for doing turbulent computations currently in use, namely, the Reynolds averaging of the N.-S. equations (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Approximations, often ad hoc ones, are present in these methods because use is made of heuristic models for turbulence quantities (the Reynolds stresses) which are otherwise unknown. They then introduce a new computational method called additive turbulent decomposition (ATD), the small-scale version of which is the topic of this research. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 he describes the ATD procedure in greater detail; how dependent variables are split and the decomposition into large- and small-scale sets of equations. In Chapter 3 the spectral projection of the small-scale momentum equations are derived in detail. In Chapter 4 results of the computations with the small-scale ATD equations are presented. In Chapter 5 he describes the data-fitting procedure which can be used to directly specify the parameters of a chaotic-map turbulence model.

  11. ORBXYZ: a 3D single-particle orbit code for following charged-particle trajectories in equilibrium magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.V.; Cohen, R.H.; Ferguson, J.R.; Johnston, B.M.; Sharp, C.B.; Willmann, P.A.

    1981-06-30

    The single particle orbit code, TIBRO, has been modified extensively to improve the interpolation methods used and to allow use of vector potential fields in the simulation of charged particle orbits on a 3D domain. A 3D cubic B-spline algorithm is used to generate spline coefficients used in the interpolation. Smooth and accurate field representations are obtained. When vector potential fields are used, the 3D cubic spline interpolation formula analytically generates the magnetic field used to push the particles. This field has del.BETA = 0 to computer roundoff. When magnetic induction is used the interpolation allows del.BETA does not equal 0, which can lead to significant nonphysical results. Presently the code assumes quadrupole symmetry, but this is not an essential feature of the code and could be easily removed for other applications. Many details pertaining to this code are given on microfiche accompanying this report.

  12. ORBXYZ: A 3D single-particle orbit code for following charged particle trajectories in equilibrium magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. V.; Cohen, R. H.; Ferguson, J. R.; Johnston, B. M.; Sharp, C. B.; Willmann, P. A.

    1981-06-01

    The single particle orbit code, TIBRO, was modified extensively to improve the interpolation methods used and to allow use of vector potential fields in the simulation of charged particle orbits on a 3D domain. A 3D cubic B-spline algorithm is used to generate spline coefficients used in the interpolation. Smooth and accurate field representations are obtained. When vector potential fields are used, the 3D cubic spline interpolation formula analytically generates the magnetic field used to push the particles. This field has del.BETA = 0 to computer roundoff. When magnetic induction is used the interpolation allows del.BETA does not equal 0, which can lead to significant nonphysical results. Presently the code assumes quadrupole symmetry, but this is not an essential feature of the code and could be easily removed for other applications.

  13. Three-fluid, 3D MHD solar wind modeling with turbulence transport and eddy viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, A. V.; Goldstein, M. L.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a three-fluid, fully three-dimensional MHD solar wind model that includes turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a co-moving system of three species: the solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons. Separate energy equations are employed for each species. We obtain numerical solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The integrated system of equations includes the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including turbulence parameters, throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with observations on WIND, Ulysses and Voyager 2 spacecraft. This work is partially supported by LWS and Heliophysics Grand Challenges programs.

  14. Digital holography particle image velocimetry for the measurement of 3D t-3c flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gongxin; Wei, Runjie

    2005-10-01

    In this paper a digital in-line holographic recording and reconstruction system was set up and used in the particle image velocimetry for the 3D t-3c (the three-component (3c), velocity vector field measurements in a three-dimensional (3D), space field with time history ( t)) flow measurements that made up of the new full-flow field experimental technique—digital holographic particle image velocimetry (DHPIV). The traditional holographic film was replaced by a CCD chip that records instantaneously the interference fringes directly without the darkroom processing, and the virtual image slices in different positions were reconstructed by computation using Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral method from the digital holographic image. Also a complex field signal filter (analyzing image calculated by its intensity and phase from real and image parts in fast fourier transform (FFT)) was applied in image reconstruction to achieve the thin focus depth of image field that has a strong effect with the vertical velocity component resolution. Using the frame-straddle CCD device techniques, the 3c velocity vector was computed by 3D cross-correlation through space interrogation block matching through the reconstructed image slices with the digital complex field signal filter. Then the 3D-3c-velocity field (about 20 000 vectors), 3D-streamline and 3D-vorticiry fields, and the time evolution movies (30 field/s) for the 3D t-3c flows were displayed by the experimental measurement using this DHPIV method and techniques.

  15. Nondestructive optical testing of 3D disperse systems with micro- and nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2005-04-01

    Nondestructive testing and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) disperse systems (DS) with micro- and nano-particles of different nature by complex of optical compatible methods can provide further progress in on-line control of water and air. The simultaneous analysis of 3D-DS by refractometry, absorbency, fluorescence and by different types of light scattering can help to elaborate the sensing elements for specific impurity control. In our research we have investigated by complex of optical methods different 3D-DS such as: proteins, nucleoproteids, lipoproteids, liposomes, viruses, virosomes, lipid emulsions, blood substitutes, latexes, liquid crystals, biological cells with various form and size (including bacterial cells), metallic powders, clays, kimberlites, zeolites, oils, crude oils, etc., and mixtures -- proteins with nucleic acids, liposomes and viruses, liquid crystals with surfactants, mixtures of clay with bacterial cells, samples of natural and water-supply waters, etc. This experience suggests that the set of optical parameters of so called second class is unique for each 3D-DS. In another words each DS can be characterized by n-dimensional vector in n-dimensional space of optical parameters. Mixtures can be considered as polycomponent and polymodal 3D-DS (such as natural water and air). Due to the fusion of various optical data it is possible to indicate by information statistical theory the inverse physical problem on the presence of impurities in mixtures (viruses, bacteria, oil, metallic particles, etc.), and in this case polymodality of particle size distribution is not an obstacle. Bank of optical data for 3D-DS is the base for analysis by information-statistical method.

  16. A Gaussian process guided particle filter for tracking 3D human pose in video.

    PubMed

    Sedai, Suman; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Huynh, Du Q

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid method that combines Gaussian process learning, a particle filter, and annealing to track the 3D pose of a human subject in video sequences. Our approach, which we refer to as annealed Gaussian process guided particle filter, comprises two steps. In the training step, we use a supervised learning method to train a Gaussian process regressor that takes the silhouette descriptor as an input and produces multiple output poses modeled by a mixture of Gaussian distributions. In the tracking step, the output pose distributions from the Gaussian process regression are combined with the annealed particle filter to track the 3D pose in each frame of the video sequence. Our experiments show that the proposed method does not require initialization and does not lose tracking of the pose. We compare our approach with a standard annealed particle filter using the HumanEva-I dataset and with other state of the art approaches using the HumanEva-II dataset. The evaluation results show that our approach can successfully track the 3D human pose over long video sequences and give more accurate pose tracking results than the annealed particle filter.

  17. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images. PMID:27292544

  18. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-06-13

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images.

  19. Hollow Cone Electron Imaging for Single Particle 3D Reconstruction of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lobato, Ivan; van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The main bottlenecks for high-resolution biological imaging in electron microscopy are radiation sensitivity and low contrast. The phase contrast at low spatial frequencies can be enhanced by using a large defocus but this strongly reduces the resolution. Recently, phase plates have been developed to enhance the contrast at small defocus but electrical charging remains a problem. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy is mostly used to minimize the radiation damage and to enhance the resolution of the 3D reconstructions but it requires averaging images of a massive number of individual particles. Here we present a new route to achieve the same goals by hollow cone dark field imaging using thermal diffuse scattered electrons giving about a 4 times contrast increase as compared to bright field imaging. We demonstrate the 3D reconstruction of a stained GroEL particle can yield about 13.5 Å resolution but using a strongly reduced number of images.

  20. Graphene originated 3D structures grown on the assembled nickel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronyan, Tereza; Harutyunyan, Avetik; Honda Research Institute USA Inc. Team

    2013-03-01

    Recently, the fabrication of various morphologies of graphene originated structures became very important due to the perspective of wide range of new applications. Particularly, free standing 3D structured graphene foams could be imperative in energy related areas . Here, we present the new approach of the CVD growth of 3D graphene network by using primarily sintered Ni particle's (~40 μm size) assembles as a template-catalyst via decomposition of low rate of CH4 at 1100° C based on synthesis method described earlier. SEM and Raman spectra analysis revealed the formation of graphene structure containing a single up to few layers grown on the sintered metal particles served as a catalyst-template. After etching the metal frame without using any support polymer, 3D free-standing graphene microporous structure was formed demonstrating high BET surface area. Two probe measurements of frame resistance were ~2-8 Ω. Our approach allows controllable tune the pore size and thereby the surface area of 3D graphene network through the variation of the template-catalyst particles size.

  1. Simulation of suspension flow of finite-size spherical particles in a 3D square channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2008-11-01

    Suspension flow of finite-size particles in a turbulent gas is of importance to many engineering applications and natural phenomena. As a first step, the present work focuses on the motion and hydrodynamic interaction of finite-size particles in the absence of background carrier-fluid turbulence. The major challenge for an accurate simulation is twofold: an efficient implementation of no-slip boundary conditions on the moving particle surface and an accurate representation of short-range lubrication effects that typically are not resolved numerically. A Navier-Stokes based hybrid approach (i.e., Physalis) developed by Prosperetti and co-workers is employed to solve the suspension flows of a pair of finite-size, freely-moving particles at finite particle Reynolds numbers. A lubrication force representation, designed by Ladd, involving particle relative location and velocity, is incorporated to capture the short-range interactions between particles. The accuracy of the representation and its compatibility with the flow simulation will be examined. A mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is also used to simulate the same problem for cross validation. Specific implementation issues will be addressed. Comparison with available numerical data will also be discussed.

  2. 3D Plasma Clusters: Analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Annaratone, B. M.

    2008-09-07

    3D plasma clusters (up to 100 particles) have been built inside small (32 mm{sup 3}) plasma volume in gravity. It has been estimated that the external confinement has a negligible influence on the processes inside the clusters. At such conditions the analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interactions have shown that the binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part. The tendency of the systems to approach the state with minimum energy by rearranging particles inside has been detected. The measured 63 particles' cluster vibrations are in close agreement with vibrations of a drop with surface tension. This indicates that even a 63 particle cluster already exhibits properties normally associated with the cooperative regime.

  3. A genetic algorithm particle pairing technique for 3D velocity field extraction in holographic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Meng, H.

    This research explores a novel technique, using Genetic Algorithm Particle Pairing (GAPP) to extract three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields of complex flows. It is motivated by Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV), in which intrinsic speckle noise hinders the achievement of high particle density required for conventional correlation methods in extracting 3D velocity fields, especially in regions with large velocity gradients. The GA particle pairing method maps particles recorded at the first exposure to those at the second exposure in a 3D space, providing one velocity vector for each particle pair instead of seeking statistical averaging. Hence, particle pairing can work with sparse seeding and complex 3D velocity fields. When dealing with a large number of particles from two instants, however, the accuracy of pairing results and processing speed become major concerns. Using GA's capability to search a large solution space parallelly, our algorithm can efficiently find the best mapping scenarios among a large number of possible particle pairing schemes. During GA iterations, different pairing schemes or solutions are evaluated based on fluid dynamics. Two types of evaluation functions are proposed, tested, and embedded into the GA procedures. Hence, our Genetic Algorithm Particle Pairing (GAPP) technique is characterized by robustness in velocity calculation, high spatial resolution, good parallelism in handling large data sets, and high processing speed on parallel architectures. It has been successfully tested on a simple HPIV measurement of a real trapped vortex flow as well as a series of numerical experiments. In this paper, we introduce the principle of GAPP, analyze its performance under different parameters, and evaluate its processing speed on different computer architectures.

  4. Electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davey, K. R.; Melcher, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A method for analyzing magnetic migration of particles in turbulent flows is applied to the prediction of particle trajectories and densities in turbulent aerodynamic boundary layers. Results for conditions typical of aircraft with 30-40 micron particles indicate a large upstream collection and a 5% loss of particles during one pass through the boundary layer. The capacity of the magnetic field to achieve a balance with turbulent diffusion in confining the particles to the boundary layer is discussed.

  5. Particle acceleration in 3D single current sheets formed in the solar corona and heliosphere: PIC approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Siversky, T.

    2015-09-01

    Acceleration of protons and electrons in a reconnecting current sheet (RCS) is investigated with the test particle and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches in a 3D magnetic topology. PIC simulations confirm a spatial separation of electrons and protons with respect to the midplane depending on the guiding field. Simulation reveals that the separation occurs in magnetic topologies with strong guiding fields and lasts as long as the particles are kept dragged into a current sheet. This separation produces a polarisation electric field induced by the plasma feedback to a presence of accelerated particles, which shape can change from symmetric towards the midplane (for weak guiding field) to fully asymmetric (for strong guiding field). Particles are found accelerated at a midplane of any current sheets present in the heliosphere to the energies up to hundred keV for electrons and hundred MeV for protons. The maximum energy gained by particles during their motion inside the current sheet is defined by its magnetic field topology (the ratio of magnetic field components), the side and location from the X-nullpoint, where the particles enter a current sheet. In strong magnetic fields of the solar corona with weaker guiding fields, electrons are found circulating about the midplane to large distances where proton are getting accelerated, creating about the current sheet midplane clouds of high energy electrons, which can be the source of hard X-ray emission in the coronal sources of flares. These electrons are ejected into the same footpoint as protons after the latter reach the energy sufficicent to break from a current sheet. In a weaker magnetic field of the heliosphere the bounced electrons with lower energies cannot reach the midplane turning instead at some distance D before the current sheet midplane by 180 degrees from their initial motion. Also the beams of accelerated transit and bounced particles are found to generate turbulent electric fields in a form of Langmuir

  6. Examining In-Cloud Convective Turbulence in Relation to Total Lightning and the 3D Wind Field of Severe Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Momar, S. A.; Deierling, W.; Williams, J. K.; Hoffman, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    Convectively induced turbulence (CIT) is commonly listed as a cause or factor in weather-related commercial aviation accidents. In-cloud CIT is generated in part by shears between convective updrafts and downdrafts. Total lightning is also dependent on a robust updraft and the resulting storm electrification. The relationship between total lightning and turbulence could prove useful in operational aviation settings with the use of future measurements from the geostationary lightning mapper (GLM) onboard the GOES-R satellite. Providing nearly hemispheric coverage of total lightning, the GLM could help identify CIT in otherwise data-sparse locations. For a severe thunderstorm case on 7 June 2012 in northeast Colorado, in-cloud eddy dissipation rate estimates from the NCAR/NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm were compared with cloud electrification data from the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array and radar products from the Denver, Colorado WSR-88D. These comparisons showed that high concentrations of very high frequency (VHF) source densities emitted by lightning occurred near and downstream of the storm's convective core. Severe turbulence was also shown to occur near this area, extending near the melting level of the storm and spreading upward and outward. Additionally, increases/decreases in VHF sources and turbulence volumes occurred within a few minutes of each other; although, light turbulence was shown to increase near one storm's dissipation. This may be due to increased shear from the now downdraft dominate storm. The 3D wind field from this case, obtained by either a dual-Doppler or a Variational Doppler Radar Assimilation System (VDRAS) analysis, will also be examined to further study the relationships between total lightning and thunderstorm kinematics. If these results prove to be robust, lightning may serve as a strong indicator of the location of moderate or greater turbulence.

  7. Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: Shake-The-Box for multi-pulse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Schanz, Daniel; Reuther, Nico; Kähler, Christian J.; Schröder, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The Shake-The-Box (STB) particle tracking technique, recently introduced for time-resolved 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) images, is applied here to data from a multi-pulse investigation of a turbulent boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradient in air at 36 m/s ( Re τ = 10,650). The multi-pulse acquisition strategy allows for the recording of four-pulse long time-resolved sequences with a time separation of a few microseconds. The experimental setup consists of a dual-imaging system and a dual-double-cavity laser emitting orthogonal polarization directions to separate the four pulses. The STB particle triangulation and tracking strategy is adapted here to cope with the limited amount of realizations available along the time sequence and to take advantage of the ghost track reduction offered by the use of two independent imaging systems. Furthermore, a correction scheme to compensate for camera vibrations is discussed, together with a method to accurately identify the position of the wall within the measurement domain. Results show that approximately 80,000 tracks can be instantaneously reconstructed within the measurement volume, enabling the evaluation of both dense velocity fields, suitable for spatial gradients evaluation, and highly spatially resolved boundary layer profiles. Turbulent boundary layer profiles obtained from ensemble averaging of the STB tracks are compared to results from 2D-PIV and long-range micro particle tracking velocimetry; the comparison shows the capability of the STB approach in delivering accurate results across a wide range of scales.

  8. Ultra-high-speed 3D astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry: application to particle-laden supersonic impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, N. A.; Cierpka, C.; Kähler, C. J.; Soria, J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper demonstrates ultra-high-speed three-component, three-dimensional (3C3D) velocity measurements of micron-sized particles suspended in a supersonic impinging jet flow. Understanding the dynamics of individual particles in such flows is important for the design of particle impactors for drug delivery or cold gas dynamic spray processing. The underexpanded jet flow is produced via a converging nozzle, and micron-sized particles ( d p = 110 μm) are introduced into the gas flow. The supersonic jet impinges onto a flat surface, and the particle impact velocity and particle impact angle are studied for a range of flow conditions and impingement distances. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high-speed digital camera (Shimadzu HPV-1) capable of recording rates of up to 1 Mfps. Astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry (APTV) is used to measure the 3D particle position (Cierpka et al., Meas Sci Technol 21(045401):13, 2010) by coding the particle depth location in the 2D images by adding a cylindrical lens to the high-speed imaging system. Based on the reconstructed 3D particle positions, the particle trajectories are obtained via a higher-order tracking scheme that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution to increase robustness and accuracy of the measurement. It is shown that the particle velocity and impingement angle are affected by the gas flow in a manner depending on the nozzle pressure ratio and stand-off distance where higher pressure ratios and stand-off distances lead to higher impact velocities and larger impact angles.

  9. ENERGETIC PARTICLE DIFFUSION IN CRITICALLY BALANCED TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Kelly, J.; Marsh, M.

    2013-02-20

    Observations and modeling suggest that the fluctuations in magnetized plasmas exhibit scale-dependent anisotropy, with more energy in the fluctuations perpendicular to the mean magnetic field than in the parallel fluctuations and the anisotropy increasing at smaller scales. The scale dependence of the anisotropy has not been studied in full-orbit simulations of particle transport in turbulent plasmas so far. In this paper, we construct a model of critically balanced turbulence, as suggested by Goldreich and Sridhar, and calculate energetic particle spatial diffusion coefficients using full-orbit simulations. The model uses an enveloped turbulence approach, where each two-dimensional wave mode with wavenumber k is packed into envelopes of length L following the critical balance condition, L{proportional_to}k {sup -2/3} , with the wave mode parameters changing between envelopes. Using full-orbit particle simulations, we find that both the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients increase by a factor of two, compared to previous models with scale-independent anisotropy.

  10. Assessment of an Unstructured-Grid Method for Predicting 3-D Turbulent Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.

    1996-01-01

    A method Is presented for solving turbulent flow problems on three-dimensional unstructured grids. Spatial discretization Is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation using an accurate lin- ear reconstruction scheme and upwind flux differencing. Time is advanced by an implicit backward- Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the sublayer region of the boundary layer. A systematic assessment of the method is presented to devise guidelines for more strategic application of the technology to complex problems. The assessment includes the accuracy In predictions of skin-friction coefficient, law-of-the-wall behavior, and surface pressure for a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, and for the ONERA M6 wing under a high Reynolds number, transonic, separated flow condition.

  11. Turbulent particle transport in magnetized fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.

    2005-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for particle transport is of the utmost importance for magnetized fusion plasmas. A peaked density profile is attractive to improve the fusion rate, which is proportional to the square of the density, and to self-generate a large fraction of non-inductive current required for continuous operation. Experiments in various tokamak devices (ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, TCV, TEXT, TFTR) indicate the existence of a turbulent particle pinch. Recently, such a turbulent pinch has been unambiguously identified in Tore Supra very long discharges, in the absence of both collisional particle pinch and central particle source, for more than 4 min (Hoang et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 155002). This turbulent pinch is predicted by a quasilinear theory of particle transport (Weiland J et al 1989 Nucl. Fusion 29 1810), and confirmed by non-linear turbulence simulations (Garbet et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 035001) and general considerations based on the conservation of motion invariants (Baker et al 2004 Phys. Plasmas 11 992). Experimentally, the particle pinch is found to be sensitive to the magnetic field gradient in many cases (Hoang et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 135003, Zabolotsky et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 735, Weisen et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 751, Baker et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 1003), to the temperature profile (Hoang et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 135003, Angioni et al 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 827) and also to the collisionality that changes the nature of the microturbulence (Angioni et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 205003, Garzotti et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 1829, Weisen et al 2004 31st EPS Conf. on Plasma Phys. (London) vol 28G (ECA) P-1.146, Lopes Cardozo N J 1995 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37 799). The consistency of some of the observed dependences with the theoretical predictions gives us a clearer understanding of the particle pinch in tokamaks, allowing us to predict more accurately the density

  12. Mechanism of self-propulsion in 3D-printed active granular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumakis, N.; Gnoli, A.; Maggi, C.; Puglisi, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2016-11-01

    Active granular particles can harness unbiased mechanical vibrations in the environment to generate directed motion. We provide a theoretical framework that connects the geometrical shape of a three dimensional object to its self-propulsion characteristics over a vertically vibrated plate. We find that a maximally efficient propulsion is achieved for structures having tilted flexible legs forming a characteristic angle with the vertical. Our predictions are verified by experimental observations on a class of 3D printed structures with smoothly varying geometrical features.

  13. 3D Air Filtration Modeling for Nanofiber Based Filters in the Ultrafine Particle Size Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambaer, Wannes; Zatloukal, Martin; Kimmer, Dusan

    2011-07-01

    In this work, novel 3D filtration model for nanofiber based filters has been proposed and tested. For the model validation purposes, filtration efficiency characteristics of two different polyurethane nanofiber based structures (prepared by the electrospinning process) were determined experimentally in the ultrafine particle size range (20-400 nm). It has been found that the proposed model is able to reasonably predict the measured filtration efficiency curves for both tested samples.

  14. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G.; Marchand, R.; Markidis, S.

    2013-10-15

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  15. Summary of EASM Turbulence Models in CFL3D With Validation Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Explicit Algebraic Stress Model in k-omega form (EASM-ko) and in k-epsilon form (EASM-ke) in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code CFL3D. These models have been actively used over the last several years in CFL3D, and have undergone some minor modifications during that time. Details of the equations and method for coding the latest versions of the models are given, and numerous validation cases are presented. This paper serves as a validation archive for these models.

  16. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  17. LEWICE3D/GlennHT Particle Analysis of the Honeywell Al502 Low Pressure Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Rigby, David L.

    2015-01-01

    A flow and ice particle trajectory analysis was performed for the booster of the Honeywell AL502 engine. The analysis focused on two closely related conditions one of which produced a rollback and another which did not rollback during testing in the Propulsion Systems Lab at NASA Glenn Research Center. The flow analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn GlennHT flow solver and the particle analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D v3.56 ice accretion software. The flow and particle analysis used a 3D steady flow, mixing plane approach to model the transport of flow and particles through the engine. The inflow conditions for the rollback case were: airspeed, 145 ms; static pressure, 33,373 Pa; static temperature, 253.3 K. The inflow conditions for the non-roll-back case were: airspeed, 153 ms; static pressure, 34,252 Pa; static temperature, 260.1 K. Both cases were subjected to an ice particle cloud with a median volume diameter of 24 microns, an ice water content of 2.0 gm3 and a relative humidity of 100 percent. The most significant difference between the rollback and non-rollback conditions was the inflow static temperature which was 6.8 K higher for the non-rollback case.

  18. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano

    2014-02-15

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  19. A Bayesian approach for suppression of limited angular sampling artifacts in single particle 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Toshio; Acar, Erman; Cheng, R Holland; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2015-09-01

    In the single particle reconstruction, the initial 3D structure often suffers from the limited angular sampling artifact. Selecting 2D class averages of particle images generally improves the accuracy and efficiency of the reference-free 3D angle estimation, but causes an insufficient angular sampling to fill the information of the target object in the 3D frequency space. Similarly, the initial 3D structure by the random-conical tilt reconstruction has the well-known "missing cone" artifact. Here, we attempted to solve the limited angular sampling problem by sequentially applying maximum a posteriori estimate with expectation maximization algorithm (sMAP-EM). Using both simulated and experimental cryo-electron microscope images, the sMAP-EM was compared to the direct Fourier method on the basis of reconstruction error and resolution. To establish selection criteria of the final regularization weight for the sMAP-EM, the effects of noise level and sampling sparseness on the reconstructions were examined with evenly distributed sampling simulations. The frequency information filled in the missing cone of the conical tilt sampling simulations was assessed by developing new quantitative measurements. All the results of visual and numerical evaluations showed the sMAP-EM performed better than the direct Fourier method, regardless of the sampling method, noise level, and sampling sparseness. Furthermore, the frequency domain analysis demonstrated that the sMAP-EM can fill the meaningful information in the unmeasured angular space without detailed a priori knowledge of the objects. The current research demonstrated that the sMAP-EM has a high potential to facilitate the determination of 3D protein structures at near atomic-resolution.

  20. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  1. 3D Printing Meets Computational Astrophysics: Deciphering the Structure of Eta Carinae’s Colliding Winds Using 3D Prints of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, Theodore R.; Clementel, Nicola; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Kruip, Chael; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 3D prints of output from a supercomputer simulation of a complex astrophysical system, the colliding stellar winds in the massive (>120 MSun), highly eccentric (e ~ 0.9) binary Eta Carinae. Using a consumer-grade 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X), we successfully printed 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of Eta Carinae's inner (r ~110 AU) wind-wind collision interface at multiple orbital phases. These 3D prints reveal important, previously unknown 'finger-like' structures at orbital phases shortly after periastron (φ ~1.045) that protrude radially outward from the spiral wind-wind collision region. We speculate that these fingers are related to instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) that arise at the interface between the radiatively-cooled layer of dense post-shock primary-star wind and the hot, adiabatic post-shock companion-star wind. The success of our work and easy identification of previously unknown physical features highlight the important role 3D printing can play in the visualization and understanding of complex 3D time-dependent numerical simulations of astrophysical phenomena.

  2. Particle dynamics in discs with turbulence generated by the vertical shear instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Context. Among the candidates for generating turbulence in accretion discs in situations with low intrinsic ionization, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has become an interesting candidate, since it relies purely on a vertical gradient in the angular velocity. Existing numerical simulations have shown that α-values a few times 10-4 can be generated. Aims: The particle growth in the early planet formation phase is determined by the dynamics of embedded dust particles. Here, we address, in particular, the efficiency of VSI-turbulence in concentrating particles to generate overdensities and low collision velocities. Methods: We perform three-dimensional (3D) numerical hydrodynamical simulations of accretion discs around young stars that include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. The motion of embedded particles within a size range of a fraction of mm up to several m is followed using standard drag formula. Results: We confirm that, under realistic conditions, the VSI is able to generate turbulence in full 3D protoplanetary discs. The irradiated disc shows turbulence within 10 to 60 au. The mean radial motion of the gas is such that it is directed inward near the midplane and outward in the surface layers. We find that large particles drift inward with the expected speed, while small particles can experience phases of outward drift. Additionally, the particles show bunching behaviour with overdensities reaching five times the average value, which is strongest for dimensionless stopping times around unity. Conclusions: Particles in a VSI-turbulent discs are concentrated in large-scale turbulent eddies and show low relative speeds that allow for growing collisions. The reached overdensities will also enable the onset of streaming instabilities, further enhancing particle growth. The outward drift for small particles at higher disk elevations enable the transport of processed high temperature material in the solar system to greater distances.

  3. Results of a 3-D full particle simulation of quasi-perpendicular shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent progress of computational power enables us to perform really macro-scale three-dimensional situations with full particle codes. In this presentation, we will report results of a three-dimensional simulation of a quasi-perpendicular shock. The simulation parameters were selected to simulate a Cluster-II observational result reported by Seki et al. (2009), M_A=7.4 and beta=0.16. The realistic mass ratio mi/me=1840 was taken, and almost one ion inertia length square could be allocated to the plane perpendicular to the upstream flow axis. The result shows that both the self-reformation process and whistler emission are observed. However, the 3-D result is not a simple superposition of 2-D results. The most impressive feature is that quite complicated wave activity is found in the shock foot region. With the help of this wave activity, electron heating observed in the 3-D run is more efficient than those in the 1-D and 2-D runs with the same shock parameters. Moreover, non-thermal electrons are also produced only in the 3D run. In this paper, comparing the 3-D result with previous 1-D and 2-D simulation results, three dimensional nature of the shock transition region of quasi-perpendicular shock is discussed.

  4. 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief via Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallero, J. L. G.; Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Bonvalot, S.; Fudym, O.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear gravity inversion in sedimentary basins is a classical problem in applied geophysics. Although a 2D approximation is widely used, 3D models have been also proposed to better take into account the basin geometry. A common nonlinear approach to this 3D problem consists in modeling the basin as a set of right rectangular prisms with prescribed density contrast, whose depths are the unknowns. Then, the problem is iteratively solved via local optimization techniques from an initial model computed using some simplifications or being estimated using prior geophysical models. Nevertheless, this kind of approach is highly dependent on the prior information that is used, and lacks from a correct solution appraisal (nonlinear uncertainty analysis). In this paper, we use the family of global Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimizers for the 3D gravity inversion and model appraisal of the solution that is adopted for basement relief estimation in sedimentary basins. Synthetic and real cases are illustrated, showing that robust results are obtained. Therefore, PSO seems to be a very good alternative for 3D gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief when used in a sampling while optimizing approach. That way important geological questions can be answered probabilistically in order to perform risk assessment in the decisions that are made.

  5. 3D printing enables separation of orthogonal functions within a hydrogel particle.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ritu; Clay, Nicholas E; Sen, Sanjeet; Melhem, Molly; Qin, Ellen; Kong, Hyunjoon; Bashir, Rashid

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional particles with distinct physiochemical phases are required by a variety of applications in biomedical engineering, such as diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery. This motivates the development of a repeatable, efficient, and customizable approach to manufacturing particles with spatially segregated bioactive moieties. This study demonstrates a stereolithographic 3D printing approach for designing and fabricating large arrays of biphasic poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) gel particles. The fabrication parameters governing the physical and biochemical properties of multi-layered particles are thoroughly investigated, yielding a readily tunable approach to manufacturing customizable arrays of multifunctional particles. The advantage in spatially organizing functional epitopes is examined by loading superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in separate layers of biphasic PEGDA gel particles and examining SPION-induced magnetic resonance (MR) contrast and BSA-release kinetics. Particles with spatial segregation of functional moieties have demonstrably higher MR contrast and BSA release. Overall, this study will contribute significant knowledge to the preparation of multifunctional particles for use as biomedical tools.

  6. Development and Characterization of Embedded Sensory Particles Using Multi-Scale 3D Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Stephen R.; Leser, William P.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Hartl, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    A method for detecting fatigue cracks has been explored at NASA Langley Research Center. Microscopic NiTi shape memory alloy (sensory) particles were embedded in a 7050 aluminum alloy matrix to detect the presence of fatigue cracks. Cracks exhibit an elevated stress field near their tip inducing a martensitic phase transformation in nearby sensory particles. Detectable levels of acoustic energy are emitted upon particle phase transformation such that the existence and location of fatigue cracks can be detected. To test this concept, a fatigue crack was grown in a mode-I single-edge notch fatigue crack growth specimen containing sensory particles. As the crack approached the sensory particles, measurements of particle strain, matrix-particle debonding, and phase transformation behavior of the sensory particles were performed. Full-field deformation measurements were performed using a novel multi-scale optical 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. This information will be used in a finite element-based study to determine optimal sensory material behavior and density.

  7. Resonances in the forced turbulent wake past a 3D blunt body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Diogo; Borée, Jacques; Noack, Bernd R.; Spohn, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We study the resonances of a forced turbulent wake past a flat-based bluff body using symmetric and antisymmetric actuation modes. The natural, unforced wake flow exhibits broadband dynamics superimposed on oscillatory motions linked to the reminiscent laminar Bénard-von Kármán instability in the turbulent flow. Harmonic and subharmonic resonances can be controlled by the phase relationship of periodic forcing and are linked to the symmetry properties of vortex shedding. Symmetric forcing leads to a strong subharmonic amplification of vortex shedding in the wake, but no harmonic excitation. The robustness of the subharmonic resonance is confirmed at different Reynolds numbers. Antisymmetric actuation, however, promotes a harmonic resonance with very similar wake and drag features.

  8. The Interior Analysis and 3-D Reconstruction of Internally-Mixed Light-Absorbing Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Collins, S. M.; Anderson, I.; Herzing, A.

    2010-12-01

    . Finally, automated serial slicing and imaging in the FIB-SEM generated a stack of secondary electron images of the particles’ interior surfaces that allowed for the 3-D reconstruction of the particles, a process known as FIB tomography. Interior surface of light-absorbing carbonaceous particle from FIB-SEM analysis.

  9. Structure of 2-D and 3-D Turbulent Boundary Layers with Sparsely Distributed Roughness Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-28

    straight orientation. Stations U, 6, mm 6", mm 0, mm Ree k+ k/6 1 25.98 58.565 12.70 7.65 11997 58.5 0.0130 2 25.36 54.56 12.65 7.52 11518 60.4 0.0139 3...a flat plate boundary layer transition. Engineering Turbulence Modeling and Experiments - 4, W. Rodi and D. Laurence (Eds.), Elsevier Science Ltd

  10. High resolution 3D confocal microscope imaging of volcanic ash particles.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Gill, Ian; Petford, Nick

    2017-07-15

    We present initial results from a novel high resolution confocal microscopy study of the 3D surface structure of volcanic ash particles from two recent explosive basaltic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011), in Iceland. The majority of particles imaged are less than 100μm in size and include PM10s, known to be harmful to humans if inhaled. Previous studies have mainly used 2D microscopy to examine volcanic particles. The aim of this study was to test the potential of 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy as a reliable analysis tool for these materials and if so to what degree high resolution surface and volume data could be obtained that would further aid in their classification. First results obtained using an Olympus LEXT scanning confocal microscope with a ×50 and ×100 objective lens are highly encouraging. They reveal a range of discrete particle types characterised by sharp or concave edges consistent with explosive formation and sudden rupture of magma. Initial surface area/volume ratios are given that may prove useful in subsequent modelling of damage to aircraft engines and human tissue where inhalation has occurred.

