Science.gov

Sample records for 3-d virtual environment

  1. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  2. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  3. Learning in 3D Virtual Environments: Collaboration and Knowledge Spirals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Brian G.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine if learning occurred within a 3D virtual learning environment by determining if elements of collaboration and Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) knowledge spiral were present. A key portion of this research was the creation of a Virtual Learning Environment. This 3D VLE utilized the Torque Game Engine…

  4. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  5. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  6. What Are the Learning Affordances of 3-D Virtual Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the potential learning benefits of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual learning environments (VLEs). Drawing on published research spanning two decades, it identifies a set of unique characteristics of 3-D VLEs, which includes aspects of their representational fidelity and aspects of the learner-computer interactivity they…

  7. Educational Visualizations in 3D Collaborative Virtual Environments: A Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) have become increasingly popular in educational settings and the role of 3D content is becoming more and more important. Still, there are many challenges in this area, such as lack of empirical studies that provide design for educational activities in 3D CVEs and lack of norms of how to support…

  8. Game-Like Language Learning in 3-D Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our recent experiences with the design of game-like applications in 3-D virtual environments as well as its impact on student motivation and learning. Therefore our paper starts with a brief analysis of the motivational aspects of videogames and virtual worlds (VWs). We then go on to explore the possible benefits of both in the…

  9. Measuring Knowledge Acquisition in 3D Virtual Learning Environments.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eunice P dos Santos; Roque, Licínio G; Nunes, Fatima de Lourdes dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments can contribute to the effective learning of various subjects for people of all ages. Consequently, they assist in reducing the cost of maintaining physical structures of teaching, such as laboratories and classrooms. However, the measurement of how learners acquire knowledge in such environments is still incipient in the literature. This article presents a method to evaluate the knowledge acquisition in 3D virtual learning environments (3D VLEs) by using the learner's interactions in the VLE. Three experiments were conducted that demonstrate the viability of using this method and its computational implementation. The results suggest that it is possible to automatically assess learning in predetermined contexts and that some types of user interactions in 3D VLEs are correlated with the user's learning differential.

  10. Cognitive Aspects of Collaboration in 3d Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juřík, V.; Herman, L.; Kubíček, P.; Stachoň, Z.; Šašinka, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Human-computer interaction has entered the 3D era. The most important models representing spatial information — maps — are transferred into 3D versions regarding the specific content to be displayed. Virtual worlds (VW) become promising area of interest because of possibility to dynamically modify content and multi-user cooperation when solving tasks regardless to physical presence. They can be used for sharing and elaborating information via virtual images or avatars. Attractiveness of VWs is emphasized also by possibility to measure operators' actions and complex strategies. Collaboration in 3D environments is the crucial issue in many areas where the visualizations are important for the group cooperation. Within the specific 3D user interface the operators' ability to manipulate the displayed content is explored regarding such phenomena as situation awareness, cognitive workload and human error. For such purpose, the VWs offer a great number of tools for measuring the operators' responses as recording virtual movement or spots of interest in the visual field. Study focuses on the methodological issues of measuring the usability of 3D VWs and comparing them with the existing principles of 2D maps. We explore operators' strategies to reach and interpret information regarding the specific type of visualization and different level of immersion.

  11. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  12. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  13. ETeach3D: Designing a 3D Virtual Environment for Evaluating the Digital Competence of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve-Mon, Francesc M.; Cela-Ranilla, Jose María; Gisbert-Cervera, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of teacher digital competence is a key aspect in the initial training of teachers. However, most existing evaluation instruments do not provide sufficient evidence of this teaching competence. In this study, we describe the design and development process of a three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment for evaluating the teacher…

  14. Rapid prototyping 3D virtual world interfaces within a virtual factory environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.

  15. Contextual EFL Learning in a 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the current study are to develop virtually immersive EFL learning contexts for EFL learners in Taiwan to pre- and review English materials beyond the regular English class schedule. A 2-iteration action research lasting for one semester was conducted to evaluate the effects of virtual contexts on learners' EFL learning. 132…

  16. Socialisation for Learning at a Distance in a 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Nie, Ming; Pluciennik, Mark; Young, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study that examined the pedagogical potential of "Second Life" (SL), a popular three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3-D MUVE) developed by the Linden Lab. The study is part of a 1-year research and development project titled "Modelling of Secondlife Environments"…

  17. The Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory for the Teaching of Mathematics in an Online 3D Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouta, Hara; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning two decades shows that there is a continuing development of 3D virtual worlds and investment in such environments for educational purposes. Research stresses the need for these environments to be well-designed and for suitable pedagogies to be implemented in the teaching practice in order for these worlds to be fully effective.…

  18. GEARS a 3D Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Social and Educational World Used in Online Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkand, Jonathan; Kush, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are becoming increasingly popular in online education environments and have multiple pedagogical advantages over more traditional approaches to education. VLEs include 3D worlds where students can engage in simulated learning activities such as Second Life. According to Claudia L'Amoreaux at Linden Lab, "at…

  19. MAT3D: a virtual reality modeling language environment for the teaching and learning of mathematics.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotti, Adriano; dal Sasso Freitas, Carla Maria

    2002-10-01

    Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is an independent platform language that allows the creation of nonimmersive virtual environments (VEs) and their use through the Internet. In these VEs, the viewer may navigate and interact with virtual objects, moving around and visualizing them from different angles. Students can benefit from this technology, because it permits them access to objects, which describe the topics covered in their studies in addition to oral and written information. In this work, we investigate the aspects involved in the use of VEs in teaching and learning and propose a conceptual model, called MAT3D, as a learning environment that can be used for the teaching and learning of mathematics. A case study is also presented, in which students use a virtual environment modeled in VRML. Data resulting from this study is analyzed statistically to evaluate the impact of this prototype when applied to the actual teaching and learning of mathematics.

  20. Applying a 3D Situational Virtual Learning Environment to the Real World Business--An Extended Research in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shwu-huey

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand (1) what kind of students can be facilitated through the help of three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE), and (2) the relationship between a conventional test (ie, paper and pencil test) and the 3D VLE used in this study, the study designs a 3D virtual supermarket (3DVS) to help students transform their role…

  1. Using virtual 3D audio in multispeech channel and multimedia environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Michael D.; Karplus, Walter J.; Balakrishnan, Jerry D.

    2000-08-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using virtual 3-D audio in mission-critical, multimedia display interfaces were evaluated. The 3D audio platform seems to be an especially promising candidate for aircraft cockpits, flight control rooms, and other command and control environments in which operators must make mission-critical decisions while handling demanding and routine tasks. Virtual audio signal processing creates the illusion for a listener wearing conventional earphones that each of a multiplicity of simultaneous speech or audio channels is originating from a different, program- specified location in virtual space. To explore the possible uses of this new, readily available technology, a test bed simulating some of the conditions experienced by the chief flight test coordinator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center was designed and implemented. Thirty test subjects simultaneously performed routine tasks requiring constant hand-eye coordination, while monitoring four speech channels, each generating continuous speech signals, for the occurrence of pre-specified keywords. Performance measures included accuracy in identifying the keywords, accuracy in identifying the speaker of the keyword, and response time. We found substantial improvements on all of these measures when comparing virtual audio with conventional, monaural transmissions. We also explored the effect on operator performance of different spatial configurations of the audio sources in 3-D space, simulated movement (dither) in the source locations, and of providing graphical redundancy. Some of these manipulations were less effective and may even decrease performance efficiency, even though they improve some aspects of the virtual space simulation.

  2. Using the CAVE virtual-reality environment as an aid to 3-D electromagnetic field computation

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Levine, D.; Huang, M.; Papka, M; Kettunen, L.

    1995-08-01

    One of the major problems in three-dimensional (3-D) field computation is visualizing the resulting 3-D field distributions. A virtual-reality environment, such as the CAVE, (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) is helping to overcome this problem, thus making the results of computation more usable for designers and users of magnets and other electromagnetic devices. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the CAVE, the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW), an insertion device being designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), wa made visible, along with its fields and beam orbits. Other uses of the CAVE in preprocessing and postprocessing computation for electromagnetic applications are also discussed.

  3. The cognitive apprenticeship theory for the teaching of mathematics in an online 3D virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouta, Hara; Paraskeva, Fotini

    2013-03-01

    Research spanning two decades shows that there is a continuing development of 3D virtual worlds and investment in such environments for educational purposes. Research stresses the need for these environments to be well-designed and for suitable pedagogies to be implemented in the teaching practice in order for these worlds to be fully effective. To this end, we propose a pedagogical framework based on the cognitive apprenticeship for deriving principles and guidelines to inform the design, development and use of a 3D virtual environment. This study examines how the use of a 3D virtual world facilitates the teaching of mathematics in primary education by combining design principles and guidelines based on the Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory and the teaching methods that this theory introduces. We focus specifically on 5th and 6th grade students' engagement (behavioral, affective and cognitive) while learning fractional concepts over a period of two class sessions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate considerable improvement in the engagement of the students who participated in the experiment. This paper presents the findings regarding students' cognitive engagement in the process of comprehending basic fractional concepts - notoriously hard for students to master. The findings are encouraging and suggestions are made for further research.

  4. vPresent: A cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment for interactive product customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Xiaoming; Guo, Fei; He, Yifeng; Guan, Ling

    2013-09-01

    In modern society, many companies offer product customization services to their customers. There are two major issues in providing customized products. First, product manufacturers need to effectively present their products to the customers who may be located in any geographical area. Second, customers need to be able to provide their feedbacks on the product in real-time. However, the traditional presentation approaches cannot effectively convey sufficient information for the product or efficiently adjust product design according to customers' real-time feedbacks. In order to address these issues, we propose vPresent , a cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment, in this paper. In vPresent, the product expert can show the 3D virtual product to the remote customers and dynamically customize the product based on customers' feedbacks, while customers can provide their opinions in real time when they are viewing a vivid 3D visualization of the product. Since the proposed vPresent is a cloud based system, the customers are able to access the customized virtual products from anywhere at any time, via desktop, laptop, or even smart phone. The proposed vPresent is expected to effectively deliver 3D visual information to customers and provide an interactive design platform for the development of customized products.

  5. Going Virtual… or Not: Development and Testing of a 3D Virtual Astronomy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, L.; Speck, A.; Ding, N.; Baldridge, S.; Witzig, S.; Laffey, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present our preliminary results of a pilot study of students' knowledge transfer of an astronomy concept into a new environment. We also share our discoveries on what aspects of a 3D environment students consider being motivational and discouraging for their learning. This study was conducted among 64 non-science major students enrolled in an astronomy laboratory course. During the course, students learned the concept and applications of Kepler's laws using a 2D interactive environment. Later in the semester, the students were placed in a 3D environment in which they were asked to conduct observations and to answers a set of questions pertaining to the Kepler's laws of planetary motion. In this study, we were interested in observing scrutinizing and assessing students' behavior: from choices that they made while creating their avatars (virtual representations) to tools they choose to use, to their navigational patterns, to their levels of discourse in the environment. These helped us to identify what features of the 3D environment our participants found to be helpful and interesting and what tools created unnecessary clutter and distraction. The students' social behavior patterns in the virtual environment together with their answers to the questions helped us to determine how well they understood Kepler's laws, how well they could transfer the concepts to a new situation, and at what point a motivational tool such as a 3D environment becomes a disruption to the constructive learning. Our founding confirmed that students construct deeper knowledge of a concept when they are fully immersed in the environment.

  6. Versatile, Immersive, Creative and Dynamic Virtual 3-D Healthcare Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and “serious gaming” that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens’ Connectivism Theory for today’s learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare. PMID:18762473

  7. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  8. A Voice and Mouse Input Interface for 3D Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Bryson, Steve T.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many successful stories on how 3D input devices can be fully integrated into an immersive virtual environment. Electromagnetic trackers, optical trackers, gloves, and flying mice are just some of these input devices. Though we can use existing 3D input devices that are commonly used for VR applications, there are several factors that prevent us from choosing these input devices for our applications. One main factor is that most of these tracking devices are not suitable for prolonged use due to human fatigue associated with using them. A second factor is that many of them would occupy additional office space. Another factor is that many of the 3D input devices are expensive due to the unusual hardware that are required. For our VR applications, we want a user interface that would work naturally with standard equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate applications or our proposed muitimodal interface using a 3D dome display. We also show that effective data analysis can be achieved while the scientists view their data rendered inside the dome display and perform user interactions simply using the mouse and voice input. Though the sphere coordinate grid seems to be ideal for interaction using a 3D dome display, we can also use other non-spherical grids as well.

  9. 3-D Imaging In Virtual Environment: A Scientific Clinical and Teaching Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The advent of powerful graphics workstations and computers has led to the advancement of scientific knowledge through three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and imaging of biological cells and tissues. The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center pioneered the effort to produce an entirely computerized method for reconstruction of objects from serial sections studied in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The software developed, ROSS (Reconstruction of Serial Sections), is now being distributed to users across the United States through Space Act Agreements. The software is in widely disparate fields such as geology, botany, biology and medicine. In the Biocomputation Center, ROSS serves as the basis for development of virtual environment technologies for scientific and medical use. This report will describe the Virtual Surgery Workstation Project that is ongoing with clinicians at Stanford University Medical Center, and the role of the Visible Human data in the project.

  10. Architecture of web services in the enhancement of real-time 3D video virtualization in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to improving the application of 3D video rendering and streaming by jointly exploring and optimizing both cloud-based virtualization and web-based delivery. The proposed web service architecture firstly establishes a software virtualization layer based on QEMU (Quick Emulator), an open-source virtualization software that has been able to virtualize system components except for 3D rendering, which is still in its infancy. The architecture then explores the cloud environment to boost the speed of the rendering at the QEMU software virtualization layer. The capabilities and inherent limitations of Virgil 3D, which is one of the most advanced 3D virtual Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) available, are analyzed through benchmarking experiments and integrated into the architecture to further speed up the rendering. Experimental results are reported and analyzed to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.

  11. iVirtualWorld: A Domain-Oriented End-User Development Environment for Building 3D Virtual Chemistry Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds are well-suited for building virtual laboratories for educational purposes to complement hands-on physical laboratories. However, educators may face technical challenges because developing virtual worlds requires skills in programming and 3D design. Current virtual world building tools are developed for users who have programming…

  12. Sensor Spatial Distortion, Visual Latency, and Update Rate Effects on 3D Tracking in Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Baumeler, S.; Jense, G. J.; Jacoby, R. H.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Several common defects that we have sought to minimize in immersing virtual environments are: static sensor spatial distortion, visual latency, and low update rates. Human performance within our environments during large amplitude 3D tracking was assessed by objective and subjective methods in the presence and absence of these defects. Results show that 1) removal of our relatively small spatial sensor distortion had minor effects on the tracking activity, 2) an Adapted Cooper-Harper controllability scale proved the most sensitive subjective indicator of the degradation of dynamic fidelity caused by increasing latency and decreasing frame rates, and 3) performance, as measured by normalized RMS tracking error or subjective impressions, was more markedly influenced by changing visual latency than by update rate.

  13. A Parameterizable Framework for Replicated Experiments in Virtual 3D Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biella, Daniel; Luther, Wolfram

    This paper reports on a parameterizable 3D framework that provides 3D content developers with an initial spatial starting configuration, metaphorical connectors for accessing exhibits or interactive 3D learning objects or experiments, and other optional 3D extensions, such as a multimedia room, a gallery, username identification tools and an avatar selection room. The framework is implemented in X3D and uses a Web-based content management system. It has been successfully used for an interactive virtual museum for key historical experiments and in two additional interactive e-learning implementations: an African arts museum and a virtual science centre. It can be shown that, by reusing the framework, the production costs for the latter two implementations can be significantly reduced and content designers can focus on developing educational content instead of producing cost-intensive out-of-focus 3D objects.

  14. A Collaborative Virtual Environment for Situated Language Learning Using VEC3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun; Yang, Mau-Tsuen

    2008-01-01

    A 3D virtually synchronous communication architecture for situated language learning has been designed to foster communicative competence among undergraduate students who have studied English as a foreign language (EFL). We present an innovative approach that offers better e-learning than the previous virtual reality educational applications. The…

  15. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  16. Enhanced Visual-Attention Model for Perceptually Improved 3D Object Modeling in Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon-Forget, Maude; Rouhafzay, Ghazal; Cretu, Ana-Maria; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional object modeling and interactive virtual environment applications require accurate, but compact object models that ensure real-time rendering capabilities. In this context, the paper proposes a 3D modeling framework employing visual attention characteristics in order to obtain compact models that are more adapted to human visual capabilities. An enhanced computational visual attention model with additional saliency channels, such as curvature, symmetry, contrast and entropy, is initially employed to detect points of interest over the surface of a 3D object. The impact of the use of these supplementary channels is experimentally evaluated. The regions identified as salient by the visual attention model are preserved in a selectively-simplified model obtained using an adapted version of the QSlim algorithm. The resulting model is characterized by a higher density of points in the salient regions, therefore ensuring a higher perceived quality, while at the same time ensuring a less complex and more compact representation for the object. The quality of the resulting models is compared with the performance of other interest point detectors incorporated in a similar manner in the simplification algorithm. The proposed solution results overall in higher quality models, especially at lower resolutions. As an example of application, the selectively-densified models are included in a continuous multiple level of detail (LOD) modeling framework, in which an original neural-network solution selects the appropriate size and resolution of an object.

  17. The Use of 3D Virtual Learning Environments in Training Foreign Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Tuncer; Simsek, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The recent developments in computer and Internet technologies and in three dimensional modelling necessitates the new approaches and methods in the education field and brings new opportunities to the higher education. The Internet and virtual learning environments have changed the learning opportunities by diversifying the learning options not…

  18. 3-D Localization of Virtual Sound Sources: Effects of Visual Environment, Pointing Method, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Majdak, Piotr; Goupell, Matthew J.; Laback, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The ability to localize sound sources in three-dimensional space was tested in humans. In experiment 1, naive subjects listened to noises filtered with subject-specific head-related transfer functions. The tested conditions included the pointing method (head or manual pointing) and the visual environment (VE) (darkness or virtual VE). The localization performance was not significantly different between the pointing methods. The virtual VE significantly improved the horizontal precision and reduced the number of front-back confusions. These results show the benefit of using a virtual VE in sound localization tasks. In experiment 2, subjects were provided sound localization training. Over the course of training, the performance improved for all subjects, with the largest improvements occurring during the first 400 trials. The improvements beyond the first 400 trials were smaller. After the training, there was still no significant effect of pointing method, showing that the choice of either head- or manual-pointing method plays a minor role in sound localization performance. The results of experiment 2 reinforce the importance of perceptual training for at least 400 trials in sound localization studies. PMID:20139459

  19. Virtually supportive: A feasibility pilot study of an online support group for dementia caregivers in a 3D virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J.; Kaszniak, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver support groups effectively reduce stress from caring for someone with dementia. These same demands can prevent participation in a group. The present feasibility study investigated a virtual online caregiver support group to bring the support group into the home. While online groups have been shown to be helpful, submissions to a message board (vs. live conversation) can feel impersonal. By using avatars, participants interacted via real-time chat in a virtual environment in an 8-week support group. Data indicated lower levels of perceived stress, depression and loneliness across participants. Importantly, satisfaction reports also indicate that caregivers overcame the barriers to participation, and had a strong sense of the group’s presence. This study provides the framework for an accessible and low cost online support group for a dementia caregiver. The study demonstrates the feasibility of interactive group in a virtual environment for engaging members in meaningful interaction. PMID:24984911

  20. On the Usability and Usefulness of 3d (geo)visualizations - a Focus on Virtual Reality Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çöltekin, A.; Lokka, I.; Zahner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Whether and when should we show data in 3D is an on-going debate in communities conducting visualization research. A strong opposition exists in the information visualization (Infovis) community, and seemingly unnecessary/unwarranted use of 3D, e.g., in plots, bar or pie charts, is heavily criticized. The scientific visualization (Scivis) community, on the other hand, is more supportive of the use of 3D as it allows `seeing' invisible phenomena, or designing and printing things that are used in e.g., surgeries, educational settings etc. Geographic visualization (Geovis) stands between the Infovis and Scivis communities. In geographic information science, most visuo-spatial analyses have been sufficiently conducted in 2D or 2.5D, including analyses related to terrain and much of the urban phenomena. On the other hand, there has always been a strong interest in 3D, with similar motivations as in Scivis community. Among many types of 3D visualizations, a popular one that is exploited both for visual analysis and visualization is the highly realistic (geo)virtual environments. Such environments may be engaging and memorable for the viewers because they offer highly immersive experiences. However, it is not yet well-established if we should opt to show the data in 3D; and if yes, a) what type of 3D we should use, b) for what task types, and c) for whom. In this paper, we identify some of the central arguments for and against the use of 3D visualizations around these three considerations in a concise interdisciplinary literature review.

  1. Learning in 3-D Virtual Worlds: Rethinking Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    3-D virtual worlds, as a new form of learning environments in the 21st century, hold great potential in education. Learning in such environments, however, demands a broader spectrum of literacy skills. This article identifies a new set of media literacy skills required in 3-D virtual learning environments by reviewing exemplary 3-D virtual…

  2. Brave New (Interactive) Worlds: A Review of the Design Affordances and Constraints of Two 3D Virtual Worlds as Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michele D.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are an emerging medium currently being used in both traditional classrooms and for distance education. Three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds are a combination of desk-top interactive Virtual Reality within a chat environment. This analysis provides an overview of Active Worlds Educational Universe and Adobe…

  3. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  4. Integrated VR platform for 3D and image-based models: a step toward interactive image-based virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jayoung; Kim, Gerard J.

    2003-04-01

    Traditionally, three dimension models have been used for building virtual worlds, and a data structure called the "scene graph" is often employed to organize these 3D objects in the virtual space. On the other hand, image-based rendering has recently been suggested as a probable alternative VR platform for its photo-realism, however, due to limited interactivity, it has only been used for simple navigation systems. To combine the merits of these two approaches to object/scene representations, this paper proposes for a scene graph structure in which both 3D models and various image-based scenes/objects can be defined, traversed, and rendered together. In fact, as suggested by Shade et al., these different representations can be used as different LOD's for a given object. For instance, an object might be rendered using a 3D model at close range, a billboard at an intermediate range, and as part of an environment map at far range. The ultimate objective of this mixed platform is to breath more interactivity into the image based rendered VE's by employing 3D models as well. There are several technical challenges in devising such a platform: designing scene graph nodes for various types of image based techniques, establishing criteria for LOD/representation selection, handling their transitions, implementing appropriate interaction schemes, and correctly rendering the overall scene. Currently, we have extended the scene graph structure of the Sense8's WorldToolKit, to accommodate new node types for environment maps billboards, moving textures and sprites, "Tour-into-the-Picture" structure, and view interpolated objects. As for choosing the right LOD level, the usual viewing distance and image space criteria are used, however, the switching between the image and 3D model occurs at a distance from the user where the user starts to perceive the object's internal depth. Also, during interaction, regardless of the viewing distance, a 3D representation would be used, it if

  5. Development of a system based on 3D vision, interactive virtual environments, ergonometric signals and a humanoid for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibarra Zannatha, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Alejandro Justo Malo; Sánchez, Angel David Gómez; Delgado, Jorge Enrique Lavín; Cheu, Luis Eduardo Rodríguez; Arévalo, Wilson Alexander Sierra

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a stroke rehabilitation (SR) system for the upper limbs, developed as an interactive virtual environment (IVE) based on a commercial 3D vision system (a Microsoft Kinect), a humanoid robot (an Aldebaran's Nao), and devices producing ergonometric signals. In one environment, the rehabilitation routines, developed by specialists, are presented to the patient simultaneously by the humanoid and an avatar inside the IVE. The patient follows the rehabilitation task, while his avatar copies his gestures that are captured by the Kinect 3D vision system. The information of the patient movements, together with the signals obtained from the ergonometric measurement devices, is used also to supervise and to evaluate the rehabilitation progress. The IVE can also present an RGB image of the patient. In another environment, that uses the same base elements, four game routines--Touch the balls 1 and 2, Simon says, and Follow the point--are used for rehabilitation. These environments are designed to create a positive influence in the rehabilitation process, reduce costs, and engage the patient.

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. iSocial: delivering the Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI-A) in a 3D virtual learning environment for youth with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Stichter, Janine P; Laffey, James; Galyen, Krista; Herzog, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    One consistent area of need for students with autism spectrum disorders is in the area of social competence. However, the increasing need to provide qualified teachers to deliver evidence-based practices in areas like social competence leave schools, such as those found in rural areas, in need of support. Distance education and in particular, 3D Virtual Learning, holds great promise for supporting schools and youth to gain social competence through knowledge and social practice in context. iSocial, a distance education, 3D virtual learning environment implemented the 31-lesson social competence intervention for adolescents across three small cohorts totaling 11 students over a period of 4 months. Results demonstrated that the social competence curriculum was delivered with fidelity in the 3D virtual learning environment. Moreover, learning outcomes suggest that the iSocial approach shows promise for social competence benefits for youth.

  8. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  9. 3D workflow for HDR image capture of projection systems and objects for CAVE virtual environments authoring with wireless touch-sensitive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusten, Mark J.; McIntyre, Michelle; Landis, Marvin

    2006-02-01

    A 3D workflow pipeline is presented for High Dynamic Range (HDR) image capture of projected scenes or objects for presentation in CAVE virtual environments. The methods of HDR digital photography of environments vs. objects are reviewed. Samples of both types of virtual authoring being the actual CAVE environment and a sculpture are shown. A series of software tools are incorporated into a pipeline called CAVEPIPE, allowing for high-resolution objects and scenes to be composited together in natural illumination environments [1] and presented in our CAVE virtual reality environment. We also present a way to enhance the user interface for CAVE environments. The traditional methods of controlling the navigation through virtual environments include: glove, HUD's and 3D mouse devices. By integrating a wireless network that includes both WiFi (IEEE 802.11b/g) and Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) protocols the non-graphical input control device can be eliminated. Therefore wireless devices can be added that would include: PDA's, Smart Phones, TabletPC's, Portable Gaming consoles, and PocketPC's.

  10. The use of a low-cost visible light 3D scanner to create virtual reality environment models of actors and objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost 3D scanner has been developed with a parts cost of approximately USD $5,000. This scanner uses visible light sensing to capture both structural as well as texture and color data of a subject. This paper discusses the use of this type of scanner to create 3D models for incorporation into a virtual reality environment. It describes the basic scanning process (which takes under a minute for a single scan), which can be repeated to collect multiple positions, if needed for actor model creation. The efficacy of visible light versus other scanner types is also discussed.

  11. The Effect of the Use of the 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment "Second Life" on Student Motivation and Language Proficiency in Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pares-Toral, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing popularity of virtual worlds, also known as 3-D multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) or simply virtual worlds provides language instructors with a new tool they can exploit in their courses. For now, "Second Life" is one of the most popular MUVEs used for teaching and learning, and although "Second Life"…

  12. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  13. The SEE Experience: Edutainment in 3D Virtual Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo; Hazan, Susan

    Shared virtual worlds are innovative applications where several users, represented by Avatars, simultaneously access via Internet a 3D space. Users cooperate through interaction with the environment and with each other, manipulating objects and chatting as they go. Apart from in the well documented online action games industry, now often played…

  14. Investigating the Affective Learning in a 3D Virtual Learning Environment: The Case Study of the Chatterdale Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molka-Danielsen, Judith; Hadjistassou, Stella; Messl-Egghart, Gerhilde

    2016-01-01

    This research is motivated by the emergence of virtual technologies and their potential as engaging pedagogical tools for facilitating comprehension, interactions and collaborations for learning; and in particular as applied to learning second languages (L2). This paper provides a descriptive analysis of a case study that examines affective…

  15. 3D Virtual Reality Check: Learner Engagement and Constructivist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…

  16. The development of a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial histological sections for E-learning environments.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeremy A; Wilson, Timothy D; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated with improved learning outcomes, but similar tools have not been created for histology education to visualize complex cellular structure-function relationships. This study outlines steps in creating a virtual 3D model of the renal corpuscle from serial, semi-thin, histological sections obtained from epoxy resin-embedded kidney tissue. The virtual renal corpuscle model was generated by digital segmentation to identify: Bowman's capsule, nuclei of epithelial cells in the parietal capsule, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerular capillaries, podocyte nuclei, nuclei of extraglomerular mesangial cells, nuclei of epithelial cells of the macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule. In addition to the imported images of the original sections the software generates, and allows for visualization of, images of virtual sections generated in any desired orientation, thus serving as a "virtual microtome". These sections can be viewed separately or with the 3D model in transparency. This approach allows for the development of interactive e-learning tools designed to enhance histology education of microscopic structures with complex cellular interrelationships. Future studies will focus on testing the efficacy of interactive virtual 3D models for histology education.

  17. Augmented Reality vs Virtual Reality for 3D Object Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketomi, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu

    2017-01-25

    Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5% on average compared to AR (p < 0:024). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3% slower in VR than in AR (p < 0:04). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.

  18. Inertial Motion-Tracking Technology for Virtual 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, NASA pioneered virtual reality research. The concept was present long before, but, prior to this, the technology did not exist to make a viable virtual reality system. Scientists had theories and ideas they knew that the concept had potential, but the computers of the 1970s and 1980s were not fast enough, sensors were heavy and cumbersome, and people had difficulty blending fluidly with the machines. Scientists at Ames Research Center built upon the research of previous decades and put the necessary technology behind them, making the theories of virtual reality a reality. Virtual reality systems depend on complex motion-tracking sensors to convey information between the user and the computer to give the user the feeling that he is operating in the real world. These motion-tracking sensors measure and report an object s position and orientation as it changes. A simple example of motion tracking would be the cursor on a computer screen moving in correspondence to the shifting of the mouse. Tracking in 3-D, necessary to create virtual reality, however, is much more complex. To be successful, the perspective of the virtual image seen on the computer must be an accurate representation of what is seen in the real world. As the user s head or camera moves, turns, or tilts, the computer-generated environment must change accordingly with no noticeable lag, jitter, or distortion. Historically, the lack of smooth and rapid tracking of the user s motion has thwarted the widespread use of immersive 3-D computer graphics. NASA uses virtual reality technology for a variety of purposes, mostly training of astronauts. The actual missions are costly and dangerous, so any opportunity the crews have to practice their maneuvering in accurate situations before the mission is valuable and instructive. For that purpose, NASA has funded a great deal of virtual reality research, and benefited from the results.

  19. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  20. [Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research.

  1. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  2. Sensorized Garment Augmented 3D Pervasive Virtual Reality System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Tognetti, Alessandro; de Rossi, Danilo

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has matured to a point where humans can navigate in virtual scenes; however, providing them with a comfortable fully immersive role in VR remains a challenge. Currently available sensing solutions do not provide ease of deployment, particularly in the seated position due to sensor placement restrictions over the body, and optic-sensing requires a restricted indoor environment to track body movements. Here we present a 52-sensor laden garment interfaced with VR, which offers both portability and unencumbered user movement in a VR environment. This chapter addresses the systems engineering aspects of our pervasive computing solution of the interactive sensorized 3D VR and presents the initial results and future research directions. Participants navigated in a virtual art gallery using natural body movements that were detected by their wearable sensor shirt and then mapped the signals to electrical control signals responsible for VR scene navigation. The initial results are positive, and offer many opportunities for use in computationally intelligentman-machine multimedia control.

  3. The virtual reality 3D city of Ningbo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weimin; Wu, Dun

    2010-11-01

    In 2005, Ningbo Design Research Institute of Mapping & Surveying started the development of concepts and an implementation of Virtual Reality Ningbo System (VRNS). VRNS is being developed under the digital city technological framework and well supported by computing advances, space technologies, and commercial innovations. It has become the best solution for integrating, managing, presenting, and distributing complex city information. VRNS is not only a 3D-GIS launch project but also a technology innovation. The traditional domain of surveying and mapping has changed greatly in Ningbo. Geo-information systems are developing towards a more reality-, three dimension- and Service-Oriented Architecture-based system. The VRNS uses technology such as 3D modeling, user interface design, view scene modeling, real-time rendering and interactive roaming under a virtual environment. Two applications of VRNS already being used are for city planning and high-rise buildings' security management. The final purpose is to develop VRNS into a powerful public information platform, and to achieve that heterogeneous city information resources share this one single platform.

  4. ESL Teacher Training in 3D Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlova, Iryna; Priven, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Although language learning in 3D Virtual Worlds (VWs) has become a focus of recent research, little is known about the knowledge and skills teachers need to acquire to provide effective task-based instruction in 3D VWs and the type of teacher training that best prepares instructors for such an endeavor. This study employs a situated learning…

  5. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  6. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  7. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    algorithms. The 3D environment causes beam splitting, which affects both the perceived bearing and the received level on a towed array. 2 To date... sound level as dozens of ships crisscross an area. The variations in intensity should allow us to infer the range-integrated transmission loss

  8. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  9. Visualizing realistic 3D urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aaron; Chen, Tuolin; Brunig, Michael; Schmidt, Hauke

    2003-05-01

    Visualizing complex urban environments has been an active research topic due to its wide variety of applications in city planning: road construction, emergency facilities planning, and optimal placement of wireless carrier base stations. Traditional 2D visualizations have been around for a long time but they only provide a schematic line-drawing bird's eye view and are sometimes confusing to understand due to the lack of depth information. Early versions of 3D systems have been developed for very expensive graphics workstations which seriously limited the availability. In this paper we describe a 3D visualization system for a desktop PC which integrates multiple resolutions of data and provides a realistic view of the urban environment.

  10. The Development of a Virtual 3D Model of the Renal Corpuscle from Serial Histological Sections for E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeremy A.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated…

  11. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning: 3D virtual articulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Ghanai, S; Marmulla, R; Wiechnik, J; Mühling, J; Kotrikova, B

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a computer-assisted planning system for dysgnathia treatment. It describes the process of information gathering using a virtual articulator and how the splints are constructed for orthognathic surgery. The deviation of the virtually planned splints is shown in six cases on the basis of conventionally planned cases. In all cases the plaster models were prepared and scanned using a 3D laser scanner. Successive lateral and posterior-anterior cephalometric images were used for reconstruction before surgery. By identifying specific points on the X-rays and marking them on the virtual models, it was possible to enhance the 2D images to create a realistic 3D environment and to perform virtual repositioning of the jaw. A hexapod was used to transfer the virtual planning to the real splints. Preliminary results showed that conventional repositioning could be replicated using the virtual articulator.

  12. Virtual image display as a backlight for 3D.

    PubMed

    Travis, Adrian; MacCrann, Niall; Emerton, Neil; Kollin, Joel; Georgiou, Andreas; Lanier, Jaron; Bathiche, Stephen

    2013-07-29

    We describe a device which has the potential to be used both as a virtual image display and as a backlight. The pupil of the emitted light fills the device approximately to its periphery and the collimated emission can be scanned both horizontally and vertically in the manner needed to illuminate an eye in any position. The aim is to reduce the power needed to illuminate a liquid crystal panel but also to enable a smooth transition from 3D to a virtual image as the user nears the screen.