  11. 3D tracking the Brownian motion of colloidal particles using digital holographic microscopy and joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne; Fournel, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    In-line digital holography is a valuable tool for sizing, locating, and tracking micro- or nano-objects in a volume. When a parametric imaging model is available, inverse problem approaches provide a straightforward estimate of the object parameters by fitting data with the model, thereby allowing accurate reconstruction. As recently proposed and demonstrated, combining pixel super-resolution techniques with inverse problem approaches improves the estimation of particle size and 3D position. Here, we demonstrate the accurate tracking of colloidal particles in Brownian motion. Particle size and 3D position are jointly optimized from video holograms acquired with a digital holographic microscopy setup based on a low-end microscope objective (×20, NA 0.5). Exploiting information redundancy makes it possible to characterize particles with a standard deviation of 15 nm in size and a theoretical resolution of 2×2×5  nm3 for position under additive white Gaussian noise assumption.

  12. Effects of magnetic ripple on 3D equilibrium and alpha particle confinement in the European DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Cooper, W. A.; Fasoli, A.; Graves, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of alpha particle confinement is performed in the European DEMO reference design. 3D MHD equilibria with nested flux-surfaces and single magnetic axis are obtained with the VMEC free-boundary code, thereby including the plasma response to the magnetic ripple created by the finite number of TF coils. Populations of fusion alphas that are consistent with the equilibrium profiles are evolved until slowing-down with the VENUS-LEVIS orbit code in the guiding-centre approximation. Fast ion losses through the last-closed flux-surface are numerically evaluated with two ripple models: (1) using the 3D equilibrium and (2) algebraically adding the non-axisymmetric ripple perturbation to the 2D equilibrium. By virtue of the small ripple field and its non-resonant nature, both models quantitatively agree. Differences are however noted in the toroidal location of particles losses on the last-closed flux-surface, which in the first case is 3D and in the second not. Superbanana transport, i.e. ripple-well trapping and separatrix crossing, is expected to be the dominant loss mechanism, the strongest effect on alphas being between 100-200 KeV. Above this, stochastic ripple diffusion is responsible for a rather weak loss rate, as the stochastisation threshold is observed numerically to be higher than analytic estimates. The level of ripple in the current 18 TF coil design of the European DEMO is not found to be detrimental to fusion alpha confinement.

  13. GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Chunye; Liu Jie; Chi Lihua; Huang Haowei; Fang Jingyue; Gong Zhenghu

    2011-07-01

    Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.

  14. Blob Dynamics in 3D BOUT Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D; D'Ippolito, D; Myra, J; Nevins, W; Xu, X

    2004-08-23

    Propagating filaments of enhanced plasma density, or blobs, observed in 3D numerical simulations of a diverted, neutral-fueled tokamak are studied. Fluctuations of vorticity, electrical potential {phi}, temperature T{sub e} and current density J{sub {parallel}} associated with the blobs have a dipole structure perpendicular to the magnetic field and propagate radially with large E {center_dot} B drift velocities (> 1 km/s). The simulation results are consistent with a 3D blob dynamics model that incorporates increased parallel plasma resistivity (from neutral cooling of the X-point region), blob disconnection from the divertor sheath, X-point closure of the current loops, and collisional physics to sustain the {phi}, T{sub e}, J{sub {parallel}} dipoles.

  15. Charactrisation of particle assemblies by 3D cross correlation light scattering and diffusing wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the structural and dynamic properties of soft materials and small particles, information on the relevant mesoscopic length scales is required. Such information is often obtained from traditional static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS) experiments in the single scattering regime. In many dense systems, however, these powerful techniques frequently fail due to strong multiple scattering of light. Here I will discuss some experimental innovations that have emerged over the last decade. New methods such as 3D static and dynamic light scattering (3D LS) as well as diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) can cover a much extended range of experimental parameters ranging from dilute polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions to extremely opaque viscoelastic emulsions.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  17. An automatic approach and grip method of micro-particle in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Wenrong; Bi, Lie

    2017-03-01

    Micro-particle is hard to be observed as small scale and hard to be gripped as micro-force from substrate, an automatic approach and grip method of micro-particle in the guide of microscopic vision systems is proposed in the paper to grip micro-particle. First, the micro-gripper driven by electrostatic force is introduced and forces in gripping process are analyzed. Second, a micro-assembly robot composed of two microscopic vision systems is established to monitor micro-operation process and to operate micro-particle. Image features of micro-particle and micro-gripper end-effector are extracted by image feature extraction method to calculate relative position of micro-particle and micro-gripper in image space. Last, a movement control strategy in 3D space based on image Jacobian matrix is studied to control micro-gripper approach and align with micro-particle. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  18. 3D hybrid simulations with gyrokinetic particle ions and fluid electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, E.V.; Park, W.; Fu, G.Y.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    The previous hybrid MHD/particle model (MH3D-K code) represented energetic ions as gyrokinetic (or drift-kinetic) particles coupled to MHD equations using the pressure or current coupling scheme. A small energetic to bulk ion density ratio was assumed, n{sub h}/n{sub b} {much_lt} 1, allowing the neglect of the energetic ion perpendicular inertia in the momentum equation and the use of MHD Ohm`s law E = {minus}v{sub b} {times} B. A generalization of this model in which all ions are treated as gyrokinetic/drift-kinetic particles and fluid description is used for the electron dynamics is considered in this paper.

  19. A generalized Brownian motion model for turbulent relative particle dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is speculation that the difficulty in obtaining an extended range with Richardson-Obukhov scaling in both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations is due to the finiteness of the flow Reynolds number Re in these situations. In this paper, a generalized Brownian motion model has been applied to describe the relative particle dispersion problem in more realistic turbulent flows and to shed some light on this issue. The fluctuating pressure forces acting on a fluid particle are taken to be a colored noise and follow a stationary process and are described by the Uhlenbeck-Ornstein model while it appears plausible to take their correlation time to have a power-law dependence on Re, thus introducing a bridge between the Lagrangian quantities and the Eulerian parameters for this problem. This ansatz is in qualitative agreement with the possibility of a connection speculated earlier by Corrsin [26] between the white-noise representation for the fluctuating pressure forces and the large-Re assumption in the Kolmogorov [4] theory for the 3D fully developed turbulence (FDT) as well as a similar argument of Monin and Yaglom [23] and a similar result of Sawford [13] and Borgas and Sawford [24]. It also provides an insight into the result that the Richardson-Obukhov scaling holds only in the infinite-Re limit and disappears otherwise. This ansatz further provides a determination of the Richardson-Obukhov constant g as a function of Re, with an asymptotic constant value in the infinite-Re limit. It is shown to lead to full agreement, in the small-Re limit as well, with the Batchelor-Townsend [27] scaling for the rate of change of the mean square interparticle separation in 3D FDT, hence validating its soundness further.

  20. Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).

  1. Application of 3d-ptv To Track Particle Moving Inside Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, A.; Cushman, J. H.; Moroni, M.

    There exist a number of imaging-based measurement techniques for determining 3D velocity fields in an observation volume. Among these are: a) scanning techniques (Guezennec et al. 1994, Moroni and Cushman, 2001); b) holographic techniques (Hin- sch and Hinrichs 1996); c) defocusing techniques (Willert and Gharib 1992); d) stereo- scopic techniques (Maas et al. 1993, Kasagi and Nishino 1990). We have focused our attention on 3D-PTV which is an experimental technique based on reconstructing 3D trajectories of reflecting tracer particles through a stereoscopic recording of image se- quences. Coordinates are determined first and then trajectories are defined. 3D-PTV requires the operator to light a volume of the test section as opposed to 2D techniques that require a light sheet. Stereoscopic methods share the following basic steps (Pa- pantoniou, 1990): a) stereoscopic calibrated imaging and recording of a suitably illu- minated particle flow; b) subsequent photogrammetric analysis of the resulting images to derive the instantaneous 3-D particle positions and c) tracking of the 3-D coordinate sets in time to derive the tracer trajectories. The ideal setup for obtaining highly accu- rate trajectories requires the cameras to be mounted with the distance between them equal to the distance to the center of the measurement volume (with three cameras this requires a hexagonal cell). But the camera arrangement is usually a compromise between ideal geometrical conditions for a homogeneous distribution of accuracies in the measuring volume and practical restrictions associated with the experiment. The position of the cameras in object space (exterior orientation) and the parameters of each camera (interior orientation) are needed to reconstruct the 3D objects. These pa- rameters can be calculated simultaneously in a so-called "bundle adjustment" or by pre-calibration. A matched index (of refraction) porous medium heterogeneous at the bench scale has been constructed by filling

  2. Turbulent Convection: Is 2D a good proxy of 3D?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    Several authors have recently carried out 2D simulations of turbulent convection for both solar and massive stars. Fitting the 2D results with the MLT, they obtain that alpha(sub MLT) greater than 1 specifically, 1.4 less than alpha(sub MLT) less than 1.8. The authors further suggest that this methodology could be used to calibrate the MLT used in stellar evolutionary codes. We suggest the opposite viewpoint: the 2D results show that MLT is internally inconsistent because the resulting alpha(sub MLT) greater than 1 violates the MLT basic assumption that alpha(sub MLT) less than 1. When the 2D results are fitted with the CM model, alpha(sub CMT) less than 1, in accord with the basic tenet of the model. On the other hand, since both MLT and CM are local models, they should be replaced by the next generation of non-local, time dependent turbulence models which we discuss in some detail.

  3. The importance of 3D local averaging in turbulence theory: some examples from high-resolution DNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Pui-Kuen; Zhai, X. M.; Iyer, K. P.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation fluctuations in turbulence become increasingly intermittent as the Reynolds number increases. Both theoretical and practical reasons then force us to consider the fluctuations averaged locally over three-dimensional (3D) volumes of various sizes. Often, the practice has been to supplant 3D averages by 1D averages, and to replace proper 3D quantities by convenient 1D surrogates. We examine the consequence of these practices using DNS data on a large grid of 81923 at a Taylor-microscale Reynolds number 1300. We show that these common practices can often lead to erroneous results and significant ambiguities. For instance, both the dissipation and enstrophy turn out to possess the same inertial-range intermittency exponent; moments of locally-averaged dissipation and enstrophy become closer to each other with increasing order (because extreme events in both are spatially co-located); the longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale similarly-all in contrast to results obtained using the simplifying practices mentioned above. Supported by NSF Grants ACI-1036170 and ACI-1640771.

  4. Particle energization in 3D magnetic reconnection of relativistic pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Yin Lin; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Liang, Edison P.; Li Hui

    2011-05-15

    We present large scale 3D particle-in-cell simulations to examine particle energization in magnetic reconnection of relativistic electron-positron (pair) plasmas. The initial configuration is set up as a relativistic Harris equilibrium without a guide field. These simulations are large enough to accommodate a sufficient number of tearing and kink modes. Contrary to the non-relativistic limit, the linear tearing instability is faster than the linear kink instability, at least in our specific parameters. We find that the magnetic energy dissipation is first facilitated by the tearing instability and followed by the secondary kink instability. Particles are mostly energized inside the magnetic islands during the tearing stage due to the spatially varying electric fields produced by the outflows from reconnection. Secondary kink instability leads to additional particle acceleration. Accelerated particles are, however, observed to be thermalized quickly. The large amplitude of the vertical magnetic field resulting from the tearing modes by the secondary kink modes further help thermalizing the non-thermal particles generated from the secondary kink instability. Implications of these results for astrophysics are briefly discussed.

  5. Particle Filters and Occlusion Handling for Rigid 2D-3D Pose Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jehoon; Sandhu, Romeil; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of 2D-3D pose estimation. Specifically, we propose an approach to jointly track a rigid object in a 2D image sequence and to estimate its pose (position and orientation) in 3D space. We revisit a joint 2D segmentation/3D pose estimation technique, and then extend the framework by incorporating a particle filter to robustly track the object in a challenging environment, and by developing an occlusion detection and handling scheme to continuously track the object in the presence of occlusions. In particular, we focus on partial occlusions that prevent the tracker from extracting an exact region properties of the object, which plays a pivotal role for region-based tracking methods in maintaining the track. To this end, a dynamical choice of how to invoke the objective functional is performed online based on the degree of dependencies between predictions and measurements of the system in accordance with the degree of occlusion and the variation of the object’s pose. This scheme provides the robustness to deal with occlusions of an obstacle with different statistical properties from that of the object of interest. Experimental results demonstrate the practical applicability and robustness of the proposed method in several challenging scenarios. PMID:24058277

  6. Global gyrokinetic models for energetic particle driven Alfvén instabilities in 3D equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don; Holod, Ihor

    2015-11-01

    The GTC global gyrokinetic PIC model has been adapted to 3D VMEC equilibria and provides a new method for the analysis of Alfvénic instabilities in stellarators, 3D tokamaks, and helical RFP states. The gyrokinetic orderings (k||/k⊥ << 1, ω/Ωci << 1, ρEP/L << 1) are applicable to a range of energetic particle driven instabilities that have been observed in 3D configurations. Applications of this model to stellarators have indicated that a variety of different Alfvén instabilities can be excited, depending on the toroidal mode number, fast ion average energy and fast ion density profile. Both an LHD discharge where bursting n = 1 Alfvén activity in the TAE gap was observed and a W7-X case have been examined. TAE,/EAE/GAE modes have been found in the simulations, depending on the mode family and fast ion profiles used. The dynamical evolution of the instabilities shows the field period coupling between n and n + Nfp expected for a stellarator. The development of gyrofluid reduced models that can capture relevant physics aspects of the gyrokinetic models will also be discussed. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC and the GSEP SciDAC Center.

  7. Localization of 3D inertial Alfvén wave and generation of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Sharma, Prachi; Yadav, N.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper deals with the nonlinear interaction of Inertial Alfvén wave (IAW) and fast magnetosonic wave in the low beta plasma, where beta is the ratio of thermal pressure to the background magnetic pressure. In this paper, the localization and turbulent spectra of IAW along with the density dips correlated with the fast magnetosonic wave have been investigated. Variation of parallel electric field along and across the field lines has also been studied. Taking ponderomotive nonlinear effect in the dynamics of fast magnetosonic wave, couple of dimensionless equations has been derived. These coupled equations have been simulated numerically using the pseudo-spectral method. The obtained results reveal that the Kolmogorov scaling is followed by a steeper scaling in magnetic power spectrum, which is consistent with the observations by the FAST and Hawkeye spacecraft in auroral region. The relevance of present investigation has been discussed for auroral plasmas.

  8. Extension of the Johnson-King turbulence model to the 3-D flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abid, Ridha

    1988-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the eddy viscosity model of Johnson and King extended to the three-dimensional case has been performed for three-dimensional boundary layer flows. The turbulence model is evaluated by a detailed comparison with available experimental data for incompressible flows over an infinite swept wing and near an idealized wing-body junction. The isotropic model of Johnson and King is found to work much better than the Cebeci-Smith model, especially in regions of strong cross flow. The significant decrease in the shear stress magnitude is almost reproduced. This means that this effect is as important as the nonisotropic eddy viscosity. The introduction of Rotta's modification to account for nonisotropic eddy viscosity in the Johnson-King formulation is found to have little effect on the predictions. The cross-flow properties are the most strongly affected.

  9. Enhanced copper micro/nano-particle mixed paste sintered at low temperature for 3D interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. Y.; Ng, M. Z.; Anantha, P.; Lin, Y. D.; Li, Z. G.; Gan, C. L.; Tan, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    An enhanced copper paste, formulated by copper micro- and nano-particles mixture, is reported to prevent paste cracking and obtain an improved packing density. The particle mixture of two different sizes enables reduction in porosity of the micro-paste and resolves the cracking issue in the nano-paste. In-situ temperature and resistance measurements indicate that the mixed paste has a lower densification temperature. Electrical study also shows a ˜12× lower sheet resistance of 0.27 Ω/sq. In addition, scanning electron microscope image analysis confirms a ˜50% lower porosity, which is consistent with the thermal and electrical results. The 3:1 (micro:nano, wt. %) mixed paste is found to have the strongest synergistic effect. This phenomenon is discussed further. Consequently, the mixed paste is a promising material for potential low temperature 3D interconnects fabrication.

  10. Application of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models for better environmental management of finfish culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Navas, Juan; Telfer, Trevor C.; Ross, Lindsay G.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrographic conditions, and particularly current speeds, have a strong influence on the management of fish cage culture. These hydrodynamic conditions can be used to predict particle movement within the water column and the results used to optimise environmental conditions for effective site selection, setting of environmental quality standards, waste dispersion, and potential disease transfer. To this end, a 3D hydrodynamic model, MOHID, has been coupled to a particle tracking model to study the effects of mean current speed, quiescent water periods and bulk water circulation in Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal Ireland, an Irish fjard (shallow fjordic system) important to the aquaculture industry. A Lagangrian method simulated the instantaneous release of "particles" emulating discharge from finfish cages to show the behaviour of waste in terms of water circulation and water exchange. The 3D spatial models were used to identify areas of mixed and stratified water using a version of the Simpson-Hunter criteria, and to use this in conjunction with models of current flow for appropriate site selection for salmon aquaculture. The modelled outcomes for stratification were in good agreement with the direct measurements of water column stratification based on observed density profiles. Calculations of the Simpson-Hunter tidal parameter indicated that most of Mulroy Bay was potentially stratified with a well mixed region over the shallow channels where the water is faster flowing. The fjard was characterised by areas of both very low and high mean current speeds, with some areas having long periods of quiescent water. The residual current and the particle tracking animations created through the models revealed an anticlockwise eddy that may influence waste dispersion and potential for disease transfer, among salmon cages and which ensures that the retention time of waste substances from cages is extended. The hydrodynamic model results were incorporated into the ArcView TM GIS

  11. Turbulent transport of alpha particles in reactor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Mila, C.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.

    2006-11-15

    A systematic study of the behavior of energetic ions in reactor plasmas is presented. Using self-consistent gyrokinetic simulations, in concert with an analytic asymptotic theory, it is found that alpha particles can interact significantly with core ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Specifically, the per-particle flux of energetic alphas is comparable to the per-particle flux of thermal species (deuterium or helium ash). This finding opposes the conventional wisdom that energetic ions, because of their large gyroradii, do not interact with the turbulence. For the parameters studied, a turbulent modification of the alpha-particle density profile appears to be stronger than turbulent modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile. Crude estimates indicate that the alpha density modification, which is directly proportional to the core turbulence intensity, could be in the range of 15% at midradius in a reactor. The corresponding modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile is predicted to be smaller (in the 1% range)

  12. Noise and Turbulence Generate 3D Zombie Vortices in Stably Stratified Rotating Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Suyang; Marcus, Philip S.; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel; Barranco, Joseph A.

    2013-11-01

    We showed previously that a linearly stable shearing, rotating, stably stratified flow has a finite-amplitude instability creating ``zombie vortices'' that self-replicate and fill the domain. Our flows were initialized with perturbations of one or two vortices. Our motivation was to determine whether ``dead zones'' in protoplanetary disks were stable, or whether they could be de-stabilized to produce vortices necessary for the final part of star formation and for planet formation. To be more relevant to astrophysics, we choose the initial conditions to be noise or turbulence with a Kolmogorov spectrum with small kinetic energy and Mach number. In a Kolmogorov spectrum, the largest eddies determine the kinetic energy and Mach number, while the smallest determine the vorticity and Rossby number Ro ≡ ω / f , where ω is the vertical vorticity and f is the Coriolis parameter. The protoplanetary disks (which have large inertial ranges due to their large Reynolds numbers), can have large Rossby numbers, but weak Mach numbers and kinetic energies. It is important to know whether the triggering of the finite-amplitude instability that creates zombie vortices depends on threshold values of Mach number, kinetic energy, or the Rossby number. Here, we show it is the latter.

  13. Structure functions of passive scalar: evolution in fully 3D shock-driven transition to turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Olmstead, Dell; Simons, Dylan; Wayne, Patrick; Truman, C. Randall; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    Oblique interaction between a planar shock and a cylindrical density interface results in baroclinic vorticity deposition. The character of the evolving flow is thus different from a similar flow produced by planar normal shock acceleration of the same density interface. In the latter case (planar normal shock), vorticity deposited by the shock is predominantly two-dimensional (directed along the axis of the cylinder), while in the case we consider the shock-induced vorticity field is fully three-dimensional. This results in a complex interplay of vortical structures with different orientations. The statistical properties of the flow are analyzed based on images from two orthogonal visualization planes, using second-order structure functions of the intensity maps of fluorescent tracer pre-mixed with the heavy gas. Scalings consistent with fully developed turbulence are observed at late times. The character of the emergence of these scalings is affected by the flow Mach number, Atwood number, and initial geometry. This work is supported by the US National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) via grant DE-NA0002913.

  14. Numerical 3D model of viscous turbulent flow in one stage gas turbine and its experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubtsev, Y. V.; Gogolev, I. G.; Solodov, V. G.

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account. This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.

  15. Observation of 3D defect mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and amplitude hole filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin

    2013-08-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct observation of defect mediated wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and low amplitude hole filaments, from a 3D self-excited plane dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma by reducing dissipation. The waveform undulation is found to be the origin for the amplitude and the phase modulations of the local dust density oscillation, the broadening of the sharp peaks in the frequency spectrum, and the fluctuating defects. The corrugated wave crest surface also causes the observed high and low density patches in the transverse (xy) plane. Low oscillation amplitude spots (holes) share the same positions with the defects. Their trajectories in the xyt space appear in the form of chaotic filaments without long term predictability, through uncertain pair generation, propagation, and pair annihilation.

  16. Some Progress in Large-Eddy Simulation using the 3-D Vortex Particle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckelmans, G. S.

    1995-01-01

    This two-month visit at CTR was devoted to investigating possibilities in LES modeling in the context of the 3-D vortex particle method (=vortex element method, VEM) for unbounded flows. A dedicated code was developed for that purpose. Although O(N(sup 2)) and thus slow, it offers the advantage that it can easily be modified to try out many ideas on problems involving up to N approx. 10(exp 4) particles. Energy spectrums (which require O(N(sup 2)) operations per wavenumber) are also computed. Progress was realized in the following areas: particle redistribution schemes, relaxation schemes to maintain the solenoidal condition on the particle vorticity field, simple LES models and their VEM extension, possible new avenues in LES. Model problems that involve strong interaction between vortex tubes were computed, together with diagnostics: total vorticity, linear and angular impulse, energy and energy spectrum, enstrophy. More work is needed, however, especially regarding relaxation schemes and further validation and development of LES models for VEM. Finally, what works well will eventually have to be incorporated into the fast parallel tree code.

  17. MHD turbulence, reconnection, and test-particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Perry C.; Matthaeus, William H.

    1992-01-01

    We examine homogeneous MHD turbulence and turbulent magnetic reconnection as possible mechanisms for accelerating cosmic ray particles. Test particle calculations are performed using fields from MHD simulations, and initially Maxwellian particle distributions are shown to evolve into power-law distributions. Simple estimates for both the maximum energy attainable and the mean energies of the accelerated particles are fairly successful and are consistent with timescales for flares and cosmic rays.

  18. Particle dynamics during the transition from isotropic to anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Min; Gylfason, Armann; Toschi, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent fluctuations play an important role on the dynamics of particles in turbulence, enhancing their dispersion and mixing. In recent years the statistical properties of particles in several statistically stationary turbulent flows have been the subject of many numerical and experimental studies. In many natural and industrial environments, however, one deals with turbulence in a transient state. As a prototype system, we investigate the transition from an isotropic to an anisotropic flow, namely looking at the influence of a developing mean flow on the dynamics of particles. We simulate, via direct numerical simulation, stationary homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and then suddenly impose a mean shear or strain. This allows us to quantify the effects of the mean flow on particle dynamics in these transient periods. Preliminary results on single particle properties, such as velocities and accelerations will be reported.

  19. 3D simulations of young core-collapse supernova remnants undergoing efficient particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2016-06-01

    Within our Galaxy, supernova remnants are believed to be the major sources of cosmic rays up to the 'knee'. However important questions remain regarding the share of the hadronic and leptonic components, and the fraction of the supernova energy channelled into these components. We address such question by the means of numerical simulations that combine a hydrodynamic treatment of the shock wave with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. Performing 3D simulations allows us to produce synthetic projected maps and spectra of the thermal and non-thermal emission, that can be compared with multi-wavelength observations (in radio, X-rays, and γ-rays). Supernovae come in different types, and although their energy budget is of the same order, their remnants have different properties, and so may contribute in different ways to the pool of Galactic cosmic-rays. Our first simulations were focused on thermonuclear supernovae, like Tycho's SNR, that usually occur in a mostly undisturbed medium. Here we present our 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae, like the Cas A SNR, that occur in a more complex medium bearing the imprint of the wind of the progenitor star.

  20. A toolbox for ab initio 3-D reconstructions in single-particle electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Voss, Neil R; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Cheng, Anchi; Lau, Pick-Wei; Mulder, Anke; Lander, Gabriel C; Brignole, Edward J; Fellmann, Denis; Irving, Christopher; Jacovetty, Erica L; Leung, Albert; Pulokas, James; Quispe, Joel D; Winkler, Hanspeter; Yoshioka, Craig; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S

    2010-03-01

    Structure determination of a novel macromolecular complex via single-particle electron microscopy depends upon overcoming the challenge of establishing a reliable 3-D reconstruction using only 2-D images. There are a variety of strategies that deal with this issue, but not all of them are readily accessible and straightforward to use. We have developed a "toolbox" of ab initio reconstruction techniques that provide several options for calculating 3-D volumes in an easily managed and tightly controlled work-flow that adheres to standard conventions and formats. This toolbox is designed to streamline the reconstruction process by removing the necessity for bookkeeping, while facilitating transparent data transfer between different software packages. It currently includes procedures for calculating ab initio reconstructions via random or orthogonal tilt geometry, tomograms, and common lines, all of which have been tested using the 50S ribosomal subunit. Our goal is that the accessibility of multiple independent reconstruction algorithms via this toolbox will improve the ease with which models can be generated, and provide a means of evaluating the confidence and reliability of the final reconstructed map.

  1. Characteristics of turbulence transport for momentum and heat in particle-laden turbulent vertical channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caixi; Tang, Shuai; Shen, Lian; Dong, Yuhong

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic and thermal performance of particle-laden turbulent flow is investigated via direction numerical simulation combined with the Lagrangian point-particle tracking under the condition of two-way coupling, with a focus on the contributions of particle feedback effect to momentum and heat transfer of turbulence. We take into account the effects of particles on flow drag and Nusselt number and explore the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement in particle-laden turbulent flows. The effects of particles on momentum and heat transfer are analyzed, and the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement for the prototypical case of particle-laden turbulent channel flows is addressed. We present results of turbulence modification and heat transfer in turbulent particle-laden channel flow, which shows the heat transfer reduction when large inertial particles with low specific heat capacity are added to the flow. However, we also found an enhancement of the heat transfer and a small reduction of the flow drag when particles with high specific heat capacity are involved. The present results show that particles, which are active agents, interact not only with the velocity field, but also the temperature field and can cause a dissimilarity in momentum and heat transport. This demonstrates that the possibility to increase heat transfer and suppress friction drag can be achieved with addition of particles with different thermal properties.

  2. Acoustical vortices on a Chip for 3D single particle manipulation and vorticity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    Surface acoustic waves offer most of the basic functions required for on-chip actuation of fluids at small scales: efficient flow mixing, integrated pumping, particles separation, droplet displacement, atomization, division and fusion. Nevertheless some more advanced functions such as 3D particles manipulation and vorticity control require the introduction of some specific kind of waves called acoustic vortices. These helical waves propagate spinning around a phase singularity called the dark core. On the one hand, the beam angular momentum can be transferred to the fluid and create point-wise vorticity for confined mixing, and on the other the dark core can trap individual particles in an acoustic well for single object manipulation. In this presentation, I will show how acoustical vortices on-a-chip can be synthesized with a programmable electronics and an array of transducers. I will then highlight how some of their specificities can be used for acoustical tweezing and twisting. This work is supported by ANR Project No. ANR-12-BS09-0021-01 and ANR-12- BS09-0021-02, and Rgion Nord Pas de Calais.

  3. 3D quantification of brain microvessels exposed to heavy particle radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermüller, C.; Coats, J. S.; Obenaus, A.; Nelson, G.; Krucker, T.; Stampanoni, M.

    2009-09-01

    Space radiation with high energy particles and cosmic rays presents a significant hazard to spaceflight crews. Recent reviews of the health risk to astronauts from ionizing radiation concluded to establish a level of risk which may indicate the possible performance decrements and decreased latency of late dysfunction syndromes (LDS) of the brain. A hierarchical imaging approach developed at ETH Zürich and PSI, which relies on synchrotron based X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM), was used to visualize and analyze 3D vascular structures down to the capillary level in their precise anatomical context. Various morphological parameters, such as overall vessel volume, vessel thickness and spacing, are extracted to characterize the vascular structure within a region of interest. For a first quantification of the effect of high energy particles on the vasculature we scanned a set of 6 animals, all of same age. The animals were irradiated with 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 4 Gy of 600MeV 56Fe heavy particles simulating the space radiation environment. We found that with increasing dose the diameter of vessels and the overall vessel volume are decreased whereas the vessel spacing is increased. As these parameters reflect blood flow in three-dimensional space they can be used as indicators for the degree of vascular efficiency which can have an impact on the function and development of lung tissue or tumors.

  4. Test particle acceleration in turbulent reconnecting magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosiano, John; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Plante, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The effect of turbulence on particle acceleration in a MHD field was investigated by computing test particle trajectories in turbulent MHD reconnecting fields, including reconnection simulations at different magnetic Reynolds numbers. The dynamics of individual particles were investigated making it possible to examine the acceleration mechanism in great detail. It was found that turbulence influences the acceleration in two ways. It enhances the reconnection electric field while producing a stochastic electric field that gives rise to momentum diffusion; and it produces magnetic 'bubbles' and other irregularities that can temporarily trap test particles in the strong reconnection electric field for times comparable to the magnetofluid characteristic time.

  5. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  6. Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-in-Cell Simulations with Pic3P

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven

    2009-06-19

    SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell code Pic3P. Designed for simulations of beam-cavity interactions dominated by space charge effects, Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations self-consistently and includes space-charge, retardation and boundary effects from first principles. Higher-order Finite Element methods with adaptive refinement on conformal unstructured meshes lead to highly efficient use of computational resources. Massively parallel processing with dynamic load balancing enables large-scale modeling of photoinjectors with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design and operation of next-generation accelerator facilities. Applications include the LCLS RF gun and the BNL polarized SRF gun.

  7. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-D Cultures After Charged Particle Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Kidane, Yared H.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Current risk models for assessment of space radiation-induced cancer have large uncertainties because the models for adverse health effects following radiation exposure are founded on epidemiological analyses of human populations exposed to low-LET radiation. Reducing these uncertainties requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. In order to better quantify these radiation quality effects in biological systems, we are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models for space radiation research. These models hold promise for risk assessment as they provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information.

  8. Effects of compressibility on turbulent relative particle dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, phenomenological developments are used to explore the effects of compressibility on the relative particle dispersion (RPD) in three-dimensional (3D) fully developed turbulence (FDT). The role played by the compressible FDT cascade physics underlying this process is investigated. Compressibility effects are found to lead to reduction of RPD, development of the ballistic regime and particle clustering, corroborating the laboratory experiment and numerical simulation results (Cressman J. R. et al., New J. Phys., 6 (2004) 53) on the motion of Lagrangian tracers on a surface flow that constitutes a 2D compressible subsystem. These formulations are developed from the scaling relations for compressible FDT and are validated further via an alternative dimensional/scaling development for compressible FDT similar to the one given for incompressible FDT by Batchelor and Townsend (Surveys in Mechanics (Cambridge University Press) 1956, p. 352). The rationale for spatial intermittency effects is legitimized via the nonlinear scaling dependence of RPD on the kinetic-energy dissipation rate.

  9. Modification of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Wontae

    2005-12-01

    Particle-laden flows are prevalent in natural and industrial environments. Dilute loadings of small, heavy particles have been observed to attenuate the turbulence levels of the carrier-phase flow, up to 80% in some cases. We attempt to increase the physical understanding of this complex phenomenon by studying the interaction of solid particles with the most fundamental type of turbulence, which is homogeneous and isotropic with no mean flow. A flow facility was developed that could create air turbulence in a nearly-spherical chamber by means of synthetic jet actuators mounted on the corners. Loudspeakers were used as the actuators. Stationary turbulence and natural decaying turbulence were investigated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry for the base flow qualification. Results indicated that the turbulence was fairly homogeneous throughout the measurement domain and very isotropic, with small mean flow. The particle-laden flow experiments were conducted in two different environments, the lab and in micro-gravity, to examine the effects of particle wakes and flow structure distortion caused by settling particles. The laboratory experiments showed that glass particles with diameters on the order of the turbulence Kolmogorov length scale attenuated the fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate with increasing particle mass loadings. The main source of fluid TKE production in the chamber was the speakers, but the loss of potential energy of the settling particles also resulted in a significant amount of production of extra TKE. The sink of TKE in the chamber was due to the ordinary fluid viscous dissipation and extra dissipation caused by particles. This extra dissipation could be divided into "unresolved" dissipation caused by local velocity disturbances in the vicinity of the small particles and dissipation caused by large-scale flow distortions from particle wakes and particle clusters. The micro-gravity experiments in NASA's KC-135

  10. Single particle cryo-electron microscopy and 3-D reconstruction of viruses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    With fast progresses in instrumentation, image processing algorithms, and computational resources, single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) 3-D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses has now reached near-atomic resolutions (3-4 Å). With comparable resolutions and more predictable outcomes, cryo-EM is now considered a preferred method over X-ray crystallography for determination of atomic structure of icosahedral viruses. At near-atomic resolutions, all-atom models or backbone models can be reliably built that allow residue level understanding of viral assembly and conformational changes among different stages of viral life cycle. With the developments of asymmetric reconstruction, it is now possible to visualize the complete structure of a complex virus with not only its icosahedral shell but also its multiple non-icosahedral structural features. In this chapter, we will describe single particle cryo-EM experimental and computational procedures for both near-atomic resolution reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and asymmetric reconstruction of viruses with both icosahedral and non-icosahedral structure components. Procedures for rigorous validation of the reconstructions and resolution evaluations using truly independent de novo initial models and refinements are also introduced.

  11. Ghost particle velocimetry: accurate 3D flow visualization using standard lab equipment.

    PubMed

    Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-07-26

    We describe and test a new approach to particle velocimetry, based on imaging and cross correlating the scattering speckle pattern generated on a near-field plane by flowing tracers with a size far below the diffraction limit, which allows reconstructing the velocity pattern in microfluidic channels without perturbing the flow. As a matter of fact, adding tracers is not even strictly required, provided that the sample displays sufficiently refractive-index fluctuations. For instance, phase separation in liquid mixtures in the presence of shear is suitable to be directly investigated by this "ghost particle velocimetry" technique, which just requires a microscope with standard lamp illumination equipped with a low-cost digital camera. As a further bonus, the peculiar spatial coherence properties of the illuminating source, which displays a finite longitudinal coherence length, allows for a 3D reconstruction of the profile with a resolution of few tenths of microns and makes the technique suitable to investigate turbid samples with negligible multiple scattering effects.

  12. CAST: Effective and Efficient User Interaction for Context-Aware Selection in 3D Particle Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of three interactive Context-Aware Selection Techniques (CAST) for the analysis of large 3D particle datasets. For these datasets, spatial selection is an essential prerequisite to many other analysis tasks. Traditionally, such interactive target selection has been particularly challenging when the data subsets of interest were implicitly defined in the form of complicated structures of thousands of particles. Our new techniques SpaceCast, TraceCast, and PointCast improve usability and speed of spatial selection in point clouds through novel context-aware algorithms. They are able to infer a user's subtle selection intention from gestural input, can deal with complex situations such as partially occluded point clusters or multiple cluster layers, and can all be fine-tuned after the selection interaction has been completed. Together, they provide an effective and efficient tool set for the fast exploratory analysis of large datasets. In addition to presenting Cast, we report on a formal user study that compares our new techniques not only to each other but also to existing state-of-the-art selection methods. Our results show that Cast family members are virtually always faster than existing methods without tradeoffs in accuracy. In addition, qualitative feedback shows that PointCast and TraceCast were strongly favored by our participants for intuitiveness and efficiency.

  13. Single Particle Cryo-electron Microscopy and 3-D Reconstruction of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    With fast progresses in instrumentation, image processing algorithms, and computational resources, single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) 3-D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses has now reached near-atomic resolutions (3–4 Å). With comparable resolutions and more predictable outcomes, cryo-EM is now considered a preferred method over X-ray crystallography for determination of atomic structure of icosahedral viruses. At near-atomic resolutions, all-atom models or backbone models can be reliably built that allow residue level understanding of viral assembly and conformational changes among different stages of viral life cycle. With the developments of asymmetric reconstruction, it is now possible to visualize the complete structure of a complex virus with not only its icosahedral shell but also its multiple non-icosahedral structural features. In this chapter, we will describe single particle cryo-EM experimental and computational procedures for both near-atomic resolution reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and asymmetric reconstruction of viruses with both icosahedral and non-icosahedral structure components. Procedures for rigorous validation of the reconstructions and resolution evaluations using truly independent de novo initial models and refinements are also introduced. PMID:24357374

  14. Interaction of Particles and Turbulence in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Cuzzi, J. N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The most widely accepted theories for the formation of the Solar system claim that small solid particles continue to settle into a thin layer at the midplane of the Solar nebula until it becomes gravitationally unstable and collapses directly into km-sized planetesimals. This scenario has been challenged on at least two grounds: (1) due to turbulence, the particles may not settle into a thin layer, and (2) a thin layer may not be unstable. The Solar nebula contains at least three sources of turbulence: radial shear, vertical shear, and thermal convection. The first of these is small and probably negligible, while the last is poorly understood. However, the second contribution is likely to be substantial. The particle-rich layer rotates at nearly the Keplerian speed, but the surrounding gaseous nebula rotates slower because it is partly supported by pressure. The resulting shear generates a turbulent boundary layer which stirs the particles away from the midplane, and forestalls gravitational instability. Our previous work used a 'zero-equation' (Prandtl) model to predict the intensity of shear-generated turbulence, and enabled us to demonstrate numerically that settling of particles to the midplane is self-limiting. However, we neglected the possibility that mass loading by particles might damp the turbulence. To explore this, we have developed a more sophisticated 'one-equation' model which incorporates local generation, transport, and dissipation of turbulence, as well as explicit damping of turbulence by particles. We also include a background level of global turbulence to represent other sources. Our results indicate that damping flattens the distribution of particles somewhat, but that background turbulence thickens the particle layer.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of particles in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Ankit; Kumaran, Vishwanathan

    2016-11-01

    Goswami and Kumaran(2009a,b,2011a) studied the effect of fluid turbulence on particle phase in DNS.However,their studies were restricted to one way coupling where the effect of particles on fluid turbulence was not incorporated. We have extended their work by formulating a reverse force treatment through multipole expansion for the particle disturbance to the fluid turbulence.Here,the fluid velocity, strain rate and rotation rate at the particle position are used,as a far field,to calculate the disturbance caused by the particle and relaxing the point particle approximation.The simulations are done at high Stokes number where the fluid velocity fluctuations are uncorrelated over time scales of the particle dynamics.The results indicate that the particle mean velocity and stress are reduced when reverse force is incorporated.Level of reduction increases with mass loading and Stokes number.The variance of particle distribution function is reduced due to reduction in the fluid turbulent intensities.The particle velocity,angular velocity distribution function and stresses are compared for simulations where only the reverse force is incorporated, and where the dipoles are also incorporated, to examine the effect of force dipoles on the fluid turbulence and the particle distributions.

  16. Airborne particle emission of a commercial 3D printer: the effect of filament material and printing temperature.

    PubMed

    Stabile, L; Scungio, M; Buonanno, G; Arpino, F; Ficco, G

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of exposure to the airborne particle emitted from three-dimensional (3D) printing activities is becoming a crucial issue due to the relevant spreading of such devices in recent years. To this end, a low-cost desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) principle was used. Particle number, alveolar-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations were measured continuously during printing processes to evaluate particle emission rates (ERs) and factors. Particle number distribution measurements were also performed to characterize the size of the emitted particles. Ten different materials and different extrusion temperatures were considered in the survey. Results showed that all the investigated materials emit particles in the ultrafine range (with a mode in the 10-30-nm range), whereas no emission of super-micron particles was detected for all the materials under investigation. The emission was affected strongly by the extrusion temperature. In fact, the ERs increase as the extrusion temperature increases. Emission rates up to 1×10(12)  particles min(-1) were calculated. Such high ERs were estimated to cause large alveolar surface area dose in workers when 3D activities run. In fact, a 40-min-long 3D printing was found to cause doses up to 200 mm(2) .

  17. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.

  18. SIMULATIONS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca

    2016-02-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B{sub 0} = 0.5.

  19. Investigations of turbulent motions and particle acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakimiec, J.; Fludra, A.; Lemen, J. R.; Dennis, B. R.; Sylwester, J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations of X-raya spectra of solar flares show that intense random (turbulent) motions are present in hot flare plasma. Here it is argued that the turbulent motions are of great importance for flare development. They can efficiently enhance flare energy release and accelerate particles to high energies.

  20. Radiation Quality Effects on Transcriptome Profiles in 3-d Cultures After Particle Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Kidane, Y. H.; Huff, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the differential effects of low- and high-LET radiation on 3-D organotypic cultures in order to investigate radiation quality impacts on gene expression and cellular responses. Reducing uncertainties in current risk models requires new knowledge on the fundamental differences in biological responses (the so-called radiation quality effects) triggered by heavy ion particle radiation versus low-LET radiation associated with Earth-based exposures. We are utilizing novel 3-D organotypic human tissue models that provide a format for study of human cells within a realistic tissue framework, thereby bridging the gap between 2-D monolayer culture and animal models for risk extrapolation to humans. To identify biological pathway signatures unique to heavy ion particle exposure, functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used with whole transcriptome profiling. GSEA has been used extensively as a method to garner biological information in a variety of model systems but has not been commonly used to analyze radiation effects. It is a powerful approach for assessing the functional significance of radiation quality-dependent changes from datasets where the changes are subtle but broad, and where single gene based analysis using rankings of fold-change may not reveal important biological information. We identified 45 statistically significant gene sets at 0.05 q-value cutoff, including 14 gene sets common to gamma and titanium irradiation, 19 gene sets specific to gamma irradiation, and 12 titanium-specific gene sets. Common gene sets largely align with DNA damage, cell cycle, early immune response, and inflammatory cytokine pathway activation. The top gene set enriched for the gamma- and titanium-irradiated samples involved KRAS pathway activation and genes activated in TNF-treated cells, respectively. Another difference noted for the high-LET samples was an apparent enrichment in gene sets involved in cycle cycle/mitotic control. It is

  1. Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact

  2. Preferrential Concentration of Particles in Protoplanetary Nebula Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartlep, Thomas; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Preferential concentration in turbulence is a process that causes inertial particles to cluster in regions of high strain (in-between high vorticity regions), with specifics depending on their stopping time or Stokes number. This process is thought to be of importance in various problems including cloud droplet formation and aerosol transport in the atmosphere, sprays, and also in the formation of asteroids and comets in protoplanetary nebulae. In protoplanetary nebulae, the initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating particles remains a problematic subject. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] in turbulent nebulae. One scenario that can lead directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects, avoiding the problematic m-km size range, involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in protoplanetary turbulence. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles generally known as "chondrules" [2]. Thus, while it is arcane, turbulent preferential concentration acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. Here, we present the statistical determination of particle multiplier distributions from numerical simulations of particle-laden isotopic turbulence, and a cascade model for modeling turbulent concentration at lengthscales and Reynolds numbers not accessible by numerical simulations. We find that the multiplier distributions are scale dependent at the very largest scales but have scale-invariant properties under a particular variable normalization at smaller scales.

  3. Turbulence-radiation interactions in a particle-laden flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Ari; Pouransari, Hadi; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent fluctuations in a radiatively participating medium can significantly alter the mean heat transfer characteristics in a manner that current RANS models cannot accurately capture. While turbulence-radiation interaction has been studied extensively in traditional combustion systems, such interactions have not yet been studied in the context of particle-laden flows. This work is motivated by applications in particle-based solar receivers in which external radiation is primarily absorbed by a dispersed phase and conductively exchanged with the carrier fluid. Direct numerical simulations of turbulence with Lagrangian particles subject to a collimated radiation source are performed with a flux-limited diffusion approximation to radiative transfer. The dependence of the turbulence-radiation interaction statistics on the particle Stokes number will be demonstrated. Supported by PSAAP II.

  4. Monitoring an eruption fissure in 3D: video recording, particle image velocimetry and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2015-04-01

    The processes during an eruption are very complex. To get a better understanding several parameters are measured. One of the measured parameters is the velocity of particles and patterns, as ash and emitted magma, and of the volcano itself. The resulting velocity field provides insights into the dynamics of a vent. Here we test our algorithm for 3 dimensional velocity fields on videos of the second fissure eruption of Bárdarbunga 2014. There we acquired videos from lava fountains of the main fissure with 2 high speed cameras with small angles between the cameras. Additionally we test the algorithm on videos from the geyser Strokkur, where we had 3 cameras and larger angles between the cameras. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. Considering that we only have the velocity field of the surface smaller angles result in a better resolution of the existing velocity field in the near field. For general movements also larger angles can be useful, e.g. to get the direction, height and velocity of eruption clouds. In summary, it can be stated that 3D velocimetry can be used for several application and with different setup due to the application.

  5. Turbulent scales of dilute particle-laden flows in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groszmann, Daniel E.; Rogers, Chris B.

    2004-12-01

    The work described in this paper attempts to characterize the effects of inertia, isolated from gravity, on the dispersion of solid particles in a turbulent air flow. The experiment consisted of releasing particles of various sizes in an enclosed box of fan-generated, near-homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulent airflow and examining the particle behavior in a microgravity environment. The turbulence box was characterized in ground-based experiments using laser Doppler velocimetry techniques. Microgravity was established by free floating the experiment apparatus during the parabolic trajectory of NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft. The microgravity generally lasted about 20 s, with about 50 parabolas per flight and one flight per day over a testing period of four days. To cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest, particles with Stokes numbers St of about 1-100 were released in the turbulence box. The three-dimensional measurements of particle motion were made with a particle-tracking algorithm using a three-camera stereo imaging system. Digital photogrammetric techniques were used to determine the particle locations from the calibrated camera images. The epipolar geometry constraint identified matching particles from the three different camera views and a direct spatial intersection scheme determined the coordinates of particles in three-dimensional space. Since particle loadings were light, velocity and acceleration constraints allowed particles in a sequence of frames to be matched, resulting in particle tracks and dispersion measurements. The goal was to compare the dispersion of different Stokes number particles in zero gravity and thereby decouple the effects of gravity from inertia on the dispersion. Results show that higher inertia particles disperse less in isotropic, nondecaying turbulent flows under zero gravity, in agreement with current models. Measurements show that particles with St≈1 dispersed about ten times more than the St

  6. Energetic Particle Transport in Strong Compressive Wave Turbulence Near Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Le Roux, J.A.; Zank, G.P.; Li, G.; Webb, G.M.

    2005-08-01

    Strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven shocks are often accompanied by high levels of low frequency compressive wave turbulence. This might require a non-linear kinetic theory approach to properly describe energetic particle transport in their vicinity. We present a non-linear diffusive kinetic theory for suprathermal particle transport and stochastic acceleration along the background magnetic field in strong compressive dynamic wave turbulence to which small-scale Alfven waves are coupled. Our theory shows that the standard cosmic-ray transport equation must be revised for low suprathermal particle energies to accommodate fundamental changes in spatial diffusion (standard diffusion becomes turbulent diffusion) as well as modifications to particle convection, and adiabatic energy changes. In addition, a momentum diffusion term, which generates accelerated suprathermal particle spectra with a hard power law, must be added. Such effective first stage acceleration possibly leads to efficient injection of particles into second stage diffusive shock acceleration as described by standard theory.

  7. Two-phase flow predictions of the turbulent flow in a combustion chamber including particle-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Michael; Alletto, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Relying on large-eddy simulation (LES) and an efficient algorithm to track a huge number of Lagrangian particles through turbulent flow fields in general complex 3D domains, the flow in a pipe and a model combustion chamber is tackled. The influence of particle-fluid (two-way coupling) as well as particle-particle interactions (four-way coupling) is investigated. The latter is modeled based on deterministic collision detection. First, the LES results of a particle-laden vertical pipe flow with a specular wall and a mass loading of 110% are evaluated based on DNS data from the literature. Second, the predicted LES data of a ring combustion chamber at two different mass loadings (22% and 110%) are analyzed and compared with experimental measurements.

  8. Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of particle concentrations in fully developed 3D turbulence were carried out in order to study the nonuniform structure of the particle density field. Three steady-state turbulent fluid fields with Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Re(sub lambda)) of 40, 80 and 140 were generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with pseudospectral methods. Large scale forcing was used to drive the turbulence and maintain temporal stationarity. The response of the particles to the fluid was parameterized by the particle Stokes number St, defined as the ratio of the particle's stopping time to the mean period of eddies on the Kolmogorov scale (eta). In this paper, we consider only passive particles optimally coupled to these eddies (St approx. = 1) because of their tendency to concentrate more than particles with lesser or greater St values. The trajectories of up to 70 million particles were tracked in the equilibrated turbulent flows until the particle concentration field reached a statistically stationary state. The nonuniform structure of the concentration fields was characterized by the multifractal singularity spectrum, f(alpha), derived from measures obtained after binning particles into cells ranging from 2(eta) to 15(eta) in size. We observed strong systematic variations of f(alpha) across this scale range in all three simulations and conclude that the particle concentration field is not statistically self similar across the scale range explored. However, spectra obtained at the 2(eta), 4(eta), and 8(eta) scales of each flow case were found to be qualitatively similar. This result suggests that the local structure of the particle concentration field may be flow-Independent. The singularity spectra found for 2n-sized cells were used to predict concentration distributions in good agreement with those obtained directly from the particle data. This Singularity spectrum has a shape similar to the analogous spectrum derived for the

  9. A Framework for 3D Model-Based Visual Tracking Using a GPU-Accelerated Particle Filter.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Capson, D W

    2012-01-01

    A novel framework for acceleration of particle filtering approaches to 3D model-based, markerless visual tracking in monocular video is described. Specifically, we present a methodology for partitioning and mapping the computationally expensive weight-update stage of a particle filter to a graphics processing unit (GPU) to achieve particle- and pixel-level parallelism. Nvidia CUDA and Direct3D are employed to harness the massively parallel computational power of modern GPUs for simulation (3D model rendering) and evaluation (segmentation, feature extraction, and weight calculation) of hundreds of particles at high speeds. The proposed framework addresses the computational intensity that is intrinsic to all particle filter approaches, including those that have been modified to minimize the number of particles required for a particular task. Performance and tracking quality results for rigid object and articulated hand tracking experiments demonstrate markerless, model-based visual tracking on consumer-grade graphics hardware with pixel-level accuracy up to 95 percent at 60+ frames per second. The framework accelerates particle evaluation up to 49 times over a comparable CPU-only implementation, providing an increased particle count while maintaining real-time frame rates.

  10. Large Eddy Simulation of gas-particle kinematic decoupling and turbulent entrainment in volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerminara, Matteo; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Neri, Augusto

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth Interior) intercomparison study on volcanic plume models, we present three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations carried out with the ASHEE (ASH Equilibrium Eulerian) model. The ASHEE model solves the compressible balance equations of mass, momentum, and enthalpy of a gas-particle mixture and is able to describe the kinematic decoupling for particles characterized by Stokes number (i.e., the ratio between the particle equilibrium time and the flow characteristic time) lower than 0.2 (or particles smaller than about 1 mm). The computational fluid dynamic model is designed to accurately simulate a turbulent flow field using a Large Eddy Simulation approach, and is thus suited to analyze the role of particle non-equilibrium in the dynamics of turbulent volcanic plumes. The two reference scenarios analyzed correspond to a weak (mass eruption rate = 1.5 * 106 kg/s) and a strong volcanic plume (mass eruption rate = 1.5 * 109 kg/s) in absence of wind. For each scenario, we compare the 3D results, averaged in space and time, with theoretical results obtained from integral plume models. Such an approach enables quantitative evaluation of the effects of grid resolution and the subgrid-scale turbulence model, and the influence of gas-particle non-equilibrium processes on the large-scale plume dynamics. We thus demonstrate that the uncertainty on the numerical solution associated with such effects can be significant (of the order of 20%), but still lower than that typically associated with input data and integral model approximations. In the Weak Plume case, 3D results are consistent with the predictions of integral models in the jet and plume regions, with an entrainment coefficient around 0.10 in the plume region. In the Strong Plume case, the self-similarity assumption is less appropriate and the entrainment coefficient in the plume region is more unstable, with an average

  11. XEDS STEM Tomography For 3D Chemical Characterization Of Nanoscale Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Genc, Arda; Kovarik, Libor; Gu, Meng; Cheng, Huikai; Plachinda, Pavel; Pullan, Lee; Freitag, Bert; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-08-01

    We present a tomography technique which couples scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) to resolve 3D distribution of elements in nanoscale materials. STEM imaging when combined with a symmetrically arranged XEDS detector design around the specimen overcomes many of the obstacles in 3D spectroscopic tomography of nanoscale materials and successfully elucidate the 3D chemical information in a large field of view of the TEM sample. We employed this technique to investigate 3D distribution of Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Oxygen (O) in Li(NiMn)O2 battery cathode material. For this purpose, 2D elemental maps were acquired for a range of tilt angles and reconstructed to obtain 3D elemental distribution in an isolated Li(NiMnO2) nanoparticle. The results highlight the strength of this technique in 3D chemical analysis of nanoscale materials by successfully resolving Ni, Mn and O elemental distributions in 3D and discovering the new phenomenon of Ni surface segregation in this material. Furthermore, the comparison of simultaneously acquired HAADF STEM and XEDS STEM tomography results show that XEDS STEM tomography provides additional 3D chemical information of the material especially when there is low atomic number (Z) contrast in the material of interest.

  12. Turbulence statistics in a negatively buoyant particle plume - laboratory measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Clark, Laura; Veliz, Gerardo; Heath, Michael; Variano, Evan

    2016-11-01

    Negatively buoyant plumes of nylon particles are investigated in quiescent salt-water solution using flow visualization and stereoscopic PIV. Particles of the size 2 mm are continuously released through a nozzle from the top inside a water tank using a screw-conveyor based release mechanism. The plume propagates downward due to gravity, and by virtue of interacting particle wakes, becomes turbulent. The two phases are refractive index matched, so that the velocity field in the interstitial fluid can be quantified using PIV. We examine the velocity fields in the fluid phase to characterize turbulence statistics, such as turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses in the fully developed region of the plume. Further, we develop an image processing method to obtain particle distribution and particle slip inside the plume. In the presentation, we will discuss these results in the light of existing literature for rising plumes of bubbles under similar experimental conditions.

  13. Radiation induces turbulence in particle-laden fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Rémi; Coletti, Filippo; Massot, Marc; Mani, Ali

    2014-07-15

    When a transparent fluid laden with solid particles is subject to radiative heating, non-uniformities in particle distribution result in local fluid temperature fluctuations. Under the influence of gravity, buoyancy induces vortical fluid motion which can lead to strong preferential concentration, enhancing the local heating and more non-uniformities in particle distribution. By employing direct numerical simulations this study shows that the described feedback loop can create and sustain turbulence. The velocity and length scale of the resulting turbulence is not known a priori, and is set by balance between viscous forces and buoyancy effects. When the particle response time is comparable to a viscous time scale, introduced in our analysis, the system exhibits intense fluctuations of turbulent kinetic energy and strong preferential concentration of particles.

  14. Stochastic Simulation of Lagrangian Particle Transport in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guangyuan

    This dissertation presents the development and validation of the One Dimensional Turbulence (ODT) multiphase model in the Lagrangian reference frame. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. The flow evolution is governed by a deterministic solution of the viscous processes and a stochastic representation of advection through stochastic domain mapping processes. The three algorithms for Lagrangian particle transport are presented within the context of the ODT approach. The Type-I and -C models consider the particle-eddy interaction as instantaneous and continuous change of the particle position and velocity, respectively. The Type-IC model combines the features of the Type-I and -C models. The models are applied to the multi-phase flows in the homogeneous decaying turbulence and turbulent round jet. Particle dispersion, dispersion coefficients, and velocity statistics are predicted and compared with experimental data. The models accurately reproduces the experimental data sets and capture particle inertial effects and trajectory crossing effect. A new adjustable particle parameter is introduced into the ODT model, and sensitivity analysis is performed to facilitate parameter estimation and selection. A novel algorithm of the two-way momentum coupling between the particle and carrier phases is developed in the ODT multiphase model. Momentum exchange between the phases is accounted for through particle source terms in the viscous diffusion. The source term is implemented in eddy events through a new kernel transformation and an iterative procedure is required for eddy selection. This model is applied to a particle-laden turbulent jet flow, and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. The effect of particle addition on the velocities of the gas phase is investigated. The development of

  15. Laser velocimetry in turbulent flow fields - Particle response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Rudoff, R.; Houser, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the particle response in a decelerating flow and a highly turbulent two-phase flow were obtained. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity served to quantify the particle response to the prevailing flow field. In the case of a flow incident upon a cylinder, the particle lag for a range of size classes was recorded. Results were also obtained in the flow generated by an atomizer operating on the leeward side of a flat disk bluff body in a coflowing air stream. Measurements of the mean axial, mean radial, and rms velocities and angles of trajectories were obtained for representative particle size classes. The air velocity and turbulence intensity were inferred from the seed particles on the order of one micrometer in diameter. Particles 9 micrometers and larger showed significant differences with respect to the gas phase mean velocity and turbulence intensity even at low velocities. In two-phase flows, reliable measurements of the continuous phase velocity and turbulence parameters requires the simultaneous measurement of particle size as a means for rejecting readings from large particles from the velocity pdf's.

  16. Development of a Compact & Easy-to-Use 3-D Camera for High Speed Turbulent Flow Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    the 2-D Radon transform to 3-D space, i.e., the 3-D Radon transform. It is proposed that the 3-D Radon transform also has an inverse as does the 2-D...Nishimura, D.G., Principles of magnetic resonance imaging. 1996: Stanford University. 41. Deans, S.R., The Radon transform and some of its applications...2007: DoverPublications. com. 42. Averbuch, A. and Y. Shkolnisky, 3D Fourier based discrete Radon transform. Applied and Computational Harmonic

  17. Nonrigid Registration of 2-D and 3-D Dynamic Cell Nuclei Images for Improved Classification of Subcellular Particle Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Han; Chen, Yi-Chun M.; Spector, David L.; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The observed motion of subcellular particles in fluorescence microscopy image sequences of live cells is generally a superposition of the motion and deformation of the cell and the motion of the particles. Decoupling the two types of movements to enable accurate classification of the particle motion requires the application of registration algorithms. We have developed an intensity-based approach for nonrigid registration of multi-channel microscopy image sequences of cell nuclei. First, based on 3-D synthetic images we demonstrate that cell nucleus deformations change the observed motion types of particles and that our approach allows to recover the original motion. Second, we have successfully applied our approach to register 2-D and 3-D real microscopy image sequences. A quantitative experimental comparison with previous approaches for nonrigid registration of cell microscopy has also been performed. PMID:20840894

  18. Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W

    2002-05-23

    A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.

  19. Angular Dynamics of a Small Particle in Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Candelier, F; Einarsson, J; Mehlig, B

    2016-11-11

    We compute the angular dynamics of a neutrally buoyant nearly spherical particle immersed in an unsteady fluid. We assume that the particle is small, that its translational slip velocity is negligible, and that unsteady and convective inertia are small perturbations. We derive an approximation for the torque on the particle that determines the first inertial corrections to Jeffery's equation. These corrections arise as a consequence of local vortex stretching and can be substantial in turbulence, where local vortex stretching is strong and closely linked to the irreversibility of turbulence.

  20. Turbulent particle clustering in a fully developed square channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-turbulence interactions are investigated in a fully developed turbulent channel air flow to determine the gas phase effect on the particle concentration and velocity fields. The experimental apparatus is a vertical channel with square cross section. The Reynolds number based on channel width is about 104. The 12 um nominal diameter nickel particles are smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale and the corresponding Stokes number is of the order of one. Low volume and mass loading ratios are considered. Under these conditions preferential concentration is expected to be strong while the effect of particles on the gas flow negligible. The square channel flow contains mean secondary flows not present in high aspect ratio channels studied previously. These will increase transport of particles away from the walls and raise turbulence levels in the central region. Current experiments are focused on the statistics of the particle phase including particle concentration inhomogeneities and particle velocities. The particle concentration field is analyzed from high resolution laser illuminated planar images. Particle velocity distributions are measured by PIV techniques and compared to the carrier-phase mean velocities from aerodynamic pressure measurements in the unladen case. The effect of increasing mass loading ratio on the particle velocities is analyzed. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.

  1. Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.

    2014-10-09

    Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.

  2. Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.

  3. Quantifying Transient 3D Dynamical Phenomena of Single mRNA Particles in Live Yeast Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Thompson, Michael A.; Casolari, Jason M.; Paffenroth, Randy C.; Moerner, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has been extensively used to obtain information about diffusion and directed motion in a wide range of biological applications. Recently, new methods have appeared for obtaining precise (10s of nm) spatial information in three dimensions (3D) with high temporal resolution (measurements obtained every 4ms), which promise to more accurately sense the true dynamical behavior in the natural 3D cellular environment. Despite the quantitative 3D tracking information, the range of mathematical methods for extracting information about the underlying system has been limited mostly to mean-squared displacement analysis and other techniques not accounting for complex 3D kinetic interactions. There is a great need for new analysis tools aiming to more fully extract the biological information content from in vivo SPT measurements. High-resolution SPT experimental data has enormous potential to objectively scrutinize various proposed mechanistic schemes arising from theoretical biophysics and cell biology. At the same time, methods for rigorously checking the statistical consistency of both model assumptions and estimated parameters against observed experimental data (i.e. goodness-of-fit tests) have not received great attention. We demonstrate methods enabling (1) estimation of the parameters of 3D stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the underlying dynamics given only one trajectory; and (2) construction of hypothesis tests checking the consistency of the fitted model with the observed trajectory so that extracted parameters are not over-interpreted (the tools are applicable to linear or nonlinear SDEs calibrated from non-stationary time series data). The approach is demonstrated on high-resolution 3D trajectories of single ARG3 mRNA particles in yeast cells in order to show the power of the methods in detecting signatures of transient directed transport. The methods presented are generally relevant to a wide variety of 2D and 3D SPT

  4. Application of Navier-Stokes code PAB3D with kappa-epsilon turbulence model to attached and separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.

  5. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  6. Filtered sub-grid constitutive models for fluidized gas-particle flows constructed from 3-D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Avik; Milioli, Fernando E.; Ozarkar, Shailesh; Li, Tingwen; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2016-10-01

    The accuracy of fluidized-bed CFD predictions using the two-fluid model can be improved significantly, even when using coarse grids, by replacing the microscopic kinetic-theory-based closures with coarse-grained constitutive models. These coarse-grained constitutive relationships, called filtered models, account for the unresolved gas-particle structures (clusters and bubbles) via sub-grid corrections. Following the previous 2-D approaches of Igci et al. [AIChE J., 54(6), 1431-1448, 2008] and Milioli et al. [AIChE J., 59(9), 3265-3275, 2013], new filtered models are constructed from highly-resolved 3-D simulations of gas-particle flows. Although qualitatively similar to the older 2-D models, the new 3-D relationships exhibit noticeable quantitative and functional differences. In particular, the filtered stresses are strongly dependent on the gas-particle slip velocity. Closures for the filtered inter-phase drag, gas- and solids-phase pressures and viscosities are reported. A new model for solids stress anisotropy is also presented. These new filtered 3-D constitutive relationships are better suited to practical coarse-grid 3-D simulations of large, commercial-scale devices.

  7. Three-dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry for Turbulence Applications: Case of a Jet Flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, David; Liberzon, Alex; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2016-02-27

    3D-PTV is a quantitative flow measurement technique that aims to track the Lagrangian paths of a set of particles in three dimensions using stereoscopic recording of image sequences. The basic components, features, constraints and optimization tips of a 3D-PTV topology consisting of a high-speed camera with a four-view splitter are described and discussed in this article. The technique is applied to the intermediate flow field (5 turbulence quantities in an Eulerian frame are estimated around ten diameters downstream of the jet origin and at various radial distances from the jet core. Lagrangian properties include trajectory, velocity and acceleration of selected particles as well as curvature of the flow path, which are obtained from the Frenet-Serret equation. Estimation of the 3D velocity and turbulence fields around the jet core axis at a cross-plane located at ten diameters downstream of the jet is compared with literature, and the power spectrum of the large-scale streamwise velocity motions is obtained at various radial distances from the jet core.

  8. Turbulent transport of alpha particles in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, A.; Palade, D. I.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} diffusion of fusion born α particles in tokamak plasmas. We determine the transport regimes for a realistic model that has the characteristics of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or of the trapped electron mode (TEM) driven turbulence. It includes a spectrum of potential fluctuations that is modeled using the results of the numerical simulations, the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity and the parallel motion. Our semi-analytical statistical approach is based on the decorrelation trajectory method (DTM), which is adapted to the gyrokinetic approximation. We obtain the transport coefficients as a function of the parameters of the turbulence and of the energy of the α particles. According to our results, significant turbulent transport of the α particles can appear only at energies of the order of 100 KeV. We determine the corresponding conditions.

  9. Statistical modeling of preferential concentration of heavy particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartlep, T.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Preferential concentration in turbulent flows is a process that causes heavy particles to cluster in regions of high strain (in-between high vorticity regions), with specifics depending on their stopping time or Stokes number. This process is thought to be of importance in various problems including cloud droplet formation, aerosol transport in the atmosphere, sprays, and the formation of asteroid and comets in protoplanetary nebulae. Here, we present the statistical determination of particle multiplier distributions from large numerical simulations of particle-laden isotopic turbulence, and a cascade model for modeling turbulent concentration at scales and Reynolds numbers not accessible by numerical simulations. We find that the multiplier distributions are scale dependent at scales within a decade or so of the inertial scale, and have properties that differ from widely used "beta-function" models.

  10. Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.

  11. Spherical 3D photonic crystal with conducting nanoshell and particle core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio-Lara, A.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Pérez-Careta, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Tecpoyotl-Torres, Margarita; Vázquez-Buenos Aires, O.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss a structured 3D Dielectric Photonic Crystal with both a metallic core and a metallic shell. We discuss the role of each one, the stack, the core as well as the cavity formed between the core and the shell. The low frequency metallic core features becomes much more significant as it gets smaller and get diluted by the cavity.

  12. 3D image reconstruction algorithms for cryo-electron-microscopy images of virus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.

    2000-11-01

    A statistical model for the object and the complete image formation process in cryo electron microscopy of viruses is presented. Using this model, maximum likelihood reconstructions of the 3D structure of viruses are computed using the expectation maximization algorithm and an example based on Cowpea mosaic virus is provided.

  13. On the turbulence-particles interaction in turbulent two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematically simple two-equation turbulence model for two-phase flows has been developed to take into account the extra energy dissipation due to the presence of the particles with the carrier phase. The transport equations of mass, momentum, and kinetic energy and its dissipation rate of the carrier phase using an Eulerian formulation are presented. The Lagrangian approach is used to solve for the particles using the Monte Carlo technique. These equations are solved numerically using a finite difference technique to predict a turbulent round gaseous jet laden with solid particles. The predicted mean and turbulence quantities of the carrier and dispersed phases are in good agreement with the recent experimental data.

  14. Near-surface snow particle dynamics from particle tracking velocimetry and turbulence measurements during alpine blowing snow storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksamit, Nikolas O.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Many blowing snow conceptual and predictive models have been based on simplified two-phase flow dynamics derived from time-averaged observations of bulk flow conditions in blowing snow storms. Measurements from the first outdoor application of particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) of near-surface blowing snow yield new information on mechanisms for blowing snow initiation, entrainment, and rebound, whilst also confirming some findings from wind tunnel observations. Blowing snow particle movement is influenced by complex surface flow dynamics, including saltation development from creep that has not previously been measured for snow. Comparisons with 3-D atmospheric turbulence measurements show that blowing snow particle motion immediately above the snow surface responds strongly to high-frequency turbulent motions. Momentum exchange from wind to the dense near-surface particle-laden flow appears significant and makes an important contribution to blowing snow mass flux and saltation initiation dynamics. The more complete and accurate description of near-surface snow particle motions observable using PTV may prove useful for improving blowing snow model realism and accuracy.