  13. 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Technology and applications for the rendering of virtual acoustic spaces are reviewed. Chapter 1 deals with acoustics and psychoacoustics. Chapters 2 and 3 cover cues to spatial hearing and review psychoacoustic literature. Chapter 4 covers signal processing and systems overviews of 3-D sound systems. Chapter 5 covers applications to computer workstations, communication systems, aeronautics and space, and sonic arts. Chapter 6 lists resources. This TM is a reprint of the 1994 book from Academic Press.

  14. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  15. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  16. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  17. Virtual performer: single camera 3D measuring system for interaction in virtual space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-10-01

    The authors developed interaction media systems in the 3D virtual space. In these systems, the musician virtually plays an instrument like the theremin in the virtual space or the performer plays a show using the virtual character such as a puppet. This interactive virtual media system consists of the image capture, measuring performer's position, detecting and recognizing motions and synthesizing video image using the personal computer. In this paper, we propose some applications of interaction media systems; a virtual musical instrument and superimposing CG character. Moreover, this paper describes the measuring method of the positions of the performer, his/her head and both eyes using a single camera.

  18. Teaching Digital Natives: 3-D Virtual Science Lab in the Middle School Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Teresa J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3-D virtual environment in Second Life for the delivery of standards-based science content for middle school students in the rural Appalachian region of Southeast Ohio. A mixed method approach in which quantitative results of improved student learning and qualitative observations of implementation within…

  19. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  20. Comparing 3D virtual methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fiorenza, Luca; Kozakowski, Stephanie; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Reconstruction of fractured, distorted, or missing parts in human skeleton presents an equal challenge in the fields of paleoanthropology, bioarcheology, forensics, and medicine. This is particularly important within the disciplines such as orthodontics and surgery, when dealing with mandibular defects due to tumors, developmental abnormalities, or trauma. In such cases, proper restorations of both form (for esthetic purposes) and function (restoration of articulation, occlusion, and mastication) are required. Several digital approaches based on three-dimensional (3D) digital modeling, computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing techniques, and more recently geometric morphometric methods have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, comparisons among their outcomes are rarely provided. In this contribution, three methods for hemimandibular body reconstruction have been tested. Two bone defects were virtually simulated in a 3D digital model of a human hemimandible. Accordingly, 3D digital scaffolds were obtained using the mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible (Method 1), the thin plate spline (TPS) interpolation (Method 2), and the combination between TPS and CAD techniques (Method 3). The mirror copy of the unaffected hemimandible does not provide a suitable solution for bone restoration. The combination between TPS interpolation and CAD techniques (Method 3) produces an almost perfect-fitting 3D digital model that can be used for biocompatible custom-made scaffolds generated by rapid prototyping technologies.

  1. Enhanced LOD Concepts for Virtual 3d City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, J.; Geiger, A.; Gröger, G.; Häfele, K.-H.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models contain digital three dimensional representations of city objects like buildings, streets or technical infrastructure. Because size and complexity of these models continuously grow, a Level of Detail (LoD) concept effectively supporting the partitioning of a complete model into alternative models of different complexity and providing metadata, addressing informational content, complexity and quality of each alternative model is indispensable. After a short overview on various LoD concepts, this paper discusses the existing LoD concept of the CityGML standard for 3D city models and identifies a number of deficits. Based on this analysis, an alternative concept is developed and illustrated with several examples. It differentiates between first, a Geometric Level of Detail (GLoD) and a Semantic Level of Detail (SLoD), and second between the interior building and its exterior shell. Finally, a possible implementation of the new concept is demonstrated by means of an UML model.

  2. Virtual reality 3D headset based on DMD light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward

    2014-06-13

    We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micro-mirror devices (DMD). Our approach leverages silicon micro mirrors offering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high resolution and low power consumption. Applications include night driving, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user’s own eye lens forms a real image on the user’s retina.

  3. Special Section: New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used

    MedlinePlus

    ... New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... showcases a 3-D image generated by the virtual colonoscopy software he invented with a team of ...

  4. User Control and Task Authenticity for Spatial Learning in 3D Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes two empirical studies which investigated the importance for spatial learning of view control and object manipulation within 3D environments. A 3D virtual chemistry laboratory was used as the research instrument. Subjects, who were university undergraduate students (34 in the first study and 80 in the second study), undertook…

  5. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  6. Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shashidhar; Chintalapalli, Harinadha Reddy; Kim, Dubeom; Chai, Youngho

    2015-06-18

    In this paper, we present an inertial sensor-based touch and shake metaphor for expressive control of a 3D virtual avatar in a virtual environment. An intuitive six degrees-of-freedom wireless inertial motion sensor is used as a gesture and motion control input device with a sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm enables user hand motions to be tracked in 3D space via magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors. A quaternion-based complementary filter is implemented to reduce noise and drift. An algorithm based on dynamic time-warping is developed for efficient recognition of dynamic hand gestures with real-time automatic hand gesture segmentation. Our approach enables the recognition of gestures and estimates gesture variations for continuous interaction. We demonstrate the gesture expressivity using an interactive flexible gesture mapping interface for authoring and controlling a 3D virtual avatar and its motion by tracking user dynamic hand gestures. This synthesizes stylistic variations in a 3D virtual avatar, producing motions that are not present in the motion database using hand gesture sequences from a single inertial motion sensor.

  7. Inertial Sensor-Based Touch and Shake Metaphor for Expressive Control of 3D Virtual Avatars

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shashidhar; Chintalapalli, Harinadha Reddy; Kim, Dubeom; Chai, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an inertial sensor-based touch and shake metaphor for expressive control of a 3D virtual avatar in a virtual environment. An intuitive six degrees-of-freedom wireless inertial motion sensor is used as a gesture and motion control input device with a sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm enables user hand motions to be tracked in 3D space via magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensors. A quaternion-based complementary filter is implemented to reduce noise and drift. An algorithm based on dynamic time-warping is developed for efficient recognition of dynamic hand gestures with real-time automatic hand gesture segmentation. Our approach enables the recognition of gestures and estimates gesture variations for continuous interaction. We demonstrate the gesture expressivity using an interactive flexible gesture mapping interface for authoring and controlling a 3D virtual avatar and its motion by tracking user dynamic hand gestures. This synthesizes stylistic variations in a 3D virtual avatar, producing motions that are not present in the motion database using hand gesture sequences from a single inertial motion sensor. PMID:26094629

  8. Image-based 3D reconstruction and virtual environmental walk-through

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jifeng; Fang, Lixiong; Luo, Ying

    2001-09-01

    We present a 3D reconstruction method, which combines geometry-based modeling, image-based modeling and rendering techniques. The first component is an interactive geometry modeling method which recovery of the basic geometry of the photographed scene. The second component is model-based stereo algorithm. We discus the image processing problems and algorithms of walking through in virtual space, then designs and implement a high performance multi-thread wandering algorithm. The applications range from architectural planning and archaeological reconstruction to virtual environments and cinematic special effects.

  9. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  10. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  11. VSViewer3D: a tool for interactive data mining of three-dimensional virtual screening data.

    PubMed

    Diller, Kyle I; Diller, David J

    2014-12-22

    The VSviewer3D is a simple Java tool for visual exploration of three-dimensional (3D) virtual screening data. The VSviewer3D brings together the ability to explore numerical data, such as calculated properties and virtual screening scores, structure depiction, interactive topological and 3D similarity searching, and 3D visualization. By doing so the user is better able to quickly identify outliers, assess tractability of large numbers of compounds, visualize hits of interest, annotate hits, and mix and match interesting scaffolds. We demonstrate the utility of the VSviewer3D by describing a use case in a docking based virtual screen.

  12. Anesthesiology training using 3D imaging and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blezek, Daniel J.; Robb, Richard A.; Camp, Jon J.; Nauss, Lee A.

    1996-04-01

    Current training for regional nerve block procedures by anesthesiology residents requires expert supervision and the use of cadavers; both of which are relatively expensive commodities in today's cost-conscious medical environment. We are developing methods to augment and eventually replace these training procedures with real-time and realistic computer visualizations and manipulations of the anatomical structures involved in anesthesiology procedures, such as nerve plexus injections (e.g., celiac blocks). The initial work is focused on visualizations: both static images and rotational renderings. From the initial results, a coherent paradigm for virtual patient and scene representation will be developed.

  13. Implementation of virtual models from sheet metal forming simulation into physical 3D colour models using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, S.

    2016-08-01

    Today the methods of numerical simulation of sheet metal forming offer a great diversity of possibilities for optimization in product development and in process design. However, the results from simulation are only available as virtual models. Because there are any forming tools available during the early stages of product development, physical models that could serve to represent the virtual results are therefore lacking. Physical 3D-models can be created using 3D-printing and serve as an illustration and present a better understanding of the simulation results. In this way, the results from the simulation can be made more “comprehensible” within a development team. This paper presents the possibilities of 3D-colour printing with particular consideration of the requirements regarding the implementation of sheet metal forming simulation. Using concrete examples of sheet metal forming, the manufacturing of 3D colour models will be expounded upon on the basis of simulation results.

  14. [3D virtual imaging of the upper airways].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, G; Coulomb, M

    2000-04-01

    The different three dimensional reconstructions of the upper airways that can be obtained with spiral computed tomograpy (CT) are presented here. The parameters indispensable to achieve as real as possible spiral CT images are recalled together with the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniues. Multislice reconstruction (MSR) produces slices in different planes of space with the high contrast of CT slices. They provide information similar to that obtained for the rare indications for thoracic MRI. Thick slice reconstructions with maximum intensity projection (MIP) or minimum intensity projection (minIP) give projection views where the contrast can be modified by selecting the more dense (MIP) or less dense (minIP) voxels. They find their application in the exploration of the upper airways. Surface and volume external 3D reconstructions can be obtained. They give an overall view of the upper airways, similar to a bronchogram. Virtual endoscopy reproduces real endoscopic images but cannot provide information on the aspect of the mucosa or biopsy specimens. It offers possible applications for preparing, guiding and controlling interventional fibroscopy procedures.

  15. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Ross; Verhoeven, Stefan; Vass, Márton; Vriend, Gerrit; de Esch, Iwan J P; Lusher, Scott J; Leurs, Rob; Ridder, Lars; Kooistra, Albert J; Ritschel, Tina; de Graaf, Chris

    2017-02-27

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine ( http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/ ) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools that can analyze and combine small molecule and protein structural information in a graphical programming environment. New chemical and biological data analytics tools and workflows have been developed for the efficient exploitation of structural and pharmacological protein-ligand interaction data from proteomewide databases (e.g., ChEMBLdb and PDB), as well as customized information systems focused on, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRdb) and protein kinases (KLIFS). The integrated structural cheminformatics research infrastructure compiled in the 3D-e-Chem-VM enables the design of new approaches in virtual ligand screening (Chemdb4VS), ligand-based metabolism prediction (SyGMa), and structure-based protein binding site comparison and bioisosteric replacement for ligand design (KRIPOdb).

  16. 3D-e-Chem-VM: Structural Cheminformatics Research Infrastructure in a Freely Available Virtual Machine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    3D-e-Chem-VM is an open source, freely available Virtual Machine (http://3d-e-chem.github.io/3D-e-Chem-VM/) that integrates cheminformatics and bioinformatics tools for the analysis of protein–ligand interaction data. 3D-e-Chem-VM consists of software libraries, and database and workflow tools that can analyze and combine small molecule and protein structural information in a graphical programming environment. New chemical and biological data analytics tools and workflows have been developed for the efficient exploitation of structural and pharmacological protein–ligand interaction data from proteomewide databases (e.g., ChEMBLdb and PDB), as well as customized information systems focused on, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRdb) and protein kinases (KLIFS). The integrated structural cheminformatics research infrastructure compiled in the 3D-e-Chem-VM enables the design of new approaches in virtual ligand screening (Chemdb4VS), ligand-based metabolism prediction (SyGMa), and structure-based protein binding site comparison and bioisosteric replacement for ligand design (KRIPOdb). PMID:28125221

  17. 3D Sound Interactive Environments for Blind Children Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Audio-based virtual environments have been increasingly used to foster cognitive and learning skills. A number of studies have also highlighted that the use of technology can help learners to develop effective skills such as motivation and self-esteem. This study presents the design and usability of 3D interactive environments for children with…

  18. Using virtual menus in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Richard H.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual environment interfaces to computer programs in several diverse application areas are currently being developed. The users of virtual environments will require many different methods to interact with the environments and the objects in them. This paper reports on our use of virtual menus as a method of interacting with virtual environments. Several aspects of virtual environments make menu interactions different from interactions with conventional menus. We review the relevant aspects of conventional menus and virtual environments, in order to provide a frame of reference for the design of virtual menus. We discuss the features and interaction methodologies of two different versions of virtual menus which have been developed and used in our lab. We also examine the problems associated with our original version, and the enhancements incorporated into our current version.

  19. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  20. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  1. The Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory: A 3-D Simulation for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiou, Antonios; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri; Kapoulas, Vaggelis; Nani, Maria; Tsiatsos, Thrasivoulos

    2004-01-01

    This article presents Virtual Radiopharmacy Laboratory (VR LAB), a virtual laboratory accessible through the Internet. VR LAB is designed and implemented in the framework of the VirRAD European project. This laboratory represents a 3D simulation of a radio-pharmacy laboratory, where learners, represented by 3D avatars, can experiment on…

  2. 3D Inhabited Virtual Worlds: Interactivity and Interaction between Avatars, Autonomous Agents, and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jens F.

    This paper addresses some of the central questions currently related to 3-Dimensional Inhabited Virtual Worlds (3D-IVWs), their virtual interactions, and communication, drawing from the theory and methodology of sociology, interaction analysis, interpersonal communication, semiotics, cultural studies, and media studies. First, 3D-IVWs--seen as a…

  3. The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a 3D model of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual model "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this model, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual model, thanks to 3D TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this 3D model, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of 3D digital data of the site and 3D modelling • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the 3D model • Implementation of a database connected to the 3D model • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every 3D object individually, under several forms (point clouds, 3D meshed objects and models, etc.) and at several levels of detail

  4. Effectiveness of Collaborative Learning with 3D Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young Hoan; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds have affordances to enhance collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Despite the potential of collaborative learning with a virtual world, few studies investigated whether it is more effective in student achievements than teacher-directed instruction. This study investigated the effectiveness of collaborative problem solving…

  5. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  6. LiveView3D: Real Time Data Visualization for the Aerospace Testing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses LiveView3D, a software package and associated data visualization system for use in the aerospace testing environment. The LiveView3D system allows researchers to graphically view data from numerous wind tunnel instruments in real time in an interactive virtual environment. The graphical nature of the LiveView3D display provides researchers with an intuitive view of the measurement data, making it easier to interpret the aerodynamic phenomenon under investigation. LiveView3D has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center and has been applied in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). This paper discusses the capabilities of the LiveView3D system, provides example results from its application in the UPWT, and outlines features planned for future implementation.

  7. Learning to Collaborate: Designing Collaboration in a 3-D Game Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalainen, Raija; Manninen, Tony; Jarvela, Sanna; Hakkinen, Paivi

    2006-01-01

    To respond to learning needs, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) must provide instructional support. The particular focus of this paper is on designing collaboration in a 3-D virtual game environment intended to make learning more effective by promoting student opportunities for interaction. The empirical experiment eScape, which…

  8. Visualization of large scale geologically related data in virtual 3D scenes with OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Dewen; Liang, Xi; Wang, Hongxia; Yue, Guoying

    2007-11-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and visualization of large scale multidimensional surficial, geological and mine planning data with the programmable visualization environment OpenGL. A simulation system developed by the authors is presented for importing, filtering and visualizing of multidimensional geologically related data. The approach for the visual simulation of complicated mining engineering environment implemented in the system is described in detail. Aspects like presentations of multidimensional data with spatial dependence, navigation in the surficial and geological frame of reference and in time, interaction techniques are presented. The system supports real 3D landscape representations. Furthermore, the system provides many visualization methods for rendering multidimensional data within virtual 3D scenes and combines them with several navigation techniques. Real data derived from an iron mine in Wuhan City of China demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. A case study with the results and benefits achieved by using real 3D representations and navigations of the system is given.

  9. Research on 3D virtual campus scene modeling based on 3ds Max and VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chuanli; Zhou, Yanliu; Liang, Xianyue

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of modem technology, the digital information management and the virtual reality simulation technology has become a research hotspot. Virtual campus 3D model can not only express the real world objects of natural, real and vivid, and can expand the campus of the reality of time and space dimension, the combination of school environment and information. This paper mainly uses 3ds Max technology to create three-dimensional model of building and on campus buildings, special land etc. And then, the dynamic interactive function is realized by programming the object model in 3ds Max by VRML .This research focus on virtual campus scene modeling technology and VRML Scene Design, and the scene design process in a variety of real-time processing technology optimization strategy. This paper guarantees texture map image quality and improve the running speed of image texture mapping. According to the features and architecture of Guilin University of Technology, 3ds Max, AutoCAD and VRML were used to model the different objects of the virtual campus. Finally, the result of virtual campus scene is summarized.

  10. Evaluation of Home Delivery of Lectures Utilizing 3D Virtual Space Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishide, Ryo; Shima, Ryoichi; Araie, Hiromu; Ueshima, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation experiments have been essential in exploring home delivery of lectures for which users can experience campus lifestyle and distant learning through 3D virtual space. This paper discusses the necessity of virtual space for distant learners by examining the effects of virtual space. The authors have pursued the possibility of…

  11. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation.

  12. Orchestrating learning during implementation of a 3D virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakus, Turkan; Baydas, Ozlem; Gunay, Fatma; Coban, Murat; Goktas, Yuksel

    2016-10-01

    There are many issues to be considered when designing virtual worlds for educational purposes. In this study, the term orchestration has acquired a new definition as the moderation of problems encountered during the activity of turning a virtual world into an educational setting for winter sports. A development case showed that community plays a key role in both the emergence of challenges and in the determination of their solutions. The implications of this study showed that activity theory was a useful tool for understanding contextual issues. Therefore, instructional designers first developed relevant tools and community-based solutions. This study attempts to use activity theory in a prescriptive way, though it is known as a descriptive theory. Finally, since virtual world projects have many aspects, the variety of challenges and practical solutions presented in this study will provide practitioners with suggestions on how to overcome problems in future.

  13. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  14. 3D Object Recognition: Symmetry and Virtual Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIONI Artificial Intelligence Laboratory REPORT NUMBER 545 Technology Square AIM 1409 Cambridge... ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL LEARNING A.I. Memo No. 1409 December 1992 C.B.C.L. Paper No. 76 3D Object...research done within the Center for Biological and Computational Learning in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and at the Artificial

  15. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  16. 3D Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-04

    properly trained for these duties, as a minimum all Air Force Dental Residency programs (13 sites) require a course in forensic dentistry including...Nuinber: FKE20080002E 2. Title: ŗD Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Stephanie A. Stouder, Lt Col...47XX identifies the requirement for initial and annual training in forensic identification for all AF Dentists. Currently, to ensure that dentists are

  17. Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    1999-04-15

    The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.

  18. 3D Visualisation and Artistic Imagery to Enhance Interest in "Hidden Environments"--New Approaches to Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke "soil atlas" was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets…

  19. Automatic 3-D Point Cloud Classification of Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    paper, we address the problem of automated interpretation of 3-D point clouds from scenes of urban and natural environments; our analysis is...over 10 km of traverse. We implemented three geometric features com- monly used in spectral analysis of point clouds . We de- fine λ2 ≥ λ1 ≥ λ0 to be

  20. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  1. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included.

  2. The Virtual-casing Principle For 3D Toroidal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-02-24

    The capability to calculate the magnetic field due to the plasma currents in a toroidally confined magnetic fusion equilibrium is of manifest relevance to equilibrium reconstruction and stellarator divertor design. Two methodologies arise for calculating such quantities. The first being a volume integral over the plasma current density for a given equilibrium. Such an integral is computationally expensive. The second is a surface integral over a surface current on the equilibrium boundary. This method is computationally desirable as the calculation does not grow as the radial resolution of the volume integral. This surface integral method has come to be known as the "virtual-casing principle". In this paper, a full derivation of this method is presented along with a discussion regarding its optimal application.

  3. Memory and visual search in naturalistic 2D and 3D environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia-Ling; Aivar, M. Pilar; Kit, Dmitry M.; Tong, Matthew H.; Hayhoe, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of memory in guiding attention allocation in daily behaviors is not well understood. In experiments with two-dimensional (2D) images, there is mixed evidence about the importance of memory. Because the stimulus context in laboratory experiments and daily behaviors differs extensively, we investigated the role of memory in visual search, in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. A 3D immersive virtual apartment composed of two rooms was created, and a parallel 2D visual search experiment composed of snapshots from the 3D environment was developed. Eye movements were tracked in both experiments. Repeated searches for geometric objects were performed to assess the role of spatial memory. Subsequently, subjects searched for realistic context objects to test for incidental learning. Our results show that subjects learned the room-target associations in 3D but less so in 2D. Gaze was increasingly restricted to relevant regions of the room with experience in both settings. Search for local contextual objects, however, was not facilitated by early experience. Incidental fixations to context objects do not necessarily benefit search performance. Together, these results demonstrate that memory for global aspects of the environment guides search by restricting allocation of attention to likely regions, whereas task relevance determines what is learned from the active search experience. Behaviors in 2D and 3D environments are comparable, although there is greater use of memory in 3D. PMID:27299769

  4. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  5. Design and implementation of a 3D ocean virtual reality and visualization engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge; Li, Bo; Tian, Fenglin; Ji, Pengbo; Li, Wenqing

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a 3D virtual reality and visualization engine for rendering the ocean, named VV-Ocean, is designed for marine applications. The design goals of VV-Ocean aim at high fidelity simulation of ocean environment, visualization of massive and multidimensional marine data, and imitation of marine lives. VV-Ocean is composed of five modules, i.e. memory management module, resources management module, scene management module, rendering process management module and interaction management module. There are three core functions in VV-Ocean: reconstructing vivid virtual ocean scenes, visualizing real data dynamically in real time, imitating and simulating marine lives intuitively. Based on VV-Ocean, we establish a sea-land integration platform which can reproduce drifting and diffusion processes of oil spilling from sea bottom to surface. Environment factors such as ocean current and wind field have been considered in this simulation. On this platform oil spilling process can be abstracted as movements of abundant oil particles. The result shows that oil particles blend with water well and the platform meets the requirement for real-time and interactive rendering. VV-Ocean can be widely used in ocean applications such as demonstrating marine operations, facilitating maritime communications, developing ocean games, reducing marine hazards, forecasting the weather over oceans, serving marine tourism, and so on. Finally, further technological improvements of VV-Ocean are discussed.

  6. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  7. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  8. Visual search in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Lawrence W.; Ezumi, Koji; Nguyen, Tho; Paul, R.; Tharp, Gregory K.; Yamashita, H. I.

    1992-08-01

    A key task in virtual environments is visual search. To obtain quantitative measures of human performance and documentation of visual search strategies, we have used three experimental arrangements--eye, head, and mouse control of viewing windows--by exploiting various combinations of helmet-mounted-displays, graphics workstations, and eye movement tracking facilities. We contrast two different categories of viewing strategies: one, for 2D pictures with large numbers of targets and clutter scattered randomly; the other for quasi-natural 3D scenes with targets and non-targets placed in realistic, sensible positions. Different searching behaviors emerge from these contrasting search conditions, reflecting different visual and perceptual modes. A regular 'searchpattern' is a systematic, repetitive, idiosyncratic sequence of movements carrying the eye to cover the entire 2D scene. Irregular 'searchpatterns' take advantages of wide windows and the wide human visual lobe; here, hierarchical detection and recognition is performed with the appropriate capabilities of the 'two visual systems'. The 'searchpath', also efficient, repetitive and idiosyncratic, provides only a small set of fixations to check continually the smaller number of targets in the naturalistic 3D scene; likely, searchpaths are driven by top-down spatial models. If the viewed object is known and able to be named, then an hypothesized, top-down cognitive model drives active looking in the 'scanpath' mode, again continually checking important subfeatures of the object. Spatial models for searchpaths may be primitive predecessors, in the evolutionary history of animals, of cognitive models for scanpaths.

  9. Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

    2012-06-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

  10. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  11. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  12. Virtual environments from panoramic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David P.; Deacon, Andrew

    1998-12-01

    A number of recent projects have demonstrated the utility of Internet-enabled image databases for the documentation of complex, inaccessible and potentially hazardous environments typically encountered in the petrochemical and nuclear industries. Unfortunately machine vision and image processing techniques have not, to date, enabled the automatic extraction geometrical data from such images and thus 3D CAD modeling remains an expensive and laborious manual activity. Recent developments in panoramic image capture and presentation offer an alternative intermediate deliverable which, in turn, offers some of the benefits of a 3D model at a fraction of the cost. Panoramic image display tools such as Apple's QuickTime VR (QTVR) and Live Spaces RealVR provide compelling and accessible digital representations of the real world and justifiably claim to 'put the reality in Virtual Reality.' This paper will demonstrate how such technologies can be customized, extended and linked to facility management systems delivered over a corporate intra-net to enable end users to become familiar with remote sites and extract simple dimensional data. In addition strategies for the integration of such images with documents gathered from 2D or 3D CAD and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) will be described as will techniques for precise 'As-Built' modeling using the calibrated images from which panoramas have been derived and the use of textures from these images to increase the realism of rendered scenes. A number of case studies relating to both nuclear and process engineering will demonstrate the extent to which such solution are scaleable in order to deal with the very large volumes of image data required to fully document the large, complex facilities typical of these industry sectors.

  13. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands) to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution. PMID:26066990

  14. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-06-09

    To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands) to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution.

  15. Modeling Extracellular Matrix Reorganization in 3D Environments

    PubMed Central

    Harjanto, Dewi; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a key physiological process that occurs in a number of contexts, including cell migration, and is especially important for cellular form and function in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. However, there have been few attempts to computationally model how cells modify their environment in a manner that accounts for both cellular properties and the architecture of the surrounding ECM. To this end, we have developed and validated a novel model to simulate matrix remodeling that explicitly defines cells in a 3D collagenous matrix. In our simulation, cells can degrade, deposit, or pull on local fibers, depending on the fiber density around each cell. The cells can also move within the 3D matrix. Different cell phenotypes can be modeled by varying key cellular parameters. Using the model we have studied how two model cancer cell lines, of differing invasiveness, modify matrices with varying fiber density in their vicinity by tracking the metric of fraction of matrix occupied by fibers. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that in low density environments, cells deposit more collagen to uniformly increase fibril fraction. On the other hand, in higher density environments, the less invasive model cell line reduced the fibril fraction as compared to the highly invasive phenotype. These results show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with existing experimental literature. Our simulation is therefore able to function as a novel platform to provide new insights into the clinically relevant and physiologically critical process of matrix remodeling by helping identify critical parameters that dictate cellular behavior in complex native-like environments. PMID:23341900

  16. Analytical 3D views and virtual globes — scientific results in a familiar spatial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiede, Dirk; Lang, Stefan

    In this paper we introduce analytical three-dimensional (3D) views as a means for effective and comprehensible information delivery, using virtual globes and the third dimension as an additional information carrier. Four case studies are presented, in which information extraction results from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images were conditioned and aggregated or disaggregated to regular spatial units. The case studies were embedded in the context of: (1) urban life quality assessment (Salzburg/Austria); (2) post-disaster assessment (Harare/Zimbabwe); (3) emergency response (Lukole/Tanzania); and (4) contingency planning (faked crisis scenario/Germany). The results are made available in different virtual globe environments, using the implemented contextual data (such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and auxiliary geodata) as valuable additional context information. Both day-to-day users and high-level decision makers are addressees of this tailored information product. The degree of abstraction required for understanding a complex analytical content is balanced with the ease and appeal by which the context is conveyed.

  17. The Effect Of 3D Audio And Other Audio Techniques On Virtual Reality Experience.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hoekstra, Allart R D; van Egmond, René

    2015-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of audio on people's experience in a virtual world. The first study showed that people could distinguish between mono, stereo, Dolby surround and 3D audio of a wasp. The second study found significant effects for audio techniques on people's self-reported anxiety, presence, and spatial perception. The third study found that adding sound to a visual virtual world had a significant effect on people's experience (including heart rate), while it found no difference in experience between stereo and 3D audio.

  18. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in repeat calvarial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis: technical note.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa; Daniels, Bradley; Buchanan, Edward P; Monson, Laura; Lam, Sandi

    2017-02-03

    Repeat surgery for restenosis after initial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis intervention is sometimes needed. Calvarial vault reconstruction through a healed surgical bed adds a level of intraoperative complexity and may benefit from preoperative and intraoperative definitions of biometric and aesthetic norms. Computer-assisted design and manufacturing using 3D imaging allows the precise formulation of operative plans in anticipation of surgical intervention. 3D printing turns virtual plans into anatomical replicas, templates, or customized implants by using a variety of materials. The authors present a technical note illustrating the use of this technology: a repeat calvarial vault reconstruction that was planned and executed using computer-assisted design and 3D printed intraoperative guides.

  19. The virtual environment display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  20. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  1. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  2. Exploring 3-D Virtual Reality Technology for Spatial Ability and Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Z.; Goetz, E. T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, W.; Cifuentes, L.; Kwok, O.; Davis, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of Second Life® (SL), a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world, to enhance undergraduate students' learning of a vital chemistry concept. A quasi-experimental pre-posttest control group design was used to conduct the study. A total of 387 participants completed three assignment activities either in SL or using…

  3. Web-based Three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user’s progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided “virtual tour” of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it. PMID:12223495

  4. EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN A HIGHLY IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geography inherently fills a 3D space and yet we struggle with displaying geography using, primaarily, 2D display devices. Virtual environments offer a more realistically-dimensioned display space and this is being realized in the expanding area of research on 3D Geographic Infor...

  5. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  6. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    . In the ARTEC digital mock-up for example, it shows the ability to select the individual frames, already polygonal and geo-referenced at the time of capture; however, it is not possible to make an automated texturization differently from the low-cost environment which allows to produce a good graphics' definition. Once the final 3D models were obtained, we have proceeded to do a geometric and graphic comparison of the results. Therefore, in order to provide an accuracy requirement and an assessment for the 3D reconstruction we have taken into account the following benchmarks: cost, captured points, noise (local and global), shadows and holes, operability, degree of definition, quality and accuracy. Subsequently, these studies carried out in an empirical way on the virtual reconstructions, a 3D documentation was codified with a procedural method endorsing the use of terrestrial sensors for the documentation of antlers. The results thus pursued were compared with the standards set by the current provisions (see "Manual de medición" of Government of Andalusia-Spain); to date, in fact, the identification is based on data such as length, volume, colour, texture, openness, tips, structure, etc. Data, which is currently only appreciated with traditional instruments, such as tape measure, would be well represented by a process of virtual reconstruction and cataloguing.

  7. On detailed 3D reconstruction of large indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Egor

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present techniques for highly detailed 3D reconstruction of extra large indoor environments. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of low-range, far-range and hybrid sensing and reconstruction approaches. The proposed techniques for low-range and hybrid reconstruction, enabling the reconstruction density of 125 points/cm3 on large 100.000 m3 models, are presented in detail. The techniques tackle the core challenges for the above requirements, such as a multi-modal data fusion (fusion of a LIDAR data with a Kinect data), accurate sensor pose estimation, high-density scanning and depth data noise filtering. Other important aspects for extra large 3D indoor reconstruction are the point cloud decimation and real-time rendering. In this paper, we present a method for planar-based point cloud decimation, allowing for reduction of a point cloud size by 80-95%. Besides this, we introduce a method for online rendering of extra large point clouds enabling real-time visualization of huge cloud spaces in conventional web browsers.

  8. Virtualization, virtual environments, and content-based retrieval of three-dimensional information for cultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Peters, Shawn; Beraldin, J. A.; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    The present paper proposes a virtual environment for visualizing virtualized cultural and historical sites. The proposed environment is based on a distributed asynchronous architecture and supports stereo vision and tiled wall display. The system is mobile and can run from two laptops. This virtual environment addresses the problems of intellectual property protection and multimedia information retrieval through encryptation and content-based management respectively. Experimental results with a fully textured 3D model of the Crypt of Santa Cristina in Italy are presented, evaluating the performances of the proposed virtual environment.

  9. Active Learning through the Use of Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrose, James

    2012-01-01

    Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has seen explosive growth over the last decade. Immersive VR attempts to give users the sensation of being fully immersed in a synthetic environment by providing them with 3D hardware, and allowing them to interact with objects in virtual worlds. The technology is extremely effective for learning and exploration, and…

  10. Spatial Integration under Contextual Control in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Gambet, Boris; Bugallo, Mehdi; Miller, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    The role of context was examined in the selection and integration of independently learned spatial relationships. Using a dynamic 3D virtual environment, participants learned one spatial relationship between landmarks A and B which was established in one virtual context (e.g., A is left of B) and a different spatial relationship which was…

  11. Virtual Environments in Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Lisinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a new way of approaching the interface between computers and humans. Emphasizing display and user control that conforms to the user's natural ways of perceiving and thinking about space, virtual environment technologies enhance the ability to perceive and interact with computer generated graphic information. This enhancement potentially has a major effect on the field of scientific visualization. Current examples of this technology include the Virtual Windtunnel being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. Other major institutions such as the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and SRI International are also exploring this technology. This talk will be describe several implementations of virtual environments for use in scientific visualization. Examples include the visualization of unsteady fluid flows (the virtual windtunnel), the visualization of geodesics in curved spacetime, surface manipulation, and examples developed at various laboratories.

  12. Information Virtulization in Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual Environments provide a natural setting for a wide range of information visualization applications, particularly wlieit the information to be visualized is defined on a three-dimensional domain (Bryson, 1996). This chapter provides an overview of the issues that arise when designing and implementing an information visualization application in a virtual environment. Many design issues that arise, such as, e.g., issues of display, user tracking are common to any application of virtual environments. In this chapter we focus on those issues that are special to information visualization applications, as issues of wider concern are addressed elsewhere in this book.

  13. fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3D display to provide virtual 3D media naturally alongside real media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2012-06-01

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display, named fVisiOn, floats virtual 3D objects on an empty, flat, tabletop surface and enables multiple viewers to observe raised 3D images from any angle at 360° Our glasses-free 3D image reproduction method employs a combination of an optical device and an array of projectors and produces continuous horizontal parallax in the direction of a circular path located above the table. The optical device shapes a hollow cone and works as an anisotropic diffuser. The circularly arranged projectors cast numerous rays into the optical device. Each ray represents a particular ray that passes a corresponding point on a virtual object's surface and orients toward a viewing area around the table. At any viewpoint on the ring-shaped viewing area, both eyes collect fractional images from different projectors, and all the viewers around the table can perceive the scene as 3D from their perspectives because the images include binocular disparity. The entire principle is installed beneath the table, so the tabletop area remains clear. No ordinary tabletop activities are disturbed. Many people can naturally share the 3D images displayed together with real objects on the table. In our latest prototype, we employed a handmade optical device and an array of over 100 tiny projectors. This configuration reproduces static and animated 3D scenes for a 130° viewing area and allows 5-cm-tall virtual characters to play soccer and dance on the table.