  15. Magnetic moment conservation and particles acceleration in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalena, S.; Greco, A.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    The present work concerns the study of particle magnetic moment conservation in the presence of turbulent magnetic fields. As we know from the particle orbit theory, for slow temporal and spatial magnetic field variations(i.e. if their characteristic length and time are greater than the particle orbit diameter and the time spent by a particle to execute one orbit, respectively), the magnetic moment, defined as μ = (v^2⊥ /B) (averaged over the particle gyroperiod) is an adiabatic invariant and remains constant during particle motion. But in presence of a well developed magnetic turbulence μ can undergo rapid variations and might not be constant anymore. Of course, this fact could influence particle acceleration and could have a considerable implications in many astrophysical problems, such as coronal heating. In order to reproduce and extend some of the results obtained by Karimabadi et al. 1992, we study the interaction between ions and a single or a couple of electromagnetic waves. We varied both the wave frequency and the cosine of pitch angle at which particles are injected, in order to observe in this very simple case which is the limit for magnetic moment conservation. We also will reconsider the results of Dmitruk and Matthaeus (2006) regarding particle acceleration in turbulence, taking into account statistics of the magnetic moment (see also Lehe et al., 2010). Later we will add more waves to obtain a complete turbulent spectrum. The final aim of this research work is the understanding the behavior of particles magnetic moment during magnetic reconnection phenomena. H. Karimabadi, D. Krauss-Varban and T. Teresawa, JGR, 97, 13853, 1992. P. Dmitruk and W. H. Matthaeus, JGR, 11, A12110, 2006. R. Lehe, I. J. Parrish and E. Quataert, Astrophys. J. 707, 404, 2009.

  16. Aspect ratio effect on particle transport in turbulent duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Vinuesa, R.; Brandt, L.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of dilute micron-sized spherical inertial particles in turbulent duct flows is studied by means of direct numerical simulations of the carrier phase turbulence with one-way coupled Lagrangian particles. The geometries are a square and a rectangular duct with width-to-height aspect ratio AR of 3 operating at Reτ,c = 360 (based on the centerplane friction velocity and duct half-height). The present study is designed to determine the effect of turbulence-driven secondary motion on the particle dynamics. Our results show that a weak cross-flow secondary motion significantly changes the cross-sectional map of the particle concentration, mean velocity, and fluctuations. As the geometry of the duct is widened from AR = 1 to 3, the secondary vortex on the horizontal wall significantly expands in the spanwise direction, and although the kinetic energy of the secondary flow increases close to the corner, it decays towards the duct centreplane in the AR = 3 case so as the turbulent carrier phase approaches the behavior in spanwise-periodic channel flows, a fact that significantly affects the particle statistics. In the square duct the particle concentration in the viscous sublayer is maximum at the duct centreplane, whereas the maximum is found closer to the corner, at a distance of |z/h| ≈ 1.25 from the centreplane, in the AR = 3 case. Interestingly the centreplane concentration in the rectangular duct is around 3 times lower than that in the square duct. Moreover, a second peak in the accumulation distribution is found right at the corners for both ducts. At this location the concentration increases with particle inertia. The secondary motion changes also the cross-stream map of the particle velocities significantly in comparison to the fluid flow statistics. These directly affect the particle velocity fluctuations such that multiple peaks appear near the duct walls for the particle streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations.

  17. T4 virus-based toolkit for the direct synthesis and 3D organization of metal quantum particles.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Gao, Faming; Li, Na

    2010-12-27

    One of the challenges in building superstructures based on small metal particles is producing stable interparticle separation. Herein, we present a novel assembly method based on the use of the T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for the construction of 3D monodisperse metal-particle arrays. The highly regular and symmetrical protein surface of the T4 capsid allows the site-directed adsorption and subsequent reduction of metal ions, thus permitting the growth of metal particles in situ to enable them to exist at a quantum size with a high degree of monodispersity. Both these characteristics contribute to a great improvement in the electrocatalytic activity of the patterned noble-metal particles. Organized magnetic particles as small as 2-4 nm still maintain an observable ferromagnetic behavior, which makes them promising for a variety of possible biomedical applications.

  18. Turbulence dissipation challenge: particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Germaschewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss application of three particle in cell (PIC) codes to the problems relevant to turbulence dissipation challenge. VPIC is a fully kinetic code extensively used to study a variety of diverse problems ranging from laboratory plasmas to astrophysics. PSC is a flexible fully kinetic code offering a variety of algorithms that can be advantageous to turbulence simulations, including high order particle shapes, dynamic load balancing, and ability to efficiently run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Finally, HYPERS is a novel hybrid (kinetic ions+fluid electrons) code, which utilizes asynchronous time advance and a number of other advanced algorithms. We present examples drawn both from large-scale turbulence simulations and from the test problems outlined by the turbulence dissipation challenge. Special attention is paid to such issues as the small-scale intermittency of inertial range turbulence, mode content of the sub-proton range of scales, the formation of electron-scale current sheets and the role of magnetic reconnection, as well as numerical challenges of applying PIC codes to simulations of astrophysical turbulence.

  19. Calculation of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow with a multigrid method and a second-moment closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    A multigrid method is presented for calculating turbulent jets in crossflow. Fairly rapid convergence is obtained with the k-epsilon turbulence model, but computations with a full Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM) are not yet very efficient. Grid dependency tests show that there are slight differences between results obtained on the two finest grid levels. Computations using the RSM are significantly different from those with k-epsilon model and compare better to experimental data. Some work is still required to improve the efficiency of the computations with the RSM.

  20. Development of a 3D to 1D Particle Transport Model to Predict Deposition in the Lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Jessica M.; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C.; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosolized particles are commonly used for therapeutic drug delivery as they can be delivered to the body systemically or be used to treat lung diseases. Recent advances in computational resources have allowed for sophisticated pulmonary simulations, however it is currently impossible to solve for airflow and particle transport for all length and time scales of the lung. Instead, multi-scale methods must be used. In our recent work, where computational methods were employed to solve for airflow and particle transport in the rat airways (Oakes et al. (2014), Annals of Biomedical Engineering 42, 899), the number of particles to exit downstream of the 3D domain was determined. In this current work, the time-dependent Lagrangian description of particles was used to numerically solve a 1D convection-diffusion model (trumpet model, Taulbee and Yu (1975), Journal of Applied Physiology, 38, 77) parameterized specifically for the lung. The expansion of the airway dimensions was determined based on data collected from our aerosol exposure experiments (Oakes et al. (2014), Journal of Applied Physiology, 116, 1561). This 3D-1D framework enables us to predict the fate of particles in the whole lung. This work was supported by the Whitaker Foundation at the IIE, a INRIA Associated Team Postdoc Grant, and a UC Presidential Fellowship.

  1. OpenPET: a novel open-type PET system for 3D dose verification in particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaya, T.

    2017-01-01

    The OpenPET is the world’s first open-type 3D PET scanner for PET image-guided particle therapy such as in situ dose verification and direct tumour tracking. Even with a full-ring geometry, the OpenPET has an open gap between its two detector rings through which the treatment beam passes. Following the initial proposal of the dual-ring OpenPET (DROP), the single-ring OpenPET (SROP) was also proposed as a more efficient geometry than DROP in terms of manufacturing cost and sensitivity. A small SROP prototype was developed and feasibility of visualizing a 3D distribution of beam stopping positions inside a phantom was shown with the help of radioisotope particle beams, used as primary beams. Following these results, a full-size whole-body SROP prototype was developed.

  2. 4Pi fluorescence detection and 3D particle localization with a single objective

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzbauer, J.; McGorty, R.; Huang, B.

    2013-01-01

    Coherent detection through two opposing objectives (4Pi configuration) improves the precision of three-dimensional (3D) single-molecule localization substantially along the axial direction, but suffers from instrument complexity and maintenance difficulty. To address these issues, we have realized 4Pi fluorescence detection by sandwiching the sample between the objective and a mirror, and create interference of direct incidence and mirror-reflected signal at the camera with a spatial light modulator. Multifocal imaging using this single-objective mirror interference scheme offers improvement in the axial localization similar to the traditional 4Pi method. We have also devised several PSF engineering schemes to enable 3D localization with a single emitter image, offering better axial precision than normal single-objective localization methods such as astigmatic imaging. PMID:24105517

  3. Investigating particle phase velocity in a 3D spouted bed by a novel fiber high speed photography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Long; Lu, Yong; Zhong, Wenqi; Chen, Xi; Ren, Bing; Jin, Baosheng

    2013-07-01

    A novel fiber high speed photography method has been developed to measure particle phase velocity in a dense gas-solid flow. The measurement system mainly includes a fiber-optic endoscope, a high speed video camera, a metal halide light source and a powerful computer with large memory. The endoscope which could be inserted into the reactors is used to form motion images of particles within the measurement window illuminated by the metal halide lamp. These images are captured by the high speed video camera and processed through a series of digital image processing algorithms, such as calibration, denoising, enhancement and binarization in order to improve the image quality. Then particles' instantaneous velocity is figured out by tracking each particle in consecutive frames. Particle phase velocity is statistically calculated according to the probability of particle velocity in each frame within a time period. This system has been applied to the investigation of particles fluidization characteristics in a 3D spouted bed. The experimental results indicate that the particle fluidization feature in the region investigated could be roughly classified into three sections by particle phase vertical velocity and the boundary between the first section and the second is the surface where particle phase velocity tends to be 0, which is in good agreement with the results published in other literature.

  4. Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.

    2016-11-02

    ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzed to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.

  5. Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.

    2016-11-02

    ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzedmore » to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.« less

  6. 3D real-time visualization of blood flow in cerebral aneurysms by light field particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsohn, Matthias F.; Kemmling, André; Petersen, Arne; Wietzke, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral aneurysms require endovascular treatment to eliminate potentially lethal hemorrhagic rupture by hemostasis of blood flow within the aneurysm. Devices (e.g. coils and flow diverters) promote homeostasis, however, measurement of blood flow within an aneurysm or cerebral vessel before and after device placement on a microscopic level has not been possible so far. This would allow better individualized treatment planning and improve manufacture design of devices. For experimental analysis, direct measurement of real-time microscopic cerebrovascular flow in micro-structures may be an alternative to computed flow simulations. An application of microscopic aneurysm flow measurement on a regular basis to empirically assess a high number of different anatomic shapes and the corresponding effect of different devices would require a fast and reliable method at low cost with high throughout assessment. Transparent three dimensional 3D models of brain vessels and aneurysms may be used for microscopic flow measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV), however, up to now the size of structures has set the limits for conventional 3D-imaging camera set-ups. On line flow assessment requires additional computational power to cope with the processing large amounts of data generated by sequences of multi-view stereo images, e.g. generated by a light field camera capturing the 3D information by plenoptic imaging of complex flow processes. Recently, a fast and low cost workflow for producing patient specific three dimensional models of cerebral arteries has been established by stereo-lithographic (SLA) 3D printing. These 3D arterial models are transparent an exhibit a replication precision within a submillimeter range required for accurate flow measurements under physiological conditions. We therefore test the feasibility of microscopic flow measurements by PIV analysis using a plenoptic camera system capturing light field image sequences. Averaging across a sequence of

  7. Electromagnetic 2D/3D Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal anomalies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lembège, Bertrand; Divin, Andrey; Markidis, Stefano; Amaya, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We present the first 2D/3D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The simulations are performed using the implicit electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code iPIC3D [Markidis, Lapenta & Rizwan-uddin, 2010]. Multiscale physics is resolved for all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) in the code, recently updated with a set of open boundary conditions designed for solar wind-body interactions. We use a dipole to model the crustal anomaly. The dipole center is located outside the computational domain and the boundary representing the lunar surface is modeled as a particle-absorbing plane. Photo-emission from the lunar surface is at this point not included, but will be in future work. We study the behaviour of the dipole model with variable surface magnetic field strength under changing solar wind conditions and confirm that lunar crustal magnetic fields may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind and form a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by MHD simulations [Harnett & Winglee, 2000, 2002, 2003] and spacecraft observations [Kurata et al., 2005; Halekas et al., 2008; Wieser et al., 2010]. 3D-PIC simulations reveal to be very helpful to analyze the diversion/braking of the particle flux and the characteristics of the resulting particles accumulation. The particle flux to the surface is significantly reduced at the magnetic anomaly, surrounded by a region of enhanced density due to the magnetic mirror effect. Finally we will present preliminary results on the interaction of the solar wind with weaker magnetic anomalies in which highly non-adiabatic interactions are expected.

  8. Particle diffusion in strong field-guided magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Joanne Mason Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We consider three-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong mean background magnetic field. We examine the Lagrangian statistics and characterize the transport properties of the system by numerically tracking a large number of passive massless particles. Previous studies demonstrated that in two dimensions, the presence of a weak background guiding field can suppress turbulent transport in the field-perpendicular direction. The situation in three dimensions is less clear. Here, we measure the single-particle diffusion along different directions with respect to the background magnetic field. By varying the background field strength, we quantify the effect of such guiding field on turbulent diffusion and interpret the results in terms of the Lagrangian velocity function. This work is supported by the UK EPSRC Grant EP/M004546/1.

  9. Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.

  10. Fractal patterns in turbulent flow for laden particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhan, M.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Angilella, J.-R.

    2011-12-01

    We use Kinematic Simulation as a particular kind of synthetic turbulence model to study the preferential accumulation of laden particles with inertia and gravity. Particles are released as a unifrom cloud in the periodic simulation box. We allow particles to settle in synthetic flow and after some times particles concentrate in a particular sub-domain. We study the dimensional properties of these attractors as functions of drift parameter and Stokes number. The attractor's topology varies from curve(D = 1) to fractal plane.

  11. Behavior of Heavy Particles in Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Changhoon

    2010-11-01

    The motion of heavy particles in turbulent channel flow was investigated by using direct numerical simulation. We assumed that Stokes drag, Saffman lift and Magnus lift act on the motion of heavy spherical particles in turbulence. In this study, Stokes number is defined as the particle response time normalized by the wall units. The range of the Stokes number is 0.1˜50 and the diameter of a particle is 0.06˜0.3 in wall unit. Collision of particles with the wall is modelled by an elastic collision. Relevant velocity and acceleration statistics of heavy particles for the given range of Stokes number were investigated to interpret the particle accumulation near the wall. Particle accumulation at the wall is maximized when the Stokes number is around 15. And we found that Saffman lift force has a great effect on particle acceleration in the wall-normal direction near the wall. Detailed statistics including probability density function and autocorrelation of particle velocity and acceleration will be presented in the meeting.

  12. Clustering of particles in turbulence due to phoresis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lukas; Fouxon, Itzhak; Krug, Dominik; van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Holzner, Markus

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that diffusiophoretic, thermophoretic, and chemotactic phenomena in turbulence lead to clustering of particles on multifractal sets that can be described using one single framework, valid when the particle size is much smaller than the smallest length scale of turbulence l_{0}. To quantify the clustering, we derive positive pair correlations and fractal dimensions that hold for scales smaller than l_{0}. For scales larger than l_{0} the pair-correlation function is predicted to show a stretched exponential decay towards 1. In the case of inhomogeneous turbulence we find that the fractal dimension depends on the direction of inhomogeneity. By performing experiments with particles in a turbulent gravity current we demonstrate clustering induced by salinity gradients in conformity to the theory. The particle size in the experiment is comparable to l_{0}, outside the strict validity region of the theory, suggesting that the theoretical predictions transfer to this practically relevant regime. This clustering mechanism may provide the key to the understanding of a multitude of processes such as formation of marine snow in the ocean and population dynamics of chemotactic bacteria.

  13. Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.

  14. Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.

  15. Charged-particle motion in multidimensional magnetic-field turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacalone, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the fundamental physics of charged-particle motion in a turbulent magnetic field using a numerical simulation. The magnetic field fluctuations are taken to be static and to have a power spectrum which is Kolmogorov. The charged particles are treated as test particles. It is shown that when the field turbulence is independent of one coordinate (i.e., k lies in a plane), the motion of these particles across the magnetic field is essentially zero, as required by theory. Consequently, the only motion across the average magnetic field direction that is allowed is that due to field-line random walk. On the other hand, when a fully three-dimensional realization of the turbulence is considered, the particles readily cross the field. Transport coefficients both along and across the ambient magnetic field are computed. This scheme provides a direct computation of the Fokker-Planck coefficients based on the motions of individual particles, and allows for comparison with analytic theory.

  16. Developments in digital in-line holography enable validated measurement of 3D particle field dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert

    2013-12-01

    Digital in-line holography is an optical technique which can be applied to measure the size, three-dimensional position, and three-component velocity of disperse particle fields. This work summarizes recent developments at Sandia National Laboratories focused on improvement in measurement accuracy, experimental validation, and applications to multiphase flows. New routines are presented which reduce the uncertainty in measured position along the optical axis to a fraction of the particle diameter. Furthermore, application to liquid atomization highlights the ability to measure complex, three-dimensional structures. Finally, investigation of particles traveling at near sonic conditions prove accuracy despite significant experimental noise due to shock-waves.

  17. Measurements of inertial range scaling in rotations of rigid particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg; Cole, Brendan; Kramel, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    We measure the rotation rate of 3D-printed particles with sizes spanning the inertial range in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids. Tetrads, composed of four slender rods in tetrahedral symmetry, and triads, three slender rods in triangular planar symmetry, are tracked in a flow with Rλ = 156 and Rλ = 214 using four high-speed cameras. Tetrads rotate like spheres and triads rotate like disks. Measurements of tetrads' solid body rotation rates as a function of particle size are direct measurements of the coarse-grained vorticity and provide a new way to measure inertial range scaling in turbulent flows. We observe Kolmogorov scaling for the mean square solid body rotation rate of tetrads, <Ω2 > r - 4 / 3 , extending earlier work on rods by Parsa and Voth to particles that do not experience preferential orientation. The theory is extended to higher moments and intermittent scaling, but experiments do not yet resolve intermittency corrections. For triads, the solid-body rotation rate is preferentially aligned with the particle orientation, and we find that the preferential alignment of these large planar particles is quite different than was previously observed for small tracer disks. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1508575.

  18. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array.

    PubMed

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-08-16

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams.

  19. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams.

  20. Design of a 3D Digital Liquid Crystal Particle Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDLCPT/V) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, Rob; Rixon, Greg; Dabiri, Dana

    2007-11-01

    A novel 3D Digital Liquid Crystal Particle Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDLCPT/V) system has been designed and fabricated. By combining 3D Defocusing Particle Image Velocimetry (3DDPIV) and Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT) into one system, this technique provides simultaneous temperature and velocity data using temperature-sensitive liquid crystal particles (LCP) as flow sensors. A custom water-filled prism corrects for astigmatism caused by off-axis imaging. New optics equations are derived to account for multi-surface refractions. This redesign also maximizes the use of the CCD area to more efficiently image the volume of interest. Six CCD cameras comprise the imaging system, with three allocated for velocity measurements and three for temperature measurements. The cameras are optically aligned to sub-pixel accuracy using a precision grid and high-resolution translation stages. Two high-intensity custom-designed xenon flashlamps provide illumination. Temperature calibration of the LCP is then performed. These results and proof-of-concept experiments will be discussed in detail.

  1. Fabrication of a three dimensional particle focusing microfluidic device using a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Robyn; Rosen, Daniel; Shirk, Kathryn

    Microfluidic devices have high importance in fields such as bioanalysis because they can manipulate volumes of fluid in the range of microliters to picoliters. Small samples can be quickly and easily tested using complex microfluidic devices. Typically, these devices are created through lithography techniques, which can be costly and time consuming. It has been shown that inexpensive microfluidic devices can be produced quickly using a 3D printer and PDMS. However, a size limitation prohibits the fabrication of precisely controlled microchannels. By using shrinking materials in combination with 3D printing of flow-focusing geometries, this limitation can be overcome. This research seeks to employ these techniques to quickly fabricate an inexpensive, working device with three dimensional particle focusing capabilities. By modifying the channel geometry, colloidal particles in a solution will be focused into a single beam when passed through this device. The ability to focus particles is necessary for a variety of biological applications which requires precise detection and characterization of particles in a sample. We would like to thank the Shippensburg University Undergraduate Research Grant Program for their generous funding.

  2. Tumbling in Turbulence: How much does particle shape effect particle motion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, E. A.; Andersson, H. I.; Zhao, L.; Byron, M.

    2014-12-01

    Natural particles suspended in surface water are often non-spherical. We explore the ways in which particle shape effects particle motion, focusing specifically on how particle rotation is divided into spinning and tumbling components. This, in turn, will effect particle collision, clustering, and settling rates. We focus on idealized axisymmetric particles shaped as rods, discs, and spheroids. They are chosen so as to explain the physics of aspherical-particle motion that will be relevant for natural particles such as plankton, sediment, or aggregates (e.g. oil-mineral aggregates, clay flocs, or bio-sediment aggregates held together by TEP). Our work begins with laboratory measurements of particle motion in a turbulence tank built to mimic the flow found in rivers, estuaries, and the ocean surface mixed layer. We then proceed to direct numerical simulation of particle-flow interactions in sheared turbulence similar to that which is found in the surface water of creeks and rivers. We find that shape has only a very weak effect on particle angular velocity, which is a quantity calculated with respect the global reference frame (i.e. east/north/up). If we analyze rotation in a particle's local frame (i.e. the particle's principle axes of rotation), then particle shape has a strong effect on rotation. In the local frame, rotation is described by two components: tumbling and spinning. We find that rod-shaped particles spin more than they tumble, and we find that disc-shaped particles tumble more than they spin. Such behavior is indicative of how particles respond the the directional influence of vortex tubes in turbulence, and such response has implications for particle motion other than rotation. Understanding particle alignment is relevant for predicting particle-particle collision rates, particle-wall collision rates, and the shear-driven breakup of aggregates. We discuss these briefly in the context of what can be concluded from the rotation data discussed above.

  3. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The Apollo implementation of PLOT3D uses some of the capabilities of

  5. Stochastic Particle Acceleration in Turbulence Generated by Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Toma, Kenji; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We investigate stochastic particle acceleration in accretion flows. It is believed that magnetorotational instability (MRI) generates turbulence inside accretion flows and that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated by the turbulence. We calculate equations of motion for CRs in the turbulent fields generated by MRI with the shearing box approximation and without back reaction to the field. Our results show that the CRs randomly gain or lose their energy through interaction with the turbulent fields. The CRs diffuse in the configuration space anisotropically: the diffusion coefficient in the direction of the unperturbed flow is about 20 times higher than the Bohm coefficient, while those in the other directions are only a few times higher than the Bohm. The momentum distribution is isotropic and its evolution can be described by the diffusion equation in momentum space where the diffusion coefficient is a power-law function of the CR momentum. We show that the shear acceleration works efficiently for energetic particles. We also cautiously note that in the shearing box approximation, particles that cross the simulation box many times along the radial direction undergo unphysical runaway acceleration by the Lorentz transformation, which needs to be taken into account with special care.

  6. Time dependence of Fe/O ratio within a 3D solar energetic particle propagation model including drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.; Zelina, P.; Laitinen, T.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The intensity profiles of iron and oxygen in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events often display differences that result in a decreasing Fe/O ratio over time. The physical mechanisms behind this behaviour are not fully understood, but these observational signatures provide important tests of physical modelling efforts. Aims: In this paper we study the propagation of iron and oxygen SEP ions using a 3D model of propagation which includes the effect of guiding centre drift in a Parker spiral magnetic field. We derive time intensity profiles for a variety of observer locations and study the temporal evolution of the Fe/O ratio. Methods: We use a 3D full orbit test particle model which includes scattering. The configuration of the interplanetary magnetic field is a unipolar Parker spiral. Particles are released instantaneously from a compact region at two solar radii and allowed to propagate in 3D. Results: Both Fe and O experience significant transport across the magnetic field due to gradient and curvature drifts. We find that Fe ions drift more than O ions due to their larger mass-to-charge ratio, so that an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region will observe Fe arriving before O, for particles within the same range in energy per nucleon. As a result, for the majority of observer locations, the Fe/O ratio displays a decrease in time. Conclusions: We conclude that propagation effects associated with drifts produce a decay over time of the Fe/O ratio, qualitatively reproducing that observed in SEP event profiles.

  7. Bacterial turbulence reduction by passive magnetic particle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuo-An; I, Lin

    2013-09-01

    We report the experimental observation of the bacterial turbulence reduction in dense E. coli suspensions by increasing the coupling of passive particle additives (paramagnetic particles). Applying an external magnetic field induces magnetic dipoles for particles and causes the formation of vertical chain bundles, which are hard for bacterial flows to tilt and break. The larger effective drag coefficient of chains causes slow horizontal motion of chains, which in turn form obstacles to suppress bacterial flows through the strong correlation in coherent bacterial clusters and intercluster interaction. The interruption of the upward energy flow from individual self-propelling bacteria to the larger scale in the bacterial turbulence with multiscaled coherent flow by the chain bundle leads to more severe suppression in the low frequency (wave number) regimes of the power spectra.

  8. Tumbling of Small Axisymmetric Particles in Random and Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, K.; Einarsson, J.; Mehlig, B.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the tumbling of small nonspherical, axisymmetric particles in random and turbulent flows. We compute the orientational dynamics in terms of a perturbation expansion in the Kubo number, and obtain the tumbling rate in terms of Lagrangian correlation functions. These capture preferential sampling of the fluid gradients, which in turn can give rise to differences in the tumbling rates of disks and rods. We show that this is a weak effect in Gaussian random flows. But in turbulent flows persistent regions of high vorticity cause disks to tumble much faster than rods, as observed in direct numerical simulations [S. Parsa, E. Calzavarini, F. Toschi, and G. A. Voth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 134501 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.134501]. For larger particles (at finite Stokes numbers), rotational and translational inertia affects the tumbling rate and the angle at which particles collide, due to the formation of rotational caustics.

  9. Bacterial turbulence reduction by passive magnetic particle chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-An; I, Lin

    2013-09-01

    We report the experimental observation of the bacterial turbulence reduction in dense E. coli suspensions by increasing the coupling of passive particle additives (paramagnetic particles). Applying an external magnetic field induces magnetic dipoles for particles and causes the formation of vertical chain bundles, which are hard for bacterial flows to tilt and break. The larger effective drag coefficient of chains causes slow horizontal motion of chains, which in turn form obstacles to suppress bacterial flows through the strong correlation in coherent bacterial clusters and intercluster interaction. The interruption of the upward energy flow from individual self-propelling bacteria to the larger scale in the bacterial turbulence with multiscaled coherent flow by the chain bundle leads to more severe suppression in the low frequency (wave number) regimes of the power spectra.

  10. Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D anlaysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bielewski, M; Eriksson, M; Himbert, J; Simon, R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T F

    2007-11-27

    Studies on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminates in the environment are often constrained by a lack of knowledge on the elemental distribution and general behavior of particulate bound radionuclides contained in hot particles. A number of hot particles were previously isolated from soil samples collected at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands and characterized using non-destructive techniques [1]. The present investigation at HASYLAB is a part of larger research program at ITU regarding the characterization of environmental radioactive particles different locations and source-terms. Radioactive particles in the environment are formed under a number of different release scenarios and, as such, their physicochemical properties may provide a basis for identifying source-term specific contamination regimes. Consequently, studies on hot particles are not only important in terms of studying the elemental composition and geochemical behavior of hot particles but may also lead to advances in assessing the long-term impacts of radioactive contamination on the environment. Six particles isolated from soil samples collected at the Marshall Islands were studied. The element distribution in the particles was determined by confocal {micro}-XRF analysis using the ANKA FLUO beam line. The CRL (compound refractive lens) was used to focus the exciting beam and the polycapillary half lens to collimate the detector. The dimensions of confocal spot were measured by 'knife edge scanning' method with thin gold structure placed at Si wafer. The values of 3.1 x 1.4 x 18.4 {micro}m were achieved if defined as FWHMs of measured L?intensity profiles and when the19.1 keV exciting radiation was used. The collected XRF spectra were analyzed offline with AXIL [2] software to obtain net intensities of element characteristic lines.Further data processing and reconstruction of element distribution was done with the software 'R' [3] dedicated for statistical

  11. Development of a 3-D Defocusing Liquid Crystal Particle Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDLCPTV) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    yTL Y-coordinate of the top left vertex of an image equilateral triangle in the CCD coordinate system yTR Y-coordinate of the top right vertex of an...By using the above figures to generate equations for the positions of the particle images on the CCD (xTR, xTL, xB, yTR, yTL , and yB) as a...particles in the combined image. Likewise, ytr, ytl , and yb represent the y-coordinates. As is obvious in the above equations, rather than

  12. Advanced 3D electromagnetic and particle-in-cell modeling on structured/unstructured hybrid grids

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, D.B.; Pasik, M.F.; Kiefer, M.L.; Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    New techniques have been recently developed that allow unstructured, free meshes to be embedded into standard 3-dimensional, rectilinear, finite-difference time-domain grids. The resulting hybrid-grid modeling capability allows the higher resolution and fidelity of modeling afforded by free meshes to be combined with the simplicity and efficiency of rectilinear techniques. Integration of these new methods into the full-featured, general-purpose QUICKSILVER electromagnetic, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code provides new modeling capability for a wide variety of electromagnetic and plasma physics problems. To completely exploit the integration of this technology into QUICKSILVER for applications requiring the self-consistent treatment of charged particles, this project has extended existing PIC methods for operation on these hybrid unstructured/rectilinear meshes. Several technical issues had to be addressed in order to accomplish this goal, including the location of particles on the unstructured mesh, adequate conservation of charge, and the proper handling of particles in the transition region between structured and unstructured portions of the hybrid grid.

  13. 3-D RPIC simulations of relativistic jets: Particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.

  14. A study on the validity of the point-particle model for particle-turbulence interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhen; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    The point-particle model, widely used in simulations of particle-turbulence interaction, is justified when the particle size is smaller than or comparable to the Kolmogorov scale. The precise limits of validity of the approximation and the manner in which errors accrue when the particle size increases are not well known. In the present work, direct simulations are conducted for a single finite-size particle suspended in a decaying homogeneous turbulent flow generated with a spectral code as an intial condition. The simulations are conducted by means of the PHYSALIS method. The trajectories of finite-size and point particles are compared as the particle radius is increased above the Kolmogorov scale for different Stokes numbers.

  15. Particle sedimentation in curved tubes: A 3D simulation and optimization for treatment of vestibular vertigo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian; Squires, Todd M.; Hain, Timothy C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2003-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mechanical disorder of the vestibular system where micron-size crystals abnormally drift into the semicircular canals of the inner ear that sense angular motion of the head. Sedimentation of these crystals causes sensation of motion after true head motion has stopped: vertigo results. The usual clinical treatment is through a series of head maneuvers designed to move the particles into a less sensitive region of the canal system. We present a three-dimensional model to simulate treatment of BPPV by determining the complete hydrodynamic motion of the particles through the course of a therapeutic maneuver while using a realistic representation of the actual geometry. Analyses of clinical maneuvers show the parameter range for which they are effective, and indicate inefficiencies in current practice. In addition, an optimization process determines the most effective head maneuver, which significantly differs from those currently in practice.

  16. 3-D RPIC Simulations of Relativistic Jets: Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets into ambient plasmas show that acceleration occurs in relativistic shocks. The Weibel instability created in shocks is responsible for particle acceleration, and generation and amplification of highly inhomogeneous, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection in relativistic jets. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than the synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understand the complex time evolution and spectral structure in relativistic jets and gamma-ray bursts. We will present recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration and magnetic field generation. We will also calculate associated self-consistent emission from relativistic shocks.

  17. 3D non-hydrostatic modelling of bottom stability under impact of the turbulent ship propeller jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovchenko, Igor; Kanarska, Julia; Maderich, Vladimir; Terletska, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    New three-dimensional numerical non-hydrostatic model with a free surface that was designed for modelling the bottom and bank stability subjected by ship propeller jets is presented. Unlike all known models, it describes three-dimensional fields of velocities generated by ship propellers, turbulence intensity and length scale in the given domain of arbitrary bottom and coastal topography. Results of simulations are compared with the laboratory experiments.

  18. Time resolved measurements of particle lift off from the wall in a turbulent water channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hout, Rene; Rabencov, Boris; Arca, Javier

    2011-11-01

    Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) and digital holography measurements were carried out in a dilute particle-laden flow tracking both Polystyrene Spheres (PS, ~0.583 mm, d+ ~ 10) as well as resolving the instantaneous velocity field of the turbulent flow. Measurements were performed in a closed loop, transparent, square channel facility (50x50 mm2) at 127.5cm from the inlet with bulk water velocity 0.3 m/s (Reh = 7353) and friction velocity 0.0174 m/s. Data were captured at 1 kHz, corresponding to a time scale 5x smaller than the flow's viscous scale. Single view digital holographic cinematography was used to track the 3D PS motion inside the VOI (17x17x50 mm3) including the wall bottom. TR-PIV in a vertical plane (29.3x29.3 mm2) oriented along the channel's centerline imaged PS together with flow tracers. Discrimination was based on their size difference. Instantaneous sequences of PS plotted on the spatial velocity, vorticity and swirling strength maps showed the effect of turbulent flow structures and resulting particle movement. Results are presented for particles that lift off from the bottom wall as a result of complex interaction with ejection and sweep motions.

  19. 3D Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G.; Divin, A. V.; Lembege, B.; Markidis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Unlike the Earth and Mercury, our Moon has no global magnetic field and is therefore not shielded from the impinging solar wind by a magnetosphere. However, lunar magnetic field measurements made by the Apollo missions provided direct evidence that the Moon has regions of small-scale crustal magnetic fields, ranging up to a few 100km in scale size with surface magnetic field strengths up to hundreds of nanoTeslas. More recently, the Lunar Prospector spacecraft has provided high-resolution observations allowing to construct magnetic field maps of the entire Moon, confirming the earlier results from Apollo, but also showing that the lunar plasma environment is much richer than earlier believed. Typically the small-scale magnetic fields are non-dipolar and rather tiny compared to the lunar radius and mainly clustered on the far side of the moon. Using iPic3D we present the first 3D fully kinetic and electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies. We study the behaviour of a dipole model with variable surface magnetic field strength under changing solar wind conditions and confirm that lunar crustal magnetic fields may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind and form a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by MHD and hybrid simulations and spacecraft observations. 3D-PIC simulations reveal to be very helpful to analyze the diversion/braking of the particle flux and the characteristics of the resulting particles accumulation. The particle flux to the surface is significantly reduced at the magnetic anomaly, surrounded by a region of enhanced density due to the magnetic mirror effect. Second, the ability of iPic3D to resolve all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) allows to discuss in detail the electron physics leading to the highly non-adiabatic interactions expected as well as the implications for solar wind shielding of the lunar surface, depending on the scale size (solar wind protons

  20. Clustering and turbulence modulation in particle laden shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, P.; Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent fluctuations induce the commonplace phenomenology on the transport of small inertial particles known as clustering. Particles spread disuniformly and form aggregates where their local concentration is much higher than it is in nearby rarefaction regions, the voids, where in extreme cases not even a single particle can be found. The underlying physics has been exhaustively analyzed in statistically homogeneous and isotropic flows under the so called oneway coupling regime, i.e. in conditions where the momentum exchange between the carrier fluid and the disperse phase is negligible. Recently it has been shown that the addition of a mean flow might have dramatic effects on the disperse phase, i.e. the mean flow, through its large scale anisotropy, induces a preferential orientation of the clusters. Due to inertial effects, their directionality can even increase in the smallest scales, contrary to the expectation based on the isotropy recovery behavior of velocity fluctuations. This finding opens new issues in presence of large mass loads, when the momentum exchange between the two phases becomes significant and the back-reaction of the particles on the carrier flow cannot be neglected. These aspects are discussed here by addressing direct numerical simulation data of particle laden homogeneous shear flow in the two-way coupling regime. Consistently with previous findings we observe an overall depletion of turbulent fluctuations. In particular, particles with order Kolmogorov scale relaxation time induce the energy depletion of the classical inertial scales and the amplitude increase of the smallest ones where the particle back-reaction pumps energy into the turbulent eddies increasing their energy content. We find that increased mass loads result in the substantial broadening of the energy co-spectrum thereby extending the range of scales driven by anisotropic production mechanisms. This is due to the clusters which form the spatial support of the back

  1. Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; ...

    2014-10-09

    Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introducesmore » a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.« less

  2. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  3. Simulated 2D vs. 3D Shock Waves: Implications for Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Frank C.

    2005-08-01

    We have given a rigorous derivation of a theorem showing that charged particles in an arbitrary electromagnetic field with at least one ignorable spatial coordinate remain forever tied to a given magnetic-field line. Such a situation contrasts the significant motions normal to the magnetic field that are expected in most real three-dimensional systems. While the significance of the theorem was not widely appreciated until recently, it has important consequences for a number of problems and is of particular relevance for the acceleration of cosmic rays by shocks.

  4. A single particle plasmon resonance study of 3D conical nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian; Gollmer, Dominik A; Horrer, Andreas; Fulmes, Julia; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James; Kern, Dieter P; Fleischer, Monika

    2013-09-07

    Metallic nanocones are well-suited optical antennas for near-field microscopy and spectroscopy, exhibiting a number of different plasmonic modes. A major challenge in using nanocones for many applications is maximizing the signal at the tip while minimizing the background from the base. It is shown that nanocone plasmon resonance properties can be shifted over a wide range of wavelengths by variation of the substrate, material, size and shape, enabling potential control over specific modes and field distributions. The individual resonances are identified and studied by correlated single particle dark field scattering and scanning electron microscopy in combination with numerical simulations.

  5. A Hierarchical Multiscale Particle Computational Method for Simulation of Nanoscale Flows on 3D Unstructured Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    Navier - Stokes type of solvers. In the case of transitional and free-molecular regimes (Kn > 0.01), analysis and simulations are carried out with... equation of motion, given by r (t + dt) = r (t) + v (t) AT . Tracing the motion of the particle on the unstructured grid is carried out using the...AC In the above equation the acoustic number is .4 c = a/n , where a is the speed of sound, and a. = JjkTo I m is the speed of sound at a

  6. Directional change of particles in dissipative drift-wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoch, Benjamin; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the statistical properties of Lagrangian particle transport in dissipative drift-wave turbulence modeled by the Hasegawa-Wakatani system. The angle between subsequent particle displacement increments is evaluated as a function of the timelag and thus multi-scale geometric statistics can be performed. The evolution of the mean angle with the time lag is studied and the probability density function of the directional change are analyzed for the different flow regimes. By varying the adiabaticity parameter the flow regime can be modified from the hydrodynamic limit to a geostrophic limit, including the quasi adiabatic regime which has some relevance for edge turbulence of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. Support by the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) is thankfully acknowledged.

  7. Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.; Hussein, M. E-mail: m_hussein@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2014-10-10

    A model for noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was recently proposed. This model was already used to study the random walk of magnetic field lines. In the current article we use the same model to investigate the diffusion of energetic particles across the mean magnetic field. To compute the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, two analytical theories are used, namely, the Non-Linear Guiding Center theory and the Unified Non-Linear Transport (UNLT) theory. It is shown that the two theories provide different results for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. We also perform test-particle simulations for the aforementioned turbulence model. We show that only the UNLT theory describes perpendicular transport accurately, confirming that this is a powerful tool in diffusion theory.

  8. On the modification of particle dispersion in isotropic turbulence by free rotation of particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongnam; Lee, Changhoon

    2008-11-01

    Effect of a particle's spin is investigated numerically by considering the effect of lift occurring due to difference of rotations of a particle and of fluid such as the Saffman lift and Magnus force. These lift forces have been neglected in many previous works on particle-laden turbulence. The trajectory of particles can be changed by the lift forces, resulting in significant modification of the stochastic characteristics of heavy particles. Probability density functions and autocorrelations are examined of velocity, acceleration of solid particle and acceleration of fluid at the position of solid particle. Changes in velocity statistics are negligible but statistics related with acceleration are a little bit changed by particle's rotation. When a laden particle encounters with coherent structures during the motion, the particle's rotation might significantly affects the motion due to intermittently large fluid acceleration near coherent structures. The result can be used for development of stochastic model for particle dispersion. Detailed physical interpretation will be presented in the meeting.

  9. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    PubMed

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses.

  10. Modulation to the compressible homogenous turbulence by heavy point particles: Effect of particles' density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two-way interactions between heavy point particles and forced compressible homogenous turbulence are simulated by using a localized artificial diffusivity scheme and an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The initial turbulent Mach number is around 1.0 and the Taylor Reynolds number is around 110. Seven different simulations of 106 particles with different particle densities (or Stokes number) are considered. The statistics of the compressible turbulence, such as the turbulence Mach number, kinetic energy, dilatation, and the kinetic energy spectra, from different simulations are compared with each other, and with the one-way undisturbed case. Our results show that the turbulence is suppressed if the two-way coupling backward interactions are considered, and the effect is more obvious if the density of particles is higher. The kinetic energy spectrum at larger Stokes number (higher density) exhibits a reduction at low wave numbers and an augmentation at high wave numbers, which is similar to those obtained in incompressible cases. The probability density functions of dilatation, and normal upstream Mach number of shocklets also show that the modulation to the shocklet statistics is more apparent for particles with higher density. We acknowledge the financial support provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11302006, and U1330107).

  11. 3D Boltzmann Simulation of the Io's Plasma Environment with Adaptive Mesh and Particle Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Combi, M. R.

    2002-12-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io [Combi et al., 2002; 1998; Kabin et al., 2001]. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD [Combi et al., 1998; Linker et al, 1998; Kabin et al., 2001] and the electrodynamic [Saur et al., 1999] approaches. In this report, we develop a method of kinetic ion-neutral simulation, which is based on a multiscale adaptive mesh, particle and algorithm refinement. This method employs the fluid description for electrons whereas for ions the drift-kinetic and particle approaches are used. This method takes into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this report. ~ M R Combi et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9071, 1998. M R Combi, T I Gombosi, K Kabin, Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative\\ Aeronomy. Geophys. Monograph Series, 130, 151, 2002. K Kabin et al., Planetary and Space Sci., 49, 337, 2001. J A Linker et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103(E9), 19867, 1998. J Saur et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25105, 1999.

  12. Effects of roughness on density-weighted particle statistics in turbulent channel flows

    SciTech Connect

    Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-31

    The distribution of inertial particles in turbulent flows is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the coherent turbulent structures which develop in the carrier flow field. In wall-bounded flows, these turbulent structures, which control the turbulent regeneration cycles, are strongly affected by the roughness of the wall, nevertheless its effects on the particle transport in two-phase turbulent flows has been still poorly investigated. The issue is discussed here by addressing DNS combined with LPT to obtain statistics of velocity and preferential accumulation of a dilute dispersion of heavy particles in a turbulent channel flow, bounded by irregular two-dimensional rough surfaces, in the one-way coupling regime.

  13. Robust and highly performant ring detection algorithm for 3d particle tracking using 2d microscope imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afik, Eldad

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking is an essential tool in studying dynamics under the microscope, namely, fluid dynamics in microfluidic devices, bacteria taxis, cellular trafficking. The 3d position can be determined using 2d imaging alone by measuring the diffraction rings generated by an out-of-focus fluorescent particle, imaged on a single camera. Here I present a ring detection algorithm exhibiting a high detection rate, which is robust to the challenges arising from ring occlusion, inclusions and overlaps, and allows resolving particles even when near to each other. It is capable of real time analysis thanks to its high performance and low memory footprint. The proposed algorithm, an offspring of the circle Hough transform, addresses the need to efficiently trace the trajectories of many particles concurrently, when their number in not necessarily fixed, by solving a classification problem, and overcomes the challenges of finding local maxima in the complex parameter space which results from ring clusters and noise. Several algorithmic concepts introduced here can be advantageous in other cases, particularly when dealing with noisy and sparse data. The implementation is based on open-source and cross-platform software packages only, making it easy to distribute and modify. It is implemented in a microfluidic experiment allowing real-time multi-particle tracking at 70 Hz, achieving a detection rate which exceeds 94% and only 1% false-detection.

  14. Robust and highly performant ring detection algorithm for 3d particle tracking using 2d microscope imaging

    PubMed Central

    Afik, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking is an essential tool in studying dynamics under the microscope, namely, fluid dynamics in microfluidic devices, bacteria taxis, cellular trafficking. The 3d position can be determined using 2d imaging alone by measuring the diffraction rings generated by an out-of-focus fluorescent particle, imaged on a single camera. Here I present a ring detection algorithm exhibiting a high detection rate, which is robust to the challenges arising from ring occlusion, inclusions and overlaps, and allows resolving particles even when near to each other. It is capable of real time analysis thanks to its high performance and low memory footprint. The proposed algorithm, an offspring of the circle Hough transform, addresses the need to efficiently trace the trajectories of many particles concurrently, when their number in not necessarily fixed, by solving a classification problem, and overcomes the challenges of finding local maxima in the complex parameter space which results from ring clusters and noise. Several algorithmic concepts introduced here can be advantageous in other cases, particularly when dealing with noisy and sparse data. The implementation is based on open-source and cross-platform software packages only, making it easy to distribute and modify. It is implemented in a microfluidic experiment allowing real-time multi-particle tracking at 70 Hz, achieving a detection rate which exceeds 94% and only 1% false-detection. PMID:26329642

  15. Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments.

  16. DPW-VI Results Using FUN3D with Focus on k-kL-MEAH2015 (k-kL) Turbulence Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, K. S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Park, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Research Model wing-body configuration is investigated with the k-kL-MEAH2015 turbulence model implemented in FUN3D. This includes results presented at the Sixth Drag Prediction Workshop and additional results generated after the workshop with a nonlinear Quadratic Constitutive Relation (QCR) variant of the same turbulence model. The workshop provided grids are used, and a uniform grid refinement study is performed at the design condition. A large variation between results with and without a reconstruction limiter is exhibited on "medium" grid sizes, indicating that the medium grid size is too coarse for drawing conclusions in comparison with experiment. This variation is reduced with grid refinement. At a fixed angle of attack near design conditions, the QCR variant yielded decreased lift and drag compared with the linear eddy-viscosity model by an amount that was approximately constant with grid refinement. The k-kL-MEAH2015 turbulence model produced wing root junction flow behavior consistent with wind tunnel observations.

  17. Radiation Transport Through a Particle Laden Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hilario; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent duct flow laden with small particles was performed at several Reynolds and Stokes numbers. After the flow reached a statistically stationary state the instantaneous particle positions were saved at several time steps. Separate radiative heat transfer calculations were performed to study the amount of absorbed radiation and the local heat flux. The radiative source was considered outside of the duct, and one wall contained a window from which thermal radiation streamed through. The fluid was treated as transparent and the instantaneous particle positions obtained from the DNS where used to build Eulerian absorption and scattering fields. A Monte Carlo ray tracing code has been developed and used to solve for the radiative intensity, incident radiation, and heat flux inside of the domain. The qualitative behavior of the radiation fields as the particle positions change due to the turbulence are discussed. The effects of changes in the resolution of the Eulerian mesh used to convert the Lagrangian particles into absorption and scattering fields are also presented. The sensitivity of the amount of total absorbed radiation in the domain is also discussed in both of the previously mentioned cases.

  18. Investigation of Parametric Excitation of Whistler Waves Using 3D Particle-In-Cell Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinger, James; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Main, Daniel; Rose, David; Paraschiv, Ioana

    2016-10-01

    Previous theoretical work has shown that a parametric interaction between quasi-electrostatic lower oblique resonance (LOR) and lower frequency (ω < ωLH) ion acoustic or extremely low frequency (ELF) waves can produce electromagnetic whistler waves in a cold magnetized plasma. It was also demonstrated theoretically that this interaction can more efficiently generate electromagnetic whistler waves than by direct excitation by a conventional loop antenna, operating at a single frequency. For the purpose of numerically validating the above result, a series of particle-in-cell simulations were carried out. We first demonstrate the ability to accurately model whistler wave excitation producing the familiar resonant surfaces which comprise the LOR using a modeled loop antenna. Next we demonstrate the ability to generate ion acoustic waves as well as ELF waves, both of which are shown to agree with the expected linear dispersion relations. Finally, we investigate the existence of any nonlinear interaction which indicates the desired parametric excitation and attempt to analyze the efficiency of this method of excitation and radiated power going into the whistler part of the VLF wave spectrum.

  19. Laboratory-based characterization of plutonium in soil particles using micro-XRF and 3D confocal XRF

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn; Patterson, Brian M.; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2015-03-29

    The investigation of plutonium (Pu) in a soil matrix is of interest in safeguards, nuclear forensics, and environmental remediation activities. The elemental composition of two plutonium contaminated soil particles was characterized nondestructively using a pair of micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) techniques including high resolution X-ray (hiRX) and 3D confocal XRF. The three dimensional elemental imaging capability of confocal XRF permitted the identification two distinct Pu particles within the samples: one external to the Ferich soil matrix and another co-located with Cu within the soil matrix. The size and morphology of the particles was assessed with X-ray transmission microscopy and micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) providing complementary morphological information. Limits of detection for a 30 μm Pu particle are <10 ng for each of the XRF techniques. Ultimately, this study highlights the capability for lab-based, nondestructive, spatially resolved characterization of heterogeneous matrices on the micrometer scale with nanogram sensitivity.

  20. Laboratory-based characterization of plutonium in soil particles using micro-XRF and 3D confocal XRF

    DOE PAGES

    McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn; Patterson, Brian M.; ...

    2015-03-29

    The investigation of plutonium (Pu) in a soil matrix is of interest in safeguards, nuclear forensics, and environmental remediation activities. The elemental composition of two plutonium contaminated soil particles was characterized nondestructively using a pair of micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) techniques including high resolution X-ray (hiRX) and 3D confocal XRF. The three dimensional elemental imaging capability of confocal XRF permitted the identification two distinct Pu particles within the samples: one external to the Ferich soil matrix and another co-located with Cu within the soil matrix. The size and morphology of the particles was assessed with X-ray transmission microscopy andmore » micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) providing complementary morphological information. Limits of detection for a 30 μm Pu particle are <10 ng for each of the XRF techniques. Ultimately, this study highlights the capability for lab-based, nondestructive, spatially resolved characterization of heterogeneous matrices on the micrometer scale with nanogram sensitivity.« less

  1. Modeling inertial particle acceleration statistics in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyalasomayajula, S.; Warhaft, Z.; Collins, L. R.

    2008-09-01

    Our objective is to explain recent Lagrangian acceleration measurements of inertial particles in decaying, nearly isotropic turbulence [Ayyalasomayajula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 144507 (2006)]. These experiments showed that as particle inertial effects increased, the variance in the particle acceleration fluctuations was reduced, and the tails of the normalized particle acceleration probability density function (PDF) became systematically attenuated. We model this phenomenon using a base flow that consists of a two-dimensional array of evenly spaced vortices with signs and intensities that vary randomly in time. We simulate a large sample of inertial particles moving through the fluid without disturbing the flow (one-way coupling). Consistent with Bec et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 349 (2006)], we find that our model exhibits preferential concentration or clustering of particles in regions located away from the vortex centers. That is, inertial particles selectively sample the flow field, oversampling regions with high strains and undersampling regions with high vorticities. At low Stokes numbers, this biased "sampling" of the flow is responsible for the reduction in the acceleration variance and partially explains the attenuation of the tails of the acceleration PDF. However, contrary to previous findings, we show that the tails of the PDF are also diminished by "filtering" induced by the attenuated response of the inertial particles to temporal variations in the fluid acceleration: Inertial particles do not respond to fluctuations with frequencies much higher than the inverse of the particle stopping time. We show that larger fluid acceleration events have higher frequencies and hence experience greater filtering by particle inertia. We contrast the vortex model with previous Lagrangian acceleration models by Sawford [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1577 (1991)] and Reynolds [Phys. Fluids 15, L1 (2003)] and show that although these models capture some aspects of the inertial

  2. The development of a 3-D laser velocimeter for the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Adams, Wendell G.; Crespi, Pierre H.; Houser, Michael J.; Inenaga, Andrew S.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an orthogonal, three-dimensional laser velocimeter with in situ sizing (LVIS) system for a high-Reynolds-number facility, the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure wind tunnel (LTPT), is discussed. Special attention is paid to the laser velocimeter seeding subsystems, while all other subsystems are approached from the users standpoint. The evaluation of the LVIS system leads to the conclusion that seeding of large scale pressure wind tunnels remains a problem, while using the polydispersed seeding requires further investigation. A Cassegrain mirror receiver optics may be successfully implemented in lieu of similar lens systems. General agreement is observed between the mean velocity LVIS measurements as compared to conventional pitot and hot-wire data.

  3. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    SciTech Connect

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.

  4. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    DOE PAGES

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; ...

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less

  5. Particle clustering within a two-phase turbulent pipe jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Timothy; Nathan, Graham

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive study of the influence of Stokes number on the instantaneous distributions of particles within a well-characterised, two-phase, turbulent pipe jet in a weak co-flow was performed. The experiments utilised particles with a narrow size distribution, resulting in a truly mono-disperse particle-laden jet. The jet Reynolds number, based on the pipe diameter, was in the range 10000 <= ReD <= 40000 , while the exit Stokes number was in the range 0 . 3 <= SkD <= 22 . 4 . The particle mass loading was fixed at ϕ = 0 . 4 , resulting in a flow that was in the two-way coupling regime. Instantaneous particle distributions within a two-dimensional sheet was measured using planar nephelometry while particle clusters were identified and subsequently characterised using an in-house developed technique. The results show that particle clustering is significantly influenced by the exit Stokes number. Particle clustering was found to be significant for 0 . 3 <= SkD <= 5 . 6 , with the degree of clustering increasing as SkD is decreased. The clusters, which typically appeared as filament-like structures with high aspect ratio oriented at oblique angles to the flow, were measured right from the exit plane, suggesting that they were generated inside the pipe. The authors acknowledge the financial contributions by the Australian Research Council (Grant No. DP120102961) and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (Grant No. USO034).

  6. Forces on stationary particles in near-bed turbulent flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeeckle, M.W.; Nelson, J.M.; Shreve, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    In natural flows, bed sediment particles are entrained and moved by the fluctuating forces, such as lift and drag, exerted by the overlying flow on the particles. To develop a better understanding of these forces and the relation of the forces to the local flow, the downstream and vertical components of force on near-bed fixed particles and of fluid velocity above or in front of them were measured synchronously at turbulence-resolving frequencies (200 or 500 Hz) in a laboratory flume. Measurements were made for a spherical test particle fixed at various heights above a smooth bed, above a smooth bed downstream of a downstream-facing step, and in a gravel bed of similarly sized particles as well as for a cubical test particle and 7 natural particles above a smooth bed. Horizontal force was well correlated with downstream velocity and not correlated with vertical velocity or vertical momentum flux. The standard drag formula worked well to predict the horizontal force, but the required value of the drag coefficient was significantly higher than generally used to model bed load motion. For the spheres, cubes, and natural particles, average drag coefficients were found to be 0.76, 1.36, and 0.91, respectively. For comparison, the drag coefficient for a sphere settling in still water at similar particle Reynolds numbers is only about 0.4. The variability of the horizontal force relative to its mean was strongly increased by the presence of the step and the gravel bed. Peak deviations were about 30% of the mean force for the sphere over the smooth bed, about twice the mean with the step, and 4 times it for the sphere protruding roughly half its diameter above the gravel bed. Vertical force correlated poorly with downstream velocity, vertical velocity, and vertical momentum flux whether measured over or ahead of the test particle. Typical formulas for shear-induced lift based on Bernoulli's principle poorly predict the vertical forces on near-bed particles. The

  7. Numerical simulation of particle laden coaxial turbulent jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2010-11-01

    The study of coaxial turbulent particle laden jets has been of interest due to its importance in many applications such as industrial burners, and mixing devices. The addition of the second phase to the continuous phase jet can change the already complicated flow pattern and turbulent characteristics of the jets. Albeit the vast research efforts that have been devoted to understand such phenomena, demand for detailed investigation of particle laden flows remains an active area of research. The advent of laser diagnostics has helped to quantify the myriad details of the jet flow fields in more details. In parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide additional information by further investigating such flows with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this work, numerical simulations results are presented for the flow and turbulent characteristics of a coaxial jet with and without the dispersed phase. The results are compared with the experimental data measured using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry diagnostic technique. The key objective of this work is to undermine the flow field details that are difficult if not impossible to measure.

  8. Dynamics of particle--turbulence interaction at the dissipative scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; JM Burgerscentrum Collaboration; COST Action, Particles in Turbulence Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present results of a novel phosphorescent tagging technique that is particularly suited to study particle-laden flows. Using phosphorescent droplets we probe the dynamics of particle-turbulence interaction at the dissipative length scales. We create a cloud of droplets within a chamber capable of generating homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with zero-mean flow. The droplets have Stokes number St ~ 1 , and the flow is intensely turbulent, with Reynolds number Reλ ~ 500 . Using a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, we can tag a variety of volumes, such as thin slabs or thin, pencil-like cylinders. The droplets in these volumes glow during a few Kolmogorov times. By tracking the fate of pencil-shaped clouds using a fast (5 kHz) camera, we come to the surprising conclusion that they disperse faster than fluid elements, with a spreading rate reaching a maximum at St ~ 2 . Sheets of tagged droplets display preferential concentration at work; we discuss statistical quantities that can capture these events. This project is funded by Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM).

  9. Four-way coupled simulations of small particles in turbulent channel flow: The effects of particle shape and Stokes number

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F.; Wachem, B. G. M. van; George, W. K.

    2015-08-15

    This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Re{sub τ} = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence

  10. Four-way coupled simulations of small particles in turbulent channel flow: The effects of particle shape and Stokes number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; George, W. K.; van Wachem, B. G. M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Reτ = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence

  11. Turbulence and wave particle interactions in solar-terrestrial plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Goldman, M. V.; Toomre, J.

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the following study areas are reported: (1) particle and wave processes in solar flares; (2) solar convection zone turbulence; and (3) solar radiation emission. To investigate the amplification of cyclotron maser radiation in solar flares, a radio frequency. (RF) heating model was developed for the corona surrounding the energy release site. Then nonlinear simulations of compressible convection display prominent penetration by plumes into regions of stable stratification at the base of the solar convection zone, leading to the excitation of internal gravity waves there. Lastly, linear saturation of electron-beam-driven Langmuir waves by ambient density fluctuations, nonlinear saturation by strong turbulence processes, and radiation emission mechanisms are examined. An additional section discusses solar magnetic fields and hydromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media, and the effect of magnetic fields on stellar oscillation.

  12. Cross-Platform Graphical User Interface with fast 3-D Rendering for Particle-in-Cell Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, David; Luetkemeyer, Kelly; Cary, John

    1999-11-01

    The Graphical User Interface (GUI) for XOOPIC (X11-based Object-Oriented Particle-in-Cell) is being ported to Qt, a cross-platform C++ windowing toolkit, thus permitting the code to run on PC's running both Windows 95/98/NT and Linux, as well as all commercial Unix platforms. All 3-D graphics will be handled through OpenGL, the cross-platform standard for fast 3-D rendering. The use of object-oriented design (OOD) techniques keeps the GUI/physics interface clean, and minimizes the impact of GUI development on the physics code. OOD also improves the maintainability and extensibility of large scientific simulation codes, while allowing for cross-platform portability and ready interchange of individual algorithms or entire physics kernels. Planned new GUI features include interactive modifications of the simulation parameters, including generation of a slowly-varying mesh and automatic updating of a corresponding input file. Improved modeling of high-power microwave tubes is one of the primary applications being targeted by this project.

  13. Cascade model for particle concentration and enstrophy in fully developed turbulence with mass-loading feedback.

    PubMed

    Hogan, R C; Cuzzi, J N

    2007-05-01

    A cascade model is described based on multiplier distributions determined from three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent particle laden flows, which include two-way coupling between the phases at global mass loadings equal to unity. The governing Eulerian equations are solved using psuedospectral methods on up to 512(3) computional grid points. DNS results for particle concentration and enstrophy at Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers in the range 34-170 were used to directly determine multiplier distributions on spatial scales three times the Kolmogorov length scale. The multiplier probability distribution functions (PDFs) are well characterized by the beta distribution function. The width of the PDFs, which is a measure of intermittency, decreases with increasing mass loading within the local region where the multipliers are measured. The functional form of this dependence is not sensitive to Reynolds numbers in the range considered. A partition correlation probability is included in the cascade model to account for the observed spatial anticorrelation between particle concentration and enstrophy. Joint probability distribution functions of concentration and enstrophy generated using the cascade model are shown to be in excellent agreement with those derived directly from our 3D simulations. Probabilities predicted by the cascade model are presented at Reynolds numbers well beyond what is achievable by direct simulation. These results clearly indicate that particle mass loading significantly reduces the probabilities of high particle concentration and enstrophy relative to those resulting from unloaded runs. Particle mass density appears to reach a limit at around 100 times the gas density. This approach has promise for significant computational savings in certain applications.

  14. Three-dimensional simulation and auto-stereoscopic 3D display of the battlefield environment based on the particle system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jiwei; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Cui, Huilong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    The army's combat training is very important now, and the simulation of the real battlefield environment is of great significance. Two-dimensional information has been unable to meet the demand at present. With the development of virtual reality technology, three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the battlefield environment is possible. In the simulation of 3D battlefield environment, in addition to the terrain, combat personnel and the combat tool ,the simulation of explosions, fire, smoke and other effects is also very important, since these effects can enhance senses of realism and immersion of the 3D scene. However, these special effects are irregular objects, which make it difficult to simulate with the general geometry. Therefore, the simulation of irregular objects is always a hot and difficult research topic in computer graphics. Here, the particle system algorithm is used for simulating irregular objects. We design the simulation of the explosion, fire, smoke based on the particle system and applied it to the battlefield 3D scene. Besides, the battlefield 3D scene simulation with the glasses-free 3D display is carried out with an algorithm based on GPU 4K super-multiview 3D video real-time transformation method. At the same time, with the human-computer interaction function, we ultimately realized glasses-free 3D display of the simulated more realistic and immersed 3D battlefield environment.

  15. Spatial and velocity statistics of inertial particles in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, J.; Biferale, L.; Cencini, M.; Lanotte, A. S.; Toschi, F.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial and velocity statistics of heavy point-like particles in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic three-dimensional turbulence is studied by means of direct numerical simulations at two values of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number Reλ ~ 200 and Reλ ~ 400, corresponding to resolutions of 5123 and 20483 grid points, respectively. Particles Stokes number values range from St ≈ 0.2 to 70. Stationary small-scale particle distribution is shown to display a singular -multifractal- measure, characterized by a set of generalized fractal dimensions with a strong sensitivity on the Stokes number and a possible, small Reynolds number dependency. Velocity increments between two inertial particles depend on the relative weight between smooth events - where particle velocity is approximately the same of the fluid velocity-, and caustic contributions - when two close particles have very different velocities. The latter events lead to a non-differentiable small-scale behaviour for the relative velocity. The relative weight of these two contributions changes at varying the importance of inertia. We show that moments of the velocity difference display a quasi bi-fractal-behavior and that the scaling properties of velocity increments for not too small Stokes number are in good agreement with a recent theoretical prediction made by K. Gustavsson and B. Mehlig arXiv: 1012.1789v1 [physics.flu-dyn], connecting the saturation of velocity scaling exponents with the fractal dimension of particle clustering.

  16. Rigid spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhuis, Dennis; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Mathai, Varghese; Huisman, Sander G.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Many industrial and maritime processes are subject to enormous frictional losses. Reducing these losses even slightly will already lead to large financial and environmental benefits. The understanding of the underlying physical mechanism of frictional drag reduction is still limited, for example, in bubbly drag reduction there is an ongoing debate whether deformability and bubble size are the key parameters. In this experimental study we report high precision torque measurements using rigid non-deformable spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with Reynolds numbers up to 2 ×106 . The particles are made of polystyrene with an average density of 1.036 g cm-3 and three different diameters: 8mm, 4mm, and 1.5mm. Particle volume fractions of up to 6% were used. By varying the particle diameter, density ratio of the particles and the working fluid, and volume fraction of the particles, the effect on the torque is compared to the single phase case. These systematic measurements show that adding rigid spherical particles only results in very minor drag reduction. This work is financially supported by Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) by VIDI Grant Number 13477.

  17. SU-E-T-380: Particle Microdosimetry Study Based On 3D-Cylindrical Silicon Radiaton Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Guardiola, C; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Gomez, F; Pellegrini, G; Fleta, C; Quirion, D; Lozano, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A new design of a solid-state-microdetector based on silicon 3D microfabrication and its performance to characterise Lineal energy, Specific Energy, dose, LET and other microdosimetric variables required for modelling particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is presented. Methods: A microdosimeter formed by a matrix of independent sensors with well-defined micrometric cylindrical shape and with a volume similar to those of cellular dimensions is used to measure microdosimetric variables. Each sensor measures the radiation deposited energy which, divided by the mean cord length of the sensors, provides us with the Linear Energy (y) of the radiation as well as its energy distribution, and frequencymean. Starting from the these distributions in different points of a proton beam, we generate biophysical data (e.g. Linear Energy Transfer (LET), Specific Energy (z), etc…) needed for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations radiation effect models used in particle radiotherapy treatment planning. In addition, a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) will be used as baseline to calibrate the “y” magnitude of the microdosimeter unit-cells. Results: The experimental measurements will soon be carried out at the Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine (University of Pennsylvania), which provides proton beam for clinical research proposals. The results of distributions measured of the microdosimetric variables from the first tests developed in the proton facility will be presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. Conclusion: The use of 3D microdosimeters such as the one presented here will enhance the accuracy of RBE calculations normally affected by the inherent uncertainty of monte carlo simulations due to the approximation of material composition and energy dependent physical laws involved in such calculations. The effect of such approximations will be quatified by comparison with absolute measurement of

  18. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  19. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  20. Characterizing spatial variability in velocity and turbulence intensity using 3-D acoustic Doppler velocimeter data in a plane-bed reach of East St. Louis Creek, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Legleiter, Carl J.; Wohl, Ellen; Yochum, Steven E.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the influence on flow resistance of flow structure and turbulence at the reach scale in a mountain channel using 3-D velocity measurements and geostatistical analysis to understand the complexity of the flow structure in a reach with limited bed irregularities. The increase in flow resistance at low flows in a plane-bed reach was not fully explained by grain resistance, therefore detailed 3-D velocity measurements were made to investigate spatial variability in velocity and turbulence components and potential controls on flow resistance. One plane-bed reach was surveyed over two stages in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, using a combination of a total station, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), and a SonTek Flowtracker handheld ADV (acoustic Doppler velocimeter). LiDAR was used to capture bank and channel geometry at low flows, whereas the water surface and bed data were collected with the total station at all flows. We used the standard deviation of bed elevation (σb) within a moving window as an index of roughness height (ks) and calculated the relative submergence of the bed at different stages as h/ks, where h is the local flow depth. ADV measurements were collected on a grid with a 0.3 m to 0.5 m spacing. Geostatistical analysis of the velocity data indicated that the flow was highly three-dimensional and varied based on stage, demonstrating that even small irregularities in the bed have a significant influence on the flow characteristics. The streamwise component was the largest at both low and high flow, but varied more throughout the reach at low flow. At high flow, the greatest streamwise velocities were located within the thalweg. Areas of upwelling and downwelling also varied based on stage, with this component being strongly influenced by small changes in the morphology at high flow, and by protuberant grains at low flows. The cross-stream velocity and turbulence components were controlled by the flow structure and less by the

  1. 3-D Full-kinetic Simulations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: Particle Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, J.; Divin, A. V.; Wang, X.; Lembege, B.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.; Horanyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present three-dimensional full-kinetic electromagnetic simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies (LMAs). Using the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, we confirm that LMAs may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind from directly impacting the lunar surface forming a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by spacecraft observations and theory. In contrast to earlier MHD and hybrid simulations, the full-kinetic nature of iPic3D allows to self-consistently investigate space charge effects, and in particular the electron dynamics dominating the near-surface lunar plasma environment. We describe the general mechanism of the interaction of both a horizontal and vertical dipole model embedded just below the lunar surface focussing on the ion and electron kinetic behaviour of the system. It is shown that the configurations are largely dominated by electron motion, because the LMA scale size is small with respect to the gyro-radius of the solar wind ions. The formation of mini-magnetospheres is an electrostatic effect. Additionally, we discuss typical particle trajectories as well as complete particle distribution functions covering thermal and suprathermal energies, within the interaction region and on viable spacecraft altitudes. Our work opens new frontiers of research toward a deeper understanding of LMAs and is ideally suited to be compared with field or particle observations from spacecraft such as Kaguya (SELENE), Lunar Prospector or ARTEMIS. The ability to evaluate the implications for future lunar exploration as well as lunar science in general hinges on a better understanding of LMAs.This research has received funding from the European Commission's FP7 Program with the grant agreement EHEROES (project 284461, www.eheroes.eu). The simulations were conducted on the computational resources provided by the PRACE Tier-0 project 2013091928 (SuperMUC). This research was supported by the Swedish National Space Board

  2. Particle Trajectory and Icing Analysis of the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2011-01-01

    Particle trajectory and ice shape calculations were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The particle trajectory and icing computations were performed using the new "block-to-block" collection efficiency method which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for three drop sizes and two drop distributions typically used in aircraft design and certification. Particle trajectory computations were made for water drop sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns. Particle trajectory and ice shape predictions were made for a 20 micron Langmuir-D distribution and for a 92 mm Super-cooled Large Droplet (SLD) distribution with and without splashing effects for a Liquid Water Content (LWC) of 0.3 g/cu m and an icing time of 30 min. The E3 fan and spinner combination proved to be an effective ice removal mechanism as they removed greater than 36 percent of the mass entering the inlet for the icing cases. The maximum free stream catch fraction for the fan and spinner combination was 0.60 while that on the elements downstream of the fan was 0.03. The non-splashing trajectory and collection efficiency results showed that as drop size increased impingement rates increased on the spinner and fan leaving less mass to impinge on downstream components. The SLD splashing case yielded more mass downstream of the fan than the SLD non-splashing case due to mass being splashed from the upstream inlet lip, spinner and fan components. The ice shapes generated downstream of the fan were either small or nonexistent due to the small available mass

  3. IMPROVED WIND AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS USING A LOW-COST 3-D SONIC ANEMOMETER AT A LOW-WIND SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B

    2007-05-11

    A year of data from sonic anemometer and mechanical wind sensors was analyzed and compared at a low-wind site. Results indicate that 15-minute average and peak 1-second wind speeds (u) from the sonic agree well with data derived from a co-located cup anemometer over a wide range of speeds. Wind direction data derived from the sonic also agree closely with those from a wind vane except for very low wind speeds. Values of standard deviation of longitudinal wind speed ({sigma}{sub u}) and wind direction fluctuations ({delta}{sub {theta}}) from the sonic and mechanical sensors agree well for times with u > 2 ms{sup -1} but show significant differences with lower u values. The most significant differences are associated with the standard deviation of vertical wind fluctuations ({sigma}{sub w}): the co-located vertical propeller anemometer yields values increasingly less than those measured by the sonic anemometer as u decreases from 2.5 approaching 0 ms{sup -1}. The combination of u over-estimation and under-estimation of {sigma}{sub w} from the mechanical sensors at low wind speeds causes considerable under-estimation of the standard deviation of vertical wind angle fluctuations ({sigma}{sub {phi}}), an indicator of vertical dispersion. Calculations of {sigma}{sub {phi}} from sonic anemometer measurements are typically 5{sup o} to 10{sup o} higher when the mechanical instruments indicate that {sigma}{sub {phi}} < 5{sup o} or so. The errors in both the propeller anemometer and cup anemometer, caused by their inability to respond to higher frequency (smaller scale) turbulent fluctuations, can therefore lead to large (factors of 2 to 10 or more) errors in the vertical dispersion during stable conditions with light winds.