  14. Instructional Design Practices in the Design and Development of Digital Humanities Virtual Environments (DH-VEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Valerie Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments, virtual worlds, simulations, 3D models are loaded with potential, promise, and problems. While learning in virtual settings is still being researched, instructional designers are challenged as to which instructional design practices are best suited for virtual environments (VEs). The problem is there is a lack of a conceptual…

  15. L2 Immersion in 3D Virtual Worlds: The Next Thing to Being There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paillat, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Second Life is one of the many three-dimensional virtual environments accessible through a computer and a fast broadband connection. Thousands of participants connect to this platform to interact virtually with the world, join international communities of practice and, for some, role play groups. Unlike online role play games however, Second Life…

  16. Novel 3D/VR interactive environment for MD simulations, visualization and analysis.

    PubMed

    Doblack, Benjamin N; Allis, Tim; Dávila, Lilian P

    2014-12-18

    The increasing development of computing (hardware and software) in the last decades has impacted scientific research in many fields including materials science, biology, chemistry and physics among many others. A new computational system for the accurate and fast simulation and 3D/VR visualization of nanostructures is presented here, using the open-source molecular dynamics (MD) computer program LAMMPS. This alternative computational method uses modern graphics processors, NVIDIA CUDA technology and specialized scientific codes to overcome processing speed barriers common to traditional computing methods. In conjunction with a virtual reality system used to model materials, this enhancement allows the addition of accelerated MD simulation capability. The motivation is to provide a novel research environment which simultaneously allows visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis. The research goal is to investigate the structure and properties of inorganic nanostructures (e.g., silica glass nanosprings) under different conditions using this innovative computational system. The work presented outlines a description of the 3D/VR Visualization System and basic components, an overview of important considerations such as the physical environment, details on the setup and use of the novel system, a general procedure for the accelerated MD enhancement, technical information, and relevant remarks. The impact of this work is the creation of a unique computational system combining nanoscale materials simulation, visualization and interactivity in a virtual environment, which is both a research and teaching instrument at UC Merced.

  17. Novel 3D/VR Interactive Environment for MD Simulations, Visualization and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doblack, Benjamin N.; Allis, Tim; Dávila, Lilian P.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing development of computing (hardware and software) in the last decades has impacted scientific research in many fields including materials science, biology, chemistry and physics among many others. A new computational system for the accurate and fast simulation and 3D/VR visualization of nanostructures is presented here, using the open-source molecular dynamics (MD) computer program LAMMPS. This alternative computational method uses modern graphics processors, NVIDIA CUDA technology and specialized scientific codes to overcome processing speed barriers common to traditional computing methods. In conjunction with a virtual reality system used to model materials, this enhancement allows the addition of accelerated MD simulation capability. The motivation is to provide a novel research environment which simultaneously allows visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis. The research goal is to investigate the structure and properties of inorganic nanostructures (e.g., silica glass nanosprings) under different conditions using this innovative computational system. The work presented outlines a description of the 3D/VR Visualization System and basic components, an overview of important considerations such as the physical environment, details on the setup and use of the novel system, a general procedure for the accelerated MD enhancement, technical information, and relevant remarks. The impact of this work is the creation of a unique computational system combining nanoscale materials simulation, visualization and interactivity in a virtual environment, which is both a research and teaching instrument at UC Merced. PMID:25549300

  18. Virtual Environments in Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Katsikis, Apostolos; Nikolou, Eugenia; Tsakalis, Panayiotis

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development and evaluation of an educational virtual environment for biology teaching. In particular it proposes a highly interactive three-dimensional synthetic environment involving certain learning tasks for the support of teaching plant cell biology and the process of photosynthesis. The environment has been…

  19. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl’s law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3D-MIP platform when a larger number of cores is available. PMID:24910506

  20. Robust 3D Position Estimation in Wide and Unconstrained Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a system for 3D position estimation in wide, unconstrained indoor environments is presented that employs infrared optical outside-in tracking of rigid-body targets with a stereo camera rig. To overcome limitations of state-of-the-art optical tracking systems, a pipeline for robust target identification and 3D point reconstruction has been investigated that enables camera calibration and tracking in environments with poor illumination, static and moving ambient light sources, occlusions and harsh conditions, such as fog. For evaluation, the system has been successfully applied in three different wide and unconstrained indoor environments, (1) user tracking for virtual and augmented reality applications, (2) handheld target tracking for tunneling and (3) machine guidance for mining. The results of each use case are discussed to embed the presented approach into a larger technological and application context. The experimental results demonstrate the system’s capabilities to track targets up to 100 m. Comparing the proposed approach to prior art in optical tracking in terms of range coverage and accuracy, it significantly extends the available tracking range, while only requiring two cameras and providing a relative 3D point accuracy with sub-centimeter deviation up to 30 m and low-centimeter deviation up to 100 m. PMID:26694388

  1. Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjidi, Farzin; Hughes, H. Woodrow; Johnson, Ruth N.; Cary, Kim

    Focusing on online learning opportunities in higher education, this paper reviews the various tools of virtual learning and electronic synchronous and asynchronous communication, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, presents strategies for their best use, and warns against potential pitfalls. Implementation issues, including cost and training…

  2. 3D Visualization of Cultural Heritage Artefacts with Virtual Reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Caruso, G.; Micoli, L. L.; Covarrubias Rodriguez, M.; Guidi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Although 3D models are useful to preserve the information about historical artefacts, the potential of these digital contents are not fully accomplished until they are not used to interactively communicate their significance to non-specialists. Starting from this consideration, a new way to provide museum visitors with more information was investigated. The research is aimed at valorising and making more accessible the Egyptian funeral objects exhibited in the Sforza Castle in Milan. The results of the research will be used for the renewal of the current exhibition, at the Archaeological Museum in Milan, by making it more attractive. A 3D virtual interactive scenario regarding the "path of the dead", an important ritual in ancient Egypt, was realized to augment the experience and the comprehension of the public through interactivity. Four important artefacts were considered for this scope: two ushabty, a wooden sarcophagus and a heart scarab. The scenario was realized by integrating low-cost Virtual Reality technologies, as the Oculus Rift DK2 and the Leap Motion controller, and implementing a specific software by using Unity. The 3D models were implemented by adding responsive points of interest in relation to important symbols or features of the artefact. This allows highlighting single parts of the artefact in order to better identify the hieroglyphs and provide their translation. The paper describes the process for optimizing the 3D models, the implementation of the interactive scenario and the results of some test that have been carried out in the lab.

  3. Early pregnancy placental bed and fetal vascular volume measurements using 3-D virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Reus, Averil D; Klop-van der Aa, Josine; Rifouna, Maria S; Koning, Anton H J; Exalto, Niek; van der Spek, Peter J; Steegers, Eric A P

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a new 3-D Virtual Reality (3D VR) technique for examining placental and uterine vasculature was investigated. The validity of placental bed vascular volume (PBVV) and fetal vascular volume (FVV) measurements was assessed and associations of PBVV and FVV with embryonic volume, crown-rump length, fetal birth weight and maternal parity were investigated. One hundred thirty-two patients were included in this study, and measurements were performed in 100 patients. Using V-Scope software, 100 3-D Power Doppler data sets of 100 pregnancies at 12 wk of gestation were analyzed with 3D VR in the I-Space Virtual Reality system. Volume measurements were performed with semi-automatic, pre-defined parameters. The inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was excellent with all intra-class correlation coefficients >0.93. PBVVs of multiparous women were significantly larger than the PBVVs of primiparous women (p = 0.008). In this study, no other associations were found. In conclusion, V-Scope offers a reproducible method for measuring PBVV and FVV at 12 wk of gestation, although we are unsure whether the volume measured represents the true volume of the vasculature. Maternal parity influences PBVV.

  4. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  5. Effects of 3D Virtual Reality of Plate Tectonics on Fifth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a teaching method using 3D virtual reality simulations on achievement and attitude toward science. An experiment was conducted with fifth-grade students (N = 41) to examine the effects of 3D simulations, designed to support inquiry-based science curriculum. An ANOVA analysis revealed that the 3D group scored…

  6. 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students' Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    3D virtual worlds (3D VWs) are considered one of the emerging learning spaces of the 21st century; however, few empirical studies have investigated educational applications and student learning aspects in art education. This study focused on students' responses to and challenges with 3D VWs in both aspects. The findings show that most participants…

  7. Virtual Boutique: a 3D modeling and content-based management approach to e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; El-Hakim, Sabry F.

    2000-12-01

    The Virtual Boutique is made out of three modules: the decor, the market and the search engine. The decor is the physical space occupied by the Virtual Boutique. It can reproduce any existing boutique. For this purpose, photogrammetry is used. A set of pictures of a real boutique or space is taken and a virtual 3D representation of this space is calculated from them. Calculations are performed with software developed at NRC. This representation consists of meshes and texture maps. The camera used in the acquisition process determines the resolution of the texture maps. Decorative elements are added like painting, computer generated objects and scanned objects. The objects are scanned with laser scanner developed at NRC. This scanner allows simultaneous acquisition of range and color information based on white laser beam triangulation. The second module, the market, is made out of all the merchandises and the manipulators, which are used to manipulate and compare the objects. The third module, the search engine, can search the inventory based on an object shown by the customer in order to retrieve similar objects base don shape and color. The items of interest are displayed in the boutique by reconfiguring the market space, which mean that the boutique can be continuously customized according to the customer's needs. The Virtual Boutique is entirely written in Java 3D and can run in mono and stereo mode and has been optimized in order to allow high quality rendering.

  8. Texture mapping 3D models of indoor environments with noisy camera poses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peter; Anderson, Michael; He, Stewart; Zakhor, Avideh

    2013-03-01

    Automated 3D modeling of building interiors is used in applications such as virtual reality and environment mapping. Texturing these models allows for photo-realistic visualizations of the data collected by such modeling systems. While data acquisition times for mobile mapping systems are considerably shorter than for static ones, their recovered camera poses often suffer from inaccuracies, resulting in visible discontinuities when successive images are projected onto a surface for texturing. We present a method for texture mapping models of indoor environments that starts by selecting images whose camera poses are well-aligned in two dimensions. We then align images to geometry as well as to each other, producing visually consistent textures even in the presence of inaccurate surface geometry and noisy camera poses. Images are then composited into a final texture mosaic and projected onto surface geometry for visualization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a number of different indoor environments.

  9. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    PubMed

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors.

  10. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed

  11. Hand Controlled Manipulation of Single Molecules via a Scanning Probe Microscope with a 3D Virtual Reality Interface.

    PubMed

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2016-10-02

    Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer. For intuitive and efficient manipulation we therefore couple a low-temperature non-contact atomic force/scanning tunneling microscope (LT NC-AFM/STM) to a motion capture system and fully immersive virtual reality goggles. This setup permits "hand controlled manipulation" (HCM), in which the SPM tip is moved according to the motion of the experimenter's hand, while the tip trajectories as well as the response of the SPM junction are visualized in 3D. HCM paves the way to the development of complex manipulation protocols, potentially leading to a better fundamental understanding of nanoscale interactions acting between molecules on surfaces. Here we describe the setup and the steps needed to achieve successful hand-controlled molecular manipulation within the virtual reality environment.

  12. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3DMIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  13. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system. PMID:19849837

  14. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  15. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-10-22

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  16. Dynamic WIFI-Based Indoor Positioning in 3D Virtual World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.; Wang, L.; Lee, W.

    2013-11-01

    A web-based system based on the 3DTown project was proposed using Google Earth plug-in that brings information from indoor positioning devices and real-time sensors into an integrated 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world to visualize the dynamics of urban life within the 3D context of a city. We addressed limitation of the 3DTown project with particular emphasis on video surveillance camera used for indoor tracking purposes. The proposed solution was to utilize wireless local area network (WLAN) WiFi as a replacement technology for localizing objects of interest due to the wide spread availability and large coverage area of WiFi in indoor building spaces. Indoor positioning was performed using WiFi without modifying existing building infrastructure or introducing additional access points (AP)s. A hybrid probabilistic approach was used for indoor positioning based on previously recorded WiFi fingerprint database in the Petrie Science and Engineering building at York University. In addition, we have developed a 3D building modeling module that allows for efficient reconstruction of outdoor building models to be integrated with indoor building models; a sensor module for receiving, distributing, and visualizing real-time sensor data; and a web-based visualization module for users to explore the dynamic urban life in a virtual world. In order to solve the problems in the implementation of the proposed system, we introduce approaches for integration of indoor building models with indoor positioning data, as well as real-time sensor information and visualization on the web-based system. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our prototype system, demonstrating the system's capability for implementing a dynamic 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world that is composed of discrete modules connected through pre-determined communication protocols.

  17. Three‐dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J.; Holst, Glendon R.; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three‐dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug‐ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:23–38, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179415

  18. A new 3-D diagnosis strategy for duodenal malignant lesions using multidetector row CT, CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, and 3-D multicholangiography.

    PubMed

    Sata, N; Endo, K; Shimura, K; Koizumi, M; Nagai, H

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in multidetector row computed tomography (MD-CT) technology provide new opportunities for clinical diagnoses of various diseases. Here we assessed CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, and three-dimensional (3D) multicholangiography created by MD-CT for clinical diagnosis of duodenal malignant lesions. The study involved seven cases of periduodenal carcinoma (four ampullary carcinomas, two duodenal carcinomas, one pancreatic carcinoma). Biliary contrast medium was administered intravenously, followed by intravenous administration of an anticholinergic agent and oral administration of effervescent granules for expanding the upper gastrointestinal tract. Following intravenous administration of a nonionic contrast medium, an upper abdominal MD-CT scan was performed in the left lateral position. Scan data were processed on a workstation to create CT virtual duodenoscopy, duodenography, 3D multicholangiography, and various postprocessing images, which were then evaluated for their effectiveness as preoperative diagnostic tools. Carcinoma location and extent were clearly demonstrated as defects or colored low-density areas in 3-D multicholangiography images and as protruding lesions in virtual duodenography and duodenoscopy images. These findings were confirmed using multiplanar or curved planar reformation images. In conclusion, CT virtual duodenoscopy, doudenography, 3-D multicholangiography, and various images created by MD-CT alone provided necessary and adequate preoperative diagnostic information.

  19. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    PubMed Central

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case. PMID:28220752

  20. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects.

    PubMed

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  1. Exploring conformational search protocols for ligand-based virtual screening and 3-D QSAR modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappel, Daniel; Dixon, Steven L.; Sherman, Woody; Duan, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    3-D ligand conformations are required for most ligand-based drug design methods, such as pharmacophore modeling, shape-based screening, and 3-D QSAR model building. Many studies of conformational search methods have focused on the reproduction of crystal structures (i.e. bioactive conformations); however, for ligand-based modeling the key question is how to generate a ligand alignment that produces the best results for a given query molecule. In this work, we study different conformation generation modes of ConfGen and the impact on virtual screening (Shape Screening and e-Pharmacophore) and QSAR predictions (atom-based and field-based). In addition, we develop a new search method, called common scaffold alignment, that automatically detects the maximum common scaffold between each screening molecule and the query to ensure identical coordinates of the common core, thereby minimizing the noise introduced by analogous parts of the molecules. In general, we find that virtual screening results are relatively insensitive to the conformational search protocol; hence, a conformational search method that generates fewer conformations could be considered "better" because it is more computationally efficient for screening. However, for 3-D QSAR modeling we find that more thorough conformational sampling tends to produce better QSAR predictions. In addition, significant improvements in QSAR predictions are obtained with the common scaffold alignment protocol developed in this work, which focuses conformational sampling on parts of the molecules that are not part of the common scaffold.

  2. Load Assembly of the Ignitor Machine with 3D Interactive Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2003-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to assist the Ignitor team in every phase of the project using the new Virtual Reality Technology (VR). Through the VR it is possible to see, plan and test the machine assembly sequence and the total layout. We are also planning to simulate in VR the remote handling systems. The complexity of the system requires a large and powerful graphical device. The ENEA?s "Advanced Visualization Technology" team has implemented a repository file data structure integrated with the CATIA drawing cams from the designer of Ignitor. The 3D virtual mockup software is used to view and analyze all objects that compose the mockup and also to analyze the correct assembly sequences. The ENEA?s 3D immersive system and software are fully integrated in the ENEA?s supercomputing GRID infrastructure. At any time all members of the Ignitor Project can view the status of the mockup in 3D (draft and/or final objects) through the net. During the conference examples of the assembly sequence and load assembly structure will be presented.

  3. Lead-oriented synthesis: Investigation of organolithium-mediated routes to 3-D scaffolds and 3-D shape analysis of a virtual lead-like library.

    PubMed

    Lüthy, Monique; Wheldon, Mary C; Haji-Cheteh, Chehasnah; Atobe, Masakazu; Bond, Paul S; O'Brien, Peter; Hubbard, Roderick E; Fairlamb, Ian J S

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic routes to six 3-D scaffolds containing piperazine, pyrrolidine and piperidine cores have been developed. The synthetic methodology focused on the use of N-Boc α-lithiation-trapping chemistry. Notably, suitably protected and/or functionalised medicinal chemistry building blocks were synthesised via concise, connective methodology. This represents a rare example of lead-oriented synthesis. A virtual library of 190 compounds was then enumerated from the six scaffolds. Of these, 92 compounds (48%) fit the lead-like criteria of: (i) -1⩽AlogP⩽3; (ii) 14⩽number of heavy atoms⩽26; (iii) total polar surface area⩾50Å(2). The 3-D shapes of the 190 compounds were analysed using a triangular plot of normalised principal moments of inertia (PMI). From this, 46 compounds were identified which had lead-like properties and possessed 3-D shapes in under-represented areas of pharmaceutical space. Thus, the PMI analysis of the 190 member virtual library showed that whilst scaffolds which may appear on paper to be 3-D in shape, only 24% of the compounds actually had 3-D structures in the more interesting areas of 3-D drug space.

  4. A virtual interface for interactions with 3D models of the human body.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, Lucio T; Pulimeno, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The developed system is the first prototype of a virtual interface designed to avoid contact with the computer so that the surgeon is able to visualize 3D models of the patient's organs more effectively during surgical procedure or to use this in the pre-operative planning. The doctor will be able to rotate, to translate and to zoom in on 3D models of the patient's organs simply by moving his finger in free space; in addition, it is possible to choose to visualize all of the organs or only some of them. All of the interactions with the models happen in real-time using the virtual interface which appears as a touch-screen suspended in free space in a position chosen by the user when the application is started up. Finger movements are detected by means of an optical tracking system and are used to simulate touch with the interface and to interact by pressing the buttons present on the virtual screen.

  5. From GUI to Gallery: A Study of Online Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guynup, Stephen Lawrence

    This paper began as an attempt to clarify and classify the development of Web3D environments from 1995 to the present. In that process, important facts came to light. A large proportion of these sites were virtual galleries and museums. Second, these same environments covered a wide array of architectural interpretations and represented some of…

  6. 3D display considerations for rugged airborne environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnidge, Tracy J.; Tchon, Joseph L.

    2015-05-01

    The KC-46 is the next generation, multi-role, aerial refueling tanker aircraft being developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force. Rockwell Collins has developed the Remote Vision System (RVS) that supports aerial refueling operations under a variety of conditions. The system utilizes large-area, high-resolution 3D displays linked with remote sensors to enhance the operator's visual acuity for precise aerial refueling control. This paper reviews the design considerations, trade-offs, and other factors related to the selection and ruggedization of the 3D display technology for this military application.

  7. Stroke Rehabilitation using Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge facing the field is inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches. Therefore, this article also introduces a framework to help define new therapy combinations that may be necessary to address stroke heterogeneity. PMID:26522910

  8. 3D QSAR studies, pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening on a series of steroidal aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiding; Qiu, Kaixiong; Xie, Xiaoguang

    2014-11-14

    Aromatase inhibitors are the most important targets in treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In order to search for potent steroidal aromatase inhibitors (SAIs) with lower side effects and overcome cellular resistance, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on a series of SAIs to build 3D QSAR models. The reliable and predictive CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with statistical results (CoMFA: q² = 0.636, r²(ncv) = 0.988, r²(pred) = 0.658; CoMSIA: q² = 0.843, r²(ncv) = 0.989, r²(pred) = 0.601). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that can be used to develop novel and potent SAIs. In addition, Genetic algorithm with linear assignment of hypermolecular alignment of database (GALAHAD) was used to derive 3D pharmacophore models. The selected pharmacophore model contains two acceptor atoms and four hydrophobic centers, which was used as a 3D query for virtual screening against NCI2000 database. Six hit compounds were obtained and their biological activities were further predicted by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models, which are expected to design potent and novel SAIs.

  9. Virtual Sculpting and 3D Printing for Young People with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mcloughlin, Leigh; Fryazinov, Oleg; Moseley, Mark; Sanchez, Mathieu; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The SHIVA project was designed to provide virtual sculpting tools for young people with complex disabilities, allowing them to engage with artistic and creative activities that they might otherwise never be able to access. Their creations are then physically built using 3D printing. To achieve this, the authors built a generic, accessible GUI and a suitable geometric modeling system and used these to produce two prototype modeling exercises. These tools were deployed in a school for students with complex disabilities and are now being used for a variety of educational and developmental purposes. This article presents the project's motivations, approach, and implementation details together with initial results, including 3D printed objects designed by young people with disabilities.

  10. Virtual 3D tumor marking-exact intraoperative coordinate mapping improve post-operative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the interdisciplinary interface in oncological treatment between surgery, pathology and radiotherapy is mainly dependent on reliable anatomical three-dimensional (3D) allocation of specimen and their context sensitive interpretation which defines further treatment protocols. Computer-assisted preoperative planning (CAPP) allows for outlining macroscopical tumor size and margins. A new technique facilitates the 3D virtual marking and mapping of frozen sections and resection margins or important surgical intraoperative information. These data could be stored in DICOM format (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) in terms of augmented reality and transferred to communicate patient's specific tumor information (invasion to vessels and nerves, non-resectable tumor) to oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists. PMID:22087558

  11. Virtual environment tactile system

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, R.

    1996-12-10

    A method for providing a realistic sense of touch in virtual reality by means of programmable actuator assemblies is disclosed. Each tactile actuator assembly consists of a number of individual actuators whose movement is controlled by a computer and associated drive electronics. When an actuator is energized, the rare earth magnet and the associated contactor, incorporated within the actuator, are set in motion by the opposing electromagnetic field of a surrounding coil. The magnet pushes the contactor forward to contact the skin resulting in the sensation of touch. When the electromagnetic field is turned off, the rare earth magnet and the contactor return to their neutral positions due to the magnetic equilibrium caused by the interaction with the ferrous outer sleeve. The small size and flexible nature of the actuator assemblies permit incorporation into a glove, boot or body suit. The actuator has additional applications, such as, for example, as an accelerometer, an actuator for precisely controlled actuations or to simulate the sensation of braille letters. 28 figs.

  12. Virtual environment tactile system

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    A method for providing a realistic sense of touch in virtual reality by means of programmable actuator assemblies is disclosed. Each tactile actuator assembly consists of a number of individual actuators whose movement is controlled by a computer and associated drive electronics. When an actuator is energized, the rare earth magnet and the associated contactor, incorporated within the actuator, are set in motion by the opposing electromagnetic field of a surrounding coil. The magnet pushes the contactor forward to contact the skin resulting in the sensation of touch. When the electromagnetic field is turned off, the rare earth magnet and the contactor return to their neutral positions due to the magnetic equilibrium caused by the interaction with the ferrous outer sleeve. The small size and flexible nature of the actuator assemblies permit incorporation into a glove, boot or body suit. The actuator has additional applications, such as, for example, as an accelerometer, an actuator for precisely controlled actuations or to simulate the sensation of braille letters.

  13. Modeling Computer Communication Networks in a Realistic 3D Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    visualization in OPNET . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Sample NetViz visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Realistic 3D terrains...scenario in OPNET . . . 19 10. OPNET 3DNV only displays connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 11. The digitally connected battlefield...confirmation tool 12 OPNET Optimized Network Evaluation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 NetViz Network Visualization

  14. Fast generation of virtual X-ray images for reconstruction of 3D anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ehlke, Moritz; Ramm, Heiko; Lamecker, Hans; Hege, Hans-Christian; Zachow, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    We propose a novel GPU-based approach to render virtual X-ray projections of deformable tetrahedral meshes. These meshes represent the shape and the internal density distribution of a particular anatomical structure and are derived from statistical shape and intensity models (SSIMs). We apply our method to improve the geometric reconstruction of 3D anatomy (e.g. pelvic bone) from 2D X-ray images. For that purpose, shape and density of a tetrahedral mesh are varied and virtual X-ray projections are generated within an optimization process until the similarity between the computed virtual X-ray and the respective anatomy depicted in a given clinical X-ray is maximized. The OpenGL implementation presented in this work deforms and projects tetrahedral meshes of high resolution (200.000+ tetrahedra) at interactive rates. It generates virtual X-rays that accurately depict the density distribution of an anatomy of interest. Compared to existing methods that accumulate X-ray attenuation in deformable meshes, our novel approach significantly boosts the deformation/projection performance. The proposed projection algorithm scales better with respect to mesh resolution and complexity of the density distribution, and the combined deformation and projection on the GPU scales better with respect to the number of deformation parameters. The gain in performance allows for a larger number of cycles in the optimization process. Consequently, it reduces the risk of being stuck in a local optimum. We believe that our approach will improve treatments in orthopedics, where 3D anatomical information is essential.

  15. Neurally and ocularly informed graph-based models for searching 3D environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangraw, David C.; Wang, Jun; Lance, Brent J.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Sajda, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Objective. As we move through an environment, we are constantly making assessments, judgments and decisions about the things we encounter. Some are acted upon immediately, but many more become mental notes or fleeting impressions—our implicit ‘labeling’ of the world. In this paper, we use physiological correlates of this labeling to construct a hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) system for efficient navigation of a 3D environment. Approach. First, we record electroencephalographic (EEG), saccadic and pupillary data from subjects as they move through a small part of a 3D virtual city under free-viewing conditions. Using machine learning, we integrate the neural and ocular signals evoked by the objects they encounter to infer which ones are of subjective interest to them. These inferred labels are propagated through a large computer vision graph of objects in the city, using semi-supervised learning to identify other, unseen objects that are visually similar to the labeled ones. Finally, the system plots an efficient route to help the subjects visit the ‘similar’ objects it identifies. Main results. We show that by exploiting the subjects’ implicit labeling to find objects of interest instead of exploring naively, the median search precision is increased from 25% to 97%, and the median subject need only travel 40% of the distance to see 84% of the objects of interest. We also find that the neural and ocular signals contribute in a complementary fashion to the classifiers’ inference of subjects’ implicit labeling. Significance. In summary, we show that neural and ocular signals reflecting subjective assessment of objects in a 3D environment can be used to inform a graph-based learning model of that environment, resulting in an hBCI system that improves navigation and information delivery specific to the user’s interests.

  16. M3D (Media 3D): a new programming language for web-based virtual reality in E-Learning and Edutainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakaveh, Sepideh; Skaley, Detlef; Laine, Patricia; Haeger, Ralf; Maad, Soha

    2003-01-01

    Today, interactive multimedia educational systems are well established, as they prove useful instruments to enhance one's learning capabilities. Hitherto, the main difficulty with almost all E-Learning systems was latent in the rich media implementation techniques. This meant that each and every system should be created individually as reapplying the media, be it only a part, or the whole content was not directly possible, as everything must be applied mechanically i.e. by hand. Consequently making E-learning systems exceedingly expensive to generate, both in time and money terms. Media-3D or M3D is a new platform independent programming language, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute Media Communication to enable visualisation and simulation of E-Learning multimedia content. M3D is an XML-based language, which is capable of distinguishing between the3D models from that of the 3D scenes, as well as handling provisions for animations, within the programme. Here we give a technical account of M3D programming language and briefly describe two specific application scenarios where M3D is applied to create virtual reality E-Learning content for training of technical personnel.

  17. Risk Analysis Virtual ENvironment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-10

    RAVEN has 3 major functionalities: 1. Provides a Graphical User Interface for the pre- and post-processing of the RELAP-7 input and output. 2. Provides the capability to model nuclear power plants control logic for the RELAP-7 code and dynamic control of the accident scenario evolution. This capability is based on a software structure that realizes a direct connection between the RELAP-7 solver engine (MOOSE) and a python environment where the variables describing the plant status are accessible in a scripting environment. RAVEN support the generation of the probabilistic scenario control by supplying a wide range of probability and cumulative distribution functions and their inverse functions. 3. Provides a general environment to perform probability risk analysis for RELAP-7, RELAP-5 and any generic MOOSE based applications. The probabilistic analysis is performed by sampling the input space of the coupled code parameters and it is enhanced by using modern artificial intelligence algorithms that accelerate the identification of the areas of major risk (in the input parameter space). This environment also provides a graphical visualization capability to analyze the outcomes. Among other approaches, the classical Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling algorithms are available. For the acceleration of the convergence of the sampling methodologies, Support Vector Machines, Bayesian regression, and collocation stochastic polynomials chaos are implemented. The same methodologies here described could be used to solve optimization and uncertainties propagation problems using the RAVEN framework.

  18. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  19. [3D-TECHNOLOGIES AS A CORE ELEMENT OF PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VIRTUAL AND ACTUAL RENAL SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aljaev, Ju G; Bezrukov, E A; Sirota, E S; Proskura, A V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of modern computer technologies in performing virtual and actual renal tumor surgery. Currently 3D modeling makes it possible to clearly define strategy and tactics of an individual patient treatment.

  20. Virtual Control Systems Environment (VCSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, Will

    2012-10-08

    Will Atkins, a Sandia National Laboratories computer engineer discusses cybersecurity research work for process control systems. Will explains his work on the Virtual Control Systems Environment project to develop a modeling and simulation framework of the U.S. electric grid in order to study and mitigate possible cyberattacks on infrastructure.

  1. Virtual Control Systems Environment (VCSE)

    ScienceCinema

    Atkins, Will

    2016-07-12

    Will Atkins, a Sandia National Laboratories computer engineer discusses cybersecurity research work for process control systems. Will explains his work on the Virtual Control Systems Environment project to develop a modeling and simulation framework of the U.S. electric grid in order to study and mitigate possible cyberattacks on infrastructure.

  2. Quality in virtual education environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Elena

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has changed the way we teach and learn. This paper provides a general overview of the state of the quality of virtual education environments. First of all, some problems with the quality criteria applied in this field and the need to develop quality seals are presented. Likewise, the dimensions and subdimensions of an…

  3. Cognitive Styles and Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of navigation through virtual information environments focuses on the need for robust user models that take into account individual differences. Considers Pask's information processing styles and strategies; deep (transformational) and surface (reproductive) learning; field dependence/independence; divergent/convergent thinking;…

  4. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  5. Virtual Environments Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Jeffrey G. Morrison regarding proposed programs in the ASpace X program as well as a white paper by Dr. Rita Bush and and Mr. Ken Kiesel., 2 http...areas of the brain ( Zacks , 2007). Mental rotation is used to compensate for not being able to move around in the world and change viewpoints, but...environments.” CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10 (1), 115-121. Zacks , J.M. (2008). “Neuroimaging studies of mental rotation: A meta-analysis and

  6. Dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures for minimally invasive beating heart procedures.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Patel, Rajni V; McIsaac, Kenneth A; Guiraudon, Gerard; Peters, Terry M

    2008-08-01

    Two-dimensional or 3-D visual guidance is often used for minimally invasive cardiac surgery and diagnosis. This visual guidance suffers from several drawbacks such as limited field of view, loss of signal from time to time, and in some cases, difficulty of interpretation. These limitations become more evident in beating-heart procedures when the surgeon has to perform a surgical procedure in the presence of heart motion. In this paper, we propose dynamic 3-D virtual fixtures (DVFs) to augment the visual guidance system with haptic feedback, to provide the surgeon with more helpful guidance by constraining the surgeon's hand motions thereby protecting sensitive structures. DVFs can be generated from preoperative dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomograph (CT) images and then mapped to the patient during surgery. We have validated the feasibility of the proposed method on several simulated surgical tasks using a volunteer's cardiac image dataset. Validation results show that the integration of visual and haptic guidance can permit a user to perform surgical tasks more easily and with reduced error rate. We believe this is the first work presented in the field of virtual fixtures that explicitly considers heart motion.

  7. 3D virtual human atria: A computational platform for studying clinical atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, Oleg V; Colman, Michael A; Stott, Jonathan; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R; Holden, Arun V; Zhang, Henggui

    2011-10-01

    Despite a vast amount of experimental and clinical data on the underlying ionic, cellular and tissue substrates, the mechanisms of common atrial arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation, AF) arising from the functional interactions at the whole atria level remain unclear. Computational modelling provides a quantitative framework for integrating such multi-scale data and understanding the arrhythmogenic behaviour that emerges from the collective spatio-temporal dynamics in all parts of the heart. In this study, we have developed a multi-scale hierarchy of biophysically detailed computational models for the human atria--the 3D virtual human atria. Primarily, diffusion tensor MRI reconstruction of the tissue geometry and fibre orientation in the human sinoatrial node (SAN) and surrounding atrial muscle was integrated into the 3D model of the whole atria dissected from the Visible Human dataset. The anatomical models were combined with the heterogeneous atrial action potential (AP) models, and used to simulate the AP conduction in the human atria under various conditions: SAN pacemaking and atrial activation in the normal rhythm, break-down of regular AP wave-fronts during rapid atrial pacing, and the genesis of multiple re-entrant wavelets characteristic of AF. Contributions of different properties of the tissue to mechanisms of the normal rhythm and arrhythmogenesis were investigated. Primarily, the simulations showed that tissue heterogeneity caused the break-down of the normal AP wave-fronts at rapid pacing rates, which initiated a pair of re-entrant spiral waves; and tissue anisotropy resulted in a further break-down of the spiral waves into multiple meandering wavelets characteristic of AF. The 3D virtual atria model itself was incorporated into the torso model to simulate the body surface ECG patterns in the normal and arrhythmic conditions. Therefore, a state-of-the-art computational platform has been developed, which can be used for studying multi

  8. Determinants of Presence in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that feeling present in virtual environments contributes to effective learning. Presence is a psychological state of the user; hence, it is generally agreed that individual differences in user characteristics can lead to different experiences of presence. Despite the fact that user characteristics can play a…

  9. Scalable, high-performance 3D imaging software platform: system architecture and application to virtual colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems: multi-core, clusters, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable, high-performance computing, our platform (1) employs size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D image processing algorithms; (2) supports task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing; and (3) consists of a layered parallel software libraries that allow a wide range of medical applications to share the same functionalities. We evaluated the performance of our platform by applying it to an electronic cleansing system in virtual colonoscopy, with initial experimental results showing a 10 times performance improvement on an 8-core workstation over the original sequential implementation of the system.

  10. Laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography enables 3D virtual histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Quade, Felix; Salditt, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Due to the large penetration depth and small wavelength hard x-rays offer a unique potential for 3D biomedical and biological imaging, combining capabilities of high resolution and large sample volume. However, in classical absorption-based computed tomography, soft tissue only shows a weak contrast, limiting the actual resolution. With the advent of phase-contrast methods, the much stronger phase shift induced by the sample can now be exploited. For high resolution, free space propagation behind the sample is particularly well suited to make the phase shift visible. Contrast formation is based on the self-interference of the transmitted beam, resulting in object-induced intensity modulations in the detector plane. As this method requires a sufficiently high degree of spatial coherence, it was since long perceived as a synchrotron-based imaging technique. In this contribution we show that by combination of high brightness liquid-metal jet microfocus sources and suitable sample preparation techniques, as well as optimized geometry, detection and phase retrieval, excellent three-dimensional image quality can be obtained, revealing the anatomy of a cobweb spider in high detail. This opens up new opportunities for 3D virtual histology of small organisms. Importantly, the image quality is finally augmented to a level accessible to automatic 3D segmentation.

  11. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  12. Aerospace applications of virtual environment technology.

    PubMed

    Loftin, R B

    1996-11-01

    The uses of virtual environment technology in the space program are examined with emphasis on training for the Hubble Space Telescope Repair and Maintenance Mission in 1993. Project ScienceSpace at the Virtual Environment Technology Lab is discussed.

  13. Source fields reconstruction with 3D mapping by means of the virtual acoustic volume concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, S.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.; Schaeffer, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the theoretical framework of the virtual acoustic volume concept and two related inverse Patch Transfer Functions (iPTF) identification methods (called u-iPTF and m-iPTF depending on the chosen boundary conditions for the virtual volume). They are based on the application of Green's identity on an arbitrary closed virtual volume defined around the source. The reconstruction of sound source fields combines discrete acoustic measurements performed at accessible positions around the source with the modal behavior of the chosen virtual acoustic volume. The mode shapes of the virtual volume can be computed by a Finite Element solver to handle the geometrical complexity of the source. As a result, it is possible to identify all the acoustic source fields at the real surface of an irregularly shaped structure and irrespective of its acoustic environment. The m-iPTF method is introduced for the first time in this paper. Conversely to the already published u-iPTF method, the m-iPTF method needs only acoustic pressure and avoids particle velocity measurements. This paper is focused on its validation, both with numerical computations and by experiments on a baffled oil pan.

  14. Building a 3D Virtual Liver: Methods for Simulating Blood Flow and Hepatic Clearance on 3D Structures

    PubMed Central

    Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537

  15. Virtual Environment TBI Screen (VETS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    postural control, which will assist with clinical screening of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Knowledge of acute symptoms associated with TBI can help...Military test sites have been established and testing will begin as soon as HRPO approval for these sites is granted. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic brain ...C-0189 1 INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to validate and test the reliability of the Virtual Environment Traumatic Brain Injury

  16. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  17. Towards a Transcription System of Sign Language for 3D Virtual Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, Wanessa Machado; de Martino, José Mario

    Accessibility is a growing concern in computer science. Since virtual information is mostly presented visually, it may seem that access for deaf people is not an issue. However, for prelingually deaf individuals, those who were deaf since before acquiring and formally learn a language, written information is often of limited accessibility than if presented in signing. Further, for this community, signing is their language of choice, and reading text in a spoken language is akin to using a foreign language. Sign language uses gestures and facial expressions and is widely used by deaf communities. To enabling efficient production of signed content on virtual environment, it is necessary to make written records of signs. Transcription systems have been developed to describe sign languages in written form, but these systems have limitations. Since they were not originally designed with computer animation in mind, in general, the recognition and reproduction of signs in these systems is an easy task only to those who deeply know the system. The aim of this work is to develop a transcription system to provide signed content in virtual environment. To animate a virtual avatar, a transcription system requires explicit enough information, such as movement speed, signs concatenation, sequence of each hold-and-movement and facial expressions, trying to articulate close to reality. Although many important studies in sign languages have been published, the transcription problem remains a challenge. Thus, a notation to describe, store and play signed content in virtual environments offers a multidisciplinary study and research tool, which may help linguistic studies to understand the sign languages structure and grammar.

  18. Accuracy and reproducibility of virtual cutting guides and 3D-navigation for osteotomies of the mandible and maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan M.; Daly, Michael J.; Chan, Harley; Qiu, Jimmy; Goldstein, David; Muhanna, Nidal; de Almeida, John R.; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Background We set out to determine the accuracy of 3D-navigated mandibular and maxillary osteotomies with the ultimate aim to integrate virtual cutting guides and 3D-navigation into ablative and reconstructive head and neck surgery. Methods Four surgeons (two attending, two clinical fellows) completed 224 unnavigated and 224 3D-navigated osteotomies on anatomical models according to preoperative 3D plans. The osteotomized bones were scanned and analyzed. Results Median distance from the virtual plan was 2.1 mm unnavigated (IQR 2.6 mm, ≥3 mm in 33%) and 1.2 mm 3D-navigated (IQR 1.1 mm, ≥3 mm in 6%) (P<0.0001); median pitch was 4.5° unnavigated (IQR 7.1°) and 3.5° 3D-navigated (IQR 4.0°) (P<0.0001); median roll was 7.4° unnavigated (IQR 8.5°) and 2.6° 3D-navigated (IQR 3.8°) (P<0.0001). Conclusion 3D-rendering enables osteotomy navigation. 3 mm is an appropriate planning distance. The next steps are translating virtual cutting guides to free bone flap reconstruction and clinical use. PMID:28249001

  19. 3D Printed Models and Navigation for Skull Base Surgery: Case Report and Virtual Validation.

    PubMed

    Ritacco, Lucas E; Di Lella, Federico; Mancino, Axel; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Boccio, Carlos; Milano, Federico E

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, computer-assisted surgery tools have become more versatile. Having access to a 3D printed model expands the possibility for surgeons to practice with the particular anatomy of a patient before surgery and improve their skills. Optical navigation is capable of guiding a surgeon according to a previously defined plan. These methods improve accuracy and safety at the moment of executing the operation. We intend to carry on a validation process for computed-assisted tools. The aim of this project is to propose a comparative validation method to enable physicians to evaluate differences between a virtual planned approach trajectory and a real executed course. Summarily, this project is focused on decoding data in order to obtain numerical values so as to establish the quality of surgical procedures.

  20. Predicting LER and LWR in SAQP with 3D virtual fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangjiang (Jimmy); Zhao, Dalong; Allampalli, Vasanth; Faken, Daniel; Greiner, Ken; Fried, David M.

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, process impact on line-edge roughness (LER) and line-width roughness (LWR) in a back-end-of-line (BEOL) self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) flow has been systematically investigated through predictive 3D virtual fabrication. This frequency dependent LER study shows that both deposition and etching effectively reduce high frequency LER, while deposition is much more effective in reducing low frequency LER. Spacer-assisted patterning technology reduces LWR significantly by creating correlated edges, and further LWR improvement can be achieved by optimizing individual process effects on LER. Our study provides a guideline for the understanding and optimization of LER and LWR in advanced technology nodes.

  1. Reaching to virtual targets: The oblique effect reloaded in 3-D.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris-Rousellis, Christos; Siettos, Constantinos I; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2017-02-20

    Perceiving and reproducing direction of visual stimuli in 2-D space produces the visual oblique effect, which manifests as increased precision in the reproduction of cardinal compared to oblique directions. A second cognitive oblique effect emerges when stimulus information is degraded (such as when reproducing stimuli from memory) and manifests as a systematic distortion where reproduced directions close to the cardinal axes deviate toward the oblique, leading to space expansion at cardinal and contraction at oblique axes. We studied the oblique effect in 3-D using a virtual reality system to present a large number of stimuli, covering the surface of an imaginary half sphere, to which subjects had to reach. We used two conditions, one with no delay (no-memory condition) and one where a three-second delay intervened between stimulus presentation and movement initiation (memory condition). A visual oblique effect was observed for the reproduction of cardinal directions compared to oblique, which did not differ with memory condition. A cognitive oblique effect also emerged, which was significantly larger in the memory compared to the no-memory condition, leading to distortion of directional space with expansion near the cardinal axes and compression near the oblique axes on the hemispherical surface. This effect provides evidence that existing models of 2-D directional space categorization could be extended in the natural 3-D space.

  2. Combinatorial Pharmacophore-Based 3D-QSAR Analysis and Virtual Screening of FGFR1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nannan; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yulan; Peng, Jianlong; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2015-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and survival. Aberration in FGFRs correlates with several malignancies and disorders. FGFRs have proved to be attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer, and it is of high interest to find FGFR inhibitors with novel scaffolds. In this study, a combinatorial three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model was developed based on previously reported FGFR1 inhibitors with diverse structural skeletons. This model was evaluated for its prediction performance on a diverse test set containing 232 FGFR inhibitors, and it yielded a SD value of 0.75 pIC50 units from measured inhibition affinities and a Pearson’s correlation coefficient R2 of 0.53. This result suggests that the combinatorial 3D-QSAR model could be used to search for new FGFR1 hit structures and predict their potential activity. To further evaluate the performance of the model, a decoy set validation was used to measure the efficiency of the model by calculating EF (enrichment factor). Based on the combinatorial pharmacophore model, a virtual screening against SPECS database was performed. Nineteen novel active compounds were successfully identified, which provide new chemical starting points for further structural optimization of FGFR1 inhibitors. PMID:26110383

  3. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg's Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, T.; Kuhnle, G.; Bruna, R.

    2015-08-01

    On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence's Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  4. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, Bradley S; Alcala, Benjamin S; Alcala, Scott; Eipeldauer, Mary D; Weil, Logan B

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  5. Brain Activity on Navigation in Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the cognitive processing that takes place in virtual environments by measuring electrical brain activity using Fast Fourier Transform analysis. University students performed the same task in a real and a virtual environment, and eye movement measurements showed that all subjects were more attentive when navigating in the virtual world.…

  6. Foreign Language Vocabulary Development through Activities in an Online 3D Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James; Jonsen, Sunniva; Hirst, Steven; Lindenburn, Sharn

    2012-01-01

    On-line virtual 3D worlds offer the opportunity for users to interact in real time with native speakers of the language they are learning. In principle, this ought to be of great benefit to learners, and mimicking the opportunity for immersion that real-life travel to a foreign country offers. We have very little research to show whether this is…

  7. Fast and Forceful: Modulation of Response Activation Induced by Shifts of Perceived Depth in Virtual 3D Space

    PubMed Central

    Plewan, Thorsten; Rinkenauer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) can strongly be influenced by a number of stimulus properties. For instance, there was converging evidence that perceived size rather than physical (i.e., retinal) size constitutes a major determinant of RT. However, this view has recently been challenged since within a virtual three-dimensional (3D) environment retinal size modulation failed to influence RT. In order to further investigate this issue in the present experiments response force (RF) was recorded as a supplemental measure of response activation in simple reaction tasks. In two separate experiments participants’ task was to react as fast as possible to the occurrence of a target located close to the observer or farther away while the offset between target locations was increased from Experiment 1 to Experiment 2. At the same time perceived target size (by varying the retinal size across depth planes) and target type (sphere vs. soccer ball) were modulated. Both experiments revealed faster and more forceful reactions when targets were presented closer to the observers. Perceived size and target type barely affected RT and RF in Experiment 1 but differentially affected both variables in Experiment 2. Thus, the present findings emphasize the usefulness of RF as a supplement to conventional RT measurement. On a behavioral level the results confirm that (at least) within virtual 3D space perceived object size neither strongly influences RT nor RF. Rather the relative position within egocentric (body-centered) space presumably indicates an object’s behavioral relevance and consequently constitutes an important modulator of visual processing. PMID:28018273

  8. Telearch - Integrated visual simulation environment for collaborative virtual archaeology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurillo, Gregorij; Forte, Maurizio

    Archaeologists collect vast amounts of digital data around the world; however, they lack tools for integration and collaborative interaction to support reconstruction and interpretation process. TeleArch software is aimed to integrate different data sources and provide real-time interaction tools for remote collaboration of geographically distributed scholars inside a shared virtual environment. The framework also includes audio, 2D and 3D video streaming technology to facilitate remote presence of users. In this paper, we present several experimental case studies to demonstrate the integration and interaction with 3D models and geographical information system (GIS) data in this collaborative environment.

  9. IFR flight simulation in a distributed virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Albert, Oliver; Doerr, Kai Uwe

    1998-08-01

    For some of today's simulations very expensive, heavy and large equipment is needed. Examples are driving, shipping, and flight simulators with huge and expensive visual and motion systems. In order to reduce cost, immersive `Virtual Simulation' becomes very attractive. Head Mounted Displays or Computer Animated Virtual Environments, Datagloves, and cheap `Seating Bucks' are used to generate a stereoscopic virtual environment for a trainee. Such systems are already in use for caterpillar, submarine, and F15-fighter simulation. In our approach we partially simulate an Airbus A340 cockpit. All interaction devices such as side stick, pedals, thrust-levers, knobs, buttons, and dials are modeled as 3D geometry. All other parts and surfaces are formed by images (textures). Some devices are physically available such as sidesticks, pedals, and thrust-levers. All others are replaced by plastic panels to generate a forced feedback for the pilots. A simplified outside visual is available to generate immersive flight simulations. A virtual Primary Flight display, Navigation display, and a virtual stereoscopic Head Up Display are used in a first approach. These virtual displays show basic information necessary to perform a controlled flight and allow basic performance analysis with the system. All parts such as physical input devices, virtual input devices, flight mechanics, traffic, and rendering run in a distributed environment on different high end graphics work stations. The `Virtual Cockpit' can logically replace an also available conventional cockpit mockup in the flight simulation.

  10. The three-dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Jeffrey; Hahn, Roger; Schwartz, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Stanford Telecom developed the Three-Dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE) for NASA GSFC's (GSFC) Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS). 3D-EDGE consists of a library of object-oriented subroutines which allow engineers with little or no computer graphics experience to programmatically manipulate, render, animate, and access complex three-dimensional objects.

  11. CamMedNP: Building the Cameroonian 3D structural natural products database for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We present CamMedNP - a new database beginning with more than 2,500 compounds of natural origin, along with some of their derivatives which were obtained through hemisynthesis. These are pure compounds which have been previously isolated and characterized using modern spectroscopic methods and published by several research teams spread across Cameroon. Description In the present study, 224 distinct medicinal plant species belonging to 55 plant families from the Cameroonian flora have been considered. About 80 % of these have been previously published and/or referenced in internationally recognized journals. For each compound, the optimized 3D structure, drug-like properties, plant source, collection site and currently known biological activities are given, as well as literature references. We have evaluated the “drug-likeness” of this database using Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Conclusion CamMedNP could be highly useful for database screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:23590173

  12. Assessing endocranial variations in great apes and humans using 3D data from virtual endocasts.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Coudyzer, Walter; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Roualdès, Georges; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Modern humans are characterized by their large, complex, and specialized brain. Human brain evolution can be addressed through direct evidence provided by fossil hominid endocasts (i.e. paleoneurology), or through indirect evidence of extant species comparative neurology. Here we use the second approach, providing an extant comparative framework for hominid paleoneurological studies. We explore endocranial size and shape differences among great apes and humans, as well as between sexes. We virtually extracted 72 endocasts, sampling all extant great ape species and modern humans, and digitized 37 landmarks on each for 3D generalized Procrustes analysis. All species can be differentiated by their endocranial shape. Among great apes, endocranial shapes vary from short (orangutans) to long (gorillas), perhaps in relation to different facial orientations. Endocranial shape differences among African apes are partly allometric. Major endocranial traits distinguishing humans from great apes are endocranial globularity, reflecting neurological reorganization, and features linked to structural responses to posture and bipedal locomotion. Human endocasts are also characterized by posterior location of foramina rotunda relative to optic canals, which could be correlated to lesser subnasal prognathism compared to living great apes. Species with larger brains (gorillas and humans) display greater sexual dimorphism in endocranial size, while sexual dimorphism in endocranial shape is restricted to gorillas, differences between males and females being at least partly due to allometry. Our study of endocranial variations in extant great apes and humans provides a new comparative dataset for studies of fossil hominid endocasts.

  13. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an “easy” conjunction search task and a “difficult” shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x−y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the “easy” task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the “difficult” task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios. PMID:23986539

  14. Usability Issues of an Augmented Virtuality Environment for Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Irene Rui

    This paper presents a usability evaluation of an Augmented Virtuality (AV)-based system dedicated for design. The philosophy behind the concept of the system is discussed based on the dimensions of transportation and artificiality in shared-space technologies. This system is introduced as a method that allows users to experience the real remote environment without the need of physically visiting the actual place. Such experience is realized by using AV technology to enrich the virtual counterparts of the place with captured real images from the real environment. The combination of the physicality reality and virtual reality provides key landmarks or features of the to-be-visited place, live video streams of the remote participants, and 3D virtual design geometry. The focus of this paper describes the implementation and a usability evaluation of the system in its current state and also discusses the limitations, issues and challenges of this AV system.

  15. VERS: a virtual environment for reconstructive surgery planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.

    1997-05-01

    The virtual environment for reconstructive surgery (VERS) project at the NASA Ames Biocomputation Center is applying virtual reality technology to aid surgeons in planning surgeries. We are working with a craniofacial surgeon at Stanford to assemble and visualize the bone structure of patients requiring reconstructive surgery either through developmental abnormalities or trauma. This project is an extension of our previous work in 3D reconstruction, mesh generation, and immersive visualization. The current VR system, consisting of an SGI Onyx RE2, FakeSpace BOOM and ImmersiveWorkbench, Virtual Technologies CyberGlove and Ascension Technologies tracker, is currently in development and has already been used to visualize defects preoperatively. In the near future it will be used to more fully plan the surgery and compute the projected result to soft tissue structure. This paper presents the work in progress and details the production of a high-performance, collaborative, and networked virtual environment.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lledó, Luis D.; Díez, Jorge A.; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J.; Sabater-Navarro, José M.; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  17. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  18. Simulating Navigation with Virtual 3d Geovisualizations - a Focus on Memory Related Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokka, I.; Çöltekin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of virtual environments (VE) for navigation-related studies, such as spatial cognition and path retrieval has been widely adopted in cognitive psychology and related fields. What motivates the use of VEs for such studies is that, as opposed to real-world, we can control for the confounding variables in simulated VEs. When simulating a geographic environment as a virtual world with the intention to train navigational memory in humans, an effective and efficient visual design is important to facilitate the amount of recall. However, it is not yet clear what amount of information should be included in such visual designs intended to facilitate remembering: there can be too little or too much of it. Besides the amount of information or level of detail, the types of visual features (`elements' in a visual scene) that should be included in the representations to create memorable scenes and paths must be defined. We analyzed the literature in cognitive psychology, geovisualization and information visualization, and identified the key factors for studying and evaluating geovisualization designs for their function to support and strengthen human navigational memory. The key factors we identified are: i) the individual abilities and age of the users, ii) the level of realism (LOR) included in the representations and iii) the context in which the navigation is performed, thus specific tasks within a case scenario. Here we present a concise literature review and our conceptual development for follow-up experiments.

  19. Intelligent Motion and Interaction Within Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Slater, Mel (Editor); Alexander, Thomas (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    What makes virtual actors and objects in virtual environments seem real? How can the illusion of their reality be supported? What sorts of training or user-interface applications benefit from realistic user-environment interactions? These are some of the central questions that designers of virtual environments face. To be sure simulation realism is not necessarily the major, or even a required goal, of a virtual environment intended to communicate specific information. But for some applications in entertainment, marketing, or aspects of vehicle simulation training, realism is essential. The following chapters will examine how a sense of truly interacting with dynamic, intelligent agents may arise in users of virtual environments. These chapters are based on presentations at the London conference on Intelligent Motion and Interaction within a Virtual Environments which was held at University College, London, U.K., 15-17 September 2003.

  20. The influence of regulatory fit and interactivity on brand satisfaction and trust in E-health marketing inside 3D virtual worlds (Second Life).

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-A Annie; Lee, Kwan Min

    2010-12-01

    Interactive three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments like Second Life have great potential as venues for effective e-health marketing and e-brand management. Drawing from regulatory focus and interactivity literatures, this study examined the effects of the regulatory fit that consumers experience in interactive e-health marketing on their brand satisfaction and brand trust. The results of a two-group comparison experiment conducted within Second Life revealed that consumers in the regulatory fit condition show greater brand satisfaction and brand trust than those in the regulatory misfit condition, thus confirming the persuasive influence of regulatory fit in e-brand management inside 3D virtual worlds. In addition, a structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated the mediating role of consumers' perceived interactivity in explaining the processional link between regulatory fit and brand evaluation. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Training Spatial Knowledge Acquisition Using Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    involves cognitive science, perceptual psychology, virtual- environment design, real-world training methods , etc.), it obviously requires close...97’... 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Training Spatial Knowledge Acquisition Using Virtual Environments N00014-96-1-0379 6. AUTHOR(S...KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION USING VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS (1 FEBRUARY 1996 TO 31 JANUARY 1997) OF ¶ NATHANIEL I. DURLACH, ET AL., MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF

  2. Effects of 3D Virtual Simulators in the Introductory Wind Energy Course: A Tool for Teaching Engineering Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Phuong T.; Moreland, John R.; Delgado, Catherine; Wilson, Kristina; Wang, Xiuling; Zhou, Chenn; Ice, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Our research provides an innovative solution for optimizing learning effectiveness and improving postsecondary education through the development of virtual simulators that can be easily used and integrated into existing wind energy curriculum. Two 3D virtual simulators are developed in our laboratory for use in an immersive 3D virtual reality (VR) system or for 3D display on a 2D screen. Our goal is to apply these prototypical simulators to train postsecondary students and professionals in wind energy education; and to offer experiential learning opportunities in 3D modeling, simulation, and visualization. The issue of transferring learned concepts to practical applications is a widespread problem in postsecondary education. Related to this issue is a critical demand to educate and train a generation of professionals for the wind energy industry. With initiatives such as the U.S. Department of Energy's “20% Wind Energy by 2030” outlining an exponential increase of wind energy capacity over the coming years, revolutionary educational reform is needed to meet the demand for education in the field of wind energy. These developments and implementation of Virtual Simulators and accompanying curriculum will propel national reforms, meeting the needs of the wind energy industrial movement and addressing broader educational issues that affect a number of disciplines.

  3. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping.…

  4. A 3-D Virtual Reality Model of the Sun and the Moon for E-Learning at Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Koun-Tem; Lin, Ching-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Min

    2010-01-01

    The relative positions of the sun, moon, and earth, their movements, and their relationships are abstract and difficult to understand astronomical concepts in elementary school science. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality (VR) model named the "Sun and Moon System." This e-learning resource was designed by…

  5. Effects of 3D Virtual Simulators in the Introductory Wind Energy Course: A Tool for Teaching Engineering Concepts

    DOE PAGES

    Do, Phuong T.; Moreland, John R.; Delgado, Catherine; ...

    2013-01-01

    Our research provides an innovative solution for optimizing learning effectiveness and improving postsecondary education through the development of virtual simulators that can be easily used and integrated into existing wind energy curriculum. Two 3D virtual simulators are developed in our laboratory for use in an immersive 3D virtual reality (VR) system or for 3D display on a 2D screen. Our goal is to apply these prototypical simulators to train postsecondary students and professionals in wind energy education; and to offer experiential learning opportunities in 3D modeling, simulation, and visualization. The issue of transferring learned concepts to practical applications is amore » widespread problem in postsecondary education. Related to this issue is a critical demand to educate and train a generation of professionals for the wind energy industry. With initiatives such as the U.S. Department of Energy's “20% Wind Energy by 2030” outlining an exponential increase of wind energy capacity over the coming years, revolutionary educational reform is needed to meet the demand for education in the field of wind energy. These developments and implementation of Virtual Simulators and accompanying curriculum will propel national reforms, meeting the needs of the wind energy industrial movement and addressing broader educational issues that affect a number of disciplines.« less

  6. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  7. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  8. Design of Virtual Environments for the Comprehension of Planetary Phenomena Based on Students' Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakas, Christos; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and development of an educational virtual environment to support the teaching of planetary phenomena, particularly the movements of Earth and the sun, day and night cycle, and change of seasons. Uses an interactive, three-dimensional (3D) virtual environment. Initial results show that the majority of students enthused about…

  9. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis.

  10. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis. PMID:27843356

  11. Three-dimensional simulation and auto-stereoscopic 3D display of the battlefield environment based on the particle system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jiwei; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Cui, Huilong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    The army's combat training is very important now, and the simulation of the real battlefield environment is of great significance. Two-dimensional information has been unable to meet the demand at present. With the development of virtual reality technology, three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the battlefield environment is possible. In the simulation of 3D battlefield environment, in addition to the terrain, combat personnel and the combat tool ,the simulation of explosions, fire, smoke and other effects is also very important, since these effects can enhance senses of realism and immersion of the 3D scene. However, these special effects are irregular objects, which make it difficult to simulate with the general geometry. Therefore, the simulation of irregular objects is always a hot and difficult research topic in computer graphics. Here, the particle system algorithm is used for simulating irregular objects. We design the simulation of the explosion, fire, smoke based on the particle system and applied it to the battlefield 3D scene. Besides, the battlefield 3D scene simulation with the glasses-free 3D display is carried out with an algorithm based on GPU 4K super-multiview 3D video real-time transformation method. At the same time, with the human-computer interaction function, we ultimately realized glasses-free 3D display of the simulated more realistic and immersed 3D battlefield environment.

  12. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    PubMed

    Swennen, G R J; Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Lamoral, P; Neyt, N; Casselman, J; Schutyser, F

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface. The impressions of the dental arches and the wax bite wafer were scanned for ten patient separately using a high resolution standardized CBCT scanning protocol. Surface-based rigid registration using ICP (iterative closest points) was used to fit the virtual models on the wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point-based registration of the wax bite wafer on the patient scan was performed to implement the digital virtual dental arches into the patient's skull model. Probability error histograms showed errors of < or =0.22 mm (25% percentile), < or =0.44 mm (50% percentile) and < or =1.09 mm (90% percentile) for ICP surface matching. The mean registration error for automatic point-based rigid registration was 0.18+/-0.10 mm (range 0.13-0.26 mm). The results show the potential for a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to set-up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  13. A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed. PMID:18678557

  14. Development of real-time motion capture system for 3D on-line games linked with virtual character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hyeong; Ryu, Young Kee; Cho, Hyung Suck

    2004-10-01

    Motion tracking method is being issued as essential part of the entertainment, medical, sports, education and industry with the development of 3-D virtual reality. Virtual human character in the digital animation and game application has been controlled by interfacing devices; mouse, joysticks, midi-slider, and so on. Those devices could not enable virtual human character to move smoothly and naturally. Furthermore, high-end human motion capture systems in commercial market are expensive and complicated. In this paper, we proposed a practical and fast motion capturing system consisting of optic sensors, and linked the data with 3-D game character with real time. The prototype experiment setup is successfully applied to a boxing game which requires very fast movement of human character.

  15. A Virtual Geant4 Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Go

    2015-12-01

    We describe the development of an environment for Geant4 consisting of an application and data that provide users with a more efficient way to access Geant4 applications without having to download and build the software locally. The environment is platform neutral and offers the users near-real time performance. In addition, the environment consists of data and Geant4 libraries built using low-level virtual machine (LLVM) tools which can produce bitcode that can be embedded in HTML and accessed via a browser. The bitcode is downloaded to the local machine via the browser and can then be configured by the user. This approach provides a way of minimising the risk of leaking potentially sensitive data used to construct the Geant4 model and application in the medical domain for treatment planning. We describe several applications that have used this approach and compare their performance with that of native applications. We also describe potential user communities that could benefit from this approach.

  16. 3D Simulation as a Learning Environment for Acquiring the Skill of Self-Management: An Experience Involving Spanish University Students of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela-Ranilla, Jose María; Esteve-Gonzalez, Vanessa; Esteve-Mon, Francesc; Gisbert-Cervera, Merce

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze how 57 Spanish university students of Education developed a learning process in a virtual world by conducting activities that involved the skill of self-management. The learning experience comprised a serious game designed in a 3D simulation environment. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the…

  17. Neurally and Ocularly Informed Graph-Based Models for Searching 3D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    and avoid rank deficiency issues , principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on each subject’s epoched EEG , and only the top 20 PCs were...electroencephalographic ( EEG ), saccadic and pupillary data from subjects as they move through a small part of a 3D virtual city under free-viewing...specific to the user’s interests. Keywords: brain–computer interface, EEG , eye tracking, pupillometry, computer vision S Online supplementary data

  18. Hsp90 inhibitors, part 1: definition of 3-D QSAutogrid/R models as a tool for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ballante, Flavio; Caroli, Antonia; Wickersham, Richard B; Ragno, Rino

    2014-03-24

    The multichaperone heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 complex mediates the maturation and stability of a variety of oncogenic signaling proteins. For this reason, Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for anticancer drug development. Herein, we describe a complete computational procedure for building several 3-D QSAR models used as a ligand-based (LB) component of a comprehensive ligand-based (LB) and structure-based (SB) virtual screening (VS) protocol to identify novel molecular scaffolds of Hsp90 inhibitors. By the application of the 3-D QSAutogrid/R method, eight SB PLS 3-D QSAR models were generated, leading to a final multiprobe (MP) 3-D QSAR pharmacophoric model capable of recognizing the most significant chemical features for Hsp90 inhibition. Both the monoprobe and multiprobe models were optimized, cross-validated, and tested against an external test set. The obtained statistical results confirmed the models as robust and predictive to be used in a subsequent VS.

  19. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  20. Second Life: an overview of the potential of 3-D virtual worlds in medical and health education.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Hetherington, Lee; Wheeler, Steve

    2007-12-01

    This hybrid review-case study introduces three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and their educational potential to medical/health librarians and educators. Second life (http://secondlife.com/) is perhaps the most popular virtual world platform in use today, with an emphasis on social interaction. We describe some medical and health education examples from Second Life, including Second Life Medical and Consumer Health Libraries (Healthinfo Island-funded by a grant from the US National Library of Medicine), and VNEC (Virtual Neurological Education Centre-developed at the University of Plymouth, UK), which we present as two detailed 'case studies'. The pedagogical potentials of Second Life are then discussed, as well as some issues and challenges related to the use of virtual worlds. We have also compiled an up-to-date resource page (http://healthcybermap.org/sl.htm), with additional online material and pointers to support and extend this study.

  1. Toward real-time endoscopically-guided robotic navigation based on a 3D virtual surgical field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Hu, Danying; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-03-01

    The challenge is to accurately guide the surgical tool within the three-dimensional (3D) surgical field for roboticallyassisted operations such as tumor margin removal from a debulked brain tumor cavity. The proposed technique is 3D image-guided surgical navigation based on matching intraoperative video frames to a 3D virtual model of the surgical field. A small laser-scanning endoscopic camera was attached to a mock minimally-invasive surgical tool that was manipulated toward a region of interest (residual tumor) within a phantom of a debulked brain tumor. Video frames from the endoscope provided features that were matched to the 3D virtual model, which were reconstructed earlier by raster scanning over the surgical field. Camera pose (position and orientation) is recovered by implementing a constrained bundle adjustment algorithm. Navigational error during the approach to fluorescence target (residual tumor) is determined by comparing the calculated camera pose to the measured camera pose using a micro-positioning stage. From these preliminary results, computation efficiency of the algorithm in MATLAB code is near real-time (2.5 sec for each estimation of pose), which can be improved by implementation in C++. Error analysis produced 3-mm distance error and 2.5 degree of orientation error on average. The sources of these errors come from 1) inaccuracy of the 3D virtual model, generated on a calibrated RAVEN robotic platform with stereo tracking; 2) inaccuracy of endoscope intrinsic parameters, such as focal length; and 3) any endoscopic image distortion from scanning irregularities. This work demonstrates feasibility of micro-camera 3D guidance of a robotic surgical tool.

  2. 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel processor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Solano, M.; VanDyke, J.P.; McMechan, G.A.; Epili, D.

    1998-03-01

    Portable, production-scale 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration software capable of full-volume imaging has been successfully implemented and applied to a six-million trace (46.9 Gbyte) marine data set from a salt/subsalt play in the Gulf of Mexico. Velocity model building and updates use an image-driven strategy and were performed in a Sun Sparc environment. Images obtained by 3-D prestack migration after three velocity iterations are substantially better focused and reveal drilling targets that were not visible in images obtained from conventional 3-D poststack time migration. Amplitudes are well preserved, so anomalies associated with known reservoirs conform to the petrophysical predictions. Prototype development was on an 8-node Intel iPSC860 computer; the production version was run on an 1824-node Intel Paragon computer. The code has been successfully ported to CRAY (T3D) and Unix workstation (PVM) environments.

  3. In vitro analysis of chemotactic leukocyte migration in 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Sixt, Michael; Lämmermann, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration on two-dimensional (2D) substrates follows entirely different rules than cell migration in three-dimensional (3D) environments. This is especially relevant for leukocytes that are able to migrate in the absence of adhesion receptors within the confined geometry of artificial 3D extracellular matrix scaffolds and within the interstitial space in vivo. Here, we describe in detail a simple and economical protocol to visualize dendritic cell migration in 3D collagen scaffolds along chemotactic gradients. This method can be adapted to other cell types and may serve as a physiologically relevant paradigm for the directed locomotion of most amoeboid cells.

  4. Visual landmarks facilitate rodent spatial navigation in virtual reality environments

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Isaac A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    Because many different sensory modalities contribute to spatial learning in rodents, it has been difficult to determine whether spatial navigation can be guided solely by visual cues. Rodents moving within physical environments with visual cues engage a variety of nonvisual sensory systems that cannot be easily inhibited without lesioning brain areas. Virtual reality offers a unique approach to ask whether visual landmark cues alone are sufficient to improve performance in a spatial task. We found that mice could learn to navigate between two water reward locations along a virtual bidirectional linear track using a spherical treadmill. Mice exposed to a virtual environment with vivid visual cues rendered on a single monitor increased their performance over a 3-d training regimen. Training significantly increased the percentage of time avatars controlled by the mice spent near reward locations in probe trials without water rewards. Neither improvement during training or spatial learning for reward locations occurred with mice operating a virtual environment without vivid landmarks or with mice deprived of all visual feedback. Mice operating the vivid environment developed stereotyped avatar turning behaviors when alternating between reward zones that were positively correlated with their performance on the probe trial. These results suggest that mice are able to learn to navigate to specific locations using only visual cues presented within a virtual environment rendered on a single computer monitor. PMID:22345484

  5. Real-time 3D reconstruction for collision avoidance in interventional environments.

    PubMed

    Ladikos, Alexander; Benhimane, Selim; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    With the increased presence of automated devices such as C-arms and medical robots and the introduction of a multitude of surgical tools, navigation systems and patient monitoring devices, collision avoidance has become an issue of practical value in interventional environments. In this paper, we present a real-time 3D reconstruction system for interventional environments which aims at predicting collisions by building a 3D representation of all the objects in the room. The 3D reconstruction is used to determine whether other objects are in the working volume of the device and to alert the medical staff before a collision occurs. In the case of C-arms, this allows faster rotational and angular movement which could for instance be used in 3D angiography to obtain a better reconstruction of contrasted vessels. The system also prevents staff to unknowingly enter the working volume of a device. This is of relevance in complex environments with many devices. The recovered 3D representation also opens the path to many new applications utilizing this data such as workflow analysis, 3D video generation or interventional room planning. To validate our claims, we performed several experiments with a real C-arm that show the validity of the approach. This system is currently being transferred to an interventional room in our university hospital.