  4. Flow on Magnetizable Particles in Turbulent Air Streams. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davey, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of magnetizable particles in a turbulent air stream in the presence of an imposed magnetic field and the phenomenon of drag reduction produced by the introduction of particles in turbulent boundary layer are investigated. The nature of the particle magnetic force is discussed and the inherent difference between electric and magnetic precipitation is considered. The incorporation of turbulent diffusion theory with an imposed magnetic migration process both with and without inertia effects is examined.

  5. Multi-particle Lagrangian statistics of turbulent dispersion from simulations of isotropic turbulence at Rλ 1100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackl, J. F.; Yeung, P. K.; Sawford, B. L.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical simulations at up to (4096^3) grid resolution have been conducted on machines with very large processor counts to obtain the statistics of Lagrangian particle pairs and tetrads in turbulent relative dispersion. Richardson-Obukhov scaling for mean-square pair separation adjusted for initial conditions is observed for intermediate initial separations, in support of prior estimates of about 0.6 for Richardson's constant. Simulations at (Rλ 650) have also been conducted for sufficient duration to obtain fully converged exit time statistics for independently moving particles at very large scales. The fact that all particle pairs reach such large scales of separation means the inertial subrange of exit times is also captured accurately. The results show Kolmogorov scaling for positive moments of exit time, but a strong dependence on initial separations for inverse moments. Inertial-range estimates of tetrad shape factors are reinforced by simulations at Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers up to about 1100. Tetrad shape parameters conditioned on cluster size are also examined in order to understand geometric features of turbulent dispersion in more detail.

  6. A theoretical and experimental study of turbulent particle-laden jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Zhang, Q. F.; Faeth, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities of both phases, particle mass fluxes, particle size distributions in turbulent particle-laden jets were measured. The following models are considered: (1) a locally homogeneous flow (LHF) model, where slip between the phases was neglected; (2) a deterministic separated flow (DSF) model, where slip was considered but effects of particle dispersion by turbulence were ignored; and (3) a stochastic separated flow (SSF) model. The SSF model performed reasonably well with no modifications in the prescriptions for eddy properties from its original calibration. A modified k- model, incorporating direct contributions of interphase transport on turbulence properties (turbulence modulation), was developed within the framework of the SSF model.

  7. Turbulence Investigations With High-Resolution Simulations of Dilute Suspension Particle-Laden Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espath, L.; Pinto, L.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J.; Scientific Team of DNS on Gravity Currents

    2013-05-01

    Gravity currents are very common in nature, either in atmosphere (due to sea-breeze fronts), in mountain avalanches (in airborne snow or debris flow), or in the ocean due to turbidity currents or river plumes (Simpson, 1982). In this numerical study, we focus on particle-laden hyperpycnal flows (negative-buoyancy), where the dynamics play a central role in the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs (Meiburg & Kneller, 2009). Moreover, these particle-driven gravity currents are often extremely dangerous for the stability of submarine structures placed near the sea-floor (like pipelines or submarines cables). It is clear that the understanding of the physical mechanism associated with these currents and the correct prediction of their main features are of great importance for practical as well as theoretical purposes. For this numerical work, we are interested in the prediction of a mono-disperse dilute suspension particle-laden flow in the typical lock-exchange configuration. We consider only flat surfaces using DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). Our approach takes into account the possibility of particles deposition but ignores erosion and/or re-suspension. Previous results for this kind of flows were obtained in laboratory experiments with Reynolds numbers up to 10400 (De Rooij & Dalziel, 2001), or by numerical simulations at moderate Reynolds numbers, up to 5000 for a 2D case (Nasr-Azadani, Hall & Meiburg, 2011) and up to 2236 for a 3D (Necker, Härtel, Kleiser & Meiburg, 2002) case with a Reynolds number based on the buoyancy velocity. It was shown that boundary conditions, initial lock configuration and different particle sizes can have a strong influence on the main characteristics of this kind of flows. The main objective of this numerical study is to undertake unprecedented simulations in order to focus on the turbulence and to investigate the effect of the Reynolds number in such flows. We want to investigate the turbulent mechanism in gravity currents such as

  8. Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-08-15

    The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.

  9. Dynamics of Aerosol Particles in Stationary, Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the dynamics of sub-Kolmogorov-size aerosol particles in stationary isotropic turbulence has been performed. The study combined direct numerical simulations (DNS; directed by Prof. Collins) and high-resolution experimental measurements (directed by Prof. Meng) under conditions of nearly perfect geometric and parametric overlap. The goal was to measure the accumulation of particles in low-vorticity regions of the flow that arises from the effect commonly referred to as preferential concentration. The grant technically was initiated on June 13, 2000; however, funding was not available until July 11, 2000. The grant was originally awarded to Penn State University (numerical simulations) and SUNY-Buffalo (experiments); however, Prof. Collins effort was moved to Cornell University on January 2002 when he joined that university. He completed the study there. A list of the specific tasks that were completed under this study is presented.

  10. Two-fluid description of wave-particle interactions in strong Buneman turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Che, H.

    2014-06-15

    To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation while a plasma is unstable to the Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. We show that both energy dissipation and momentum transport along electric current in the current layer are locally quasi-static, but globally dynamic and irreversible. Turbulent drag dissipates both the streaming energy of the current sheet and the associated magnetic energy. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into the electron component heat conduction parallel to the magnetic field and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation that relates the turbulence-induced convective momentum transport and thermal momentum transport. Electron trapping and de-trapping drive local momentum transports, while phase mixing converts convective momentum into thermal momentum. The drag acts like a micro-macro link in the anomalous heating processes. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons, but most of the magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into the component heat of electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field. This heating process is decoupled from the heating of Buneman instability in the current sheets. Ion heating is weak but ions play an important role in assisting energy exchanges between waves and electrons. Cold ion fluid equations together with our electron fluid equations form a complete set of equations that describes the occurrence, growth, saturation and decay of the Buneman instability.

  11. Nonresonant Interaction of Charged Energetic Particles with Low-frequency Noncompressive Turbulence: Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot, B. R.

    2012-10-01

    A new method for simulating the three-dimensional dynamics of charged energetic particles in very broadband noncompressive magnetic turbulence is introduced. All scales within the primary inertial range of the turbulence observed in the solar wind near 1 AU are now included for the independent computations of both the particle dynamics and the turbulent magnetic field lines (MFLs). While previous theories of resonant particle pitch-angle (PA) scattering and transport in interplanetary magnetic fields had favored interpreting the observed depletions in the electron PA distributions (PADs) around 90° PA as evidence of poor scattering at low PA cosines, the computed particle dynamics reveal a very different reality. The MFL directions now vary on many scales, and the PADs are depleted around 90° PA due to nonresonant filtering of the particles that propagate at too large an angle to the local magnetic field. Rather than being too weak, the scattering through 90° PA is actually so strong that the particles (electrons and protons/ions) are reflected and trapped in the turbulent magnetic fields. While the low-frequency nonresonant turbulence produces ubiquitous magnetic traps that only let through particles with the most field-aligned velocities, higher-frequency near-gyroscale turbulence, when present, enhances particle transport by allowing the particles to navigate between magnetic traps. Finally, visualizing both particle trajectories and MFLs in the very same turbulence reveals a powerful tool for understanding the effects of the turbulent fields on the particle dynamics and cross-field transport. Some cross-field-line scattering, strongly amplified by MFL dispersal, results in a strong cross-field scattering of the particles. From this visualization, it also appears that near-gyroscale turbulence, previously known as gyroresonant turbulence, does not resonantly interact with the particles. The interaction between particles and fields at or near the gyroscale

  12. Azimuthal inhomogeneity of turbulence structure and its impact on intermittent particle transport in linear magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Kasuya, N.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Yamada, T.; Miwa, Y.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation component in the turbulence regime is found to be azimuthally localized at a phase of the global coherent modes in a linear magnetized plasma PANTA. Spatial distribution of squared bicoherence is given in the azimuthal cross section as an indicator of nonlinear energy transfer function from the global coherent mode to the turbulence. Squared bicoherence is strong at a phase where the turbulence amplitude is large. As a result of the turbulence localization, time evolution of radial particle flux becomes bursty. Statistical features such as skewness and kurtosis are strongly modified by the localized turbulence component, although contribution to mean particle flux profile is small.

  13. Analysis of the clustering of inertial particles in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Mani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    An asymptotic solution is derived for the motion of inertial particles exposed to Stokes drag in an unsteady random flow. This solution provides an estimate for the sum of Lyapunov exponents as a function of the Stokes number and Lagrangian strain- and rotation-rate autocovariance functions. The sum of exponents in a Lagrangian framework is the rate of contraction of clouds of particles, and in an Eulerian framework, it is the concentration-weighted divergence of the particle velocity field. Previous literature offers an estimate of the divergence of the particle velocity field, which is applicable only in the limit of small Stokes numbers [Robinson, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9, 69 (1956), 10.1002/cpa.3160090105 and Maxey, J. Fluid Mech. 174, 441 (1987), 10.1017/S0022112087000193] (R-M). In addition to reproducing R-M at this limit, our analysis provides a first-order correction to R-M at larger Stokes numbers. Our analysis is validated by a directly computed rate of contraction of clouds of particles from simulations of particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence over a broad range of Stokes numbers. Our analysis and R-M predictions agree well with the direct computations at the limit of small Stokes numbers. At large Stokes numbers, in contrast to R-M, our model predictions remain bounded. In spite of an improvement over R-M, our analysis fails to predict the expansion of high Stokes clouds observed in the direct computations. Consistent with the general trend of particle segregation versus Stokes number, our analysis shows a maximum rate of contraction at an intermediate Stokes number of O (1 ) and minimal rates of contraction at small and large Stokes numbers.

  14. Decoration of Micro-/Nanoscale Noble Metal Particles on 3D Porous Nickel Using Electrodeposition Technique as Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xin; Hang, Tao; Shanmugam, Sangaraju; Li, Ming

    2015-07-29

    Micro-/nanoscale noble metal (Ag, Au, and Pt) particle-decorated 3D porous nickel electrodes for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte are fabricated via galvanostatic electrodeposition technique. The developed electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements including Tafel polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is clearly shown that the enlarged real surface area caused by 3D highly porous dendritic structure has greatly reinforced the electrocatalytic activity toward HER. Comparative analysis of electrodeposited Ag, Au, and Pt particle-decorated porous nickel electrodes for HER indicates that both intrinsic property and size of the noble metal particles can lead to distinct catalytic activities. Both nanoscale Au and Pt particles have further reinforcement effect toward HER, whereas microscale Ag particles exhibit the reverse effect. As an effective 3D hydrogen evolution cathode, the nanoscale Pt-particle-decorated 3D porous nickel electrode demonstrates the highest catalytic activity with an extremely low overpotential of -0.045 V for hydrogen production, a considerable exchange current density of 9.47 mA cm(-2) at 25 °C, and high durability in long-term electrolysis, all of which are attributed to the intrinsic catalytic property and the extremely small size of Pt particles.

  15. Stochastic dynamics of particles trapped in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicoane, N.; López-Caballero, M.; Fiabane, L.; Pinton, J.-F.; Bourgoin, M.; Burguete, J.; Volk, R.

    2016-02-01

    The long-time dynamics of large particles trapped in two nonhomogeneous turbulent shear flows is studied experimentally. Both flows present a common feature, a shear region that separates two colliding circulations, but with different spatial symmetries and temporal behaviors. Because large particles are less and less sensitive to flow fluctuations as their size increases, we observe the emergence of a slow dynamics corresponding to back-and-forth motions between two attractors, and a super-slow regime synchronized with flow reversals when they exist. Such dynamics is substantially reproduced by a one-dimensional stochastic model of an overdamped particle trapped in a two-well potential, forced by a colored noise. An extended model is also proposed that reproduces observed dynamics and trapping without potential barrier: the key ingredient is the ratio between the time scales of the noise correlation and the particle dynamics. A total agreement with experiments requires the introduction of spatially nonhomogeneous fluctuations and a suited confinement strength.

  16. Stochastic dynamics of particles trapped in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Machicoane, N; López-Caballero, M; Fiabane, L; Pinton, J-F; Bourgoin, M; Burguete, J; Volk, R

    2016-02-01

    The long-time dynamics of large particles trapped in two nonhomogeneous turbulent shear flows is studied experimentally. Both flows present a common feature, a shear region that separates two colliding circulations, but with different spatial symmetries and temporal behaviors. Because large particles are less and less sensitive to flow fluctuations as their size increases, we observe the emergence of a slow dynamics corresponding to back-and-forth motions between two attractors, and a super-slow regime synchronized with flow reversals when they exist. Such dynamics is substantially reproduced by a one-dimensional stochastic model of an overdamped particle trapped in a two-well potential, forced by a colored noise. An extended model is also proposed that reproduces observed dynamics and trapping without potential barrier: the key ingredient is the ratio between the time scales of the noise correlation and the particle dynamics. A total agreement with experiments requires the introduction of spatially nonhomogeneous fluctuations and a suited confinement strength.

  17. Implementation of a 3D version of ponderomotive guiding center solver in particle-in-cell code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Anton; Vieira, Jorge; Silva, Luis; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven accelerators gained an increased attention over the past decades. Typical modeling techniques for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) are based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC simulations, however, are very computationally expensive due to the disparity of the relevant scales ranging from the laser wavelength, in the micrometer range, to the acceleration length, currently beyond the ten centimeter range. To minimize the gap between these despair scales the ponderomotive guiding center (PGC) algorithm is a promising approach. By describing the evolution of the laser pulse envelope separately, only the scales larger than the plasma wavelength are required to be resolved in the PGC algorithm, leading to speedups in several orders of magnitude. Previous work was limited to two dimensions. Here we present the implementation of the 3D version of a PGC solver into the massively parallel, fully relativistic PIC code OSIRIS. We extended the solver to include periodic boundary conditions and parallelization in all spatial dimensions. We present benchmarks for distributed and shared memory parallelization. We also discuss the stability of the PGC solver.

  18. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricco, T. S.; Price, D. J.; Federrath, C.

    2016-05-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small- scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of starforming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning method may be used to achieve ∇ • B = 0 to machine precision, albeit at significant computational expense.

  19. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously

  20. Particle-laden turbulence under radiation: toward a novel small-particle solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Ari; Mani, Ali; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    In particle-based solar receivers, an array of mirrors focuses sunlight onto a falling curtain of particles in a duct that absorb the light and warm up. The heated particles can be stored for later energy extraction. In this work we consider a design concept in which the particles and air are in a co-flowing configuration, and as the particles are heated they conduct the energy to the surrounding air. The air-particle mixture can then be separated and the heated air used for energy extraction. To assess the viability of this energy concept we have developed a simulation capability to analyze the flow of small particles in a turbulent flow with radiation. The code combines a point-particle direct numerical simulation of the particle-air flow in the low Mach number limit with the discrete ordinates solution of the gray, quasi-steady radiative transfer equation. We will describe the individual solution components and the coupling methodology. We will then demonstrate some results from the replication of a lab-scale experiment of a laser diode array irradiating a transparent channel with a flowing air-particle mixture. This work was supported by the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program 2 at Stanford.

  1. Test-particle simulations in increasingly strong turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.; Gray, P. C.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Quasi-linear theory supposes that the energy in resonant fluctuations is small compared to that in the mean magnetic field. This is evident in the fact that the zeroth-order particle trajectories are helices about a mean field B(sub o) that is spatially uniform over many correlation lengths. However, in the solar wind it is often the case that the fluctuating part of the field is comparable in magnitude to the mean part. It is generally expected that quasi-linear theory remains viable for particles that are in resonance with a region of the fluctuation spectrum having only small energy density, but even so, care must be taken when comparing simulations to theoretical predictions. We have performed a series of test-particle simulations to explore the evolution of ion distributions in turbulent situations with varying levels of magnetic fluctuations. As delta-B/B(sub o) is increased the distinctions among absolute pitch angle (defined relative to B(sub o)), local pitch angle (defined relative to B(x)), and magnetic moment become important, some of them exhibiting periodic sloshing unrelated to the nonadiabatic processes of interest. Comparing and contrasting the various runs illustrates the phenomena that must be considered when the premise underlying quasi-linear theory are relaxed.

  2. Angular scattering of sound from solid particles in turbulent suspension.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie A; Hay, Alex E

    2009-09-01

    Sound scattering by solid particles suspended in a turbulent jet is investigated. Measurements of the scattered amplitude were made in a bistatic geometry at frequencies between 1.5 and 4.0 MHz, and at scattering angles from 95 degrees to 165 degrees relative to the forward direction. Two types of particle were used: nearly spherical lead-glass beads and aspherical natural sand grains. For each particle type, experiments were carried out using approximately 200 and approximately 500 microm median diameter grain sizes, corresponding to 0.7 < or approximately ka < or approximately 4. The sphericity of the sand grains, defined as the ratio of projected perimeter size to projected area size, was 1.08. The lead-glass bead results are consistent with an elastic sphere model. A rigid movable sphere model provides the best fit to the sand data, and the best-fit diameter is within 4% of the equivalent volume size. However, the scattering pattern for sand is systematically smoother than predicted: that is, the undulations in the angular scattering pattern predicted by spherical scatterer theory are present, but muted. This observed departure from spherical scatterer theory is attributed to disruption of the interference among creeping waves by the irregular surfaces of natural sand grains.

  3. Evolution of the air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone for different lengths of SF6: shock tube visualizations and 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Griffond, Jerome; Souffland, Denis; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a vertical shock tube (based in ISAE DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a thin nitrocellulose membrane maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid (SF6 side) of square mesh spacing hu 1.8 or 12.1 mm is expected to seed perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) while the lower grid with hl 1 mm is needed to prevent the membrane from bulging prior to the shot. The experiments were carried out for different lengths L of SF6 between the initial interface and the shock tube's end plate: 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm. The time resolved Schlieren image processing based on space and frequency filtering yields similar evolution for the TMZ thickness. Before reshock, the thickness grows initially fast then slows down and reaches different values (10 to 14 mm) according to L. Soon after reshock, the TMZ thickness growths rate is 21 mm/ms independently of L and hu. Numerical Schlieren images generated from 3D numerical simulations (performed at CEA DAM IDF) are analyzed as the experimental ones for L 15 and 25 cm and for hu 1.8 and 12.1 mm. The very weak experimental dependence on hu is not obtained by simulation as expected from dimensional reasoning. This discrepancy remains paradoxical.

  4. Continuum theories for fluid-particle flows: Some aspects of lift forces and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mctigue, David F.; Givler, Richard C.; Nunziato, Jace W.

    1988-01-01

    A general framework is outlined for the modeling of fluid particle flows. The momentum exchange between the constituents embodies both lift and drag forces, constitutive equations for which can be made explicit with reference to known single particle analysis. Relevant results for lift are reviewed, and invariant representations are posed. The fluid and particle velocities and the particle volume fraction are then decomposed into mean and fluctuating parts to characterize turbulent motions, and the equations of motion are averaged. In addition to the Reynolds stresses, further correlations between concentration and velocity fluctuations appear. These can be identified with turbulent transport processes such as eddy diffusion of the particles. When the drag force is dominant, the classical convection dispersion model for turbulent transport of particles is recovered. When other interaction forces enter, particle segregation effects can arise. This is illustrated qualitatively by consideration of turbulent channel flow with lift effects included.

  5. CHARGED-PARTICLE TRANSPORT IN MAGNETIC TURBULENCE. I. A GLOBALLY ANISOTROPIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, P.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2015-12-10

    Collisionless magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence is common in large scale astrophysical environments. The determination of the transport of charged particles both parallel and perpendicular in such a system is of considerable interest. Quasi-linear analysis or direct numerical simulation can be used to find the effects of the turbulent magnetic field on the transport of charged particles. A number of different magnetic turbulence models have been proposed in the last several decades. We present here the results of studying particle transport in synthesized, anisotropic turbulence and compare the results with those obtained using the standard isotropic turbulence model in a series of papers. In this paper we consider the magnetic field turbulence model with global anisotropy.

  6. Effects of clustering on heat transfer in particle-laden turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouransari, Hadi; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden flows are ubiquitous in variety of natural and industrial phenomena. Rain droplets in clouds, protoplanetary disks, and combustion chambers are examples in which particles are interacting with a background turbulence. It is well known that interaction of particles and turbulent flow results in preferential concentration. The extent of preferential concentration depends on ratio of particle relaxation time and turbulent eddies time scale.this work, we consider particle-laden turbulent flows, in which particles are heated. This is the case for example in the particle-based solar receivers where particles absorb external radiation and heat the background gas. We use three-dimensional variable density direct numerical simulations for the turbulent flow and Lagrangian point-particle tracking to study the implication of particle clustering in particle-to-gas heat transfer. We investigate variety of non-dimensional numbers including particle Stokes number, Reynolds number, and mass loading ratio. Using our statistical analyses we introduce a model to correct the particle-to-gas heat transfer to account for particle clustering. This can be employed in Reynolds average Navier Stokes (RANS) computations. Supported by DOE under PSAAP2 program at Stanford University.

  7. In situ 3-D mapping of pore structures and hollow grains of interplanetary dust particles with phase contrast X-ray nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. W.; Winarski, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    Unlocking the 3-D structure and properties of intact chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in nanoscale detail is challenging, which is also complicated by atmospheric entry heating, but is important for advancing our understanding of the formation and origins of IDPs and planetary bodies as well as dust and ice agglomeration in the outer protoplanetary disk. Here, we show that indigenous pores, pristine grains, and thermal alteration products throughout intact particles can be noninvasively visualized and distinguished morphologically and microstructurally in 3-D detail down to ~10 nm by exploiting phase contrast X-ray nanotomography. We have uncovered the surprisingly intricate, submicron, and nanoscale pore structures of a ~10-μm-long porous IDP, consisting of two types of voids that are interconnected in 3-D space. One is morphologically primitive and mostly submicron-sized intergranular voids that are ubiquitous; the other is morphologically advanced and well-defined intragranular nanoholes that run through the approximate centers of ~0.3 μm or lower submicron hollow grains. The distinct hollow grains exhibit complex 3-D morphologies but in 2-D projections resemble typical organic hollow globules observed by transmission electron microscopy. The particle, with its outer region characterized by rough vesicular structures due to thermal alteration, has turned out to be an inherently fragile and intricately submicron- and nanoporous aggregate of the sub-μm grains or grain clumps that are delicately bound together frequently with little grain-to-grain contact in 3-D space.

  8. Particle Scale Studies Experimental and Computational Studies on the Effects of Turbulence Statistics and Bed Variability on Particle Entrainment and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Templin, K.; Tewoldebrhan, B. Y.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2010-12-01

    Most models used to predict transport of particles in bedload transport are semi-empirically based on averaged fluid velocity or stress. While these models work reasonably well for relatively simple fluid flow (through experimental channels), under unsteady conditions (e.g., due to roughness transitions such as that associated with gravel patches or gravel-sand transitions) these models are significantly less successful. Recent experiments suggest that discrepancies between models and physical measurements are due largely to the neglected effects of fluctuating fluid velocities on particle movement. We measure the average and instantaneous velocities in 3-D to determine how they are correlated with particle transport over fixed and mobile gravel beds and near roughness transitions. In this way, we determine which turbulence structures are responsible for the majority of bedload transport under these conditions. We also perform complimentary discrete element simulations using simple models for fluid-particle interactions to isolate effects of different particle sizes from turbulence fluctuations on bedload transport. In this presentation, we describe the results from these experiments and simulations and, based on these results, the development of a physically representative model for bedload transport that takes into account this phenomonology.

  9. Effects of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of wall bounded turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessani, Bamdad; Nakhaei, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The effect of solid inertial particles on the velocity and temperature statistics of a non-isothermal turbulent channel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation.A two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is adopted.Three different particle Stokes numbers of St = 25, 60, 200, at a constant particle mass loading of ϕm = 0 . 57 , are considered. The variations of different budget terms for the turbulent kinetic energy equation and fluctuating temperature variance equation in the presence of particles are reported. It is shown that the near wall dissipation and viscous transport terms are larger for St = 25 particles compared to the ones of higher inertia particles (St = 60, 200). The same behavior is observed for the dissipation and viscous transport terms of the fluctuating temperature variance equation. The fluid turbulent heat flux is also reduced by the presence of particles, but as a result of fluid-particle heat exchange, the total heat transfer rate stays always higher for particle-laden flow even for the largest particles considered. The total Nusselt number is split into a turbulence contribution and a particle contribution, and the effects of particles inertia on fluid turbulent heat flux and fluid-particle heat transfer are examined.

  10. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2011-12-21

    successfully created new capabilities for the scientists to visualize their 3D data at higher accuracy and quality, enhancing their ability to evaluate the simulations and understand the modeled phenomena.

  11. Test-particle simulation in three-dimensional multi-scale RMHD model of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalena, S.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    The acceleration of charged particles is relevant in the solar corona over a range of scales and energies. Acceleration can occur in large events like flares, but also in smaller events characterized by dynamical activity near current sheets. In order to gain some insights into the complex scenario of coronal charged particle acceleration, we investigate the properties of acceleration using 3D MHD simulation augmented by a test-particle approach. This provides a useful bridge between the large-scale macroscopic MHD and a more realistic particle kinetic physics description. Numerical experiments are performed using turbulent magnetic and electric fields obtained from direct solutions of Reduced MHD equations, which are well suited for a plasma embedded in a strong axial magnetic field, as in the case of coronal loops. Indeed a coronal loop is a closed magnetic structure threaded by a strong axial field, with the footpoints rooted in the photosphere. This makes it a strongly anisotropic system. A multi-box, multi-scale technique is used to solve the equation of motion for protons. This methods allow us to resolve all the length present in the system, namely from the outer scale of the order of 4000km to the ion skin depth of the order of a meter. This new technique is useful to identify the mechanisms that, acting on different scales, are responsible for acceleration to high energies of a small fraction of the particles in the coronal plasma. We report results that show acceleration at different stages over a broad range of time, length and energy scales.

  12. Ice Particle Transport Analysis With Phase Change for the E(sup 3) Turbofan Engine Using LEWICE3D Version 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ice Particle trajectory calculations with phase change were made for the Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)) using the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The particle trajectory computations were performed using the new Glenn Ice Particle Phase Change Model which has been incorporated into the LEWICE3D Version 3.2 software. The E(sup 3) was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980 s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The E(sup 3) flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbomachinery flow solver. Computations were performed for the low pressure compressor of the E(sup 3) for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20, and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of 0.3 g/cu m. The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting and the amount of melting was relatively small with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.836. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22 percent).

  13. A fast Eulerian multiphase flow model for volcanic ash plumes: turbulence, heat transfer and particle non-equilibrium dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerminara, Matteo; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Carlo Berselli, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    as compressibility and thermal effects. A quantitative assessment of the reliability of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and LES results with respect to modeling approximations and numerical errors has been carried out by comparing numerical results to experimental and computational studies of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. In such a simplified geometry, the numerical solver is able to accurately reproduce the turbulent spectrum and the so-called energy cascade. The parallel efficiency on high-performance computing platforms exceeds 80% on 1024 processors, demonstrating the code suitability for large-scale 3D numerical simulations. Several numerical benchmarks have been performed, such as the 2D lid-driven cavity, the natural convection in a square enclosure, the stratified mixing for a dam-break problem and the forced plume in an experimental setting. All these tests have given excellent results, in agreement with the data commonly found in the literature. Finally, the model is applied to simulate the three-dimensional dynamics of volcanic plume dynamics and demonstrate that gas-particle non-equilibrium phenomena have a significant impact on turbulent structures and can affect the entrainment rate and the subsequent atmospheric dispersal of volcanic ash.

  14. Imaging System for Extending Evanescent-Wave Particle Velocimetry to Wall Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    based particle?tracking velocimetry (PTV) technique to visualize a “slice” of the viscous sublayer in wall turbulence parallel to the wall in fully...developed turbulent channel flow. Understanding the characteristics of wall (?bounded) turbulence, especially in the viscous sublayer, i.e., the thin...flow region next to the wall where viscous effects dominate, is the key to understanding the drag and lift forces 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE

  15. Simulation of finite size particles in turbulent flows using entropic lattice boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhineet; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Toschi, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden turbulent flows occur in variety of industrial applications. While the numerical simulation of such flows has seen significant advances in recent years, it still remains a challenging problem. Many studies investigated the rheology of dense suspensions in laminar flows as well as the dynamics of point-particles in turbulence. Here we will present results on the development of numerical methods, based on the Lattice Boltzmann method, suitable for the study of suspensions of finite-size particles under turbulent flow conditions and with varying geometrical complexity. The turbulent flow is modeled by an entropic lattice Boltzmann method, and the interaction between particles and carrier fluid is modeled using bounce back rule. Direct contact and lubrication force models for particle-particle interactions and particle-wall interaction are taken into account to allow for a full four-way coupled interaction. The accuracy and robustness of the method is discussed by validating velocity profile in turbulent pipe flow, sedimentation velocity of spheres in duct flow and resistance functions of approaching particles. Results show that the velocity profiles and turbulence statistics can be significantly altered by the presence of the dispersed solid phase. The author is supported by Shell-NWO computational sciences for energy research (CSER) Grant (12CSER034).

  16. Dispersion of finite size droplets and solid particles in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Michele

    Turbulent disperse two-phase flows, of either fluid/fluid or fluid/solid type, are common in natural phenomena and engineering devices. Notable examples are atmospheric clouds, i.e. dispersed liquid water droplets and ice particles in a complex turbulent flow, and spray of fuel droplets in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. However, the physics of the interaction between a dispersed phase and turbulence is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to compare the dispersion of deformable finite size droplets with that of solid particles in a turbulent flow in the absence of gravity, by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The droplets and the particles have the same diameter, of the order of the Taylor's microscale of turbulence, and the same density ratio to the carrier flow. The solid particle-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a standard projection method with the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). The solid particles are fully resolved in space and time without considering particle/particle collisions (two-way coupling). The liquid droplet-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a variable-density projection method with the Accurate Conservative Level Set Method (ACLSM). The effect of the surface tension is accounted for by using the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) in order to avoid any numerical smearing, while the discontinuities in the viscous term of the Navier-Stokes equation are smoothed out via the Continuum Surface Force approach. Droplet/droplet interactions are allowed (four-way coupling). The results presented here show that in isotropic turbulence the dispersion of liquid droplets in a given direction is larger than that of solid particles due to the reduced decay rate of turbulence kinetic energy via the four-way coupling effects of the droplets.

  17. Restricted Euler dynamics along trajectories of small inertial particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The fate of small particles in turbulent flows depends strongly on the surrounding fluid's velocity gradient properties such as rotation and strain-rates. For non-inertial (fluid) particles, the Restricted Euler model provides a simple, low-dimensional dynamical system representation of Lagrangian evolution of velocity gradients in fluid turbulence, at least for short times. Here we derive a new restricted Euler dynamical system for the velocity gradient evolution of inertial particles such as solid particles in a gas or droplets and bubbles in turbulent liquid flows. The model is derived in the limit of small (sub Kolmogorov scale) particles and low Stokes number. The system exhibits interesting fixed points, stability and invariant properties. Comparisons with data from Direct Numerical Simulations show that the model predicts realistic trends such as the tendency of increased straining over rotation along heavy particle trajectories and, for light particles such as bubbles, the tendency of reduced self-stretching of strain-rate.

  18. Effects of forcing time scale on the simulated turbulent flows and turbulent collision statistics of inertial particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, B.; Parishani, H.; Ayala, O.; Wang, L.-P.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope [“An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence,” Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds number of 30 and less. We then study the effects of forcing time scale on the kinematic collision statistics of inertial particles. We show that the radial distribution function and the radial relative velocity may depend on the forcing time scale when it becomes comparable to the eddy turnover time. This dependence, however, can be largely explained in terms of altered flow Reynolds number and the changing range of flow length scales present in the turbulent flow. We argue that removing this dependence is important when studying the Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent collision statistics. The results are also compared to those based on a deterministic forcing scheme to better understand the role of large-scale forcing, relative to that of the small-scale turbulence, on turbulent collision of inertial particles. To further elucidate the correlation between the altered flow structures and dynamics of inertial particles, a conditional analysis has been performed, showing that the regions of higher collision rate of inertial particles are well correlated with the regions of lower vorticity. Regions of higher concentration of pairs at contact are found to be highly correlated with the region of high energy dissipation rate.

  19. Primary Accretion and Turbulent Cascades: Scale-Dependence of Particle Concentration Multiplier Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Weston, B.; Shariff, K.

    2013-10-01

    Primitive bodies with 10s-100s of km diameter (or even larger) may form directly from small nebula constituents, bypassing the step-by-step “incremental growth” that faces a variety of barriers at cm, m, and even 1-10km sizes. In the scenario of Cuzzi et al (Icarus 2010 and LPSC 2012; see also Chambers Icarus 2010) the immediate precursors of 10-100km diameter asteroid formation are dense clumps of chondrule-(mm-) size objects. These predictions utilize a so-called cascade model, which is popular in turbulence studies. One of its usual assumptions is that certain statistical properties of the process (the so-called multiplier pdfs p(m)) are scale-independent within a cascade of energy from large eddy scales to smaller scales. In similar analyses, Pan et al (2011 ApJ) found discrepancies with results of Cuzzi and coworkers; one possibility was that p(m) for particle concentration is not scale-independent. To assess the situation we have analyzed recent 3D direct numerical simulations of particles in turbulence covering a much wider range of scales than analyzed by either Cuzzi and coworkers or by Pan and coworkers (see Bec et al 2010, J. Flu. Mech 646, 527). We calculated p(m) at scales ranging from 45-1024η where η is the Kolmogorov scale, for both particles with a range of stopping times spanning the optimum value, and for energy dissipation in the fluid. For comparison, the p(m) for dissipation have been observed to be scale-independent in atmospheric flows (at much larger Reynolds number) for scales of at least 30-3000η. We found that, in the numerical simulations, the multiplier distributions for both particle concentration and fluid dissipation are as expected at scales of tens of η, but both become narrower and less intermittent at larger scales. This is consistent with observations of atmospheric flows showing scale independence to >3000η if scale-free behavior is established only after some number 10 of large-scale bifurcations (at scales perhaps

  20. CFD modeling of turbulent flow and particle deposition in human lungs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, H; Kassinos, S

    2009-01-01

    Understanding transport and deposition of inhaled particles in the human airways plays a crucial role in the targeted therapy of pulmonary diseases, and the administration of inhaled medicines. Numerous researchers have studied the inhalation of particles using experiments or computer models. Even though experiments have shown that the airflow in the trachea and the upper branches of the lung is turbulent, the flow is taken to be laminar in most computer models. Only few recently published papers have looked at the turbulent transport of air in the human airways. Even fewer results have been published on the effect of the upper airway structures on the turbulent airflow in the lungs or on the effect of the turbulence on particle deposition. The previously published turbulent models have also mainly used RANS methods to predict the flow. To study the unsteady flow and particle deposition in a human lung, an LES model with a dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model was used. The model equations were solved to study steady inspirational flow at different flow rates for different particle sizes. Results indicate that the upper airway geometry produces turbulence in the flow and the deposition of particles is mainly affected by the particle size and Stokes number.

  1. Exploring turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization in space plasmas: the science of THOR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent magnetized plasmas. They are found in active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, as well as in the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Turbulent plasmas are also found in laboratory devices such as e.g. tokamaks. Our comprehension of the plasma Universe is largely based on measurements of electromagnetic radiation such as light or X-rays which originate from particles that are heated and accelerated as a result of energy dissipation in turbulent environments. Therefore it is of key importance to study and understand how plasma is energized by turbulence. Most of the energy dissipation occurs at kinetic scales, where plasma no longer behaves as a fluid and the properties of individual plasma species (electrons, protons and other ions) become important. THOR (Turbulent Heating ObserveR - http://thor.irfu.se/) is a space mission currently in Study Phase as candidate for M-class mission within the Cosmic Vision program of the European Space Agency. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization in space plasmas, which ties in with ESA's Cosmic Vision science. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, are also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address fundamental questions such as how plasma is heated and particles are accelerated by turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. To reach the goal, a careful design of the THOR spacecraft and its payload is ongoing, together with a strong interaction with numerical simulations. Here we present the science of THOR mission and we discuss implications of THOR observations for space

  2. Simulation of Helical Flow Hydrodynamics in Meanders and Advection-Turbulent Diffusion Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.

    2013-12-01

    Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.

  3. Micro-bubbles and Micro-particles are Not Faithful Tracers of Turbulent Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Mathai, Varghese; Calzavarini, Enrico; Brons, Jon; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    We report on the Lagrangian statistics of acceleration of small (sub-Kolmogorov) bubbles and tracer particles with Stokes number St <<1 in turbulent flow. At decreasing Reynolds number, the bubble accelerations show deviations from that of tracer particles, i.e. they deviate from the Heisenberg-Yaglom prediction and show a quicker decorrelation despite their small size and minute St. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that these effects arise due the drift of these particles through the turbulent flow. We theoretically predict this gravity-driven effect for developed isotropic turbulence, with the ratio of Stokes to Froude number or equivalently the particle drift-velocity governing the enhancement of acceleration variance and the reductions in correlation time and intermittency. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental and numerical results. The present findings are relevant to a range of scenarios encompassing tiny bubbles and droplets that drift through the turbulent oceans and the atmosphere.

  4. A direct comparison of fully resolved and point-particle models in particle-laden turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Jeremy; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Subramaniam, Shankar; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Point-particle methods have become a popular methodology to simulate viscous fluids laden with dispersed solid elements. Such methods may be contrasted with particle-resolved methods, whereby the boundary conditions between particles and fluid are treated exactly, while point-particle methods do not capture the boundary conditions exactly and couple the continuous and dispersed phase via point-forces. This allows point-particle methods to simulate particle-turbulence interaction at considerably lower resolution and computational cost than particle-resolved methods. However, lack of validation of point-particle methods begs the question of the predictive power of point-particle methods. In other words, can point-particle methods recover particle and fluid statistics compared with particle-resolved simulation of dynamically equivalent non-dimensional problems? We address this question in this work by examining decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence laden with particles. For the same nominal conditions, we compare statistics predicted by a particle resolved method to those predicted by a point-particle method. We also examine the effect of the undisturbed velocity in the point-particle drag law by studying the same problem with a correction scheme. Supported by DOE and NSF.

  5. Fast particles identification in programmable form at level-0 trigger by means of the 3D-Flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1998-10-30

    The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on either an FPGA or an ASIC implementation, it can address, in a fully programmable manner, applications where commercially available processors would fail because of throughput requirements. Possible applications include filtering-algorithms (pattern recognition) from the input of multiple sensors, as well as moving any input validated by these filtering-algorithms to a single output channel. Both operations can easily be implemented on a 3D-Flow system to achieve a real-time processing system with a very short lag time. This system can be built either with off-the-shelf FPGAs or, for higher data rates, with CMOS chips containing 4 to 16 processors each. The basic building block of the system, a 3D-Flow processor, has been successfully designed in VHDL code written in ''Generic HDL'' (mostly made of reusable blocks that are synthesizable in different technologies, or FPGAs), to produce a netlist for a four-processor ASIC featuring 0.35 micron CBA (Ceil Base Array) technology at 3.3 Volts, 884 mW power dissipation at 60 MHz and 63.75 mm sq. die size. The same VHDL code has been targeted to three FPGA manufacturers (Altera EPF10K250A, ORCA-Lucent Technologies 0R3T165 and Xilinx XCV1000). A complete set of software tools, the 3D-Flow System Manager, equally applicable to ASIC or FPGA implementations, has been produced to provide full system simulation, application development, real-time monitoring, and run-time fault recovery. Today's technology can accommodate 16 processors per chip in a medium size die, at a cost per processor of less than $5 based on the current silicon die/size technology cost.

  6. Quantitative 3D shape description of dust particles from treated seeds by means of X-ray micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Devarrewaere, Wouter; Foqué, Dieter; Heimbach, Udo; Cantre, Dennis; Nicolai, Bart; Nuyttens, David; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-06-16

    Crop seeds are often treated with pesticides before planting. Pesticide-laden dust particles can be abraded from the seed coating during planting and expelled into the environment, damaging nontarget organisms. Drift of these dust particles depends on their size, shape and density. In this work, we used X-ray micro-CT to examine the size, shape (sphericity) and porosity of dust particles from treated seeds of various crops. The dust properties quantified in this work were very variable in different crops. This variability may be a result of seed morphology, seed batch, treatment composition, treatment technology, seed cleaning or an interaction of these factors. The intraparticle porosity of seed treatment dust particles varied from 0.02 to 0.51 according to the crop and generally increased with particle size. Calculated settling velocities demonstrated that accounting for particle shape and porosity is important in drift studies. For example, the settling velocity of dust particles with an equivalent diameter of 200 μm may vary between 0.1 and 1.2 m s(-1), depending on their shape and density. Our analysis shows that in a wind velocity of 5 m s(-1), such particles ejected at 1 m height may travel between 4 and 50 m from the source before settling. Although micro-CT is a valuable tool to characterize dust particles, the current image processing methodology limits the number of particles that can be analyzed.

  7. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  8. Effect of turbulence on collisions of dust particles with planetesimals in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, H.; Guillot, T.; Bec, J.; Ormel, C. W.; Ida, S.; Tanga, P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Planetesimals in gaseous protoplanetary disks may grow by collecting dust particles. Hydrodynamical studies show that small particles generally avoid collisions with the planetesimals because they are entrained by the flow around them. This occurs when St, the Stokes number, defined as the ratio of the dust stopping time to the planetesimal crossing time, becomes much smaller than unity. However, these studies have been limited to the laminar case, whereas these disks are believed to be turbulent. Aims: We want to estimate the influence of gas turbulence on the dust-planetesimal collision rate and on the impact speeds. Methods: We used three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a fixed sphere (planetesimal) facing a laminar and turbulent flow seeded with small inertial particles (dust) subject to a Stokes drag. A no-slip boundary condition on the planetesimal surface is modeled via a penalty method. Results: We find that turbulence can significantly increase the collision rate of dust particles with planetesimals. For a high turbulence case (when the amplitude of turbulent fluctuations is similar to the headwind velocity), we find that the collision probability remains equal to the geometrical rate or even higher for St ≳ 0.1, i.e., for dust sizes an order of magnitude smaller than in the laminar case. We derive expressions to calculate impact probabilities as a function of dust and planetesimal size and turbulent intensity.

  9. A self-consistent theory of collective alpha particle losses induced by Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Diamond, P.H. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic Alfven waves, resonantly excited by energetic ions/alpha particles, is investigated. It is shown that {alpha}-particles govern both linear instability and nonlinear saturation dynamics, while the background MHD turbulence results only in a nonlinear real frequency shift. The most efficient saturation mechanism is found to be self-induced profile modification. Expressions for the fluctuation amplitudes and the {alpha}-particle radial flux are self-consistently derived. The work represents the first self-consistent, turbulent treatment of collective {alpha}-particle losses by Alfvenic fluctuations.

  10. Comparison of collision velocity differences of drops and graupel particles in a very turbulent cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Pokrovsky, A.

    The motion of water drops and graupel particles within a turbulent medium is analyzed. The turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. It is demonstrated that the inertia of drops and graupel particles falling within a turbulent flow leads to the formation of significant velocity deviations from the surrounding air, as well as to the formation of substantial relative velocity between drops and graupel particles. The results of calculations of the continuous growth of raindrops and graupel particles moving within a cloud of small droplets are presented both in a non-turbulent medium and within turbulent flows of different turbulence intensity. Continuous growth of a drop-collector was calculated with the coalescence efficiency E ɛ=1, as well as using E ɛ values provided by Beard and Ochs [Beard, K.V., Ochs, H.T., 1984. Collection and coalescence efficiencies for accretion. J. Geophys. Res., 89: 7165-7169.] ranging from 0.5 to about 0.75 for different droplet sizes. In the case of graupel-droplet interaction E ɛ was assumed equal to 1. It is shown that in the case E ɛ=1 in a non-turbulent medium, the growth rates of graupel and raindrops are close. Under turbulent conditions typical of mature convective clouds, graupel grows much faster than a raindrop. In the case E ɛ<1 the growth rate of a water drop slows down significantly, so that graupel grows faster than raindrops even under non-turbulent conditions. Turbulence greatly increases the difference between the growth rates of graupel and drop-collectors. Possible consequences of the faster growth of graupel in terms of cloud microphysics are discussed.

  11. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-09-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF6.

  12. Turbulent inertial gelation and acoustic quasi-gelation of submicron aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, P; Shapiro, M

    2006-12-01

    Inertial turbulent and acoustic orthokinetic particle coagulation mechanisms have physical similarity. We consider analytically and numerically coagulation of discrete compact and fractal submicron agglomerated particles, governed by these mechanisms via Smoluchowski equation. Existence of the inertial turbulent coagulation is mathematically proven. A new gelation scenario is revealed for both of the above coagulation mechanisms. Turbulent inertial gelation is manifested by means of a multi-modal relay-type run-away particle size growth, including formation of infinite set of secondary maxima in volume fraction distribution. When acoustic coagulation mechanism is much stronger than the Brownian coagulation, acoustic coagulation occurs as a quasi-gelation process, with a run-away particle size growth, characterized, however, by a finite set of secondary maxima. The effect of acoustic field on coagulation is shown to be more pronounced for fractal agglomerates than that for compact agglomerated particles.

  13. Upstream turbulence and the particle spectrum at CME-driven Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gang; Hu, Q.; Zank, G.P.

    2005-08-01

    Particle spectra at a CME-driven shock often exhibit a power law to certain energies, then roll over exponentially beyond. However, there are cases where a spectrum evolves to another power law above a certain energy (e.g. the Oct. 29th, 2003 event). Here we introduce an effective 'loss term' into the particle transport equation and study the consequent particle spectra behavior at a CME-driven shock. The loss term represents the effect of particle leaking out from a finite shock and is related to the turbulence power at and near the shock. We show that the shape of particle spectra are tightly related to the form of upstream turbulence. Under certain circumstances, broken power-law spectrum can be obtained. The physical meaning of the 'loss term' and its relationship to the upstream turbulence is discussed.

  14. Fully-resolved DNS of finite-size particles exposed to a turbulent stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Lorenzo; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    A field of homogeneous isotropic turbulence is convected with a mean velocity past a group of fixed, finite-size particles and the structure and intensity of the resulting downstream turbulence are compared to the particle-free case. The diameter of the particles is larger than the Kolmogorov scale and is of the order of the Taylor micro-scale. The results illustrate the central role played by the particle wakes in destroying the isotropy and homogeneity of the incident turbulence. Furthermore, as a result of wake interactions, the time-dependent hydrodynamic forces on the downstream and upstream spheres are correlated. The numerical simulations are carried out on a uniform grid by employing the ``Physalis'' method which can be regarded as a combination of an immersed boundary and spectral method. Among other advantages, it does not require interpolation and its spectral convergence permits computations with relatively few grid nodes per particle.

  15. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  16. Bed particle entrainment and motion in turbulent open-channel flows: a high-resolution experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikora, Vladimir; Cameron, Stuart; Amir, Mohammad; Stewart, Mark; Witz, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    In spite of significant efforts of geoscientists and engineers, the exact mechanics of sediment entrainment and transport by turbulent flows remains unclear and continues to be the focus of many research groups worldwide. The talk outlines current developments in this direction at the University of Aberdeen, where an extensive experimental programme has recently been completed. The experiments were conducted in the Aberdeen Open Channel Facility (AOCF, 20 m long, 1.18 m wide) over wide ranges of flow submergence (1.9-8.0), bulk Reynolds number (4400-83000), and channel aspect ratio (9-39). The flume bed was covered by hexagonally-packed glass beads 16 mm in diameter. For entrainment experiments, selected glass particles were replaced with lighter particles (nylon and delrin). Instantaneous velocity fields before, during, and after entrainment were measured with an advanced multi-mode Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system developed by S. Cameron. This system was also used for 3D particle tracking in the entrainment experiments. The main types of experiments included: (1) multi-mode turbulence measurements with fixed-bed conditions to assess the background flow structure (10 min to 120 min duration of velocity records); (2) simultaneous measurements of fluctuating differential pressure acting on 23 fixed particles with in-built pressure sensors, synchronously with PIV; (3) measurements of waiting times for particle entrainment, employing a specially designed system (SMC-1) for automatic placement of the particles on the bed and subsequent measurement of the time before entrainment; (4) long-term direct measurements of the instantaneous drag force acting on a single particle (attached to the bed) at different protrusions, synchronously with PIV; and (5) synchronous measurements of the flow field around a particle before, at, and during entrainment, supplemented with 3D particle tracking. The key results include: (1) the refined turbulence structure of a rough

  17. The rotation and translation of non-spherical particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byron, Margaret

    The motion of particles suspended in environmental turbulence is relevant to many scientific fields, from sediment transport to biological interactions to underwater robotics. At very small scales and simple shapes, we are able to completely mathematically describe the motion of inertial particles; however, the motion of large aspherical particles is significantly more complex, and current computational models are inadequate for large or highly-resolved domains. Therefore, we seek to experimentally investigate the coupling between freely suspended particles and ambient turbulence. A better understanding of this coupling will inform not only engineering and physics, but the interactions between small aquatic organisms and their environments. In the following pages, we explore the roles of shape and buoyancy on the motion of passive particles in turbulence, and allow these particles to serve as models for meso-scale aquatic organisms. We fabricate cylindrical and spheroidal particles and suspend them in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence that is generated via randomly-actuated jet arrays. The particles are fabricated with agarose hydrogel, which is refractive-index-matched to the surrounding fluid (water). Both the fluid and the particle are seeded with passive tracers, allowing us to perform Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) simultaneously on the particle and fluid phase. To investigate the effects of shape, particles are fabricated at varying aspect ratios; to investigate the effects of buoyancy, particles are fabricated at varying specific gravities. Each particle type is freely suspended at a volume fraction of F=0.1%, for which four-way coupling interactions are negligible. The suspended particles are imaged together with the surrounding fluid and analyzed using stereoscopic PIV, which yields three velocity components in a two-dimensional measurement plane. Using image thresholding, the results are separated into simultaneous fluid-phase and solid-phase velocity

  18. GYROKINETIC PARTICLE SIMULATION OF TURBULENT TRANSPORT IN BURNING PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Claude Wendell

    2014-06-10

    The SciDAC project at the IFS advanced the state of high performance computing for turbulent structures and turbulent transport. The team project with Prof Zhihong Lin [PI] at Univ California Irvine produced new understanding of the turbulent electron transport. The simulations were performed at the Texas Advanced Computer Center TACC and the NERSC facility by Wendell Horton, Lee Leonard and the IFS Graduate Students working in that group. The research included a Validation of the electron turbulent transport code using the data from a steady state university experiment at the University of Columbia in which detailed probe measurements of the turbulence in steady state were used for wide range of temperature gradients to compare with the simulation data. These results were published in a joint paper with Texas graduate student Dr. Xiangrong Fu using the work in his PhD dissertation. X.R. Fu, W. Horton, Y. Xiao, Z. Lin, A.K. Sen and V. Sokolov, “Validation of electron Temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine, Phys. Plasmas 19, 032303 (2012).

  19. Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.

    2015-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be

  20. Self consistent particles dynamics in/out of the cusp region by using back tracking technics; a global 3D PIC simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale three dimensionbal PIC (particle in cell) simulations are presently used in order to analyze the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere intreraction within a full self-consistent approach, and where both electrons and ions are treated as an assembly of individual particles. This 3D kinetic approach allows us to analyze in particular the dynamics and the fine structures of the cusp region when including self consistently not only its whole neighborhood (in the terrestrial magnetosphere) but also the impact of the solar wind and the interplanetary field (IMF) features. Herein, we focuss our attention on the cusp region and in particular on the acceleration and precipitation of particles (both ions and electrons) within the cusp. In present simulations, the IMF is chosen northward, (i.e. where the X -reconnection region is just above the cusp, in the meridian plane). Back-trackings of self-consistent particles are analyzed in details in order to determine (i) which particles (just above the cusp) are precipitated deeply into the cusp, (ii) which populations are injected from the cusp into the nearby tail, (iii) where the particles suffer the largest energisation along their self-consistent trajectories, (iv) where these populations accumulate, and (v) where the most energetic particles are originally coming from. This approach allows to make a traking of particles within the scenario "solar wind-magnetosheath- cusp -nearbytail"; moreover it strongly differs from the standard test particles technics and allows to provide informations not accessible when using full MHD approach. Keywords: Tracing Particles, Particle In Cell (PIC) simulation, double cusp, test particles method, IMF, Solar wind, Magnetosphere

  1. Effect of particle inertia on fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, Yoichi

    2016-11-01

    The effect of particle inertia on the fluid turbulence in gas-solid disperse flow through a vertical channel has been examined by using a direct numerical simulation, to calculate the gas velocities seen by the particles, and a simplified non-stationary flow model, in which a uniform distribution of solid spheres of density ratio of 1000 are added into the fully-developed turbulent gas flow in an infinitely wide channel. The gas flow is driven downward with a constant pressure gradient. The frictional Reynolds number defined with the frictional velocity before the addition of particles, v0*, is 150. The feedback forces are calculated using a point force method. Particle diameters of 0.95, 1.3 and 1.9, which are made dimensionless with v0* and the kinematic viscosity, and volume fractions, ranging from 1 ×10-4 to 2 ×10-3 , in addition to the one-way coupling cases, are considered. Gravitational effect is not clearly seen where the fluid turbulence is damped by feedback effect. Gas flow rate increases with the decrease in particle inertia, that causes the increase in feedback force. Fluid turbulence decreases with the increase in particle inertia, that causes the increase in diffusivity of feedback force and of fluid turbulence. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420097.

  2. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  3. Fabrication of scalable tissue engineering scaffolds with dual-pore microarchitecture by combining 3D printing and particle leaching.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Sanger, Kuldeep; Heiskanen, Arto; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Limitations in controlling scaffold architecture using traditional fabrication techniques are a problem when constructing engineered tissues/organs. Recently, integration of two pore architectures to generate dual-pore scaffolds with tailored physical properties has attracted wide attention in tissue engineering community. Such scaffolds features primary structured pores which can efficiently enhance nutrient/oxygen supply to the surrounding, in combination with secondary random pores, which give high surface area for cell adhesion and proliferation. Here, we present a new technique to fabricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications where 3D printing of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mould is combined with salt leaching process. In this technique the sacrificial PVA mould, determining the structured pore architecture, was filled with salt crystals to define the random pore regions of the scaffold. After crosslinking the casted polymer the combined PVA-salt mould was dissolved in water. The technique has advantages over previously reported ones, such as automated assembly of the sacrificial mould, and precise control over pore architecture/dimensions by 3D printing parameters. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane and biodegradable poly(ϵ-caprolactone) were used for fabrication. However, we show that this technique is also suitable for other biocompatible/biodegradable polymers. Various physical and mechanical properties of the dual-pore scaffolds were compared with control scaffolds with either only structured or only random pores, fabricated using previously reported methods. The fabricated dual-pore scaffolds supported high cell density, due to the random pores, in combination with uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold, and higher cell proliferation and viability due to efficient nutrient/oxygen transport through the structured pores. In conclusion, the described fabrication technique is rapid, inexpensive, scalable, and compatible

  4. Energetic particle transport in the presence of magnetic turbulence: influence of spectral extension and intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, F.; Malara, F.; Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Valentini, F.

    2016-07-01

    The transport of energetic particles in the presence of magnetic turbulence is an important but unsolved problem of space physics and astrophysics. Here, we aim at advancing the understanding of energetic particle transport by means of a new numerical model of synthetic magnetic turbulence. The model builds up a turbulent magnetic field as a superposition of space-localized fluctuations at different spatial scales. The resulting spectrum is isotropic with an adjustable spectral index. The model allows us to reproduce a spectrum broader than four decades, and to regulate the level of intermittency through a technique based on the p-model. Adjusting the simulation parameters close to solar wind conditions at 1 au, we inject ˜1 MeV protons in the turbulence realization and compute the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients as a function of spectral extension, turbulence level, and intermittency. While a number of previous results are recovered in the appropriate limits, including anomalous transport regimes for low turbulence levels, we find that long spectral extensions tend to reduce the diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, we find for the first time that intermittency has an influence on parallel transport but not on perpendicular transport, with the parallel diffusion coefficient increasing with the level of intermittency. We also obtain the distribution of particle inversion times for parallel velocity, a power law for more than one decade, and compare it with the pitch angle scattering times observed in the solar wind. This parametric study can be useful to interpret particle propagation properties in astrophysical systems.

  5. "Hypothetical" Heavy Particles Dynamics in LES of Turbulent Dispersed Two-Phase Channel Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    trajectory In the high-Reynolds number flows, three random forces act on the motion of solid particles: (i) particle-small scale turbulence interaction...VOLL may be viewed as a volume over integral spatial scale and (v12)/2 is the kinetic energy of turbulence in gas flow. Assuming a relaxation of the...the mean velocity profile of gas. As it is seen from Fig.la, the computed mean gas ve - locity field is also not influenced by the presence of particles

  6. Development of a 3D circular microfluidic centrifuge for the separation of mixed particles by using their different centrifuge times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kim, D. I.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Park, D. H.; Go, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a circular microfluidic centrifuge with two inlets and two outlets to separate mixed microparticles with a specially designed sample injection hole. To separate the mixed particles, it uses a rotational flow, generated in a chamber by counter primary flows in the microchannels. The shape and sizes of the circular microfluidic centrifuge have been designed through numerical evaluation to have a large relative centrifugal force. The difference of centrifuge times of the mixed particles of 1 μm and 6 μm was determined to be 8.2 s at an inlet Reynolds number of 500 and a sample Reynolds number of 20. In the experiment, this was measured to be about 10 s. From the separation of the two polymer particles analogous to the representative sizes of platelets and red blood cells, the circular microfluidic centrifuge shows a potential to separate human blood cells size-selectively by using the difference of centrifuge times.

  7. Optical diagnostics for turbulent and multiphase flows: Particle image velocimetry and photorefractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shagam, R.N.; Blanchat, T.K.; Chu, T.Y.; Tassin-Leger, A.L.; Henderson, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ``Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent and Multiphase Flows.`` Advanced optical diagnostics have been investigated and developed for flow field measurements, including capabilities for measurement in turbulent, multiphase, and heated flows. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) includes several techniques for measurement of instantaneous flow field velocities and associated turbulence quantities. Nonlinear photorefractive optical materials have been investigated for the possibility of measuring turbulence quantities (turbulent spectrum) more directly. The two-dimensional PIV techniques developed under this LDRD were shown to work well, and were compared with more traditional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Three-dimensional PIV techniques were developed and tested, but due to several experimental difficulties were not as successful. The photorefractive techniques were tested, and both potential capabilities and possible problem areas were elucidated.

  8. Endotoxin and β-1,3-d-Glucan in Concentrated Ambient Particles Induce Rapid Increase in Blood Pressure in Controlled Human Exposures.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Thorne, Peter S; Scott, James; Liu, Ling; Brook, Robert D; Behbod, Behrooz; Gibson, Heike; Silverman, Frances; Mittleman, Murray A; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R

    2015-09-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased blood pressure (BP) in epidemiological studies. Understanding the impact of specific PM components on BP is essential in developing effective risk-reduction strategies. We investigated the association between endotoxin and β-1,3-d-Glucan-two major biological PM components-and BP. We also examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor, a vasodilatory inflammatory marker, modified these associations. We conducted a single-blind, randomized, crossover trial of controlled human exposure to concentrated ambient particles with 50 healthy adults. Particle-associated-endotoxin and β-1,3-d-Glucan were sampled using polycarbonate-membrane-filters. Supine resting systolic BP and diastolic BP were measured pre-, 0.5-hour post-, and 20-hour postexposure. Urine vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and creatinine-corrected. Exposures to endotoxin and β-1,3-d-Glucan for 130 minutes were associated with increases in BPs: at 0.5-hour postexposure, every doubling in endotoxin concentration was associated with 1.73 mm Hg higher systolic BP (95% confidence interval, 0.28, 3.18; P=0.02) and 2.07 mm Hg higher diastolic BP (95% confidence interval, 0.74, 3.39; P=0.003); every doubling in β-1,3-d-Glucan concentration was associated with 0.80 mm Hg higher systolic BP (95% confidence interval, -0.07, 1.67; P=0.07) and 0.88 mm Hg higher diastolic BP (95% confidence interval, 0.09, 1.66; P=0.03). Vascular endothelial growth factor rose after concentrated ambient particle endotoxin exposure and attenuated the association between endotoxin and 0.5-hour postexposure diastolic BP (Pinteraction=0.02). In healthy adults, short-term endotoxin and β-1,3-d-Glucan exposures were associated with increased BP. Our findings suggest that the biological PM components contribute to PM-related cardiovascular outcomes, and postexposure vascular endothelial

  9. 3D plasma turbulence and neutral simulations using the Hermes model in BOUT + + : a study of linear devices and the tokamak edge and divertor region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leddy, Jarrod; Dudson, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the transport processes in the low temperature plasma at the boundary region of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) devices is crucial to the design and operation of future fusion reactor devices. It influences the divertor heat load, and probably the core confinement as well. The dominant source of this transport is turbulence, which serves to mix the high and low temperature regions of the plasma. The nature of this plasma turbulence is affected by not only the plasma parameters, but also the neutral species that also exist in these low temperature regions. The interaction of neutrals with the plasma turbulence is studied in linear device geometry (for its simplicity, yet similarity in plasma parameters), and the result is a strong interaction that impacts the local plasma and neutral densities, momenta and energies. The neutral gas is found to affect plasma edge turbulence primarily through momentum exchange, reducing the radial electric field and enhancing cross-field transport, with consequent implications for the SOL width and divertor heat loads. Therefore, turbulent plasma and fluid simulations have been performed in multiple tokamak geometries to more closely examine the effects of this interaction. These cases were chosen for the variety in configuration with ISTOK having a toroidal limiter (ie. no divertor), DIII-D having a standard divertor configuration, and MAST-U having a super-X divertor with extended outer divertor legs. Progress towards the characterization of neutral impact on detachment and edge behavior will be presented.

  10. A numerical study of the particle size distribution of an aerosol undergoing turbulent coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reade, Walter C.; Collins, Lance R.

    2000-07-01

    Coagulation and growth of aerosol particles subject to isotropic turbulence has been explored using direct numerical simulations. The computations follow the trajectories of 262 144 initial particles as they are convected by the turbulent flow field. Collision between two parent particles leads to the formation of a new daughter particle with the mass and momentum (but not necessarily the energy) of the parent particles. The initially monodisperse population of particles will develop a size distribution over time that is controlled by the collision dynamics. In an earlier study, Sundaram & Collins (1997) showed that collision rates in isotropic turbulence are controlled by two statistics: (i) the radial distribution of the particles and (ii) the relative velocity probability density function. Their study considered particles that rebound elastically; however, we find that the formula that they derived is equally valid in a coagulating system. However, coagulation alters the numerical values of these statistics from the values they attain for the elastic rebound case. This difference is substantial and must be taken into consideration to properly predict the evolution of the size distribution of a population of particles. The DNS results also show surprising trends in the relative breadth of the particle size distribution. First, in all cases, the standard deviation of the particle size distribution of particles with finite Stokes numbers is much larger than the standard deviation for either the zero-Stokes-number or infinite-Stokes-number limits. Secondly, for particles with small initial Stokes numbers, the standard deviation of the final particle size distribution decreases with increasing initial particle size; however, the opposite trend is observed for particles with slightly larger initial Stokes numbers. An explanation for these phenomena can be found by carefully examining the functional dependence of the radial distribution function on the particle size

  11. Detection of unlabeled particles in the low micrometer size range using light scattering and hydrodynamic 3D focusing in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas G; Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a microfluidic device composed of integrated microoptical elements and a two-layer microchannel structure for highly sensitive light scattering detection of micro/submicrometer-sized particles. In the two-layer microfluidic system, a sample flow stream is first constrained in the out-of-plane direction into a narrow sheet, and then focused in-plane into a small core region, obtaining on-chip three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing. All the microoptical elements, including waveguides, microlens, and fiber-to-waveguide couplers, and the in-plane focusing channels are fabricated in one SU-8 layer by standard photolithography. The channels for out-of-plane focusing are made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer by a single cast using a SU-8 master. Numerical and experimental results indicate that the device can realize 3D hydrodynamic focusing reliably over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (0.5 < Re < 20). Polystyrene particles of three sizes (2, 1, and 0.5 μm) were measured in the microfluidic device with integrated optics, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach to detect particles in the low micrometer size range by light scattering detection.

  12. Numerical simulation of two-way coupling mechanism in particle-laden turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David; Hewson, John; Gin, Craig

    2013-11-01

    We present three algorithms (type-I, type-C and type-IC) for Lagrangian particle transport within the context of the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) approach. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. Two of the particle transport algorithms are new as is an algorithm to provide two-way momentum and energy coupling between the particle and carrier phases. Using these methods we investigate particle-laden turbulent jet flow. In contrast to other previous particle implementation in ODT, the two new methods allow the particles to interact with multiple eddies simultaneously and evolve the particle phase continuously, and therefore are able to accurately capture turbulent mixing and fluctuation seen by inertial particles in ODT. Simulation results are compared with experimental data including the effect of two particle Stokes numbers (St = 3.6 and 10.8). Turbulence modification, particle number density PDFs and particle velocity evolution are presented.

  13. Mesoscopic turbulence and local order in Janus particles self-propelling under an ac electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Sano, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly. Correlation functions of their velocity field reveal the coexistence of polar alignment and antiparallel alignment interactions, which is considered to trigger mesoscopic turbulence. Probability distributions of local order parameters for polar and nematic orders indicate the formation of local clusters with particles moving in the same direction. A broad peak in the energy spectrum of the velocity field appears at the spatial scales where the polar alignment and the cluster formation are observed. Energy is injected at the particle scale and conserved quantities such as energy could be cascading toward the larger clusters.

  14. A numerical study of bidisperse particles in cluster-induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ravi; Kong, Bo; Capecelatro, Jesse; Fox, Rodney; Desjardins, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden turbulent flow is an important feature of many diverse environmental and industrial systems. To elucidate the mechanics of these types of flows, we study cluster-induced turbulence (CIT), wherein momentum coupling between a carrier fluid and setting particles leads to turbulent-like fluctuations in various quantities of interest. In this work, simulations of CIT with bidisperse particles are presented. The flow of kinetic energy is tracked from its generation due to drag until its dissipation due to fluid viscosity and particle collisions. As suggested by Fox (2014), the particle kinetic energy is separated into a correlated turbulent kinetic energy and an uncorrelated granular energy. An overall energy balance is computed for various exchange terms to determine their relative importance and to understand the underlying physical mechanisms in bidisperse CIT. Additionally, volume fraction and velocity statistics for both particle types and the fluid are presented. From these results, the consequences on closures for Reynolds-averaged stress models of particle-laden flows are discussed. National Science Foundation.

  15. Applications of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models in the San Francisco bay-delta estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Wong, H.F.N.