  6. Measuring latency in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Friston, Sebastian; Steed, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    Latency of interactive computer systems is a product of the processing, transport and synchronisation delays inherent to the components that create them. In a virtual environment (VE) system, latency is known to be detrimental to a user's sense of immersion, physical performance and comfort level. Accurately measuring the latency of a VE system for study or optimisation, is not straightforward. A number of authors have developed techniques for characterising latency, which have become progressively more accessible and easier to use. In this paper, we characterise these techniques. We describe a simple mechanical simulator designed to simulate a VE with various amounts of latency that can be finely controlled (to within 3ms). We develop a new latency measurement technique called Automated Frame Counting to assist in assessing latency using high speed video (to within 1ms). We use the mechanical simulator to measure the accuracy of Steed's and Di Luca's measurement techniques, proposing improvements where they may be made. We use the methods to measure latency of a number of interactive systems that may be of interest to the VE engineer, with a significant level of confidence. All techniques were found to be highly capable however Steed's Method is both accurate and easy to use without requiring specialised hardware.

  7. Real-time 3D video compression for tele-immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Cui, Yi; Anwar, Zahid; Bocchino, Robert; Kiyanclar, Nadir; Nahrstedt, Klara; Campbell, Roy H.; Yurcik, William

    2006-01-01

    Tele-immersive systems can improve productivity and aid communication by allowing distributed parties to exchange information via a shared immersive experience. The TEEVE research project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of California at Berkeley seeks to foster the development and use of tele-immersive environments by a holistic integration of existing components that capture, transmit, and render three-dimensional (3D) scenes in real time to convey a sense of immersive space. However, the transmission of 3D video poses significant challenges. First, it is bandwidth-intensive, as it requires the transmission of multiple large-volume 3D video streams. Second, existing schemes for 2D color video compression such as MPEG, JPEG, and H.263 cannot be applied directly because the 3D video data contains depth as well as color information. Our goal is to explore from a different angle of the 3D compression space with factors including complexity, compression ratio, quality, and real-time performance. To investigate these trade-offs, we present and evaluate two simple 3D compression schemes. For the first scheme, we use color reduction to compress the color information, which we then compress along with the depth information using zlib. For the second scheme, we use motion JPEG to compress the color information and run-length encoding followed by Huffman coding to compress the depth information. We apply both schemes to 3D videos captured from a real tele-immersive environment. Our experimental results show that: (1) the compressed data preserves enough information to communicate the 3D images effectively (min. PSNR > 40) and (2) even without inter-frame motion estimation, very high compression ratios (avg. > 15) are achievable at speeds sufficient to allow real-time communication (avg. ~ 13 ms per 3D video frame).

  8. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  9. Shared virtual environments for aerospace training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Voss, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Virtual environments have the potential to significantly enhance the training of NASA astronauts and ground-based personnel for a variety of activities. A critical requirement is the need to share virtual environments, in real or near real time, between remote sites. It has been hypothesized that the training of international astronaut crews could be done more cheaply and effectively by utilizing such shared virtual environments in the early stages of mission preparation. The Software Technology Branch at NASA's Johnson Space Center has developed the capability for multiple users to simultaneously share the same virtual environment. Each user generates the graphics needed to create the virtual environment. All changes of object position and state are communicated to all users so that each virtual environment maintains its 'currency.' Examples of these shared environments will be discussed and plans for the utilization of the Department of Defense's Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) protocols for shared virtual environments will be presented. Finally, the impact of this technology on training and education in general will be explored.

  10. Creating virtual environments over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tom; Ricardo, Sendra; Young, Peter; Anderson, David; Yu, Jiang; Nagata, Shojiro

    1998-04-01

    Using Java as the implementation language and the Netscape Communicator package, a client/server environment is established to allow requests from client stations to download the selected virtual environment to be run on the client. Various security measures, such as certification, are included in the environment to ensure proper transfer of files and data packets. Once the operations in the downloaded virtual environment are completed, the environment automatically cleans up the experiment site of the client. This paper discusses the results on our experiments using this client/server environment and the experiences we had in implementing this environment.

  11. Calculation of the virtual current in an electromagnetic flow meter with one bubble using 3D model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Yantao

    2004-04-01

    Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction flow measurement, the Laplace equation in a complicated three-dimensional (3D) domain is solved by an alternating method. Virtual current potentials are obtained for an electromagnetic flow meter with one spherical bubble inside. The solutions are used to investigate the effects of bubble size and bubble position on the virtual current. Comparisons are done among the cases of 2D and 3D models, and of point electrode and large electrode. The results show that the 2D model overestimates the effect, while large electrodes are least sensitive to the bubble. This paper offers fundamentals for the study of the behavior of an electromagnetic flow meter in multiphase flow. For application, the results provide a possible way to estimate errors of the flow meter caused by multiphase flow.

  12. Virtual agents in a simulated virtual training environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achorn, Brett; Badler, Norman L.

    1993-01-01

    A drawback to live-action training simulations is the need to gather a large group of participants in order to train a few individuals. One solution to this difficulty is the use of computer-controlled agents in a virtual training environment. This allows a human participant to be replaced by a virtual, or simulated, agent when only limited responses are needed. Each agent possesses a specified set of behaviors and is capable of limited autonomous action in response to its environment or the direction of a human trainee. The paper describes these agents in the context of a simulated hostage rescue training session, involving two human rescuers assisted by three virtual (computer-controlled) agents and opposed by three other virtual agents.

  13. Optometric Measurements Predict Performance but not Comfort on a Virtual Object Placement Task with a Stereoscopic 3D Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-16

    environment, depth perception 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 29 19a. NAME OF...virtual environment, depth perception 1 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 88ABW Cleared 9/9/2013; 88ABW...precision placement of a virtual object in depth at the same location as a target object. Subjective discomfort was assessed using the Simulator Sickness

  14. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  15. Pictorial communication in virtual and real environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers about the communication between human users and machines in real and synthetic environments are presented. Individual topics addressed include: pictorial communication, distortions in memory for visual displays, cartography and map displays, efficiency of graphical perception, volumetric visualization of 3D data, spatial displays to increase pilot situational awareness, teleoperation of land vehicles, computer graphics system for visualizing spacecraft in orbit, visual display aid for orbital maneuvering, multiaxis control in telemanipulation and vehicle guidance, visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks, target axis effects under transformed visual-motor mappings, adapting to variable prismatic displacement. Also discussed are: spatial vision within egocentric and exocentric frames of reference, sensory conflict in motion sickness, interactions of form and orientation, perception of geometrical structure from congruence, prediction of three-dimensionality across continuous surfaces, effects of viewpoint in the virtual space of pictures, visual slant underestimation, spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays, stereoscopic stance perception, paradoxical monocular stereopsis and perspective vergence. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  16. Modeling and 3-D Simulation of Biofilm Dynamics in Aqueous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    2011-11-01

    We present a complex fluid model for biofilms growing in an aqueous environment. The modeling approach represents a new paradigm to develop models for biofilm-environment interaction that can be used to systematically incorporate refined chemical and physiological mechanisms. Special solutions of the model are presented and analyzed. 3-D numerical simulations in aqueous environment with emphasis on biofilm- ambient fluid interaction will be discussed in detail.

  17. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  18. Virtual screening and rational drug design method using structure generation system based on 3D-QSAR and docking.

    PubMed

    Chen, H F; Dong, X C; Zen, B S; Gao, K; Yuan, S G; Panaye, A; Doucet, J P; Fan, B T

    2003-08-01

    An efficient virtual and rational drug design method is presented. It combines virtual bioactive compound generation with 3D-QSAR model and docking. Using this method, it is possible to generate a lot of highly diverse molecules and find virtual active lead compounds. The method was validated by the study of a set of anti-tumor drugs. With the constraints of pharmacophore obtained by DISCO implemented in SYBYL 6.8, 97 virtual bioactive compounds were generated, and their anti-tumor activities were predicted by CoMFA. Eight structures with high activity were selected and screened by the 3D-QSAR model. The most active generated structure was further investigated by modifying its structure in order to increase the activity. A comparative docking study with telomeric receptor was carried out, and the results showed that the generated structures could form more stable complexes with receptor than the reference compound selected from experimental data. This investigation showed that the proposed method was a feasible way for rational drug design with high screening efficiency.

  19. Robot navigation in cluttered 3-D environments using preference-based fuzzy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongqing; Collins, Emmanuel G; Dunlap, Damion

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of previous planar navigation systems were developed for 3-D motion, which is needed for both unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical 2-D navigation subproblems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D subproblems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the intermediate preferences of the subproblems are fused to create a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed-control system is also developed to ensure efficient and safe navigation. Substantial simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can smoothly and effectively guide an unmanned helicopter through unknown and cluttered urban and forest environments.

  20. Learning Patterns as Criterion for Forming Work Groups in 3D Simulation Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maria Cela-Ranilla, Jose; Molías, Luis Marqués; Cervera, Mercè Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between the use of learning patterns as a grouping criterion to develop learning activities in the 3D simulation environment at University. Participants included 72 Spanish students from the Education and Marketing disciplines. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. The process was…

  1. Best Practices for Designing Online Learning Environments for 3D Modeling Curricula: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapson, Kathleen Harrell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an inventory of best practices for designing online learning environments for 3D modeling curricula. Due to the instructional complexity of three-dimensional modeling, few have sought to develop this type of course for online teaching and learning. Considering this, the study aimed to collectively aggregate…

  2. Physical Environment as a 3-D Textbook: Design and Development of a Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Seng Yeap; Yaacob, Naziaty Mohd; Ariffin, Ati Rosemary Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The use of the physical environment as a three-dimensional (3-D) textbook is not a common practice in educational facilities design. Previous researches documented that little progress has been made to incorporate environmental education (EE) into architecture, especially among the conventional designers who are often constrained by the budget and…

  3. Generation of a tumor spheroid in a microgravity environment as a 3D model of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Bernadette; Messina, Jane L; Heller, Richard

    2009-10-01

    An in vitro 3D model was developed utilizing a synthetic microgravity environment to facilitate studying the cell interactions. 2D monolayer cell culture models have been successfully used to understand various cellular reactions that occur in vivo. There are some limitations to the 2D model that are apparent when compared to cells grown in a 3D matrix. For example, some proteins that are not expressed in a 2D model are found up-regulated in the 3D matrix. In this paper, we discuss techniques used to develop the first known large, free-floating 3D tissue model used to establish tumor spheroids. The bioreactor system known as the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARVs) was used to provide a microgravity environment. The HARVs promoted aggregation of keratinocytes (HaCaT) that formed a construct that served as scaffolding for the growth of mouse melanoma. Although there is an emphasis on building a 3D model with the proper extracellular matrix and stroma, we were able to develop a model that excluded the use of matrigel. Immunohistochemistry and apoptosis assays provided evidence that this 3D model supports B16.F10 cell growth, proliferation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Immunofluorescence showed that melanoma cells interact with one another displaying observable cellular morphological changes. The goal of engineering a 3D tissue model is to collect new information about cancer development and develop new potential treatment regimens that can be translated to in vivo models while reducing the use of laboratory animals.

  4. A virtually imaged defocused array (VIDA) for high-speed 3D microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a method to capture a multifocus image stack based on recording multiple reflections generated by imaging through a custom etalon. The focus stack is collected in a single camera exposure and consequently the information needed for 3D reconstruction is recorded in the camera integration time, which is only 100 µs. We have used the VIDA microscope to temporally resolve the multi-lobed 3D morphology of neutrophil nuclei as they rotate and deform through a microfluidic constriction. In addition, we have constructed a 3D imaging flow cytometer and quantified the nuclear morphology of nearly a thousand white blood cells flowing at a velocity of 3 mm per second. The VIDA microscope is compact and simple to construct, intrinsically achromatic, and the field-of-view and stack number can be easily reconfigured without redesigning diffraction gratings and prisms.

  5. Accident or homicide--virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Räss, Beat; Jackowski, Christian; Thali, Michael J

    2013-02-10

    The analysis and reconstruction of forensically relevant events, such as traffic accidents, criminal assaults and homicides are based on external and internal morphological findings of the injured or deceased person. For this approach high-tech methods are gaining increasing importance in forensic investigations. The non-contact optical 3D digitising system GOM ATOS is applied as a suitable tool for whole body surface and wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing instruments and to reconstruct the course of event. In addition to the surface documentation, cross-sectional imaging methods deliver medical internal findings of the body. These 3D data are fused into a whole body model of the deceased. Additional to the findings of the bodies, the injury inflicting instruments and incident scene is documented in 3D. The 3D data of the incident scene, generated by 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry, is also included into the reconstruction. Two cases illustrate the methods. In the fist case a man was shot in his bedroom and the main question was, if the offender shot the man intentionally or accidentally, as he declared. In the second case a woman was hit by a car, driving backwards into a garage. It was unclear if the driver drove backwards once or twice, which would indicate that he willingly injured and killed the woman. With this work, we demonstrate how 3D documentation, data merging and animation enable to answer reconstructive questions regarding the dynamic development of patterned injuries, and how this leads to a real data based reconstruction of the course of event.

  6. Characteristics of tumor and host cells in 3-D simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, V.; Dinh, T.; Wood, T.; Pellis, N.; Hannigan, E.

    Co-cultures of three-dimensional (3-D) constructs of one cell type with dispersed cells of a second cell type in low-shear rotating suspension cultures in simulated microgravity environment have been used to investigate invasive properties of normal and malignant cell types. We have shown that the epithelial and endothelial cells undergo a switch in characteristics when grown in an in vitro 3-D environment, that mimics the in vivo host environment as compared with conventional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cultures. Histological preparations and immunohistochemical staining procedures of cocultured harvests demonstrated various markers of interest: like collagen vimentin, mucin, elastin, fibrin, fibrinogen, cytokeratin, adhesion molecules and various angiogenic factors by tumor cells from gynecological cancer patients along with fibroblasts, endothelial cells and patient-derived mononuclear cells (n=8). The growth rate was enhanced 10-15 folds by 3-D cocultures of patient-derived cells as compared with 2-D monolayer cultures and 3-D monocultures. The production of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin -8, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and angiogenin was studied by using ELISA and RT- PCR. Human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cell (HUVEC) were used to study the mitogenic response of the conditioned medium collected from 3-D monocultures and cocultures during proliferation and migration assays. The conditioned medium collected from 3-D cocultures of cancer cells also 1) increased the expression of message levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor flt-1 and KDR was observed by HUVEC, and 2) increased the expression of intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules on the surface of HUVEC, when measured by using Live cell ELISA assays and immunofluorescent staining as compared with 3-D monocultures of normal epithelial cells. There was an increase in production of 1) enzymatic activity that

  7. Taking Science Online: Evaluating Presence and Immersion through a Laboratory Experience in a Virtual Learning Environment for Entomology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard; Klesath, Marta; Meyer, John

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D virtual field trip was integrated into an online college entomology course and developed as a trial for the possible incorporation of future virtual environments to supplement online higher education laboratories. This article provides an explanation of the rationale behind creating the virtual experience, the Bug Farm; the method and…

  8. Multi-AUV Target Search Based on Bioinspired Neurodynamics Model in 3-D Underwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiang; Zhu, Daqi; Yang, Simon X

    2016-11-01

    Target search in 3-D underwater environments is a challenge in multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (multi-AUVs) exploration. This paper focuses on an effective strategy for multi-AUV target search in the 3-D underwater environments with obstacles. First, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is applied to extract information of environment from the sonar data to build a grid map of the underwater environments. Second, a topologically organized bioinspired neurodynamics model based on the grid map is constructed to represent the dynamic environment. The target globally attracts the AUVs through the dynamic neural activity landscape of the model, while the obstacles locally push the AUVs away to avoid collision. Finally, the AUVs plan their search path to the targets autonomously by a steepest gradient descent rule. The proposed algorithm deals with various situations, such as static targets search, dynamic targets search, and one or several AUVs break down in the 3-D underwater environments with obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of guiding multi-AUV to achieve search task of multiple targets with higher efficiency and adaptability compared with other algorithms.

  9. Proteopedia: A Collaborative, Virtual 3D Web-Resource for Protein and Biomolecule Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Eran; Prilusky, Jaime, Sussman, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein structures are hard to represent on paper. They are large, complex, and three-dimensional (3D)--four-dimensional if conformational changes count! Unlike most of their substrates, which can easily be drawn out in full chemical formula, drawing every atom in a protein would usually be a mess. Simplifications like showing only the surface of…

  10. Sharing visualization experiences among remote virtual environments

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.L.; Papka, M.E.; Pellegrino, M.; Stevens, R.

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality has become an increasingly familiar part of the science of visualization and communication of information. This, combined with the increase in connectivity of remote sites via high-speed networks, allows for the development of a collaborative distributed virtual environment. Such an environment enables the development of supercomputer simulations with virtual reality visualizations that can be displayed at multiple sites, with each site interacting, viewing, and communicating about the results being discovered. The early results of an experimental collaborative virtual reality environment are discussed in this paper. The issues that need to be addressed in the implementation, as well as preliminary results are covered. Also provided are a discussion of plans and a generalized application programmers interface for CAVE to CAVE will be provided.

  11. Virtually ostracized: studying ostracism in immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Kassner, Matthew P; Wesselmann, Eric D; Law, Alvin Ty; Williams, Kipling D

    2012-08-01

    Electronic-based communication (such as Immersive Virtual Environments; IVEs) may offer new ways of satisfying the need for social connection, but they also provide ways this need can be thwarted. Ostracism, being ignored and excluded, is a common social experience that threatens fundamental human needs (i.e., belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence). Previous ostracism research has made use of a variety of paradigms, including minimal electronic-based interactions (e.g., Cyberball) and communication (e.g., chatrooms and Short Message Services). These paradigms, however, lack the mundane realism that many IVEs now offer. Further, IVE paradigms designed to measure ostracism may allow researchers to test more nuanced hypotheses about the effects of ostracism. We created an IVE in which ostracism could be manipulated experimentally, emulating a previously validated minimal ostracism paradigm. We found that participants who were ostracized in this IVE experienced the same negative effects demonstrated in other ostracism paradigms, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the negative effects of ostracism in virtual environments. Though further research directly exploring these effects in online virtual environments is needed, this research suggests that individuals encountering ostracism in other virtual environments (such as massively multiplayer online role playing games; MMORPGs) may experience negative effects similar to those of being ostracized in real life. This possibility may have serious implications for individuals who are marginalized in their real life and turn to IVEs to satisfy their need for social connection.

  12. Distributed virtual environment for emergency medical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Garcia, Brian W.; Godsell-Stytz, Gayl M.

    1997-07-01

    In many professions where individuals must work in a team in a high stress environment to accomplish a time-critical task, individual and team performance can benefit from joint training using distributed virtual environments (DVEs). One professional field that lacks but needs a high-fidelity team training environment is the field of emergency medicine. Currently, emergency department (ED) medical personnel train by using words to create a metal picture of a situation for the physician and staff, who then cooperate to solve the problems portrayed by the word picture. The need in emergency medicine for realistic virtual team training is critical because ED staff typically encounter rarely occurring but life threatening situations only once in their careers and because ED teams currently have no realistic environment in which to practice their team skills. The resulting lack of experience and teamwork makes diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Virtual environment based training has the potential to redress these shortfalls. The objective of our research is to develop a state-of-the-art virtual environment for emergency medicine team training. The virtual emergency room (VER) allows ED physicians and medical staff to realistically prepare for emergency medical situations by performing triage, diagnosis, and treatment on virtual patients within an environment that provides them with the tools they require and the team environment they need to realistically perform these three tasks. There are several issues that must be addressed before this vision is realized. The key issues deal with distribution of computations; the doctor and staff interface to the virtual patient and ED equipment; the accurate simulation of individual patient organs' response to injury, medication, and treatment; and an accurate modeling of the symptoms and appearance of the patient while maintaining a real-time interaction capability. Our ongoing work addresses all of these issues. In this

  13. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G M; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Controlling Social Stress in Virtual Reality Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006

  15. Learner Perceptions and Recall of Small Group Discussions within 2D and 3D Collaborative Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Steve; Mohler, Jill; Morris, Joan; Sanchez, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Online learning critically relies upon good communication between engaged parties in order to convey ideas, meanings, and values. Emerging technologies in collaborative virtual environments are providing new affordances in establishing greater online presence and, in turn, greater abilities to communicate and learn. This study examines how…

  16. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Task Assignment of Swarm Robots in 3-D Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Zhu, Anmin; Yang, Simon X; Luo, Chaomin

    2016-03-15

    Intending to mimic the operating mechanism of biological neural systems, a self organizing map-based approach to task assignment of a swarm of robots in 3-D dynamic environments is proposed in this paper. This approach integrates the advantages and characteristics of biological neural systems. It is capable of dynamically planning the paths of a swarm of robots in 3-D environments under uncertain situations, such as when some robots are presented in or broken down or when more than one robot is needed for some special task locations. A Bezier path optimizing algorithm and a parameter adjusting algorithm are integrated in this paper. It is capable of reducing the complexity of the robot navigation control and limiting the number of convergence iterations. The simulation results with different environments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Recent improvements in SPE3D: a VR-based surgery planning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2014-02-01

    SPE3D is a surgery planning environment developed within TLEMsafe project [1] (funded by the European Commission FP7). It enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the customized musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the biomechanical analysis module, and export the scenario's parameters to the surgical navigation system. The personalized patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) MS model is registered with 3-D MRI dataset of lower limbs and the two modalities may be visualized simultaneously. Apart from main planes, any arbitrary MRI cross-section can be rendered on the 3-D MS model in real time. The interface provides tools for: bone cutting, manipulating and removal, repositioning muscle insertion points, modifying muscle force, removing muscles and placing implants stored in the implant library. SPE3D supports stereoscopic viewing as well as natural inspection/manipulation with use of haptic devices. Alternatively, it may be controlled with use of a standard computer keyboard, mouse and 2D display or a touch screen (e.g. in an operating room). The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their operative plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for training.

  18. Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing Using 3D Virtual World on "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Noor Faridah A.

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative and knowledge sharing virtual activity on "Second Life" using a learner-centred teaching methodology was initiated between Temasek Polytechnic and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HK PolyU) in the October 2011 semester. This paper highlights the author's experience in designing and implementing this e-learning…

  19. The Input-Interface of Webcam Applied in 3D Virtual Reality Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huey-Min; Cheng, Wen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Our research explores a virtual reality application based on Web camera (Webcam) input-interface. The interface can replace with the mouse to control direction intention of a user by the method of frame difference. We divide a frame into nine grids from Webcam and make use of the background registration to compute the moving object. In order to…

  20. Virtual Presence and the Mind's Eye in 3-D Online Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacham, R. C.; Denard, H.; Baker, D.

    2011-09-01

    Digital technologies have introduced fundamental changes in the forms, content, and media of communication. Indeed, some have suggested we are in the early stages of a seismic shift comparable to that in antiquity with the transition from a primarily oral culture to one based upon writing. The digital transformation is rapidly displacing the long-standing hegemony of text, and restoring in part social, bodily, oral and spatial elements, but in radically reconfigured forms and formats. Contributing to and drawing upon such changes and possibilities, scholars and those responsible for sites preserving or displaying cultural heritage, have undertaken projects to explore the properties and potential of the online communities enabled by "Virtual Worlds" and related platforms for teaching, collaboration, publication, and new modes of disciplinary research. Others, keenly observing and evaluating such work, are poised to contribute to it. It is crucial that leadership be provided to ensure that serious and sustained investigation be undertaken by scholars who have experience, and achievements, in more traditional forms of research, and who perceive the emerging potential of Virtual World work to advance their investigations. The Virtual Museums Transnational Network will seek to engage such scholars and provide leadership in this emerging and immensely attractive new area of cultural heritage exploration and experience. This presentation reviews examples of the current "state of the art" in heritage based Virtual World initiatives, looking at the new modes of social interaction and experience enabled by such online communities, and some of the achievements and future aspirations of this work.

  1. Enhancing Time-Connectives with 3D Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Eden, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to test the most efficient representation mode with which children with hearing impairment could express a story while producing connectives indicating relations of time and of cause and effect. Using Bruner's (1973, 1986, 1990) representation stages, we tested the comparative effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) as a mode of…

  2. "The Evolution of e-Learning in the Context of 3D Virtual Worlds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsilieris, Theodore; Dimopoulou, Nikoletta

    2013-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer new approaches towards knowledge acquisition and collaboration through distance learning processes. Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) have transformed the way that education is conducted nowadays. At the same time, the adoption of Virtual Worlds in the educational process is of great…

  3. Identification of potential influenza virus endonuclease inhibitors through virtual screening based on the 3D-QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, C; Chong, Y

    2009-01-01

    Influenza endonucleases have appeared as an attractive target of antiviral therapy for influenza infection. With the purpose of designing a novel antiviral agent with enhanced biological activities against influenza endonuclease, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) model was generated based on 34 influenza endonuclease inhibitors. The comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) with a steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic (SEH) model showed the best correlative and predictive capability (q(2) = 0.763, r(2) = 0.969 and F = 174.785), which provided a pharmacophore composed of the electronegative moiety as well as the bulky hydrophobic group. The CoMSIA model was used as a pharmacophore query in the UNITY search of the ChemDiv compound library to give virtual active compounds. The 3D-QSAR model was then used to predict the activity of the selected compounds, which identified three compounds as the most likely inhibitor candidates.

  4. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  5. Virtual touch 3D interactive system for autostereoscopic display with embedded optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Ma, Ming-Ching; Tung, Shang-Yu; Huang, Shu-Yi; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chung-Hong; Li, Chun-Huai

    2011-06-01

    The traidational 3D interactive sysetm which uses CCD camera to capture image is difficult to operate on near range for mobile applications.Therefore, 3D interactive display with embedded optical sensor was proposed. Based on optical sensor based system, we proposed four different methods to support differenct functions. T mark algorithm can obtain 5- axis information (x, y, z,θ, and φ)of LED no matter where LED was vertical or inclined to panel and whatever it rotated. Sequential mark algorithm and color filter based algorithm can support mulit-user. Finally, bare finger touch system with sequential illuminator can achieve to interact with auto-stereoscopic images by bare finger. Furthermore, the proposed methods were verified on a 4-inch panel with embedded optical sensors.

  6. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Centerr (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provided general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  7. Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall SPace Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  8. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability providedgeneral visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  9. Model-based 3D human shape estimation from silhouettes for virtual fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    We propose a model-based 3D human shape reconstruction system from two silhouettes. Firstly, we synthesize a deformable body model from 3D human shape database consists of a hundred whole body mesh models. Each mesh model is homologous, so that it has the same topology and same number of vertices among all models. We perform principal component analysis (PCA) on the database and synthesize an Active Shape Model (ASM). ASM allows changing the body type of the model with a few parameters. The pose changing of our model can be achieved by reconstructing the skeleton structures from implanted joints of the model. By applying pose changing after body type deformation, our model can represents various body types and any pose. We apply the model to the problem of 3D human shape reconstruction from front and side silhouette. Our approach is simply comparing the contours between the model's and input silhouettes', we then use only torso part contour of the model to reconstruct whole shape. We optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between corresponding silhouettes by using a stochastic, derivative-free non-linear optimization method, CMA-ES.

  10. Obstacle classification and 3D measurement in unstructured environments based on ToF cameras.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongshan; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Yaonan; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Tang, Yandong

    2014-06-18

    Inspired by the human 3D visual perception system, we present an obstacle detection and classification method based on the use of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras for robotic navigation in unstructured environments. The ToF camera provides 3D sensing by capturing an image along with per-pixel 3D space information. Based on this valuable feature and human knowledge of navigation, the proposed method first removes irrelevant regions which do not affect robot's movement from the scene. In the second step, regions of interest are detected and clustered as possible obstacles using both 3D information and intensity image obtained by the ToF camera. Consequently, a multiple relevance vector machine (RVM) classifier is designed to classify obstacles into four possible classes based on the terrain traversability and geometrical features of the obstacles. Finally, experimental results in various unstructured environments are presented to verify the robustness and performance of the proposed approach. We have found that, compared with the existing obstacle recognition methods, the new approach is more accurate and efficient.

  11. Obstacle Classification and 3D Measurement in Unstructured Environments Based on ToF Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongshan; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Yaonan; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Tang, Yandong

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the human 3D visual perception system, we present an obstacle detection and classification method based on the use of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras for robotic navigation in unstructured environments. The ToF camera provides 3D sensing by capturing an image along with per-pixel 3D space information. Based on this valuable feature and human knowledge of navigation, the proposed method first removes irrelevant regions which do not affect robot's movement from the scene. In the second step, regions of interest are detected and clustered as possible obstacles using both 3D information and intensity image obtained by the ToF camera. Consequently, a multiple relevance vector machine (RVM) classifier is designed to classify obstacles into four possible classes based on the terrain traversability and geometrical features of the obstacles. Finally, experimental results in various unstructured environments are presented to verify the robustness and performance of the proposed approach. We have found that, compared with the existing obstacle recognition methods, the new approach is more accurate and efficient. PMID:24945679

  12. Hyper-NPSNET: A Virtual World with an Integrated 3D Hypertext

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-26

    on a nuclear propulsion plant , for example, that offers the capability to travel to the various engineering spaces at an instant in time to see the...status of the plant from various perspectives. The same engineer could even enter the virtual reactor vessel and examine fluid levels, navigate the...34immerse" oneself in a distracting world, or even providing the gateway to the development of cyborgs and other machine-enhanced creatures [Foley87

  13. Virtual Reality Training Environments: Contexts and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Stephen W.; Kenney, Patrick J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the contexts where virtual reality (VR) training environments might be appropriate; examines the advantages and disadvantages of VR as a training technology; and presents a case study of a VR training environment used at the NASA Johnson Space Center in preparation for the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. (AEF)

  14. Altering User Movement Behaviour in Virtual Environments.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Adalberto L; Mavridou, Ifigeneia; Powell, Wendy

    2017-04-01

    In immersive Virtual Reality systems, users tend to move in a Virtual Environment as they would in an analogous physical environment. In this work, we investigated how user behaviour is affected when the Virtual Environment differs from the physical space. We created two sets of four environments each, plus a virtual replica of the physical environment as a baseline. The first focused on aesthetic discrepancies, such as a water surface in place of solid ground. The second focused on mixing immaterial objects together with those paired to tangible objects. For example, barring an area with walls or obstacles. We designed a study where participants had to reach three waypoints laid out in such a way to prompt a decision on which path to follow based on the conflict between the mismatching visual stimuli and their awareness of the real layout of the room. We analysed their performances to determine whether their trajectories were altered significantly from the shortest route. Our results indicate that participants altered their trajectories in presence of surfaces representing higher walking difficulty (for example, water instead of grass). However, when the graphical appearance was found to be ambiguous, there was no significant trajectory alteration. The environments mixing immaterial with physical objects had the most impact on trajectories with a mean deviation from the shortest route of 60 cm against the 37 cm of environments with aesthetic alterations. The co-existance of paired and unpaired virtual objects was reported to support the idea that all objects participants saw were backed by physical props. From these results and our observations, we derive guidelines on how to alter user movement behaviour in Virtual Environments.

  15. 3D modeling of environments contaminated with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Ng, Ho-Kong; Bondy, Michel; McDiarmid, Carl H.

    2008-04-01

    CBRN Crime Scene Modeler (C2SM) is a prototype 3D modeling system for first responders investigating environments contaminated with Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents. The prototype operates on board a small robotic platform or a hand-held device. The sensor suite includes stereo and high resolution cameras, a long wave infra red camera, chemical detector, and two gamma detectors (directional and non-directional). C2SM has been recently tested in field trials where it was teleoperated within an indoor environment with gamma radiation sources present. The system has successfully created multi-modal 3D models (geometry, colour, IR and gamma radiation), correctly identified location of radiation sources and provided high resolution images of these sources.

  16. Guidelines for developing distributed virtual environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    1998-08-01

    We have conducted a variety of projects that served to investigate the limits of virtual environments and distributed virtual environment (DVE) technology for the military and medical professions. The projects include an application that allows the user to interactively explore a high-fidelity, dynamic scale model of the Solar System and a high-fidelity, photorealistic, rapidly reconfigurable aircraft simulator. Additional projects are a project for observing, analyzing, and understanding the activity in a military distributed virtual environment, a project to develop a distributed threat simulator for training Air Force pilots, a virtual spaceplane to determine user interface requirements for a planned military spaceplane system, and an automated wingman for use in supplementing or replacing human-controlled systems in a DVE. The last two projects are a virtual environment user interface framework; and a project for training hospital emergency department personnel. In the process of designing and assembling the DVE applications in support of these projects, we have developed rules of thumb and insights into assembling DVE applications and the environment itself. In this paper, we open with a brief review of the applications that were the source for our insights and then present the lessons learned as a result of these projects. The lessons we have learned fall primarily into five areas. These areas are requirements development, software architecture, human-computer interaction, graphical database modeling, and construction of computer-generated forces.

  17. Cooperative Wall-climbing Robots in 3D Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-08

    distribution of impeller vanes, volume of the chamber, and sealing effect , etc. Fig. 5 and 6 show some exemplary simulation results. In paper [11], we...Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking 11 multiple nonholonomic mobile robots using Cartesian coordinates. Based on the special feature...gamma-ray or x-ray cargo inspection system. Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the objects inside a cargo can be obtained by effectively

  18. Enhanced Rgb-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3d Modeling of Large Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-06-01

    RGB-D sensors are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks with respect to 3D dense mapping of indoor environments. First, they only allow a measurement range with a limited distance (e.g., within 3 m) and a limited field of view. Second, the error of the depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor. In this paper, we propose an enhanced RGB-D mapping method for detailed 3D modeling of large indoor environments by combining RGB image-based modeling and depth-based modeling. The scale ambiguity problem during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the information from the depth and visual information provided by the proposed system. A robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register the RGB image-based and depth-based 3D models together. The proposed method is examined with two datasets collected in indoor environments for which the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method

  19. Comparative brain morphology of Neotropical parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes) inferred from virtual 3D endocasts.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia Patricia; Degrange, Federico Javier; Benitez Saldivar, María Juliana; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2016-08-01

    Psittaciformes are a very diverse group of non-passerine birds, with advanced cognitive abilities and highly developed locomotor and feeding behaviours. Using computed tomography and three-dimensional (3D) visualization software, the endocasts of 14 extant Neotropical parrots were reconstructed, with the aim of analysing, comparing and exploring the morphology of the brain within the clade. A 3D geomorphometric analysis was performed, and the encephalization quotient (EQ) was calculated. Brain morphology character states were traced onto a Psittaciformes tree in order to facilitate interpretation of morphological traits in a phylogenetic context. Our results indicate that: (i) there are two conspicuously distinct brain morphologies, one considered walnut type (quadrangular and wider than long) and the other rounded (narrower and rostrally tapered); (ii) Psittaciformes possess a noticeable notch between hemisphaeria that divides the bulbus olfactorius; (iii) the plesiomorphic and most frequently observed characteristics of Neotropical parrots are a rostrally tapered telencephalon in dorsal view, distinctly enlarged dorsal expansion of the eminentia sagittalis and conspicuous fissura mediana; (iv) there is a positive correlation between body mass and brain volume; (v) psittacids are characterized by high EQ values that suggest high brain volumes in relation to their body masses; and (vi) the endocranial morphology of the Psittaciformes as a whole is distinctive relative to other birds. This new knowledge of brain morphology offers much potential for further insight in paleoneurological, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies.