    2005-01-01

    Three applications of three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle-tracking models are currently underway by the United States Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The first application is to the San Francisco Bay and a portion of the coastal ocean. The second application is to an important, gated control channel called the Delta Cross Channel, located within the northern portion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The third application is to a reach of the San Joaquin River near Stockton, California where a significant dissolved oxygen problem exists due, in part, to conditions associated with the deep-water ship channel for the Port of Stockton, California. This paper briefly discusses the hydrodynamic and particle tracking models being used and the three applications. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  16. Kinetic particle simulation of turbulence in an FRC geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Holod, Ihor; Lin, Zhihong; Dettrick, Sean; Binderbauer, Michl; Tajima, Toshiki

    2014-10-01

    Core turbulence in a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is studied using the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code with modified equilibrium geometry. The code solves the gyrokinetic equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons. The simulation region is an annulus which excludes plasma near the O-point to avoid breakdown of the gyrokinetic dynamics of ions. The C-2 FRC equilibrium is introduced to study similar conditions as found in the C-2 experiments, where the core is found to be relatively quiescent. In simulation, we find the C-2 plasma is stable to ion temperature gradient instabilities using realistic experimental parameters, consistent with experimental results obtained in C-2. When temperature and density gradients are enhanced beyond typical C-2 parameters, we observe a class of instabilities that appear as flute-like drift modes. These results shed light on a possible reason why transport temperature scaling in the C-2 core is radically different from that of typical turbulent transport scaling such as the Bohm-like regime. Progress is also reported on simulations of scrape off layer turbulence and electron driven turbulence.

  17. Attenuation of Gas Turbulence by a Nearly Stationary Dispersion of Fine Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, A. D.; Eaton, J. K.; Hwang, W.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulence attenuation by greater than a factor of two has been observed in many practical gas flows carrying volume fractions as small as 0.01% of dispersed particles. Particles which cause such attenuation usually are smaller than the smallest scales of the turbulence and have time constants 5 to 10 times greater than the time scale of a typical turbulent eddy. That is, strongly attenuating particles usually have Stokes numbers in the range of 5 to 10, indicating that they do not respond to the turbulent fluctuations, but instead just fall through the flow responding only to the mean flow. There are two mechanisms by which free falling particles may attenuate turbulence. First, the unresponsive particles act as a drag on the turbulent eddies, passing energy from the turbulent eddies to the small scale wakes of the particles where it is quickly dissipated by viscosity. The second mechanism is more complicated. Particles falling under gravity convert gravitational potential energy to turbulent velocity fluctuations. If the particles are large, this mechanism increases the overall turbulence level. However, with moderate size particles, the small scale turbulence generated apparently distorts the turbulent eddies leading to more rapid dissipation. Unfortunately, this conclusion is supported only by circumstantial evidence to date. The objectives of the experiment are to use microgravity to separate the two mechanisms. A region of nearly-isotropic decaying turbulence with zero mean flow will be formed in a box in the microgravity environment. Different sets of particles with Stokes numbers in the range of 2 to 20 will be dispersed in the flow. With zero gravity and no mean fluid velocity the particles will have zero mean velocity. With the large Stokes numbers, the fluctuating velocities will also be small. Therefore, the only attenuation mechanism will be the direct action of the particles on the turbulence. Control experiments will also be done in which the

  18. Dynamic subgrid-scale modeling for LES of particle-laden turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassenne, Maxime; Ilhwan Park, George; Urzay, Javier; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    A new dynamic model is proposed for large-eddy simulations of small inertial particles in turbulent flows. The model is simple, involves no significant computational overhead, and is flexible enough to be deployed in any type of flow solvers and grids, including unstructured setups. The approach does not require any tunable parameters and is based on the use of elliptic differential filters. Particle laden isotropic turbulence and turbulent channel flow are considered. Improved agreement with direct numerical simulation results are observed in the dispersed-phase statistics. The comparisons include analyses of particle acceleration, local carrier-phase velocity, turbophoresis, and preferential-concentration metrics. PSAAP-II Center at Stanford (DoE Grant #107908).

  19. A sunscreen-tanning compromise: 3D visualization of the actions of titanium dioxide particles and dihydroxyacetone on human epiderm.

    PubMed

    Puccetti, G; Leblanc, R M

    2000-04-01

    The self-tanning agent dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was applied to human skin samples, and its effect on light absorption was followed in time to study the DHA influence inside the different layers of skin. Application of DHA shows increased light absorption in the visible light region, as evidenced by skin tanning. The tanning effect is enhanced by UV irradiation and appears localized in the near-stratum corneum layer as revealed by depth analysis of the time signal. As a reference, application of an emulsion containing titanium dioxide particles shows clear surface stability and a screening of light penetration beyond the stratum corneum.

  20. Microdosimetry of alpha particles for simple and 3D voxelised geometries using MCNPX and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes.

    PubMed

    Elbast, M; Saudo, A; Franck, D; Petitot, F; Desbrée, A

    2012-07-01

    Microdosimetry using Monte Carlo simulation is a suitable technique to describe the stochastic nature of energy deposition by alpha particle at cellular level. Because of its short range, the energy imparted by this particle to the targets is highly non-uniform. Thus, to achieve accurate dosimetric results, the modelling of the geometry should be as realistic as possible. The objectives of the present study were to validate the use of the MCNPX and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes for microdosimetric studies using simple and three-dimensional voxelised geometry and to study their limit of validity in this last case. To that aim, the specific energy (z) deposited in the cell nucleus, the single-hit density of specific energy f(1)(z) and the mean-specific energy were calculated. Results show a good agreement when compared with the literature using simple geometry. The maximum percentage difference found is <6 %. For voxelised phantom, the study of the voxel size highlighted that the shape of the curve f(1)(z) obtained with MCNPX for <1 µm voxel size presents a significant difference with the shape of non-voxelised geometry. When using Geant4, little differences are observed whatever the voxel size is. Below 1 µm, the use of Geant4 is required. However, the calculation time is 10 times higher with Geant4 than MCNPX code in the same conditions.

  1. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the 3D single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Krivets, Vitaliy V.; Sewell, Everest G.; Jacobs, Jeffrey W.

    2016-11-01

    A vertical shock tube is used to perform experiments on the single-mode three-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI). The light gas (Air) and the heavy gas (SF6) enter from the top and the bottom of the shock tube driven section to form the interface. The initial perturbation is then generated by oscillating the gases vertically. Both gases are seeded with particles generated through vaporizing propylene glycol. An incident shock wave (M 1.2) impacts the interface to create an impulsive acceleration. The seeded particles are illuminated by a dual cavity 75W, Nd: YLF laser. Three high-speed CMOS cameras record time sequences of image pairs at a rate of 2 kHz. The initial perturbation used is that of a single, square-mode perturbation with either a single spike or a single bubble positioned at the center of the shock tube. The full time dependent velocity field is obtained allowing the determination of the circulation versus time. In addition, the evolution of time dependent amplitude is also determined. The results are compared with PIV measurements from previous two-dimensional single mode experiments along with PLIF measurements from previous three-dimensional single mode experiments.

  2. Turbulent coagulation of particles smaller than the length scales of turbulence and equilibrium sorption of phenanthrene to clay: Implications for pollutant transport in the estuarine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunk, Brett Kenneth

    1997-11-01

    Pollutant and particle transport in estuaries is affected by a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes. In this research the importance of equilibrium sorption and turbulent coagulation were studied. Sorption in estuaries was modeled using phenanthrene, bacterial extracellular polymer and kaolinite clay as surrogates for a hydrophobic organic pollutant, dissolved organic matter and inorganic suspended sediment, respectively. Experiments over a range of estuarine salinities showed that ionic strength had the largest effect on the extent of sorption, while the effect of extracellular polymer coatings on the mineral surfaces was insignificant. Further calculations using typical estuarine suspended sediment concentrations indicated that equilibrium sorption could not fully account for the solid/solution phase distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in the estuarine water column. For particles that are small compared to the length scales of turbulence, the rate of coagulation is related to the dynamics of the smallest turbulent eddies since they have the highest shear rate. Experimental and theoretical effort focused on determining the coagulation rate of spherical particles in isotropic turbulence. A pair diffusion approximation valid for rapidly fluctuating flows was used to calculate the rate of coagulation in a randomly varying isotropic linear flow field. Dynamic simulations of particle coagulation in Gaussian turbulence were computed over a range of representative values of particle-particle interactions (i.e, hydrodynamic interactions and van der Waals attraction) and total strain (i.e., the product of the strain rate and its time scale). The computed coagulation rates for isotropic turbulence differed from analytical approximations valid at large and small total strain. As expected, particle interactions were found to be significant. Experimental measurements of coagulation in grid-generated turbulence were obtained by measuring the loss

  3. Loop heating by D.C. electric current and electromagnetic wave emissions simulated by 3-D EM particle zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakai, J. I.; Zhao, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that a current-carrying plasma loop can be heated by magnetic pinch driven by the pressure imbalance between inside and outside the loop, using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) particle code. Both electrons and ions in the loop can be heated in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, therefore the perpendicular temperature can be increased about 10 times compared with the parallel temperature. This temperature anisotropy produced by the magnetic pinch heating can induce a plasma instability, by which high-frequency electromagnetic waves can be excited. The plasma current which is enhanced by the magnetic pinch can also excite a kinetic kink instability, which can heat ions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The heating mechanism of ions as well as the electromagnetic emission could be important for an understanding of the coronal loop heating and the electromagnetic wave emissions from active coronal regions.

  4. Relative velocity distribution of inertial particles in turbulence: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Vincent E.; Jonker, Harm J. J.

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of relative velocities between particles provides invaluable information on the rates and characteristics of particle collisions. We show that the theoretical model of Gustavsson and Mehlig [K. Gustavsson and B. Mehlig, J. Turbul. 15, 34 (2014), 10.1080/14685248.2013.875188], within its anticipated limits of validity, can predict the joint probability density function of relative velocities and separations of identical inertial particles in isotropic turbulent flows with remarkable accuracy. We also quantify the validity range of the model. The model matches two limits (or two types) of relative motion between particles: one where pair diffusion dominates (i.e., large coherence between particle motion) and one where caustics dominate (i.e., large velocity differences between particles at small separations). By using direct numerical simulation combined with Lagrangian particle tracking, we assess the model prediction in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. We demonstrate that, when sufficient caustics are present at a given separation and the particle response time is significantly smaller than the integral time scales of the flow, the distribution exhibits the same universal power-law form dictated by the correlation dimension as predicted by the model of Gustavsson and Mehlig. In agreement with the model, no strong dependency on the Taylor-based Reynolds number is observed.

  5. An accelerated stochastic vortex structure method for particle collision and agglomeration in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizaji, Farzad F.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-11-01

    Modeling the response of interacting particles, droplets, or bubbles to subgrid-scale fluctuations in turbulent flows is a long-standing challenge in multiphase flow simulations using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. The problem also arises for large-eddy simulation for sufficiently small values of the Kolmogorov-scale particle Stokes number. This paper expands on a recently proposed stochastic vortex structure (SVS) method for modeling of turbulence fluctuations for colliding or otherwise interacting particles. An accelerated version of the SVS method was developed using the fast multipole expansion and local Taylor expansion approach, which reduces computation speed by two orders of magnitude compared to the original SVS method. Detailed comparisons are presented showing close agreement of the energy spectrum and probability density functions of various fields between the SVS computational model, direct numerical simulation (DNS) results, and various theoretical and experimental results found in the literature. Results of the SVS method for particle collision rate and related measures of particle interaction exhibit excellent agreement with DNS predictions for homogeneous turbulent flows. The SVS method was also used with adhesive particles to simulate formation of particle agglomerates with different values of the particle Stokes and adhesion numbers, and various measures of the agglomerate structure are compared to the DNS results.

  6. Computational investigation of the effects of turbulence, inertia, and gravity on particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Peter John

    In this work, we examine the motion of particles which are subjected to varying levels of turbulence, inertia, and gravity, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulence. These investigations are performed through direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Eulerian fluid velocity field combined with Lagrangian particle tracking. The primary motivation of these investigations is to better understand and model the dynamics and growth of water droplets in warm, cumulus clouds. In the first part of this work, we discuss the code we developed for these simulations, Highly Parallel Particle-laden flow Solver for Turbulence Research (HiPPSTR). HiPPSTR uses efficient parallelization strategies, time-integration techniques, and interpolation methods to enable massively parallel simulations of three-dimensional, particle-laden turbulence. In the second, third, and fourth sections of this work, we analyze simulations of particle-laden flows which are representative of those at the edges and cores of clouds. In the second section, we consider the mixing of droplets near interfaces with varying turbulence intensities and gravitational orientations, to provide insight into the dynamics near cloud edges. The simulations are parameterized to match wind-tunnel experiments of particle mixing which were conducted at Cornell, and the DNS and experimental results are compared and contrasted. Mixing is suppressed when turbulence intensities differ across the interface, and in all cases, the particle concentrations are subject to large fluctuations. In the third and fourth sections, we use HiPPSTR to analyze droplet motion in isotropic turbulence, which we take to be representative of adiabatic cloud cores. The third section examines the Reynolds-number scaling of single-particle and particle-pair statistics without gravity, while the fourth section shows results when gravity is included. While weakly inertial particles preferentially sample certain regions of the flow, gravity reduces

  7. Using Field-Particle Correlations to Diagnose the Collisionless Damping of Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Gregory; Klein, Kristropher

    2016-10-01

    Plasma turbulence occurs ubiquitously throughout the heliosphere, yet our understanding of how turbulence governs energy transport and plasma heating remains incomplete, constituting a grand challenge problem in heliophysics. In weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas, such as the solar corona and solar wind, damping of the turbulent fluctuations occurs due to collisionless interactions between the electromagnetic fields and the individual plasma particles. A particular challenge in diagnosing this energy transfer is that spacecraft measurements are typically limited to a single point in space. Here we present an innovative field-particle correlation technique that can be used with single-point measurements to estimate the energization of the plasma particles due to the damping of the electromagnetic fields, providing vital new information about this how energy transfer is distributed as a function of particle velocity. This technique has the promise to transform our ability to diagnose the kinetic plasma physical mechanisms responsible for not only the damping of turbulence, but also the energy conversion in both collisionless magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration. The work has been supported by NSF CAREER Award AGS-1054061, NSF AGS-1331355, and DOE DE-SC0014599.

  8. Fluid-particle characteristics in fully-developed cluster-induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we present a theoretical framework for collisional fluid-particle turbulence. To identify the key mechanisms responsible for energy exchange between the two phases, an Eulerian-Lagrangian strategy is used to simulate fully-developed cluster-inudced turbulence (CIT) under a range of Reynolds numbers, where fluctuations in particle concentration generate and sustain the carrier-phase turbulence. Using a novel filtering approach, a length-scale separation between the correlated particle velocity and uncorrelated granular temperature (GT) is achieved. This separation allows us to extract the instantaneous Eulerian volume fraction, velocity and GT fields from the Lagrangian data. Direct comparisons can thus be made with the relevant terms that appear in the multiphase turbulence model. It is shown that the granular pressure is highly anisotropic, and thus additional transport equations (as opposed to a single equation for GT) are necessary in formulating a predictive multiphase turbulence model. In addition to reporting the relevant contributions to the Reynolds stresses of each phase, two-point statistics, integral length/timescales, averages conditioned on the local volume fraction, and PDFs of the key multiphase statistics are presented and discussed. The research reported in this paper is partially supported by the HPC equipment purchased through U.S. National Science Foundation MRI Grant Number CNS 1229081 and CRI Grant Number 1205413.

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The VAX/VMS/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  11. TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND MEASURED WITH COMET TAIL TEST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Rice, D. R.

    2015-10-20

    By analyzing the motions of test particles observed remotely in the tail of Comet Encke, we demonstrate that the solar wind undergoes turbulent processing enroute from the Sun to the Earth and that the kinetic energy entrained in the large-scale turbulence is sufficient to explain the well-known anomalous heating of the solar wind. Using the heliospheric imaging (HI-1) camera on board NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, we have observed an ensemble of compact features in the comet tail as they became entrained in the solar wind near 0.4 AU. We find that the features are useful as test particles, via mean-motion analysis and a forward model of pickup dynamics. Using population analysis of the ensemble's relative motion, we find a regime of random-walk diffusion in the solar wind, followed, on larger scales, by a surprising regime of semiconfinement that we attribute to turbulent eddies in the solar wind. The entrained kinetic energy of the turbulent motions represents a sufficient energy reservoir to heat the solar wind to observed temperatures at 1 AU. We determine the Lagrangian-frame diffusion coefficient in the diffusive regime, derive upper limits for the small scale coherence length of solar wind turbulence, compare our results to existing Eulerian-frame measurements, and compare the turbulent velocity with the size of the observed eddies extrapolated to 1 AU. We conclude that the slow solar wind is fully mixed by turbulence on scales corresponding to a 1–2 hr crossing time at Earth; and that solar wind variability on timescales shorter than 1–2 hr is therefore dominated by turbulent processing rather than by direct solar effects.

  12. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  13. Restricted Euler dynamics along trajectories of small inertial particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The fate of small particles in turbulent flows depends strongly on the surrounding fluid's velocity gradient properties such as rotation and strain-rates. For non-inertial (fluid) particles, the Restricted Euler model provides a simple, low-dimensional dynamical system representation of Lagrangian evolution of velocity gradients in fluid turbulence, at least for short times. Here we derive a new restricted Euler dynamical system for the velocity gradient evolution of inertial particles such as solid particles in a gas or droplets and bubbles in turbulent liquid flows. The model is derived in the limit of small (sub Kolmogorov scale) particles and low Stokes number. The system exhibits interesting fixed points, stability and invariant properties. Comparisons with data from Direct Numerical Simulations show that the model predicts realistic trends such as the tendency of increased straining over rotation along heavy particle trajectories and, for light particles such as bubbles, the tendency of severely reduced self-stretching of strain-rate. Supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1232825 and by a Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  14. The effect of wall geometry in particle-laden turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdehkakha, Hoora; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Particle-laden turbulent flow plays a significant role in various industrial applications, as turbulence alters the exchange of momentum and energy between particles and fluid flow. In wall-bounded flows, inhomogeneity in turbulent properties is the primary cause of turbophoresis that leads the particles toward the walls. Conversely, shear-induced lift force on the particles can become important if large scale vortical structures are present. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of geometry on fluid flows and consequently on particles transport and concentration. Direct numerical simulations combined with point particle Lagrangian tracking are performed for several geometries such as a pipe, channel, square duct, and squircle (rounded-corners duct). In non-circular ducts, anisotropic and inhomogeneous Reynolds stresses are the most influential phenomena that produce the secondary flows. It has been shown that these motions can have a significant impact on transporting momentum, vorticity, and energy from the core of the duct to the corners. The main focus of the present study is to explore the effects of near the wall structures and secondary flows on turbophoresis, lift, and particle concentration.

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. The UNIX/DISSPLA implementation of PLOT3D supports 2-D polygons as

  17. Development of a numerical simulator of human swallowing using a particle method (Part 2. Evaluation of the accuracy of a swallowing simulation using the 3D MPS method).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tetsu; Toyama, Yoshio; Michiwaki, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulator of the swallowing action using the 3D moving particle simulation (MPS) method, which can simulate splashes and rapid changes in the free surfaces of food materials. The 3D numerical simulator of the swallowing action using the MPS method was developed based on accurate organ models, which contains forced transformation by elapsed time. The validity of the simulation results were evaluated qualitatively based on comparisons with videofluorography (VF) images. To evaluate the validity of the simulation results quantitatively, the normalized brightness around the vallecula was used as the evaluation parameter. The positions and configurations of the food bolus during each time step were compared in the simulated and VF images. The simulation results corresponded to the VF images during each time step in the visual evaluations, which suggested that the simulation was qualitatively correct. The normalized brightness of the simulated and VF images corresponded exactly at all time steps. This showed that the simulation results, which contained information on changes in the organs and the food bolus, were numerically correct. Based on these results, the accuracy of this simulator was high and it could be used to study the mechanism of disorders that cause dysphasia. This simulator also calculated the shear rate at a specific point and the timing with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. We think that the information provided by this simulator could be useful for development of food products, medicines, and in rehabilitation facilities.

  18. Numerical modelling of the turbulent flow developing within and over a 3-d building array, part iii: a istributed drag force approach, its implementation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene

    A modified k- model is used for the simulation of the mean wind speed and turbulence for a neutrally-stratified flow through and over a building array, where the array is treated as a porous medium with the drag on the unresolved buildings in the array represented by a distributed momentum sink. More specifically, this model is based on time averaging the spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equation, in which the effects of the obstacle-atmosphere interaction are included through the introduction of a distributed mean-momentum sink (representing drag on the unresolved buildings in the array). In addition, closure of the time-averaged, spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equation requires two additional prognostic equations, namely one for the time-averaged resolved-scale kinetic energy of turbulence,, and another for its dissipation rate, . The performance of the proposed model and some simplified versions derived from it is compared with the spatially averaged, time-mean velocity and various spatially averaged Reynolds stresses diagnosed from a high-resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow within and over an aligned array of sharp-edged cubes with a plan area density of 0.25. Four different methods for diagnosis of the drag coefficient CDfor the aligned cube array, required for the volumetric drag force representation of the cubes, are investigated here. We found that the model predictions for mean wind speed and turbulence in the building array were not sensitive to the differing treatments of the source and sink terms in the and equations (e.g., inclusion of only the `zeroth-order'' approximation for the source/sink terms compared with inclusion of a higher-order approximation for the source/sink terms in the and equations), implying that the higher-order approximations of these source/sink terms did not offer any predictive advantage. A possible explanation for this is the utilization of the Boussinesq linear stress-strain constitutive

  19. A 3D immersed finite element method with non-homogeneous interface flux jump for applications in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma-lunar surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Daoru; Wang, Pu; He, Xiaoming; Lin, Tao; Wang, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the need to handle complex boundary conditions efficiently and accurately in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, this paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) linear immersed finite element (IFE) method with non-homogeneous flux jump conditions for solving electrostatic field involving complex boundary conditions using structured meshes independent of the interface. This method treats an object boundary as part of the simulation domain and solves the electric field at the boundary as an interface problem. In order to resolve charging on a dielectric surface, a new 3D linear IFE basis function is designed for each interface element to capture the electric field jump on the interface. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the optimal convergence rates in L2 and H1 norms of the IFE solution. This new IFE method is integrated into a PIC method for simulations involving charging of a complex dielectric surface in a plasma. A numerical study of plasma-surface interactions at the lunar terminator is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the new method.

  20. Protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) with β-1,3-D-glucan-encapsulated vp28-siRNA particles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2012-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp viral pathogen responsible for large economic losses to shrimp aquaculture all over the world. The RNAi mediated by siRNA contributes a new strategy to control this viral disease. However, the efficient approach to deliver the siRNA into shrimp remains to be addressed. In this investigation, an antiviral vp28-siRNA was encapsulated in β-1,3-D-glucan, and then the β-1,3-D-glucan-encapsulated vp28-siRNA particles (GeRPs) were delivered into Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The results showed that the vp28-siRNA in GeRPs could be released in hemocytes of shrimp. It was found that the GeRPs containing the vp28-siRNA inhibited the replication of WSSV in vivo, which presented a better antiviral activity than the non-encapsulated vp28-siRNA. Further evidence indicated that the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp was significantly delayed by the GeRPs containing vp28-siRNA. Therefore, our study presented that the glucan-encapsulated siRNA might represent a novel potential therapeutic or preventive approach to control the shrimp disease.

  1. Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles Associated with Impulsive Solar Flares in Turbulent Interplanetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, F.; Giacalone, J.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the physics of the propagation of an impulsive release of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field. Test-particle numerical simulations are used to study the propagation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in interplanetary magnetic turbulence created by the random transverse motions of magnetic footpoints embedded in the solar atmosphere (Giacalone et al. 2006). The turbulence model includes a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We relate our numerical simulations to spacecraft observations and show that a number of features of SEP events observed by ACE and Wind can be reproduced in these simulations. For instance, we find that,the path lengths traveled by particles are different from that expected for a simple Parker spiral; and thus. The resulting velocity dispersion is energy dependent. We also find flux dropouts associated with steep localized gradients. Moreover, since particles sample different field lines which have different path length, their arriving times are non-uniform.

  2. On the local acceleration and flow trajectory of jet flows from circular and semi-circular pipes via 3D particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Liberzon, Alex; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2015-11-01

    The distinctive differences between two jet flows that share the same hydraulic diameter dh = 0.01 m and Re ~ 6000, but different (nozzle) shape are explored via 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry using OpenPTV (http://www.openptv.net). The two jets are formed from circular and semicircular pipes and released in a quiescent water tank of 40 dh height, 40 dh wide, and 200 dh long. The recirculating system is seeded with 100 μm particles, where flow measurements are performed in the intermediate flow field (14.5 < x /dh <18.5) at 550Hz for a total of ~ 30,000 frames. Analysis is focused on the spatial distribution of the local flow acceleration and curvature of the Lagrangian trajectories. The velocity and acceleration of particles are estimated by low-pass filtering their position with a moving cubic spline fitting, while the curvature is obtained from the Frenet-Serret equations. Probability density functions (p.d.f.) of these quantities are obtained at various sub-volumes containing a given streamwise velocity range, and compared between the two cases to evaluate the memory effects in the intermediate flow field.

  3. Dynamics of Submarine Landslides in an Active Margin from Analysis of Particle Size, Cores, and 3D Seismic Data: Site C0021, IODP Expedition 338, Offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D.; Moore, Z. T.

    2013-12-01

    The deposits of submarine landslides, termed mass transport deposits (MTDs), were drilled and cored at Site C0021 in the Nankai Trough during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338. Two MTDs were identified at 94-117 mbsf and 133-176 mbsf. Each MTD includes mud clasts, tilted bedding, and/or chaotic bedding, an increase in shear strength, a decrease in porosity, the occurrence of shear zones/faults, and a semi-transparent seismic facies. We conducted laser particle size analyses of sediments throughout the entire cored interval at Site C0021 (0 - 5 mbsf and 90 - 194 mbsf). Particle size distributions show that sediments shallower than 155 mbsf are composed of approximately 80% silt-sized, 15% clay-sized, and 5% sand-sized particles. Sediments deeper than 155 mbsf are predominantly composed of approximately 65% silt-sized, 15% clay-sized, and 20% sand-sized particles. MTDs have no obvious differences from non-MTD particle size distributions. We are examining the MTDs to gain insight into their dynamic behavior by mapping them in 3D seismic data. We measure slope geometry, runout distance, and characterize the depositional features preserved within the MTDs in the basal surface, top surface, and internal body. We use slope geometry to calculate regional gravitational shear stress and we use runout distance and morphology as indicators of the dynamic behavior of the landslide. Future work will focus on back-analysis estimates of shear stress and shear strength parameters. Our goal is to distinguish whether these landslides occurred as relatively rapid-moving, low-viscosity events or relatively slow-moving, high-viscosity events. This is an important distinction to make given that initial acceleration of a landslide is a critical variable that determines amplitude of slide-generated tsunami.

  4. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  5. 3D imaging of magnetic particles using the 7-channel magnetoencephalography device without pre-magnetization or displacement of the sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, M. A.; Ustinin, M. N.; Rykunov, S. D.; Yurenya, A. Y.; Naurzakov, S. P.; Grebenkin, A. P.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    2017-04-01

    SQUID-based magnetoencephalography device was used for the measurement of a magnetic noise generated by ferrofluid in the stationary standing vial. It was found that a free surface of the ferrofluid generates spontaneous magnetic field sufficient to detect the presence of nanoparticles in the experimental setup. The spatial distribution of elementary magnetic sources was reconstructed by the frequency-pattern analysis of multichannel time series. The localization of ferrofluids was performed based on the analysis of quasirandom time series in two cases of oscillation source. One of them was infrasound from outer noise, and another one was the human heartbeat. These results are prospective for 3D imaging of magnetic particles without pre-magnetization.

  6. A microfluidic opto-caloric switch for sorting of particles by using 3D-hydrodynamic focusing based on SLE fabrication capabilities.

    PubMed

    Meineke, G; Hermans, M; Klos, J; Lenenbach, A; Noll, R

    2016-03-07

    In a miniaturised flow switch fluid flows are controlled by reducing the local viscosity via absorption of laser radiation. Through this, the local flow rates are increased to switch the outlet port of a fluid flow carrying the analyte. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using Selective Laser-Induced Etching (SLE). SLE allows novel 3D-hydrodynamic focusing, realising circular shaped channel cross-sections and adapting interaction volume geometries to the profile of the laser radiation for optimised absorption. The performance of the switch is validated experimentally with a dyed analyte and video image processing. The ability to sort particles like cells is demonstrated at 8 Hz using polystyrene beads having a diameter of 8 μm.

  7. Dark Matter as Fossil Turbulence---Primordial Fog Particles and WIMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    1996-11-01

    Most of the matter of the universe is ``dark''. Based on the Schwarz viscous and turbulence self-gravitational condensation scales, most dark matter has two forms: ``primordial fog particles'' (PFPs---now moon-mass black dwarfs in galaxy halos) which condensed when the plasma universe neutralized to an inviscid, weakly-turbulent gas about 0.3 By (billion years after the big bang); plus WIMP fluids whose weakly-interacting-massive-particles may still be condensing slowly at large scales to form halos about galaxy clusters. Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photos show evidence of PFPs as cometary globules in planetary nebulae (see http:www-acs.ucsd.edu ir118 for illustrations). Recent HST deep field photos show red galaxies existed at only 0.75 By, also suggesting a gentle, weak-turbulence, PFP condensation scenario for the first (small red) stars, within preexisting galaxy mass PFP ``fog patches''. The generally accepted Jeans criterion permits no such condensations of protogalaxies in the plasma epoch, and requires a strongly turbulent (big blue star) initial gas condensation scenario that is inconsistent with fossil non-turbulence evidence such as ancient globular star clusters and the extreme temperature uniformity observed in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  8. Large eddy simulation of a particle-laden turbulent plane jet.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han-Hui; Luo, Kun; Fan, Jian-Ren; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2003-01-01

    Gas-solid two-phase turbulent plane jet is applied to many natural situations and in engineering systems. To predict the particle dispersion in the gas jet is of great importance in industrial applications and in the designing of engineering systems. A large eddy simulation of the two-phase plane jet was conducted to investigate the particle dispersion patterns. The particles with Stokes numbers equal to 0.0028, 0.3, 2.5, 28 (corresponding to particle diameter 1 microm, 10 microm, 30 microm, 100 microm, respectively) in Re = 11 300 gas flow were studied. The simulation results of gas phase motion agreed well with previous experimental results. And the simulation results of the solid particles motion showed that particles with different Stokes number have different spatial dispersion; and that particles with intermediate Stokes number have the largest dispersion ratio.

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  10. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    five groups: 1) Grid Functions for grids, grid-checking, etc.; 2) Scalar Functions for contour or carpet plots of density, pressure, temperature, Mach number, vorticity magnitude, helicity, etc.; 3) Vector Functions for vector plots of velocity, vorticity, momentum, and density gradient, etc.; 4) Particle Trace Functions for rake-like plots of particle flow or vortex lines; and 5) Shock locations based on pressure gradient. TURB3D is a modification of PLOT3D which is used for viewing CFD simulations of incompressible turbulent flow. Input flow data consists of pressure, velocity and vorticity. Typical quantities to plot include local fluctuations in flow quantities and turbulent production terms, plotted in physical or wall units. PLOT3D/TURB3D includes both TURB3D and PLOT3D because the operation of TURB3D is identical to PLOT3D, and there is no additional sample data or printed documentation for TURB3D. Graphical capabilities of PLOT3D version 3.6b+ vary among the implementations available through COSMIC. Customers are encouraged to purchase and carefully review the PLOT3D manual before ordering the program for a specific computer and graphics library. There is only one manual for use with all implementations of PLOT3D, and although this manual generally assumes that the Silicon Graphics Iris implementation is being used, informative comments concerning other implementations appear throughout the text. With all implementations, the visual representation of the object and flow field created by PLOT3D consists of points, lines, and polygons. Points can be represented with dots or symbols, color can be used to denote data values, and perspective is used to show depth. Differences among implementations impact the program's ability to use graphical features that are based on 3D polygons, the user's ability to manipulate the graphical displays, and the user's ability to obtain alternate forms of output. In addition to providing the advantages of performing complex

  11. Measurements of the heat release rate integral in turbulent premixed stagnation flames with particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yung-Cheng; Kim, Munki; Han, Jeongjae; Yun, Sangwook; Yoon, Youngbin

    2008-08-15

    A new definition of turbulent consumption speed is proposed in this work that is based on the heat release rate integral, rather than the mass burning rate integral. Its detailed derivation and the assumptions involved are discussed in a general context that applies to all properly defined reaction progress variables. The major advantage of the proposed definition is that it does not require the thin-flame assumption, in contrast to previous definitions. Experimental determination of the local turbulent displacement speed, S{sub D}, and the local turbulent consumption speed, S{sub C}, is also demonstrated with the particle image velocimetry technique in three turbulent premixed stagnation flames. The turbulence intensity of these flames is of the same order of the laminar burning velocity. Based on the current data, a model equation for the local mean heat release rate is proposed. The relationship between S{sub D} and S{sub C} is discussed along with a possible modeling approach for the turbulent displacement speed. (author)

  12. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-03

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations.

  13. Heating and Acceleration of Charged Particles by Weakly Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Jacob William

    We investigate the interaction between low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and a distribution of charged particles. Understanding this physics is central to understanding the heating of the solar wind, as well as the heating and acceleration of other collisionless plasmas. Our central method is to simulate weakly compressible MHD turbulence using the Athena code, along with a distribution of test particles which feel the electromagnetic fields of the turbulence. We also construct analytic models of transit-time damping (TTD), which results from the mirror force caused by compressible (fast or slow) MHD waves. Standard linear-theory models in the literature require an exact resonance between particle and wave velocities to accelerate particles. The models developed in this thesis go beyond standard linear theory to account for the fact that wave-particle interactions decorrelate over a short time, which allows particles with velocities off resonance to undergo acceleration and velocity diffusion. We use the test particle simulation results to calibrate and distinguish between different models for this velocity diffusion. Test particle heating is larger than the linear theory prediction, due to continued acceleration of particles with velocities off-resonance. We also include an artificial pitch-angle scattering to the test particle motion, representing the effect of high-frequency waves or velocity-space instabilities. For low scattering rates, we find that the scattering enforces isotropy and enhances heating by a modest factor. For much higher scattering rates, the acceleration is instead due to a non-resonant effect, as particles "frozen" into the fluid adiabatically gain and lose energy as eddies expand and contract. Lastly, we generalize our calculations to allow for relativistic test particles. Linear theory predicts that relativistic particles with velocities much higher than the speed of waves comprising the turbulence would undergo no

  14. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)