  20. Visualizing vascular structures in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischgoll, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In order to learn more about the cause of coronary heart diseases and develop diagnostic tools, the extraction and visualization of vascular structures from volumetric scans for further analysis is an important step. By determining a geometric representation of the vasculature, the geometry can be inspected and additional quantitative data calculated and incorporated into the visualization of the vasculature. To provide a more user-friendly visualization tool, virtual environment paradigms can be utilized. This paper describes techniques for interactive rendering of large-scale vascular structures within virtual environments. This can be applied to almost any virtual environment configuration, such as CAVE-type displays. Specifically, the tools presented in this paper were tested on a Barco I-Space and a large 62x108 inch passive projection screen with a Kinect sensor for user tracking.

  1. Petroleum reservoir simulation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Bethel, E.W.; Datta-Gupta, A.; Holland, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe an approach to combining a reservoir simulation with 3-D visualization and virtual reality technology. Their prototype VR/visualization system minimizes human-machine interface barriers and provides enhanced control over the simulation, thereby maximizing scientific judgment and use of intuition. They illustrate the practical advantage of using the VR/visualization prototype system in reservoir engineering by visualizing the results of a waterflood in an oil field with a three-dimensional, spatially correlated heterogeneous permeability field.

  2. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  3. A Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D QSAR and Virtual Screening Studies on Imidazopyridines as B-Raf Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiding; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Xie, Xiaoguang; Qiu, Kaixiong; Fu, Jijun

    2015-05-29

    B-Raf kinase is an important target in treatment of cancers. In order to design and find potent B-Raf inhibitors (BRIs), 3D pharmacophore models were created using the Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment of Hypermolecular Alignment of Database (GALAHAD). The best pharmacophore model obtained which was used in effective alignment of the data set contains two acceptor atoms, three donor atoms and three hydrophobes. In succession, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 39 imidazopyridine BRIs to build three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) models based on both pharmacophore and docking alignments. The CoMSIA model based on the pharmacophore alignment shows the best result (q(2) = 0.621, r(2)(pred) = 0.885). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that are useful for designing potent BRIs. In addition, the obtained best pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening against the NCI2000 database. The hit compounds were further filtered with molecular docking, and their biological activities were predicted using the CoMSIA model, and three potential BRIs with new skeletons were obtained.

  4. DHM simulation in virtual environments: a case-study on control room design.

    PubMed

    Zamberlan, M; Santos, V; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Cury, R; Negri, T; Pastura, F; Guimarães, C; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present the workflow developed for the application of serious games in the design of complex cooperative work settings. The project was based on ergonomic studies and development of a control room among participative design process. Our main concerns were the 3D human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. Using Unity3D platform to design the virtual environment, the virtual human model can be controlled by users on dynamic scenario in order to evaluate the new work settings and simulate work activities. The results obtained showed that this virtual technology can drastically change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users and, managers and human factors team.

  5. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  6. 3D chromosome rendering from Hi-C data using virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yixin; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Weber, Philip; Fang, Jennifer; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Ren, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Most genome browsers display DNA linearly, using single-dimensional depictions that are useful to examine certain epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. However, these representations are insufficient to visualize intrachromosomal interactions and relationships between distal genome features. Relationships between DNA regions may be difficult to decipher or missed entirely if those regions are distant in one dimension but could be spatially proximal when mapped to three-dimensional space. For example, the visualization of enhancers folding over genes is only fully expressed in three-dimensional space. Thus, to accurately understand DNA behavior during gene expression, a means to model chromosomes is essential. Using coordinates generated from Hi-C interaction frequency data, we have created interactive 3D models of whole chromosome structures and its respective domains. We have also rendered information on genomic features such as genes, CTCF binding sites, and enhancers. The goal of this article is to present the procedure, findings, and conclusions of our models and renderings.

  7. WaveQ3D: Fast and accurate acoustic transmission loss (TL) eigenrays, in littoral environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Sean M.

    This study defines a new 3D Gaussian ray bundling acoustic transmission loss model in geodetic coordinates: latitude, longitude, and altitude. This approach is designed to lower the computation burden of computing accurate environmental effects in sonar training application by eliminating the need to transform the ocean environment into a collection of Nx2D Cartesian radials. This approach also improves model accuracy by incorporating real world 3D effects, like horizontal refraction, into the model. This study starts with derivations for a 3D variant of Gaussian ray bundles in this coordinate system. To verify the accuracy of this approach, acoustic propagation predictions of transmission loss, time of arrival, and propagation direction are compared to analytic solutions and other models. To validate the model's ability to predict real world phenomena, predictions of transmission loss and propagation direction are compared to at-sea measurements, in an environment where strong horizontal refraction effect have been observed. This model has been integrated into U.S. Navy active sonar training system applications, where testing has demonstrated its ability to improve transmission loss calculation speed without sacrificing accuracy.

  8. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Stereopsis, Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 16...Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 1 Distribution A: Approved...disparities (up to ~20 arc min) that are fused into a single binocular percept when presented briefly, and that result in increased perceptions of depth

  9. 3D visualisation and artistic imagery to enhance interest in `hidden environments' - new approaches to soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke 'soil atlas' was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets of artistic illustrations were produced, each set showing the effects of soil organic-matter density and water content on fungal density, to determine potential for visualisations and interactivity in stimulating interest in soil and soil illustrations, interest being an important factor in facilitating learning. The illustrations were created using 3D modelling packages, and a wide range of styles were produced. This allowed a preliminary study of the relative merits of different artistic styles, scientific-credibility, scale, abstraction and 'realism' (e.g. photo-realism or realism of forms), and any relationship between these and the level of interest indicated by the study participants in the soil visualisations and VE. The study found significant differences in mean interest ratings for different soil illustration styles, as well as in the perception of scientific-credibility of these styles, albeit for both measures there was considerable difference of attitude between participants about particular styles. There was also found to be a highly significant positive correlation between participants rating styles highly for interest and highly for scientific-credibility. There was furthermore a particularly high interest rating among participants for seeing temporal soil processes illustrated/animated, suggesting this as a particularly promising method for further stimulating interest in soil illustrations and soil itself.

  10. Effects of Presence, Copresence, and Flow on Learning Outcomes in 3D Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassell, Martin D.; Goyal, Sandeep; Limayem, Moez; Boughzala, Imed

    2012-01-01

    The level of satisfaction and effectiveness of 3D virtual learning environments were examined. Additionally, 3D virtual learning environments were compared with face-to-face learning environments. Students that experienced higher levels of flow and presence also experienced more satisfaction but not necessarily more effectiveness with 3D virtual…

  11. 3D graphics, virtual reality, and motion-onset visual evoked potentials in neurogaming.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, R; Wilson, S; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) offers movement-free control of a computer application and is achieved by reading and translating the cortical activity of the brain into semantic control signals. Motion-onset visual evoked potentials (mVEP) are neural potentials employed in BCIs and occur when motion-related stimuli are attended visually. mVEP dynamics are correlated with the position and timing of the moving stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing the mVEP paradigm with video games of various graphical complexities including those of commercial quality, we conducted three studies over four separate sessions comparing the performance of classifying five mVEP responses with variations in graphical complexity and style, in-game distractions, and display parameters surrounding mVEP stimuli. To investigate the feasibility of utilizing contemporary presentation modalities in neurogaming, one of the studies compared mVEP classification performance when stimuli were presented using the oculus rift virtual reality headset. Results from 31 independent subjects were analyzed offline. The results show classification performances ranging up to 90% with variations in conditions in graphical complexity having limited effect on mVEP performance; thus, demonstrating the feasibility of using the mVEP paradigm within BCI-based neurogaming.

  12. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  13. Ophthalmic microsurgical robot and associated virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I W; Jones, L A; Sagar, M A; Lafontaine, S R; Hunter, P J

    1995-03-01

    An ophthalmic virtual environment has been developed as part of a teleoperated microsurgical robot built to perform surgery on the eye. The virtual environment is unique in that it incorporates a detailed continuum model of the anatomical structures of the eye, its mechanics and optical properties, together with a less detailed geometric-mechanical model of the face. In addition to providing a realistic visual display of the eye being operated on, the virtual environment simulates tissue properties during manipulation and cutting and the forces involved are determined by solving a mechanical finite element model of the tissue. These forces are then fed back to the operator via a force reflecting master and so the surgeon can experience both the visual and mechanical sensations associated with performing surgery. The virtual environment can be used to enhance the images produced by the camera on the microsurgical slave robot during surgery and as a surgical simulator in which it replaces these images with computer graphics generated from the eye model.

  14. Elearn: A Collaborative Educational Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michailidou, Anna; Economides, Anastasios A.

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) that support collaboration are one of the new technologies that have attracted great interest. VLEs are learning management software systems composed of computer-mediated communication software and online methods of delivering course material. This paper presents ELearn, a collaborative VLE for teaching…

  15. On Mediation in Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Larry; Hassan, W. Shukry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses concepts of mediation and focuses on the importance of implementing comprehensive virtual learning environments. Topics include education and technology as they relate to cultural change, social institutions, the Internet and computer-mediated communication, software design and human-computer interaction, the use of MOOs, and language.…

  16. Virtual environments for telerobotic shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Brian K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a virtual environment to bring about telerobotic shared control is discussed. A knowledge base, referred to as the World Model, is used to aid the system in its decision making. Information from the World Model is displayed visually in order to aid the human side of human-computer interface.

  17. Middle School Students in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Erin Drankwalter

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined middle school students engaged in a virtual learning environment used in concert with face-to-face instruction in order to complete a collaborative research project. Thirty-eight students from three eighth grade classes participated in this study where data were collected through observation of student work within…

  18. A New Ionosphere Tomography Algorithm with Two-Grids Virtual Observations Constraints and 3D Velocity Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jian; Yao, Yibin; Shum, Che-Kwan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the sparsity of world's GNSS stations and limitations of projection angles, GNSS-based ionosphere tomography is a typical ill-posed problem. There are two main ways to solve this problem. Firstly the joint inversion method combining multi-source data is one of the effective ways. Secondly using a priori or reference ionosphere models, e.g., IRI or GIM models, as the constraints to improve the state of normal equation is another effective approach. The traditional way for adding constraints with virtual observations can only solve the problem of sparse stations but the virtual observations still lack horizontal grid constraints therefore unable to fundamentally improve the near-singularity characteristic of the normal equation. In this paper, we impose a priori constraints by increasing the virtual observations in n-dimensional space, which can greatly reduce the condition number of the normal equation. Then after the inversion region is gridded, we can form a stable structure among the grids with loose constraints. We then further consider that the ionosphere indeed changes within certain temporal scale, e.g., two hours. In order to establish a more sophisticated and realistic ionosphere model and obtain the real time ionosphere electron density velocity (IEDV) information, we introduce the grid electron density velocity parameters, which can be estimated with electron density parameters simultaneously. The velocity parameters not only can enhance the temporal resolution of the ionosphere model thereby reflecting more elaborate structure (short-term disturbances) under ionosphere disturbances status, but also provide a new way for the real-time detection and prediction of ionosphere 3D changes. We applied the new algorithm to the GNSS data collected in Europe for tomography inversion for ionosphere electron density and velocity at 2-hour resolutions, which are consistent throughout the whole day variation. We then validate the resulting tomography model

  19. 3D-modeling of Callisto's sputtered surface-exosphere environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, Helmut; Pfleger, Martin; Lindqvist, Jesper; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Holmström, Mats; Vorburger, Audrey; Wurz, Peter; Barabash, Stas

    2016-04-01

    We study the stoichiometrical release of various surface elements caused by plasma sputtering from an assumed icy and non-icy (i.e., chondritic) surface into the exosphere of the Jovian satellite Callisto. We apply a 3D plasma planetary interaction hybrid model that is used for the evaluation of precipitation maps of magnetospheric H+, O+ and S+ sputter agents onto Callisto's surface. The obtained precipitation maps are then applied to the assumed surface compositions where the related sputter yields are calculated by means of the 2013 SRIM code and are coupled with a 3D exosphere model. Sputtered surface particles are followed on their individual trajectories until they either escape Callisto's gravitational attraction or return to the surface. We study also the effect of collisions between sputter species and ambient O2 molecules which form a tiny atmosphere near the satellite's surface and compare the exosphere densities that are obtained from the 3D model with and without a background gaseous envelope with recent 1D model results. Finally we discuss if the Neutral gas and Ion Mass (NIM) spectrometer, that is part of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) on board of the JUICE mission will be able to detect sputtered particles from Callisto's icy and non-icy surface.

  20. Fast 3D modeling in complex environments using a single Kinect sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Haosong; Chen, Weihai; Wu, Xingming; Liu, Jingmeng

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modeling technology has been widely used in inverse engineering, urban planning, robot navigation, and many other applications. How to build a dense model of the environment with limited processing resources is still a challenging topic. A fast 3D modeling algorithm that only uses a single Kinect sensor is proposed in this paper. For every color image captured by Kinect, corner feature extraction is carried out first. Then a spiral search strategy is utilized to select the region of interest (ROI) that contains enough feature corners. Next, the iterative closest point (ICP) method is applied to the points in the ROI to align consecutive data frames. Finally, the analysis of which areas can be walked through by human beings is presented. Comparative experiments with the well-known KinectFusion algorithm have been done and the results demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is the same as KinectFusion but the computing speed is nearly twice of KinectFusion. 3D modeling of two scenes of a public garden and traversable areas analysis in these regions further verified the feasibility of our algorithm.

  1. A virtual reality environment for patient data visualization and endoscopic surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jung-Leng; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot

    2009-04-01

    Visualizing patient data in a three-dimensional (3D) representation can be an effective surgical planning tool.As medical imaging technologies improve with faster and higher resolution scans, the use of virtual reality for interacting with medical images adds another level of realism to a 3D representation. The software framework presented in this paper is designed to load and display any DICOM/PACS-compatible 3D image data for visualization and interaction in an immersive virtual environment. In "examiner" mode, the surgeon can interact with a 3D virtual model of the patient by using an intuitive set of controls designed to allow slicing, coloring,and windowing of the image to show different tissue densities and enhance important structures. In the simulated"endoscopic camera" mode, the surgeon can see through the point of view of a virtual endoscopic camera to navigate inside the patient. These tools allow the surgeon to perform virtual endoscopy on any suitable structure.The software is highly scalable, as it can be used on a single desktop computer to a cluster of computers in an immersive multiprojection virtual environment. By wearing a pair of stereo glasses, a surgeon becomes immersed within the model itself, thus providing a sense of realism, as if the surgeon is "inside" the patient.

  2. Interactive Motion Planning for Steerable Needles in 3D Environments with Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Bevel-tip steerable needles for minimally invasive medical procedures can be used to reach clinical targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable areas and are inaccessible to straight, rigid needles. We present a fast algorithm that can compute motion plans for steerable needles to reach targets in complex, 3D environments with obstacles at interactive rates. The fast computation makes this method suitable for online control of the steerable needle based on 3D imaging feedback and allows physicians to interactively edit the planning environment in real-time by adding obstacle definitions as they are discovered or become relevant. We achieve this fast performance by using a Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) combined with a reachability-guided sampling heuristic to alleviate the sensitivity of the RRT planner to the choice of the distance metric. We also relax the constraint of constant-curvature needle trajectories by relying on duty-cycling to realize bounded-curvature needle trajectories. These characteristics enable us to achieve orders of magnitude speed-up compared to previous approaches; we compute steerable needle motion plans in under 1 second for challenging environments containing complex, polyhedral obstacles and narrow passages. PMID:22294214

  3. Global Warming and the Arctic in 3D: A Virtual Globe for Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Globes provide a new way to capture and inform the public's interest in environmental change. As an example, a recent Google Earth presentation conveyed 'key findings' from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA, 2004) to middle school students during the 2006 INSTAAR/NSIDC Open House at the University of Colorado. The 20-minute demonstration to 180 eighth graders began with an introduction and a view of the Arctic from space, zooming into the North American Arctic, then to a placemark for the first key finding, 'Arctic climate is now warming rapidly and much larger changes are projected'. An embedded link then opened a custom web page, with brief explanatory text, along with an ACIA graphic illustrating the rise in Arctic temperature, global CO2 concentrations, and carbon emissions for the last millennium. The demo continued with an interactive tour of other key findings (Reduced Sea Ice, Changes for Animals, Melting Glaciers, Coastal Erosion, Changes in Vegetation, Melting Permafrost, and others). Each placemark was located somewhat arbitrarily (which may be a concern for some audiences), but the points represented the messages in a geographic sense and enabled a smooth visual tour of the northern latitudes. Each placemark was linked to custom web pages with photos and concise take-home messages. The demo ended with navigation to Colorado, then Boulder, then the middle school that the students attended, all the while speaking to implications as they live their lives locally. The demo piqued the students' curiosity, and in this way better conveyed important messages about the Arctic and climate change. The use of geospatial visualizations for outreach and education appears to be in its infancy, with much potential.

  4. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-08-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning.

  5. Psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms by means of simultaneous observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masayuki; Ookuma, Yoshio; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru

    2007-02-01

    Recently, many types of computer-generated stereograms (CGSs), i.e. various works of art produced by using computer are published for hobby and entertainment. It is said that activation of brain, improvement of visual eye sight, decrease of mental stress, effect of healing, etc. are expected when properly appreciating a kind of CGS as the stereoscopic view. There is a lot of information on the internet web site concerning all aspects of stereogram history, science, social organization, various types of stereograms, and free software for generating CGS. Generally, the CGS is classified into nine types: (1) stereo pair type, (2) anaglyph type, (3) repeated pattern type, (4) embedded type, (5) random dot stereogram (RDS), (6) single image stereogram (SIS), (7) united stereogram, (8) synthesized stereogram, and (9) mixed or multiple type stereogram. Each stereogram has advantages and disadvantages when viewing directly the stereogram with two eyes by training with a little patience. In this study, the characteristics of united, synthesized and mixed type stereograms, the role and composition of depth map image (DMI) called hidden image or picture, and the effect of irregular shift of texture pattern image called wall paper are discussed from the viewpoint of psychophysical estimation of 3D virtual depth and visual quality of virtual image by means of simultaneous observation in the case of the parallel viewing method.

  6. Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L.

    2008-12-15

    Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

  7. Communication Modes, Persuasiveness, and Decision-Making Quality: A Comparison of Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, and a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Geographically dispersed teams rely on information and communication technologies (ICTs) to communicate and collaborate. Three ICTs that have received attention are audio conferencing (AC), video conferencing (VC), and, recently, 3D virtual environments (3D VEs). These ICTs offer modes of communication that differ primarily in the number and type…

  8. Cell type-specific adaptation of cellular and nuclear volume in micro-engineered 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Klein, Franziska; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Richter, Benjamin; Striebel, Thomas; Wundari, Bayu G; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Wegener, Martin; Franz, Clemens M; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Bio-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) are structurally and mechanically well-defined and ideal for systematically investigating the influence of three-dimensionality and substrate stiffness on cell behavior. Here, we show that different fibroblast-like and epithelial cell lines maintain normal proliferation rates and form functional cell-matrix contacts in DLW-fabricated 3D scaffolds of different mechanics and geometry. Furthermore, the molecular composition of cell-matrix contacts forming in these 3D micro-environments and under conventional 2D culture conditions is identical, based on the analysis of several marker proteins (paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, β1-integrin). However, fibroblast-like and epithelial cells differ markedly in the way they adapt their total cell and nuclear volumes in 3D environments. While fibroblast-like cell lines display significantly increased cell and nuclear volumes in 3D substrates compared to 2D substrates, epithelial cells retain similar cell and nuclear volumes in 2D and 3D environments. Despite differential cell volume regulation between fibroblasts and epithelial cells in 3D environments, the nucleus-to-cell (N/C) volume ratios remain constant for all cell types and culture conditions. Thus, changes in cell and nuclear volume during the transition from 2D to 3D environments are strongly cell type-dependent, but independent of scaffold stiffness, while cells maintain the N/C ratio regardless of culture conditions.

  9. New approaches to virtual environment surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Twombly, A.; Lee, A. W.; Cheng, R.; Senger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This research focused on two main problems: 1) low cost, high fidelity stereoscopic imaging of complex tissues and organs; and 2) virtual cutting of tissue. A further objective was to develop these images and virtual tissue cutting methods for use in a telemedicine project that would connect remote sites using the Next Generation Internet. For goal one we used a CT scan of a human heart, a desktop PC with an OpenGL graphics accelerator card, and LCD stereoscopic glasses. Use of multiresolution meshes ranging from approximately 1,000,000 to 20,000 polygons speeded interactive rendering rates enormously while retaining general topography of the dataset. For goal two, we used a CT scan of an infant skull with premature closure of the right coronal suture, a Silicon Graphics Onyx workstation, a Fakespace Immersive WorkBench and CrystalEyes LCD glasses. The high fidelity mesh of the skull was reduced from one million to 50,000 polygons. The cut path was automatically calculated as the shortest distance along the mesh between a small number of hand selected vertices. The region outlined by the cut path was then separated from the skull and translated/rotated to assume a new position. The results indicate that widespread high fidelity imaging in virtual environment is possible using ordinary PC capabilities if appropriate mesh reduction methods are employed. The software cutting tool is applicable to heart and other organs for surgery planning, for training surgeons in a virtual environment, and for telemedicine purposes.

  10. Visualization and Interpretation in 3D Virtual Reality of Topographic and Geophysical Data from the Chicxulub Impact Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, J.; Kinsland, G. L.; Borst, C.

    2011-12-01

    We have assembled Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data (Borst and Kinsland, 2005), gravity data (Bedard, 1977), horizontal gravity gradient data (Hildebrand et al., 1995), magnetic data (Pilkington et al., 2000) and GPS topography data (Borst and Kinsland, 2005) from the Chicxulub Impact Crater buried on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. These data sets are imaged as gridded surfaces and are all georegistered, within an interactive 3D virtual reality (3DVR) visualization and interpretation system created and maintained in the Center for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. We are able to view and interpret the data sets individually or together and to scale and move the data or to move our physical head position so as to achieve the best viewing perspective for interpretation. A feature which is especially valuable for understanding the relationships between the various data sets is our ability to "interlace" the 3D images. "Interlacing" is a technique we have developed whereby the data surfaces are moved along a common axis so that they interpenetrate. This technique leads to rapid and positive identification of spatially corresponding features in the various data sets. We present several images from the 3D system, which demonstrate spatial relationships amongst the features in the data sets. Some of the anomalies in gravity are very nearly coincident with anomalies in the magnetic data as one might suspect if the causal bodies are the same. Other gravity and magnetic anomalies are not spatially coincident indicating different causal bodies. Topographic anomalies display a strong spatial correspondence with many gravity anomalies. In some cases small gravity anomalies and topographic valleys are caused by shallow dissolution within the Tertiary cover along faults or fractures propagated upward from the buried structure. In other cases the sources of the gravity anomalies are in the more deeply buried structure from which

  11. Building interactive virtual environments for simulated training in medicine using VRML and Java/JavaScript.

    PubMed

    Korocsec, D; Holobar, A; Divjak, M; Zazula, D

    2005-12-01

    Medicine is a difficult thing to learn. Experimenting with real patients should not be the only option; simulation deserves a special attention here. Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) as a tool for building virtual objects and scenes has a good record of educational applications in medicine, especially for static and animated visualisations of body parts and organs. However, to create computer simulations resembling situations in real environments the required level of interactivity and dynamics is difficult to achieve. In the present paper we describe some approaches and techniques which we used to push the limits of the current VRML technology further toward dynamic 3D representation of virtual environments (VEs). Our demonstration is based on the implementation of a virtual baby model, whose vital signs can be controlled from an external Java application. The main contributions of this work are: (a) outline and evaluation of the three-level VRML/Java implementation of the dynamic virtual environment, (b) proposal for a modified VRML Timesensor node, which greatly improves the overall control of system performance, and (c) architecture of the prototype distributed virtual environment for training in neonatal resuscitation comprising the interactive virtual newborn, active bedside monitor for vital signs and full 3D representation of the surgery room.

  12. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  13. WebVR: an interactive web browser for virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Emad; Kuester, Falko

    2005-03-01

    The pervasive nature of web-based content has lead to the development of applications and user interfaces that port between a broad range of operating systems and databases, while providing intuitive access to static and time-varying information. However, the integration of this vast resource into virtual environments has remained elusive. In this paper we present an implementation of a 3D Web Browser (WebVR) that enables the user to search the internet for arbitrary information and to seamlessly augment this information into virtual environments. WebVR provides access to the standard data input and query mechanisms offered by conventional web browsers, with the difference that it generates active texture-skins of the web contents that can be mapped onto arbitrary surfaces within the environment. Once mapped, the corresponding texture functions as a fully integrated web-browser that will respond to traditional events such as the selection of links or text input. As a result, any surface within the environment can be turned into a web-enabled resource that provides access to user-definable data. In order to leverage from the continuous advancement of browser technology and to support both static as well as streamed content, WebVR uses ActiveX controls to extract the desired texture skin from industry strength browsers, providing a unique mechanism for data fusion and extensibility.

  14. Exploring the User Experience of Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Biocca, Frank; Choo, Hyunseung

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the users' experiences with three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments to investigate the areas of development as a learning application. For the investigation, the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). Users' responses to questions about cognitive…

  15. The Effects of Instructor-Avatar Immediacy in Second Life, an Immersive and Interactive Three-Dimensional Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless-Reljic, Sabine Karine

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest of educational institutions in desktop 3D graphic virtual environments for hybrid and distance education prompts questions on the efficacy of such tools. Virtual worlds, such as Second Life[R], enable computer-mediated immersion and interactions encompassing multimodal communication channels including audio, video, and text-.…

  16. Proposals for Future Virtual Environment Software Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Anthony

    The past two decades have seen the development of a plethora of software solutions to support virtual environments. Many very capable software platforms, toolkits and libraries have been built, but the rate of development of new software continues to increase. There is very significant functional replication amongst these software, and there are few possibilities to migrate anything other than simple content from one piece of software to another. In this chapter we discuss why there are so many software solutions for virtual environments. We make some suggestions to software developers that might facilitate code re-use at the platform building stage, with the aim of moving towards platforms that support content re-use.

  17. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  18. Virtual Environment Training on Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Modeling, virtual environments and simulation MSAT Multi-purpose supporting arms trainer MTO Message to observer MVC Model-view-controller O&M...V. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT A. BACKGROUND Examining SAT-M through the lens of the model-view-controller ( MVC ) design pattern was the first step in...CFF VEs, primarily ObserverSim. 1. Model-View-Controller MVC assigns the software objects that make up a program “one of three roles: model, view, or

  19. Use of 3D conformal symbology on HMD for a safer flight in degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Ofer; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Trousil, Thomas; Peleg-Marzan, Ruthy

    2012-06-01

    Since the entry of coalition forces to Afghanistan and Iraq, a steep rise at the rate of accidents has occurred as a result of flying and landing in Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) conditions. Such conditions exist in various areas around the world and include bad weather, dust and snow landing (Brownout and whiteout) and low illumination at dark nights. A promising solution is a novel 3D conformal symbology displayed on head-tracked helmet mounted display (HMD). The 3D conformal symbology approach provides space stabilized three-dimensional symbology presented on the pilot helmet mounted display and has the potential of presenting a step function in HMD performance. It offers an intuitive way for presenting crucial information to the pilots in order to increase Situational Awareness, lower the pilots' workload and thus enhancing safety of flight dramatically. The pilots can fly "heads out" while the necessary flight and mission information is presented in intuitive manner, conformal with the real world and in real-time. . Several Evaluation trials had been conducted in the UK, US and Israel using systems that were developed by Elbit Systems to prove the embodied potential of the system to provide a solution for DVE flight conditions: technology, concept and the specific systems.

  20. Remote listening and passive acoustic detection in a 3-D environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhill, Colin

    Teleconferencing environments are a necessity in business, education and personal communication. They allow for the communication of information to remote locations without the need for travel and the necessary time and expense required for that travel. Visual information can be communicated using cameras and monitors. The advantage of visual communication is that an image can capture multiple objects and convey them, using a monitor, to a large group of people regardless of the receiver's location. This is not the case for audio. Currently, most experimental teleconferencing systems' audio is based on stereo recording and reproduction techniques. The problem with this solution is that it is only effective for one or two receivers. To accurately capture a sound environment consisting of multiple sources and to recreate that for a group of people is an unsolved problem. This work will focus on new methods of multiple source 3-D environment sound capture and applications using these captured environments. Using spherical microphone arrays, it is now possible to capture a true 3-D environment A spherical harmonic transform on the array's surface allows us to determine the basis functions (spherical harmonics) for all spherical wave solutions (up to a fixed order). This spherical harmonic decomposition (SHD) allows us to not only look at the time and frequency characteristics of an audio signal but also the spatial characteristics of an audio signal. In this way, a spherical harmonic transform is analogous to a Fourier transform in that a Fourier transform transforms a signal into the frequency domain and a spherical harmonic transform transforms a signal into the spatial domain. The SHD also decouples the input signals from the microphone locations. Using the SHD of a soundfield, new algorithms are available for remote listening, acoustic detection, and signal enhancement The new algorithms presented in this paper show distinct advantages over previous detection and

  1. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Francisco; Scherzberg, Jessica; Cavaleiro, João; Sanz, David; Caramelo, Francisco; Maló, Luísa; Marcelino, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D) virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain) to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required. PMID:27007767

  2. Innovation Education Enabled through a Collaborative Virtual Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Page, Tom; Lehtonen, Miika; Ha, Joong Gyu

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive account of the development of an approach to the support of design and technology education with 3D Virtual Reality (VR) technologies on an open and distance learning basis. This work promotes an understanding of the implications and possibilities of advanced virtual learning technologies in education for…

  3. Model-based adaptive 3D sonar reconstruction in reverberating environments.

    PubMed

    Saucan, Augustin-Alexandru; Sintes, Christophe; Chonavel, Thierry; Caillec, Jean-Marc Le

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model-based approach for 3D underwater scene reconstruction, i.e., bathymetry, for side scan sonar arrays in complex and highly reverberating environments like shallow water areas. The presence of multipath echoes and volume reverberation generates false depth estimates. To improve the resulting bathymetry, this paper proposes and develops an adaptive filter, based on several original geometrical models. This multimodel approach makes it possible to track and separate the direction of arrival trajectories of multiple echoes impinging the array. Echo tracking is perceived as a model-based processing stage, incorporating prior information on the temporal evolution of echoes in order to reject cluttered observations generated by interfering echoes. The results of the proposed filter on simulated and real sonar data showcase the clutter-free and regularized bathymetric reconstruction. Model validation is carried out with goodness of fit tests, and demonstrates the importance of model-based processing for bathymetry reconstruction.

  4. Enhanced ICP for the Registration of Large-Scale 3D Environment Models: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jianda; Yin, Peng; He, Yuqing; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    One of the main applications of mobile robots is the large-scale perception of the outdoor environment. One of the main challenges of this application is fusing environmental data obtained by multiple robots, especially heterogeneous robots. This paper proposes an enhanced iterative closest point (ICP) method for the fast and accurate registration of 3D environmental models. First, a hierarchical searching scheme is combined with the octree-based ICP algorithm. Second, an early-warning mechanism is used to perceive the local minimum problem. Third, a heuristic escape scheme based on sampled potential transformation vectors is used to avoid local minima and achieve optimal registration. Experiments involving one unmanned aerial vehicle and one unmanned surface vehicle were conducted to verify the proposed technique. The experimental results were compared with those of normal ICP registration algorithms to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method. PMID:26891298

  5. 3D Sound Techniques for Sound Source Elevation in a Loudspeaker Listening Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Guk; Jo, Sungdong; Kim, Hong Kook; Jang, Sei-Jin; Lee, Seok-Pil

    In this paper, we propose several 3D sound techniques for sound source elevation in stereo loudspeaker listening environments. The proposed method integrates a head-related transfer function (HRTF) for sound positioning and early reflection for adding reverberant circumstance. In addition, spectral notch filtering and directional band boosting techniques are also included for increasing elevation perception capability. In order to evaluate the elevation performance of the proposed method, subjective listening tests are conducted using several kinds of sound sources such as white noise, sound effects, speech, and music samples. It is shown from the tests that the degrees of perceived elevation by the proposed method are around the 17º to 21º when the stereo loudspeakers are located on the horizontal plane.

  6. Enhanced ICP for the Registration of Large-Scale 3D Environment Models: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianda; Yin, Peng; He, Yuqing; Gu, Feng

    2016-02-15

    One of the main applications of mobile robots is the large-scale perception of the outdoor environment. One of the main challenges of this application is fusing environmental data obtained by multiple robots, especially heterogeneous robots. This paper proposes an enhanced iterative closest point (ICP) method for the fast and accurate registration of 3D environmental models. First, a hierarchical searching scheme is combined with the octree-based ICP algorithm. Second, an early-warning mechanism is used to perceive the local minimum problem. Third, a heuristic escape scheme based on sampled potential transformation vectors is used to avoid local minima and achieve optimal registration. Experiments involving one unmanned aerial vehicle and one unmanned surface vehicle were conducted to verify the proposed technique. The experimental results were compared with those of normal ICP registration algorithms to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  7. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  8. Extension of the Optimized Virtual Fields Method to estimate viscoelastic material parameters from 3D dynamic displacement fields

    PubMed Central

    Connesson, N.; Clayton, E.H.; Bayly, P.V.; Pierron, F.

    2015-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of the mechanical properties of soft tissues is essential to provide necessary data in biomechanics and medicine (early cancer diagnosis, study of traumatic brain injuries, etc.). Imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) can provide 3D displacement maps in the bulk and in vivo, from which, using inverse methods, it is then possible to identify some mechanical parameters of the tissues (stiffness, damping etc.). The main difficulties in these inverse identification procedures consist in dealing with the pressure waves contained in the data and with the experimental noise perturbing the spatial derivatives required during the processing. The Optimized Virtual Fields Method (OVFM) [1], designed to be robust to noise, present natural and rigorous solution to deal with these problems. The OVFM has been adapted to identify material parameter maps from Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) data consisting of 3-dimensional displacement fields in harmonically loaded soft materials. In this work, the method has been developed to identify elastic and viscoelastic models. The OVFM sensitivity to spatial resolution and to noise has been studied by analyzing 3D analytically simulated displacement data. This study evaluates and describes the OVFM identification performances: different biases on the identified parameters are induced by the spatial resolution and experimental noise. The well-known identification problems in the case of quasi-incompressible materials also find a natural solution in the OVFM. Moreover, an a posteriori criterion to estimate the local identification quality is proposed. The identification results obtained on actual experiments are briefly presented. PMID:26146416

  9. Virtual Cities as a Collaborative Educational Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel Nehme; de Oliveira, Otto Lopes Braitback; Remião, Joelma Adriana Abrão; Silveira, Paloma Dias; Martins, Márcio André Rodrigues; Axt, Margarete

    The CIVITAS (Virtual Cities with Technologies for Learning and Simulating) project presents a research, teaching and extension approach directed to the construction of cities imagined by students in the first years of elementary school, with an emphasis to the fourth grade. The teacher ventures on a deviation from the official curriculum proposed to reflect upon the invention of cities along with the children. Within this context, the game Città is introduced as an environment that allows the creation of digital real/virtual/imagined cities, and enables different forms of interaction among the students through networked computers. The cooperative situations, made possible by the access to the game, are tools for teachers and students to think about the information that operate as general rules and words of order with the invention of the city/knowledge.

  10. Virtual environment application with partial gravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David M.; Vanchau, Michael N.

    1994-01-01

    To support manned missions to the surface of Mars and missions requiring manipulation of payloads and locomotion in space, a training facility is required to simulate the conditions of both partial and microgravity. A partial gravity simulator (Pogo) which uses pneumatic suspension is being studied for use in virtual reality training. Pogo maintains a constant partial gravity simulation with a variation of simulated body force between 2.2 and 10 percent, depending on the type of locomotion inputs. this paper is based on the concept and application of a virtual environment system with Pogo including a head-mounted display and glove. The reality engine consists of a high end SGI workstation and PC's which drive Pogo's sensors and data acquisition hardware used for tracking and control. The tracking system is a hybrid of magnetic and optical trackers integrated for this application.

  11. Scripting human animations in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

  12. Implementation of 3d Tools and Immersive Experience Interaction for Supporting Learning in a Library-Archive Environment. Visions and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletaki, A.; Carrozzino, M.; Johansen, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  13. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  14. Endovascular navigation based on real/virtual environments cooperation for computer-assisted TEAM procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goksu, Cemil; Haigron, Pascal; Acosta, Oscar; Lucas, Antoine

    2004-05-01

    Transfemoral Endovascular Aneurysm Management, the less invasive treatment of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysms (AAA), is a highly specialized procedure, using advanced devices and requiring a high degree of clinical expertise. There is a great need for a navigation guidance system able to make this procedure safer and more precise. In this context of computer-assisted minimally invasive interventional procedures, we propose a new framework based on the cooperation between the real environment where the intervention takes place and a patient-specific virtual environment, which contains a virtual operating room including a C-arm model as well as the 3D preoperative patient data. This approach aims to deal with the problem of lack of knowledge about soft tissue behavior by better exploiting available information before and during the intervention through a cooperative approach. In order to assist the TEAM procedure in standard interventional conditions, we applied this framework to design a 3D navigation guidance system, which has been successfully used during three TEAM interventions in the operating room. Intra-operatively, anatomical feature-based 2D/3D registration between a single 2D fluoroscopic view, reproduced from the pose planned in the virtual environment, and the preoperative CT volume, is performed by means of a chamfer distance map. The 3D localization of the endovascular devices (sheath, guide wire, prosthesis) tracked either interactively or automatically on 2D sequences, is constrained to either the 3D vascular tree or a 3D device model. Moreover, we propose a first solution to take into account the tissue deformations during this particular intervention and to update the virtual environment with the intraoperative data.

  15. Complex conditional control by pigeons in a continuous virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Reid, Sean; Cook, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    We tested two pigeons in a continuously streaming digital environment. Using animation software that constantly presented a dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment, the animals were tested with a conditional object identification task. The correct object at a given time depended on the virtual context currently streaming in front of the pigeon. Pigeons were required to accurately peck correct target objects in the environment for food reward, while suppressing any pecks to intermixed distractor objects which delayed the next object's presentation. Experiment 1 established that the pigeons' discrimination of two objects could be controlled by the surface material of the digital terrain. Experiment 2 established that the pigeons' discrimination of four objects could be conjunctively controlled by both the surface material and topography of the streaming environment. These experiments indicate that pigeons can simultaneously process and use at least two context cues from a streaming environment to control their identification behavior of passing objects. These results add to the promise of testing interactive digital environments with animals to advance our understanding of cognition and behavior.

  16. COMPLEX CONDITIONAL CONTROL BY PIGEONS IN A CONTINUOUS VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Reid, Sean; Cook, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    We tested two pigeons in a continuously streaming digital environment. Using animation software that constantly presented a dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment, the animals were tested with a conditional object identification task. The correct object at a given time depended on the virtual context currently streaming in front of the pigeon. Pigeons were required to accurately peck correct target objects in the environment for food reward, while suppressing any pecks to intermixed distractor objects which delayed the next object’s presentation. Experiment 1 established that the pigeons’ discrimination of two objects could be controlled by the surface material of the digital terrain. Experiment 2 established that the pigeons’ discrimination of four objects could be conjunctively controlled by both the surface material and topography of the streaming environment. These experiments indicate that pigeons can simultaneously process and use at least two context cues from a streaming environment to control their identification behavior of passing objects. These results add to the promise of testing interactive digital environments with animals to advance our understanding of cognition and behavior. PMID:26781058

  17. Research on conflict detection algorithm in 3D visualization environment of urban rail transit line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Xiong, Jing; You, Kuokuo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a method of collision detection is introduced, and the theory of three-dimensional modeling of underground buildings and urban rail lines is realized by rapidly extracting the buildings that are in conflict with the track area in the 3D visualization environment. According to the characteristics of the buildings, CSG and B-rep are used to model the buildings based on CSG and B-rep. On the basis of studying the modeling characteristics, this paper proposes to use the AABB level bounding volume method to detect the first conflict and improve the detection efficiency, and then use the triangular rapid intersection detection algorithm to detect the conflict, and finally determine whether the building collides with the track area. Through the algorithm of this paper, we can quickly extract buildings colliding with the influence area of the track line, so as to help the line design, choose the best route and calculate the cost of land acquisition in the three-dimensional visualization environment.

  18. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  19. The CAVE (TM) automatic virtual environment: Characteristics and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    Virtual reality may best be defined as the wide-field presentation of computer-generated, multi-sensory information that tracks a user in real time. In addition to the more well-known modes of virtual reality -- head-mounted displays and boom-mounted displays -- the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago recently introduced a third mode: a room constructed from large screens on which the graphics are projected on to three walls and the floor. The CAVE is a multi-person, room sized, high resolution, 3D video and audio environment. Graphics are rear projected in stereo onto three walls and the floor, and viewed with stereo glasses. As a viewer wearing a location sensor moves within its display boundaries, the correct perspective and stereo projections of the environment are updated, and the image moves with and surrounds the viewer. The other viewers in the CAVE are like passengers in a bus, along for the ride. 'CAVE,' the name selected for the virtual reality theater, is both a recursive acronym (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) and a reference to 'The Simile of the Cave' found in Plato's 'Republic,' in which the philosopher explores the ideas of perception, reality, and illusion. Plato used the analogy of a person facing the back of a cave alive with shadows that are his/her only basis for ideas of what real objects are. Rather than having evolved from video games or flight simulation, the CAVE has its motivation rooted in scientific visualization and the SIGGRAPH 92 Showcase effort. The CAVE was designed to be a useful tool for scientific visualization. The Showcase event was an experiment; the Showcase chair and committee advocated an environment for computational scientists to interactively present their research at a major professional conference in a one-to-many format on high-end workstations attached to large projection screens. The CAVE was developed as a 'virtual reality theater' with scientific content and

  20. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  1. A Learner-Centered Approach for Training Science Teachers through Virtual Reality and 3D Visualization Technologies: Practical Experience for Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Yau-Yuen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presentation will report on how some science educators at the Science Department of The Hong Kong Institute of Education have successfully employed an array of innovative learning media such as three-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) technologies to create seven sets of resource kits, most of which are being placed on the…

  2. SHARED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR COLLECTIVE TRAINING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen

    2000-01-01

    Historically NASA has trained teams of astronauts by bringing them to the Johnson Space Center in Houston to undergo generic training, followed by mission-specific training. This latter training begins after a crew has been selected for a mission (perhaps two years before the launch of that mission). While some Space Shuttle flights have included an astronaut from a foreign country, the International Space Station will be consistently crewed by teams comprised of astronauts from two or more of the partner nations. The cost of training these international teams continues to grow in both monetary and personal terms. Thus, NASA has been seeking alternative training approaches for the International Space Station program. Since 1994 we have been developing, testing, and refining shared virtual environments for astronaut team training, including the use of virtual environments for use while in or in transit to the task location. In parallel with this effort, we have also been preparing applications for training teams of military personnel engaged in peacekeeping missions. This paper will describe the applications developed to date, some of the technological challenges that have been overcome in their development, and the research performed to guide the development and to measure the efficacy of these shared environments as training tools.

  3. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  4. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  5. The role of the cytoskeleton in cellular force generation in 2D and 3D environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraning-Rush, Casey M.; Carey, Shawn P.; Califano, Joseph P.; Smith, Brooke N.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2011-02-01

    To adhere and migrate, cells generate forces through the cytoskeleton that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix. While cellular force generation has been studied on 2D substrates, less is known about cytoskeletal-mediated traction forces of cells embedded in more in vivo-like 3D matrices. Recent studies have revealed important differences between the cytoskeletal structure, adhesion, and migration of cells in 2D and 3D. Because the cytoskeleton mediates force, we sought to directly compare the role of the cytoskeleton in modulating cell force in 2D and 3D. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with agents that perturbed actin, microtubules, or myosin, and analyzed for changes in cytoskeletal organization and force generation in both 2D and 3D. To quantify traction stresses in 2D, traction force microscopy was used; in 3D, force was assessed based on single cell-mediated collagen fibril reorganization imaged using confocal reflectance microscopy. Interestingly, even though previous studies have observed differences in cell behaviors like migration in 2D and 3D, our data indicate that forces generated on 2D substrates correlate with forces within 3D matrices. Disruption of actin, myosin or microtubules in either 2D or 3D microenvironments disrupts cell-generated force. These data suggest that despite differences in cytoskeletal organization in 2D and 3D, actin, microtubules and myosin contribute to contractility and matrix reorganization similarly in both microenvironments.

  6. CaveCAD: a tool for architectural design in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Jürgen P.; Hughes, Cathleen E.; Zhang, Lelin; Edelstein, Eve; Macagno, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Existing 3D modeling tools were designed to run on desktop computers with monitor, keyboard and mouse. To make 3D modeling possible with mouse and keyboard, many 3D interactions, such as point placement or translations of geometry, had to be mapped to the 2D parameter space of the mouse, possibly supported by mouse buttons or keyboard keys. We hypothesize that had the designers of these existing systems had been able to assume immersive virtual reality systems as their target platforms, they would have been able to design 3D interactions much more intuitively. In collaboration with professional architects, we created a simple, but complete 3D modeling tool for virtual environments from the ground up and use direct 3D interaction wherever possible and adequate. In this publication, we present our approaches for interactions for typical 3D modeling functions, such as geometry creation, modification of existing geometry, and assignment of surface materials. We also discuss preliminary user experiences with this system.

  7. Augmenting ViSP's 3D Model-Based Tracker with RGB-D SLAM for 3D Pose Estimation in Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel application of the Visual Servoing Platform's (ViSP) for pose estimation in indoor and GPS-denied outdoor environments. Our proposed solution integrates the trajectory solution from RGBD-SLAM into ViSP's pose estimation process. Li-Chee-Ming and Armenakis (2015) explored the application of ViSP in mapping large outdoor environments, and tracking larger objects (i.e., building models). Their experiments revealed that tracking was often lost due to a lack of model features in the camera's field of view, and also because of rapid camera motion. Further, the pose estimate was often biased due to incorrect feature matches. This work proposes a solution to improve ViSP's pose estimation performance, aiming specifically to reduce the frequency of tracking losses and reduce the biases present in the pose estimate. This paper explores the integration of ViSP with RGB-D SLAM. We discuss the performance of the combined tracker in mapping indoor environments and tracking 3D wireframe indoor building models, and present preliminary results from our experiments.

  8. Evaluation of navigation interfaces in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    When users are immersed in cave-like virtual reality systems, navigational interfaces have to be used when the size of the virtual environment becomes larger than the physical extent of the cave floor. However, using navigation interfaces, physically static users experience self-motion (visually-induced vection). As a consequence, sensorial incoherence between vision (indicating self-motion) and other proprioceptive inputs (indicating immobility) can make them feel dizzy and disoriented. We tested, in two experimental studies, different locomotion interfaces. The objective was twofold: testing spatial learning and cybersickness. In a first experiment, using first-person navigation with a flystick ®, we tested the effect of sensorial aids, a spatialized sound or guiding arrows on the ground, attracting the user toward the goal of the navigation task. Results revealed that sensorial aids tended to impact negatively spatial learning. Moreover, subjects reported significant levels of cybersickness. In a second experiment, we tested whether such negative effects could be due to poorly controlled rotational motion during simulated self-motion. Subjects used a gamepad, in which rotational and translational displacements were independently controlled by two joysticks. Furthermore, we tested first- versus third-person navigation. No significant difference was observed between these two conditions. Overall, cybersickness tended to be lower, as compared to experiment 1, but the difference was not significant. Future research should evaluate further the hypothesis of the role of passively perceived optical flow in cybersickness, but manipulating the virtual environment'sperrot structure. It also seems that video-gaming experience might be involved in the user's sensitivity to cybersickness.

  9. EEG-based cognitive load of processing events in 3D virtual worlds is lower than processing events in 2D displays.

    PubMed

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2016-08-31

    Interacting with 2D displays, such as computer screens, smartphones, and TV, is currently a part of our daily routine; however, our visual system is built for processing 3D worlds. We examined the cognitive load associated with a simple and a complex task of learning paper-folding (origami) by observing 2D or stereoscopic 3D displays. While connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) system, participants watched a 2D video of an instructor demonstrating the paper-folding tasks, followed by a stereoscopic 3D projection of the same instructor (a digital avatar) illustrating identical tasks. We recorded the power of alpha and theta oscillations and calculated the cognitive load index (CLI) as the ratio of the average power of frontal theta (Fz.) and parietal alpha (Pz). The results showed a significantly higher cognitive load index associated with processing the 2D projection as compared to the 3D projection; additionally, changes in the average theta Fz power were larger for the 2D conditions as compared to the 3D conditions, while alpha average Pz power values were similar for 2D and 3D conditions for the less complex task and higher in the 3D state for the more complex task. The cognitive load index was lower for the easier task and higher for the more complex task in 2D and 3D. In addition, participants with lower spatial abilities benefited more from the 3D compared to the 2D display. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive processing associated with 2D and 3D worlds and for employing stereoscopic 3D technology over 2D displays in designing emerging virtual and augmented reality applications.

  10. ARC+(Registered Trademark) and ARC PC Welding Simulators: Teach Welders with Virtual Interactive 3D Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choquet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    123 Certification Inc., a Montreal based company, has developed an innovative hands-on welding simulator solution to help build the welding workforce in the most simple way. The solution lies in virtual reality technology, which has been fully tested since the early 90's. President and founder of 123 Certification Inc., Mr. Claude Choquet Ing. Msc. IWE. acts as a bridge between the welding and the programming world. Working in these fields for more than 20 years. he has filed 12 patents world-wide for a gesture control platform with leading edge hardware related to simulation. In the summer of 2006. Mr Choquet was proud to be invited to the annual IIW International Weld ing Congress in Quebec City to launch the ARC+ welding simulator. A 100% virtual reality system and web based training center was developed to simulate multi process. multi-materiaL multi-position and multi pass welding. The simulator is intended to train welding students and apprentices in schools or industries. The welding simulator is composed of a real welding e[eetrode holder (SMAW-GTAW) and gun (GMAW-FCAW). a head mounted display (HMD), a 6 degrees of freedom tracking system for interaction between the user's hands and head. as well as external audio speakers. Both guns and HMD are interacting online and simultaneously. The welding simulation is based on the law of physics and empirical results from detailed analysis of a series of welding tests based on industrial applications tested over the last 20 years. The simulation runs in real-time, using a local logic network to determine the quality and shape of the created weld. These results are based on the orientation distance. and speed of the welding torch and depth of penetration. The welding process and resulting weld bc.1d are displayed in a virtual environment with screenplay interactive training modules. For review. weld quality and recorded process values can be displayed and diagnosed after welding. To help in the le.tming process, a

  11. Dissociation of past and present experience in problem solving using a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2009-02-01

    An interactive 3D desktop virtual environment task was created to investigate learning mechanisms in human problem solving. Participants were assessed for previous video game experience, divided into two groups (Training and Control), and matched for gender and experience. The Training group learned specific skills within the virtual environment before being presented a problem. The Control group was presented the problem only. Completion time was faster for the Training group and was affected by level of previous video game experience. Results indicated problem solving was a function of specific and general experience and demonstrated a method for dissociating these two facets of experience.

  12. Comparing 2D and 3D Game-Based Learning Environments in Terms of Learning Gains and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ak, Oguz; Kutlu, Birgul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of traditional, 2D and 3D game-based environments assessed by student achievement scores and to reveal student perceptions of the value of these learning environments. A total of 60 university students from the Faculty of Education who were registered in three sections of a required…

  13. Translation of First North American 50 and 70 cc Total Artificial Heart Virtual and Clinical Implantations: Utility of 3D Computed Tomography to Test Fit Devices.

    PubMed

    Ferng, Alice S; Oliva, Isabel; Jokerst, Clinton; Avery, Ryan; Connell, Alana M; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Khalpey, Zain

    2016-11-10

    Since the creation of SynCardia's 50 cc Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs), patients with irreversible biventricular failure now have two sizing options. Herein, a case series of three patients who have undergone successful 50 and 70 cc TAH implantation with complete closure of the chest cavity utilizing preoperative "virtual implantation" of different sized devices for surgical planning are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images were used for preoperative planning prior to TAH implantation. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of preoperative chest CT images were generated and both 50 and 70 cc TAHs were virtually implanted into patients' thoracic cavities. During the simulation, the TAHs were projected over the native hearts in a similar position to the actual implantation, and the relationship between the devices and the atria, ventricles, chest wall, and diaphragm were assessed. The 3D reconstructed images and virtual modeling were used to simulate and determine for each patient if the 50 or 70 cc TAH would have a higher likelihood of successful implantation without complications. Subsequently, all three patients received clinical implants of the properly sized TAH based on virtual modeling, and their chest cavities were fully closed. This virtual implantation increases our confidence that the selected TAH will better fit within the thoracic cavity allowing for improved surgical outcome. Clinical implantation of the TAHs showed that our virtual modeling was an effective method for determining the correct fit and sizing of 50 and 70 cc TAHs.

  14. Evaluation of the cognitive effects of travel technique in complex real and virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Suma, Evan A; Finkelstein, Samantha L; Reid, Myra; V Babu, Sabarish; Ulinski, Amy C; Hodges, Larry F

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of experiments conducted to investigate the effects of travel technique on information gathering and cognition in complex virtual environments. In the first experiment, participants completed a non-branching multilevel 3D maze at their own pace using either real walking or one of two virtual travel techniques. In the second experiment, we constructed a real-world maze with branching pathways and modeled an identical virtual environment. Participants explored either the real or virtual maze for a predetermined amount of time using real walking or a virtual travel technique. Our results across experiments suggest that for complex environments requiring a large number of turns, virtual travel is an acceptable substitute for real walking if the goal of the application involves learning or reasoning based on information presented in the virtual world. However, for applications that require fast, efficient navigation or travel that closely resembles real-world behavior, real walking has advantages over common joystick-based virtual travel techniques.

  15. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    cameras of Microsoft's UltraCam series and the in-house processing chain centred on the Dense-Image-Matching (DIM) software SURE by nFrames. This paper reports the work carried out at AVT for the surface- and terrain modelling of several high-alpine areas using DIM- and ALS-based approaches. A special focus is dedicated to the influence of terrain morphology, flight planning, GNSS/IMU measurements, and ground-control distribution in the georeferencing process on the data quality. Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  16. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  17. Development of a Virtual Environment for Catapult Launch Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    recognition and recall.” Psychological Review, vol. 85, no. 3, p. 153, 1978. [17] B. G. Witmer and M. J. Singer, “Measuring presence in virtual environments...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CATAPULT LAUNCH OFFICERS by J e:ffrey...TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CATAPULT LAUNCH OF- FICERS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey Korzatkowski 7

  18. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training: 3D virtual/augmented reality scene-weather-atmosphere-target simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folaron, Michelle; Deacutis, Martin; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.

    2007-04-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. A previous SPIE presentation described our work for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG - WDT(Weather Depiction Technology) system (Colby, et al.). NVG -WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the WRF (Weather Research μ Forecasting) model; and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) are being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs. This paper expands on the work described in the previous presentation and will describe the 3D Virtual/Augmented Reality Scene - Weather - Atmosphere - Target Simulation part of the NVG - WDT. The 3D virtual reality software is a complete simulation system to generate realistic

  19. MGLab3D: An interactive environment for iterative solvers for elliptic PDEs in two and three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bordner, J.; Saied, F.

    1996-12-31

    GLab3D is an enhancement of an interactive environment (MGLab) for experimenting with iterative solvers and multigrid algorithms. It is implemented in MATLAB. The new version has built-in 3D elliptic pde`s and several iterative methods and preconditioners that were not available in the original version. A sparse direct solver option has also been included. The multigrid solvers have also been extended to 3D. The discretization and pde domains are restricted to standard finite differences on the unit square/cube. The power of this software studies in the fact that no programming is needed to solve, for example, the convection-diffusion equation in 3D with TFQMR and a customized V-cycle preconditioner, for a variety of problem sizes and mesh Reynolds, numbers. In addition to the graphical user interface, some sample drivers are included to show how experiments can be composed using the underlying suite of problems and solvers.

  20. Effects of Na+ and He+ pickup ions on the lunar plasma environment: 3D hybrid modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.

    2011-12-01

    The hybrid kinetic model used here supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the moon-solar wind-magnetosphere of the Earth system. There is a set of MHD,kinetic, hybrid, drift kinetic, electrostatic and full kinetic modeling of the lunar plasma environment [1]. However, observations show the existence of several species of the neutrals and pickup ions like Na, He, K, O etc., (see e.g., [2,3,4]). The solar wind parameters are chosen from the ARTEMIS observations [5]. The Na+, He+ lunar exosphere's parameters are chosen from [6,7]. The hybrid kinetic model allows us to take into account the finite gyroradius effects of pickup ions and to correctly estimate the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field, and on the lunar surface. Modeling shows the formation of the asymmetric Mach cone, the structuring of the pickup ion tails, and presents another type of lunar-solar wind interaction. We will compare the results of our modeling with observed distributions. References [1] Lipatov, A.S., and Cooper, J.F., Hybrid kinetic modeling of the Lunar plasma environment: Past, present and future. In: Lunar Dust, Plasma and Atmosphere: The Next Steps, January 27-29, 2010, Boulder, Colorado, Abstracts/lpa2010.colorado.edu/. [2] Potter, A.E., and Morgan, T.H., Discovery of sodium and potassium vapor in the atmosphere of the Moon, Science, 241, 675-680, doi:10.1126/science.241.4866.675, 1988. [3] Tyler, A.L., et al., Observations of sodium in the tenuous lunar atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(10), 1141-1144, doi:10.1029/GL015i010p01141, 1988. [4] Tanaka, T., et al., First in situ observation of the Moon-originating ions in the Earth's Magnetosphere by MAP-PACE on SELENE (KAGUYA), Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L22106, doi:10.1029/2009GL040682, 2009. [5] Wiehle, S., et al., First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations, Planet

  1. Olfactory Stimuli Increase Presence in Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Munyan, Benson G.; Neer, Sandra M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Jentsch, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure therapy (EXP) is the most empirically supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP consists of repeated exposure to a feared object or situation in the absence of the feared outcome in order to extinguish associated anxiety. Key to the success of EXP is the need to present the feared object/event/situation in as much detail and utilizing as many sensory modalities as possible, in order to augment the sense of presence during exposure sessions. Various technologies used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds). Studies have shown that scents can elicit emotionally charged memories, but no prior research has examined the effect of olfactory stimuli upon the patient’s sense of presence during simulated exposure tasks. Methods 60 adult participants navigated a mildly anxiety-producing virtual environment (VE) similar to those used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Participants had no autobiographical memory associated with the VE. State anxiety, Presence ratings, and electrodermal (EDA) activity were collected throughout the experiment. Results Utilizing a Bonferroni corrected Linear Mixed Model, our results showed statistically significant relationships between olfactory stimuli and presence as assessed by both the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ: R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52) = 6.625, p = 0.0007) and a single item visual-analogue scale (R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52) = 5.382, p = 0.0027). State anxiety was unaffected by the presence or absence of olfactory cues. EDA was unaffected by experimental condition. Conclusion Olfactory stimuli increase presence in virtual environments that approximate those typical in exposure therapy, but did not increase EDA. Additionally, once administered, the removal of scents resulted in a disproportionate decrease in presence. Implications for incorporating the use of scents to increase the efficacy of exposure therapy is discussed. PMID

  2. Estimating 3D gaze in physical environment: a geometric approach on consumer-level remote eye tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Mahesa, Rizki R.; Nugroho, Hanung A.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Remote eye trackers with consumer price have been used for various applications on flat computer screen. On the other hand, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been useful for visualizing gaze behavior, robots controller, and assistive technology. Instead of using affordable remote eye trackers, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been performed using corporate-level head mounted eye trackers, limiting its practical usage to niche user. In this research, we propose a novel method to estimate 3D gaze using consumer-level remote eye tracker. We implement geometric approach to obtain 3D point of gaze from binocular lines-of-sight. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded low errors of 3.47+/-3.02 cm, 3.02+/-1.34 cm, and 2.57+/-1.85 cm in X, Y , and Z dimensions, respectively. The proposed approach may be used as a starting point for designing interaction method in 3D physical environment.

  3. A Second Chance at Health: How a 3D Virtual World Can Improve Health Self-Efficacy for Weight Loss Management Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Lewallen, Jennifer; Choi, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Health self-efficacy, or the beliefs in one's capabilities to perform health behaviors, is a significant factor in eliciting health behavior change, such as weight loss. Research has demonstrated that virtual embodiment has the potential to alter one's psychology and physicality, particularly in health contexts; however, little is known about the impacts embodiment in a virtual world has on health self-efficacy. The present research is a randomized controlled trial (N = 90) examining the effectiveness of virtual embodiment and play in a social virtual world (Second Life [SL]) for increasing health self-efficacy (exercise and nutrition efficacy) among overweight adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3D social virtual world (avatar virtual interaction experimental condition), 2D social networking site (no avatar virtual interaction control condition), or no intervention (no virtual interaction control condition). The findings of this study provide initial evidence for the use of SL to improve exercise efficacy and to support weight loss. Results also suggest that individuals who have higher self-presence with their avatar reap more benefits. Finally, quantitative findings are triangulated with qualitative data to increase confidence in the results and provide richer insight into the perceived effectiveness and limitations of SL for meeting weight loss goals. Themes resulting from the qualitative analysis indicate that participation in SL can improve motivation and efficacy to try new physical activities; however, individuals who have a dislike for video games may not be benefitted by avatar-based virtual interventions. Implications for research on the transformative potential of virtual embodiment and self-presence in general are discussed.

  4. Research-Grade 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples: Novel Visualization of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Benefit Curation, Research, and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's vast and growing collections of astromaterials are both scientifically and culturally significant, requiring unique preservation strategies that need to be recurrently updated to contemporary technological capabilities and increasing accessibility demands. New technologies have made it possible to advance documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. Our interdisciplinary team has developed a method to create 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples (VAS) of the existing collections of Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorites. Research-grade 3D VAS will virtually put these samples in the hands of researchers and educators worldwide, increasing accessibility and visibility of these significant collections. With new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop advanced curation standards for documentation and visualization methodologies.

  5. Augmented reality and photogrammetry: A synergy to visualize physical and virtual city environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portalés, Cristina; Lerma, José Luis; Navarro, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Close-range photogrammetry is based on the acquisition of imagery to make accurate measurements and, eventually, three-dimensional (3D) photo-realistic models. These models are a photogrammetric product per se. They are usually integrated into virtual reality scenarios where additional data such as sound, text or video can be introduced, leading to multimedia virtual environments. These environments allow users both to navigate and interact on different platforms such as desktop PCs, laptops and small hand-held devices (mobile phones or PDAs). In very recent years, a new technology derived from virtual reality has emerged: Augmented Reality (AR), which is based on mixing real and virtual environments to boost human interactions and real-life navigations. The synergy of AR and photogrammetry opens up new possibilities in the field of 3D data visualization, navigation and interaction far beyond the traditional static navigation and interaction in front of a computer screen. In this paper we introduce a low-cost outdoor mobile AR application to integrate buildings of different urban spaces. High-accuracy 3D photo-models derived from close-range photogrammetry are integrated in real (physical) urban worlds. The augmented environment that is presented herein requires for visualization a see-through video head mounted display (HMD), whereas user's movement navigation is achieved in the real world with the help of an inertial navigation sensor. After introducing the basics of AR technology, the paper will deal with real-time orientation and tracking in combined physical and virtual city environments, merging close-range photogrammetry and AR. There are, however, some software and complex issues, which are discussed in the paper.

  6. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  7. A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abrar; Nawaz, Syed Junaid; Gulfam, Sardar Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate

  8. A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abrar; Nawaz, Syed Junaid; Gulfam, Sardar Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 107 scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to

  9. Three-dimensional display modes for CT colonography: conventional 3D virtual colonoscopy versus unfolded cube projection.

    PubMed

    Vos, Frans M; van Gelder, Rogier E; Serlie, Iwo W O; Florie, Jasper; Nio, C Yung; Glas, Afina S; Post, Frits H; Truyen, Roel; Gerritsen, Frans A; Stoker, Jaap

    2003-09-01

    The authors compared a conventional two-directional three-dimensional (3D) display for computed tomography (CT) colonography with an alternative method they developed on the basis of time efficiency and surface visibility. With the conventional technique, 3D ante- and retrograde cine loops were obtained (hereafter, conventional 3D). With the alternative method, six projections were obtained at 90 degrees viewing angles (unfolded cube display). Mean evaluation time per patient with the conventional 3D display was significantly longer than that with the unfolded cube display. With the conventional 3D method, 93.8% of the colon surface came into view; with the unfolded cube method, 99.5% of the colon surface came into view. Sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between the two methods. Agreements between observers were kappa = 0.605 for conventional 3D display and kappa = 0.692 for unfolded cube display. Consequently, the latter method enhances the 3D endoluminal display with improved time efficiency and higher surface visibility.

  10. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  11. Coming down to Earth: Helping Teachers Use 3D Virtual Worlds in Across-Spaces Learning Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Cristóbal, Juan A.; Prieto, Luis P.; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Jorrín-Abellán, Iván M.; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches have explored how to provide seamless learning across multiple ICT-enabled physical and virtual spaces, including three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). However, these approaches present limitations that may reduce their acceptance in authentic educational practice: The difficulties of authoring and sharing teacher-created…

  12. Atom pair 2D-fingerprints perceive 3D-molecular shape and pharmacophores for very fast virtual screening of ZINC and GDB-17.

    PubMed

    Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) molecular shape and pharmacophores are important determinants of the biological activity of organic molecules; however, a precise computation of 3D-shape is generally too slow for virtual screening of very large databases. A reinvestigation of the concept of atom pairs initially reported by Carhart et al. and extended by Schneider et al. showed that a simple atom pair fingerprint (APfp) counting atom pairs at increasing topological distances in 2D-structures without atom property assignment correlates with various representations of molecular shape extracted from the 3D-structures. A related 55-dimensional atom pair fingerprint extended with atom properties (Xfp) provided an efficient pharmacophore fingerprint with good performance for ligand-based virtual screening such as the recovery of active compounds from decoys in DUD, and overlap with the ROCS 3D-pharmacophore scoring function. The APfp and Xfp data were organized for web-based extremely fast nearest-neighbor searching in ZINC (13.5 M compounds) and GDB-17 (50 M random subset) freely accessible at www.gdb.unibe.ch .

  13. Active-Vision Control Systems for Complex Adversarial 3-D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Control Systems MURI Final Report 36 51. D. Nain, S. Haker , A. Bobick, A. Tannenbaum, "Multiscale 3D shape representation and segmentation using...Conference, August 2008. 99. L. Zhu, Y. Yang, S. Haker , and A. Tannenbaum, "An image morphing technique based on optimal mass preserving mapping," IEEE

  14. N-cadherin as a key regulator of collective cell migration in a 3D environment.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical step of normal developmental processes and disease progression. Often, migrating cells interact and maintain contact with neighboring cells. However, the precise roles of cell-cell adhesion in cell migration have thus far been poorly defined. Often in aggressive cancers, N-cadherin is prominently upregulated, yet, these highly motile cells have limited cell-cell adhesion when plated on a stiff 2D substrate. But, the same cells in a 3D matrix migrate as a multicellular cluster. This new observation suggests that N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion supports cell interactions between migrating cells in a more physiologically relevant 3D matrix, but not on a 2D substrate. While N-cadherin is an integral part of neural synapses, the ectopic expression of N-cadherin in transformed epithelial cells plays an equally important part in initiating pro-migratory signaling, and providing strong yet flexible cell cohesion essential for persistent cell migration in a 3D matrix. The 3D cell migration analysis for studying cell-to-cell interactions exposes the roles of N-cadherin in multicellular migration, and reveals novel insights into cell migration-dependent normal and pathological processes.

  15. EXTRACTING A RADAR REFLECTION FROM A CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT USING 3-D INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 3-D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at 50 MHz center frequency was conducted at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, to define the topography of the base of a shallow aquifer. The site for the survey was Chemical Disposal Pit #2 where there are many man-made features that generate ...

  16. New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional

  17. Virtual Environments Supporting Learning and Communication in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sue V. G.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) describes a set of technologies that allow users to explore and experience 3-dimensional computer-generated "worlds" or "environments." These virtual environments can contain representations of real or imaginary objects on a small or large scale (from modeling of molecular structures to buildings, streets, and scenery of a…

  18. Design Characteristics of Virtual Learning Environments: State of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel; Strohmeier, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Virtual learning environments constitute current information systems' category for electronically supported training and development in (higher) education(al) and vocational training settings. Frequently expected advantages of using virtual learning environments refer, for instance, to the efficiency, individuality, ubiquity, timeliness and…

  19. Virtual Learning Environment for Interactive Engagement with Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Skyum, Birk; Heck, Robert; Müller, Romain; Bason, Mark; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-01-01

    A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment "StudentResearcher," which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum…

  20. Temporal Issues in the Design of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan; Obeid, Jihad

    1995-01-01

    Describes design methods used to influence user perception of time in virtual learning environments. Examines the use of temporal cues in medical education and clinical competence testing. Finds that user perceptions of time affects user acceptance, ease of use, and the level of realism of a virtual learning environment. Contains 51 references.…

  1. The Doubtful Guest? A Virtual Research Environment for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laterza, Vito; Carmichael, Patrick; Procter, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a novel "Virtual Research Environment" (VRE) based on the Sakai Virtual Collaboration Environment and designed to support education research. This VRE has been used for the past two years by projects of the UK Economic and Social Research Council's Teaching and Learning Research Programme, 10 of which…

  2. The Impact of Emotional Arousal on Learning in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the impact of emotional arousal on learning in virtual environments. An...reason that emotional arousal (in moderation) may also have a positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the...1 A. TRAINING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS.................. 2 B. HUMAN MEMORY AND EMOTION ......................... 6 C

  3. LivePhantom: Retrieving Virtual World Light Data to Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To achieve realistic Augmented Reality (AR), shadows play an important role in creating a 3D impression of a scene. Casting virtual shadows on real and virtual objects is one of the topics of research being conducted in this area. In this paper, we propose a new method for creating complex AR indoor scenes using real time depth detection to exert virtual shadows on virtual and real environments. A Kinect camera was used to produce a depth map for the physical scene mixing into a single real-time transparent tacit surface. Once this is created, the camera’s position can be tracked from the reconstructed 3D scene. Real objects are represented by virtual object phantoms in the AR scene enabling users holding a webcam and a standard Kinect camera to capture and reconstruct environments simultaneously. The tracking capability of the algorithm is shown and the findings are assessed drawing upon qualitative and quantitative methods making comparisons with previous AR phantom generation applications. The results demonstrate the robustness of the technique for realistic indoor rendering in AR systems. PMID:27930663

  4. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  5. Faculty Perceptions of Instruction in Collaborative Virtual Immersive Learning Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Use of 3D (three-dimensional) avatars in a synchronous virtual world for educational purposes has only been adopted for about a decade. Universities are offering synchronous, avatar-based virtual courses for credit - within 3D worlds (Luo & Kemp, 2008). Faculty and students immerse themselves, via avatars, in virtual worlds and communicate…

  6. A virtual therapeutic environment with user projective agents.

    PubMed

    Ookita, S Y; Tokuda, H

    2001-02-01

    Today, we see the Internet as more than just an information infrastructure, but a socializing place and a safe outlet of inner feelings. Many personalities develop aside from real world life due to its anonymous environment. Virtual world interactions are bringing about new psychological illnesses ranging from netaddiction to technostress, as well as online personality disorders and conflicts in multiple identities that exist in the virtual world. Presently, there are no standard therapy models for the virtual environment. There are very few therapeutic environments, or tools especially made for virtual therapeutic environments. The goal of our research is to provide the therapy model and middleware tools for psychologists to use in virtual therapeutic environments. We propose the Cyber Therapy Model, and Projective Agents, a tool used in the therapeutic environment. To evaluate the effectiveness of the tool, we created a prototype system, called the Virtual Group Counseling System, which is a therapeutic environment that allows the user to participate in group counseling through the eyes of their Projective Agent. Projective Agents inherit the user's personality traits. During the virtual group counseling, the user's Projective Agent interacts and collaborates to recover and increase their psychological growth. The prototype system provides a simulation environment where psychologists can adjust the parameters and customize their own simulation environment. The model and tool is a first attempt toward simulating online personalities that may exist only online, and provide data for observation.

  7. Real World Issues in Developing a Malaysian Forest Battlefield Environment for Small Unit Tactics Using 3D Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsagoff, Syed Nasir

    In the military, training is essential as preparation for war. Small unit training involves training for platoon and section sized unit. The soldiers must train to maneuver, shoot and communicate. In order for the training to be successful, it must be as realistic as possible. Realistic training allows for the soldiers to be mentally and physically prepared for the battlefield. Unfortunately, there is a wide gap between training and the resources required to properly conduct the training [5]. Resources consist of suitable training location and material support such as ammunition, ration and fuel. Limitation on the resources means that training cannot be as realistic as possible. To ensure effective use of the limited training resources, training should be conducted in a simulated environment before migrating to a live environment. This paper will attempt to discuss the real world issues in developing a Malaysian Forest Battlefield Environment 3D Simulation for Small Unit Tactic using 3D Graphics.

  8. 3D-Printed Zeolite Monoliths for CO2 Removal from Enclosed Environments.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Harshul; Eastman, Stephen; Hajari, Amit; Rownaghi, Ali A; Knox, James C; Rezaei, Fateme

    2016-10-04

    Structured adsorbents, especially in the form of monolithic contactors, offer an excellent gas-solid contacting strategy for the development of practical and scalable CO2 capture technologies. In this study, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D)-printed 13X and 5A zeolite monoliths with novel structures and their use in CO2 removal from air are reported. The physical and structural properties of these printed monoliths are evaluated and compared with their powder counterparts. Our results indicate that 3D-printed monoliths with zeolite loadings as high as 90 wt % exhibit adsorption uptake that is comparable to that of powder sorbents. The adsorption capacities of 5A and 13X monoliths were found to be 1.59 and 1.60 mmol/g, respectively, using 5000 ppm (0.5%) CO2 in nitrogen at room temperature. The dynamic CO2/N2 breakthrough experiments show relatively fast dynamics for monolithic structures. In addition, the printed zeolite monoliths show reasonably good mechanical stability that can eventually prevent attrition and dusting issues commonly encountered in traditional pellets and beads packing systems. The 3D printing technique offers an alternative, cost-effective, and facile approach to fabricate structured adsorbents with tunable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties for use in gas separation processes.

  9. Multimedia virtualized environment for shoulder pain rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Researchers imported games and virtual reality training to help participants train their shoulders in a relaxed environment. [Subjects and Methods] This study included the use of Kinect somatosensory device with Unity software to develop 3-dimensional situational games. The data collected from this training process can be uploaded via the Internet to a cloud or server for participants to perform self-inspection. The data can be a reference for the medical staff to assess training effectiveness for those with impairments and plan patient rehabilitation courses. [Results] In the training activities, 8 subjects with normal shoulder function demonstrated that the system has good stability and reproducibility. Six subjects with impaired shoulder underwent 6 weeks of training. During the third week of training, average performance stabilized. The t-test comparing 1–2 weeks to 3–4 weeks and 5–6 weeks showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Using games as training methods improved patient concentration, interest in participation and allowed patients to forget about their body discomfort. The equipment utilized in this study is inexpensive, easy to obtain, and the system is easy to install. People can perform simple self-training both at home or in the office. PMID:27190481

  10. Multimedia virtualized environment for shoulder pain rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Researchers imported games and virtual reality training to help participants train their shoulders in a relaxed environment. [Subjects and Methods] This study included the use of Kinect somatosensory device with Unity software to develop 3-dimensional situational games. The data collected from this training process can be uploaded via the Internet to a cloud or server for participants to perform self-inspection. The data can be a reference for the medical staff to assess training effectiveness for those with impairments and plan patient rehabilitation courses. [Results] In the training activities, 8 subjects with normal shoulder function demonstrated that the system has good stability and reproducibility. Six subjects with impaired shoulder underwent 6 weeks of training. During the third week of training, average performance stabilized. The t-test comparing 1-2 weeks to 3-4 weeks and 5-6 weeks showed significant differences. [Conclusion] Using games as training methods improved patient concentration, interest in participation and allowed patients to forget about their body discomfort. The equipment utilized in this study is inexpensive, easy to obtain, and the system is easy to install. People can perform simple self-training both at home or in the office.

  11. Site remediation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Jacobsen, J.; Holland, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the process used in combining an existing computer simulation with both Virtual Reality (VR) input and output devices, and conventional visualization tools, so as to make the simulation easier to use and the results easier to understand. VR input technology facilitates direct user manipulation of three dimensional simulation parameters. Commercially available visualization tools provide a flexible environment for representing abstract scientific data. VR output technology provides a more flexible and convincing way to view the visualization results than is afforded in contemporary visualization software. The desired goal of this process is a prototype system that minimizes man-machine interface barriers, as well as enhanced control over the simulation itself, so as to maximize the use of scientific judgement and intuition. In environmental remediation, the goal is to clean up contaminants either by removing them or rendering them non-toxic. A computer model simulates water or chemical flooding to mobilize and extract hydrocarbon contaminants from a volume of saturated soil/rock. Several wells are drilled in the vicinity of the contaminant, water and/or chemicals are injected into some of the wells, and fluid containing the mobilized hydrocarbons is pumped out of the remaining wells. The user is tasked with finding well locations and pumping rates that maximize recovery of the contaminants while minimizing drilling and pumping costs to clean up the site of interest.

  12. NewVision: a program for interactive navigation and analysis of multiple 3-D data sets using coordinated virtual cameras.

    PubMed

    Pixton, J L; Belmont, A S

    1996-01-01

    We describe "NewVision", a program designed for rapid interactive display, sectioning, and comparison of multiple large three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions. User tools for navigating within large 3-D data sets and selecting local subvolumes for display, combined with view caching, fast integer interpolation, and background tasking, provide highly interactive viewing of arbitrarily sized data sets on Silicon Graphics systems ranging from simple workstations to supercomputers. Multiple windows, each showing different views of the same 3-D data set, are coordinated through mapping of local coordinate systems to a single global world coordinate system. Mapping to a world coordinate system allows quantitative measurements from any open window as well as creation of linked windows in which operations such as panning, zooming, and 3-D rotations of the viewing perspective in any one window are mirrored by corresponding transformations in the views shown in other linked windows. The specific example of tracing 3-D fiber trajectories is used to demonstrate the potential of the linked window concept. A global overview of NewVision's design and organization is provided, and future development directions are briefly discussed.

  13. A New Approach to Improve Cognition, Muscle Strength, and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly with a 3-D Virtual Reality Kayak Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyuck; Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied with deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity. Recently, intervention methods with virtual reality have been introduced, providing an enjoyable therapy for elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 3-D virtual reality kayak program could improve the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of community-dwelling elderly. Importantly, kayaking involves most of the upper body musculature and needs the balance control. Seventy-two participants were randomly allocated into the kayak program group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 36). The two groups were well matched with respect to general characteristics at baseline. The participants in both groups performed a conventional exercise program for 30 min, and then the 3-D virtual reality kayak program was performed in the kayak program group for 20 min, two times a week for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Muscle strength was measured using the arm curl and handgrip strength tests. Standing and sitting balance was measured using the Good Balance system. The post-test was performed in the same manner as the pre-test; the overall outcomes such as cognitive function (p < 0.05), muscle strength (p < 0.05), and balance (standing and sitting balance, p < 0.05) were significantly improved in kayak program group compared to the control group. We propose that the 3-D virtual reality kayak program is a promising intervention method for improving the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of elderly.

  14. Considerations for Designing Instructional Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Branch, Robert C.

    Virtual reality is an immersive, interactive medium that manipulates the senses in order provide users with simulated experiences in computer-generated worlds. The visual design of virtual reality is an important issue, but literature has tended to stress the medium's instructional potential rather than setting forth a protocol for designing…

  15. An MEK-cofilin signalling module controls migration of human T cells in 3D but not 2D environments.

    PubMed

    Klemke, Martin; Kramer, Elisabeth; Konstandin, Mathias H; Wabnitz, Guido H; Samstag, Yvonne

    2010-09-01

    T cells infiltrate peripheral tissues to execute immunosurveillance and effector functions. For this purpose, T cells first migrate on the two-dimensional (2D) surface of endothelial cells to undergo transendothelial migration. Then they change their mode of movement to undergo migration within the three-dimensional (3D)-extracellular matrix of the infiltrated tissue. As yet, no molecular mechanisms are known, which control migration exclusively in either 2D or 3D environments. Here, we describe a signalling module that controls T-cell chemotaxis specifically in 3D environments. In chemotaxing T cells, Ras activity is spatially restricted to the lamellipodium. There, Ras initiates activation of MEK, which in turn inhibits LIM-kinase 1 activity, thereby allowing dephosphorylation of the F-actin-remodelling protein cofilin. Interference with this MEK-cofilin module by either inhibition of MEK or by knockdown of cofilin reduces speed and directionality of chemotactic migration in 3D-extracellular matrices, but not on 2D substrates. This MEK-cofilin module may have an important function in the tissue positioning of T cells during an immune response.

  16. Guest Editor's introduction: Special issue on distributed virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Rodger

    1998-09-01

    Distributed virtual environments (DVEs) combine technology from 3D graphics, virtual reality and distributed systems to provide an interactive 3D scene that supports multiple participants. Each participant has a representation in the scene, often known as an avatar, and is free to navigate through the scene and interact with both the scene and other viewers of the scene. Changes to the scene, for example, position changes of one avatar as the associated viewer navigates through the scene, or changes to objects in the scene via manipulation, are propagated in real time to all viewers. This ensures that all viewers of a shared scene `see' the same representation of it, allowing sensible reasoning about the scene. Early work on such environments was restricted to their use in simulation, in particular in military simulation. However, over recent years a number of interesting and potentially far-reaching attempts have been made to exploit the technology for a range of other uses, including: Social spaces. Such spaces can be seen as logical extensions of the familiar text chat space. In 3D social spaces avatars, representing participants, can meet in shared 3D scenes and in addition to text chat can use visual cues and even in some cases spatial audio. Collaborative working. A number of recent projects have attempted to explore the use of DVEs to facilitate computer-supported collaborative working (CSCW), where the 3D space provides a context and work space for collaboration. Gaming. The shared 3D space is already familiar, albeit in a constrained manner, to the gaming community. DVEs are a logical superset of existing 3D games and can provide a rich framework for advanced gaming applications. e-commerce. The ability to navigate through a virtual shopping mall and to look at, and even interact with, 3D representations of articles has appealed to the e-commerce community as it searches for the best method of presenting merchandise to electronic consumers. The technology

  17. Generic robotic kinematic generator for virtual environment interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Piguet, Laurent; Baur, Charles

    1996-12-01

    The expansion of robotic systems' performance, as well as the need for such machines to work in complex environments (hazardous, small, distant, etc.), involves the need for user interfaces which permit efficient teleoperation. Virtual Reality based interfaces provide the user with a new method for robot task planning and control: he or she can define tasks in a very intuitive way by interacting with a 3D computer generated representation of the world, which is continuously updated thanks to multiple sensors fusion and analysis. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has successfully tested different kinds of teleoperations. In the early 90s, a transatlantic teleoperation of a conventional robot manipulator with a vision feedback system to update the virtual world was achieved. This approach was then extended to perform teleoperation of several mobile robots (Khepera, Koala) as well as to control microrobots used for microsystems' assembly in the micrometer range. One of the problems encountered with such an approach is the necessity to program a specific kinematic algorithm for each kind of manipulator. To provide a more general solution, we started a project aiming at the design of a 'kinematic generator' (CINEGEN) for the simulation of generic serial and parallel mechanical chains. With CINEGEN, each manipulator is defined with an ascii file description and its attached graphics files; inserting a new manipulator simply requires a new description file, and none of the existing tools require modification. To have a real time behavior, we have chosen a numerical method based on the pseudo-Jacobian method to generate the inverse kinematics of the robot. The results obtained with an object-oriented implementation on a graphic workstation are presented in this paper.

  18. Future Evolution of Virtual Worlds as Communication Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisco, Giulio

    Extensive experience creating locations and activities inside virtual worlds provides the basis for contemplating their future. Users of virtual worlds are diverse in their goals for these online environments; for example, immersionists want them to be alternative realities disconnected from real life, whereas augmentationists want them to be communication media supporting real-life activities. As the technology improves, the diversity of virtual worlds will increase along with their significance. Many will incorporate more advanced virtual reality, or serve as major media for long-distance collaboration, or become the venues for futurist social movements. Key issues are how people can create their own virtual worlds, travel across worlds, and experience a variety of multimedia immersive environments. This chapter concludes by noting the view among some computer scientists that future technologies will permit uploading human personalities to artificial intelligence avatars, thereby enhancing human beings and rendering the virtual worlds entirely real.

  19. Searching for anthranilic acid-based thumb pocket 2 HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors through a combination of molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Vrontaki, Eleni; Melagraki, Georgia; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Afantitis, Antreas

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the following computational methods: (i) molecular docking, (ii) 3-D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (3D-QSAR CoMFA), (iii) similarity search and (iv) virtual screening using PubChem database was applied to identify new anthranilic acid-based inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. A number of known inhibitors were initially docked into the "Thumb Pocket 2" allosteric site of the crystal structure of the enzyme HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B GT1b). Then, the CoMFA fields were generated through a receptor-based alignment of docking poses to build a validated and stable 3D-QSAR CoMFA model. The proposed model can be first utilized to get insight into the molecular features that promote bioactivity, and then within a virtual screening procedure, it can be used to estimate the activity of novel potential bioactive compounds prior to their synthesis and biological tests.

  20. The Synergetic Effect of Learning Styles on the Interaction between Virtual Environments and the Enhancement of Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Hanoch; Cohen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Students have difficulty learning 3D geometry; spatial thinking is an important aspect of the learning processes in this academic area. In light of the unique features of virtual environments and the influence of metacognitive processes (e.g., self-regulating questions) on the teaching of mathematics, we assumed that a combination of…

  1. Two implementations of shared virtual space environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T. L.

    1998-01-13

    While many issues in the area of virtual reality (VR) research have been addressed in recent years, the constant leaps forward in technology continue to push the field forward. VR research no longer is focused only on computer graphics, but instead has become even more interdisciplinary, combining the fields of networking, distributed computing, and even artificial intelligence. In this article we discuss some of the issues associated with distributed, collaborative virtual reality, as well as lessons learned during the development of two distributed virtual reality applications.

  2. Is a dark virtual environment scary?

    PubMed

    Toet, Alexander; van Welie, Marloes; Houtkamp, Joske

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of nighttime lighting conditions and stress on the affective appraisal of a virtual environment (VE). The effective application of VEs in emotionally intense simulations requires precise control over their characteristics that affect the user's emotions and behavior. It is known that humans have an innate fear of darkness, which increases after exposure to stress and extrapolates to ecologically valid (immersive) VEs. This study investigated if the simulated level of illumination determines the affective appraisal of a VE, particularly after stress. Participants explored either a daytime or a nighttime version of a VE, after performing either an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, or TSST) or a relaxing control task. The affective qualities of the VE were appraised through the Russel and Pratt semantic questionnaire on the valence and arousal dimensions. Distress was assessed through free salivary cortisol, the state self-report scale from the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and heart rate. In addition, memory for scenic details was tested through a yes-no recognition test. Free salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and scores on the STAI all indicate that participants who were subjected to the stress task indeed showed signs of distress, whereas participants in the control group showed no signs of stress. The results of the semantic questionnaire and the recognition test showed no significant overall effect of time-of-day conditions on the affective appraisal of the VE or on the recognition of its details, even after prior stress. The experiences of users exploring the VE were not affected by the simulated lighting conditions, even after acute prior stress. Thus, lowering the illumination level in a desktop VE is not sufficient to elicit anxiety. Hence, desktop VE representations are different from immersive VE representations in this respect. This finding has implications for desktop VE

  3. Integration of 3D and 2D imaging data for assured navigation in unknown environments: initial steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Evan; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the initial steps of the development of a novel navigation method that integrates three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data, two-dimensional (2D) gray-level (intensity), and data from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). A time-of-flight camera such as MESA's Swissranger will output both the 3D and 2D data. The target application is position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed algorithm extracts key features such as planar surfaces, lines and corner-points from both the 3D (point-cloud) and 2D (intensity) imagery. Consecutive observations of corresponding features in the 3D and 2D image frames are then used to compute estimates of position and orientation changes. Since the use of 3D image features for positioning suffers from limited feature observability resulting in deteriorated position accuracies, and the 2D imagery suffers from an unknown depth when estimating the pose from consecutive image frames, it is expected that the integration of both data sets will alleviate the problems with the individual methods resulting in an position and attitude determination method with a high level of assurance. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is used to set up the tracking gates necessary to perform data association of the features in consecutive frames. Finally, the position and orientation change estimates can be used to correct for the IMU drift errors.

  4. Nature and origins of virtual environments - A bibliographical essay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments presented via head-mounted, computer-driven displays provide a new media for communication. They may be analyzed by considering: (1) what may be meant by an environment; (2) what is meant by the process of virtualization; and (3) some aspects of human performance that constrain environmental design. Their origins are traced from previous work in vehicle simulation and multimedia research. Pointers are provided to key technical references, in the dispersed, archival literature, that are relevant to the development and evaluation of virtual-environment interface systems.

  5. Caring in the Dynamics of Design and Languaging: Exploring Second Language Learning in 3D Virtual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Dongping

    2012-01-01

    This study provides concrete evidence of ecological, dialogical views of languaging within the dynamics of coordination and cooperation in a virtual world. Beginning level second language learners of Chinese engaged in cooperative activities designed to provide them opportunities to refine linguistic actions by way of caring for others, for the…

  6. Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-06-01

    This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed.

  7. Transforming Clinical Imaging and 3D Data for Virtual Reality Learning Objects: HTML5 and Mobile Devices Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.; Nieder, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android…

  8. Declarative Knowledge Acquisition in Immersive Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rustin

    2016-01-01

    The author investigated the interaction effect of immersive virtual reality (VR) in the classroom. The objective of the project was to develop and provide a low-cost, scalable, and portable VR system containing purposely designed and developed immersive virtual learning environments for the US Army. The purpose of the mixed design experiment was…

  9. Virtual Worlds; Real Learning: Design Principles for Engaging Immersive Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu (u. Sjarpm)

    2012-01-01

    The EMDT master's program at Full Sail University embarked on a small project to use a virtual environment to teach graduate students. The property used for this project has evolved our several iterations and has yielded some basic design principles and pedagogy for virtual spaces. As a result, students are emerging from the program with a better grasp of future possibilities.

  10. Pedagogical Intercultural Practice of Teachers in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Carmen Ricardo; Haydar, Jorge Mizzuno

    2016-01-01

    This study presents some of the results of the project "Training and Development of Intercultural Competency of Teachers in Virtual Environments", carried out in ten Colombian Caribbean higher education institutions (HEI) offering virtual programs. It was performed in three steps: 1-diagnosis, 2-training, and 3-analysis of the…

  11. Designing a Virtual-Reality-Based, Gamelike Math Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…

  12. Ecological validity of virtual environments to assess human navigation ability

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Faber, Annemarie M. E.; Venselaar, Matthijs; van Kreveld, Marc J.; Löffler, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass), and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e., path, landmarks) was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning. PMID:26074831

  13. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  14. 3D-QSAR and virtual screening studies of thiazolidine-2,4-dione analogs: Validation of experimental inhibitory potencies towards PIM-1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asati, Vivek; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Budhwani, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The proviral insertion site in moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) is a family of serine/threonine kinase of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) group which is responsible for the activation and regulation of cellular transcription and translation. The three isoforms of PIM kinase (PIM-1, PIM-2 and PIM-3) share high homology and functional idleness are widely expressed and involved in a variety of biological processes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered expression of PIM-1 kinase correlated with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In the present study, atom-based 3D-QSAR, docking and virtual screening studies have been performed on a series of thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as PIM-1 kinase inhibitors. 3D-QSAR and docking approach has shortlisted the most active thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives such as 28, 31, 33 and 35 with the incorporation of more than one structural feature in a single molecule. External validations by various parameters and molecular docking studies at the active site of PIM-1 kinase have proved the reliability of the developed 3D-QSAR model. The generated pharmacophore (AADHR.33) from 3D-QSAR study was used for screening of drug like compounds from ZINC database, where ZINC15056464 and ZINC83292944 showed potential binding affinities at the active site amino acid residues (LYS67, GLU171, ASP128 and ASP186) of PIM-1 kinase (PDB ID: "pdb:4DTK").

  15. 3D hybrid modeling of the plasma environment near Titan for T5 encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of low-frequency waves and formation of the particle velocity distribution function (e.g. ring/shelllike distributions, etc.) The kinetic approach is important for estimating collision processes; e.g., charge exchange. In this report we discuss results of 3D hybrid modeling of the interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's atmosphere/ionosphere for T5 encounter. T5 flyby is the only encounter when the 2 main ionizating sources of Titan atmosphere, solar radiation and corotating plasma, align quasi-antiparallel. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Ion, and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements during the T5 flyby through Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere [1, 2]. Magnetic field data was used from the MAG instrument [3]. In our model the background ions (O+, H+), all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid (see e.g. [4]). Inhomogeneous photoionization (in the dayside ionosphere), electron-impact ionization, and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also incorporated into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account collisions between ions and neutrals. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. The first results of our hybridmodeling show a strong asymmetry in the background (H+, O+) and pickup (H+2 , N+2 ,CH+4 ) ion density profiles. Such strong asymmetry cannot be explained by a single-fluid multi-species 3D MHD model [5], which included complex chemistry but does not produce finite gyroradius and kinetic effects.

  16. A challenge problem for 2D/3D imaging of targets from a volumetric data set in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteel, Curtis H., Jr.; Gorham, LeRoy A.; Minardi, Michael J.; Scarborough, Steven M.; Naidu, Kiranmai D.; Majumder, Uttam K.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a challenge problem whose scope is the 2D/3D imaging of stationary targets from a volumetric data set of X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data collected in an urban environment. The data for this problem was collected at a scene consisting of numerous civilian vehicles and calibration targets. The radar operated in circular SAR mode and completed 8 circular flight paths around the scene with varying altitudes. Data consists of phase history data, auxiliary data, processing algorithms, processed images, as well as ground truth data. Interest is focused on mitigating the large side lobes in the point spread function. Due to the sparse nature of the elevation aperture, traditional imaging techniques introduce excessive artifacts in the processed images. Further interests include the formation of highresolution 3D SAR images with single pass data and feature extraction for 3D SAR automatic target recognition applications. The purpose of releasing the Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set is to provide the community with X-band SAR data that supports the development of new algorithms for high-resolution 2D/3D imaging.

  17. Electric field-controlled directed migration of neural progenitor cells in 2D and 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoting; Li, Wenfei; Young, Fraser; Gao, Runchi; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing

    2012-02-16

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) occur naturally in vivo and play a critical role during tissue/organ development and regeneration, including that of the central nervous system(1,2). These endogenous EFs are generated by cellular regulation of ionic transport combined with the electrical resistance of cells and tissues. It has been reported that applied EF treatment can promote functional repair of spinal cord injuries in animals and humans(3,4). In particular, EF-directed cell migration has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types(5,6), including neural progenitor cells (NPCs)(7,8). Application of direct current (DC) EFs is not a commonly available technique in most laboratories. We have described detailed protocols for the application of DC EFs to cell and tissue cultures previously(5,11). Here we present a video demonstration of standard methods based on a calculated field strength to set up 2D and 3D environments for NPCs, and to investigate cellular responses to EF stimulation in both single cell growth conditions in 2D, and the organotypic spinal cord slice in 3D. The spinal cordslice is an ideal recipient tissue for studying NPC ex vivo behaviours, post-transplantation, because the cytoarchitectonic tissue organization is well preserved within these cultures(9,10). Additionally, this ex vivo model also allows procedures that are not technically feasible to track cells in vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level. It is critically essential to evaluate cell behaviours in not only a 2D environment, but also in a 3D organotypic condition which mimicks the in vivo environment. This system will allow high-resolution imaging using cover glass-based dishes in tissue or organ culture with 3D tracking of single cell migration in vitro and ex vivo and can be an intermediate step before moving onto in vivo paradigms.

  18. Preparation and presentation of cultural content in virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zara, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a web-based application for preparation and presentation of various two and three dimensional cultural showpieces in a virtual environment. Specific task modules built on a common database provide tools for designing spatial models of a real or a fully virtual gallery, exhibit management, arrangement of exhibits within the virtual space, and final web presentation using standard VRML browser and Java applet. The whole application serves for different kinds of users gallery owners, artists, and visitors. A use of virtual reality paradigms for image presentation purposes is discussed here, too.

  19. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  20. Cognitive Performance Assessment in Mixed and Virtual Environment Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Army is currently interested in developing state-of-the- art training methods that leverage technology based on established and...data to the display clients. The real-time 3D scenes are presented using Emergent’s Gamebryo graphics engine. Art content is created, edited and...Graap, K., Reger, G. & Rizzo, A.A. (2006). User Centered Design of a Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Post Traumatic Stress

  1. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  2. HPVZ: A High Performance Virtual Computing Environment for Super Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Chi, Wanqing; Liu, Yongpeng; Tang, Hongwei

    Because of the features of isolation, security and consolidation, virtual machine technology is widely used in data center for server consolidation, which can support different operating systems or different isolated applications running on a single server. Besides this usage scenario on server systems, there are other scenarios that require more performance, isolation and security than consolidation. Such scenarios include HPC and Cluster for scientific computing. Because of the particularity of system architectures and usage requirements, existing virtual machine techniques cannot be used in HPC directly. Aiming to provide the features of architecture and requirements for HPC, we present a virtual machine technique for HPC system named High Performance Virtual Zone(HPVZ). HPVZ technique is the first complete solution for virtualization of HPC systems, and can provide users an isolated and secure running environment based on the structure of the HPC system. The evaluation shows that the HPVZ technique is the most cost-effective for HPC, compared to other virtual machine techniques.

  3. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for sorting cloud ensembles by dynamical state, aerosol environments by source region, and establishing causal relationships between aerosol amounts, type, and cloud microphysics-the so-called indirect aerosol climate impacts, and one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate models. Current satellite imagers use data processing approaches that invariably start with cloud detection/masking to isolate aerosol air-masses from clouds, and then rely on one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT) to interpret the aerosol and cloud measurements in isolation. Not only does this lead to well-documented biases for the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and cloud optical depths in current missions, but it is fundamentally inadequate for future missions such as EarthCARE where capturing the complex, three-dimensional (3D) interactions between clouds and aerosols is a primary objective. In order to advance the state of the art, the next generation of satellite information processing systems must incorporate technologies that will enable the treatment of the atmosphere as a fully 3D environment, represented more realistically as a continuum. At one end, there is an optically thin background dominated by aerosols and molecular scattering that is strongly stratified and relatively homogeneous in the horizontal. At the other end, there are optically thick embedded elements, clouds and aerosol plumes, which can be more or less uniform and quasi-planar or else highly 3D with boundaries in all directions; in both cases, strong internal variability may be present. To make this paradigm shift possible, we propose to combine the standard models for satellite signal prediction physically grounded in 1D and 3D RT, both scalar and vector, with technologies adapted from biomedical imaging, digital image processing, and computer vision. This will enable us to demonstrate how the 3D distribution of atmospheric constituents, and their associated

  4. A model and simulation to predict 3D imaging LADAR sensor systems performance in real-world type environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Dippel, George F.; Russo, Leonard E.

    2006-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to develop a high-fidelity model and simulation to predict the performance of angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR Imaging Sensor systems. Accurate methods to model and simulate performance from 3D LADAR systems have been lacking, relying upon either single pixel LADAR performance or extrapolating from passive detection FPA performance. The model and simulation here is developed expressly for 3D angle-angle-range imaging LADAR systems. To represent an accurate "real world" type environment this model and simulation accounts for: 1) laser pulse shape; 2) detector array size; 3) detector noise figure; 4) detector gain; 5) target attributes; 6) atmospheric transmission; 7) atmospheric backscatter; 8) atmospheric turbulence; 9) obscurants; 10) obscurant path length, and; 11) platform motion. The angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR model and simulation accounts for all pixels in the detector array by modeling and accounting for the non-uniformity of each individual pixel. Here, noise sources and gain are modeled based upon their pixel-to-pixel statistical variation. A cumulative probability function is determined by integrating the normal distribution with respect to detector gain, and, for each pixel, a random number is compared with the cumulative probability function resulting in a different gain for each pixel within the array. In this manner very accurate performance is determined pixel-by-pixel for the entire array. Model outputs are 3D images of the far-field distribution across the array as intercepted by the target, gain distribution, power distribution, average signal-to-noise, and probability of detection across the array.

  5. Sonobuoy-Based, 3-D Acoustic Characterization of Shallow-Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Shallow- Water Environments George V. Frisk Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering Florida Atlantic University SeaTech Campus 101 North Beach...TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this research is to increase our understanding of shallow water acoustic propagation and its relationship to the...three-dimensionally varying seabed and water column environments. OBJECTIVES The scientific objectives of this research are: (1) to develop high

  6. Improving Perceptual Skills with Interactive 3-D VRML Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Janet Faye

    1998-01-01

    Describes techniques developed to improve the perceptual skills of maintenance technicians who align shafts on rotating equipment. A 3-D practice environment composed of animated mechanical components and tools was enhanced with 3-D VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) scenes. (Author/AEF)

  7. Methods and systems relating to an augmented virtuality environment

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Anderson, Matthew O; McKay, Mark D; Wadsworth, Derek C; Boyce, Jodie R; Hruska, Ryan C; Koudelka, John A; Whetten, Jonathan; Bruemmer, David J

    2014-05-20

    Systems and methods relating to an augmented virtuality system are disclosed. A method of operating an augmented virtuality system may comprise displaying imagery of a real-world environment in an operating picture. The method may further include displaying a plurality of virtual icons in the operating picture representing at least some assets of a plurality of assets positioned in the real-world environment. Additionally, the method may include displaying at least one virtual item in the operating picture representing data sensed by one or more of the assets of the plurality of assets and remotely controlling at least one asset of the plurality of assets by interacting with a virtual icon associated with the at least one asset.

  8. Headphone and Head-Mounted Visual Displays for Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Duran R.; Ellis, Stephen R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A realistic auditory environment can contribute to both the overall subjective sense of presence in a virtual display, and to a quantitative metric predicting human performance. Here, the role of audio in a virtual display and the importance of auditory-visual interaction are examined. Conjectures are proposed regarding the effectiveness of audio compared to visual information for creating a sensation of immersion, the frame of reference within a virtual display, and the compensation of visual fidelity by supplying auditory information. Future areas of research are outlined for improving simulations of virtual visual and acoustic spaces. This paper will describe some of the intersensory phenomena that arise during operator interaction within combined visual and auditory virtual environments. Conjectures regarding audio-visual interaction will be proposed.

  9. The Cultural Divide: Exponential Growth in Classical 2D and Metabolic Equilibrium in 3D Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Borkowski, Kamil; Schwämmle, Veit; Dai, Jie; Joensen, Kira Eyd; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Carvalho, Vasco Botelho; Fey, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically different. Results Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved in cholesterol and urea synthesis are increased consistent with the attainment of cholesterol and urea production rates seen in vivo. DNA repair enzymes are increased even though cells are predominantly in Go. Transport around the cell – along the microtubules, through the nuclear pore and in various types of vesicles has been prioritized. There are numerous coherent changes in transcription, splicing, translation, protein folding and degradation. The amount of individual proteins within complexes is shown to be highly coordinated. Typically subunits which initiate a particular function are present in increased amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance. PMID:25222612

  10. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, Nathaniel I. (Compiler); Sheridan, Thomas B. (Compiler); Ellis, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    In Mar. 1990, a meeting organized around the general theme of teleoperation research into virtual environment display technology was conducted. This is a collection of conference-related fragments that will give a glimpse of the potential of the following fields and how they interplay: sensorimotor performance; human-machine interfaces; teleoperation; virtual environments; performance measurement and evaluation methods; and design principles and predictive models.

  11. An interactive virtual environment for finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S.; Canfield, T.; Kokinis, J.; Disz, T.

    1995-06-01

    Virtual environments (VE) provide a powerful human-computer interface that opens the door to exciting new methods of interaction with high-performance computing applications in several areas of research. The authors are interested in the use of virtual environments as a user interface to real-time simulations used in rapid prototyping procedures. Consequently, the authors are developing methods for coupling finite element models of complex mechanical systems with a VE interface for real-time interaction.

  12. Identification of source velocities on 3D structures in non-anechoic environments: Theoretical background and experimental validation of the inverse patch transfer functions method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucejo, M.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2010-08-01

    In noise control, identification of the source velocity field remains a major problem open to investigation. Consequently, methods such as nearfield acoustical holography (NAH), principal source projection, the inverse frequency response function and hybrid NAH have been developed. However, these methods require free field conditions that are often difficult to achieve in practice. This article presents an alternative method known as inverse patch transfer functions, designed to identify source velocities and developed in the framework of the European SILENCE project. This method is based on the definition of a virtual cavity, the double measurement of the pressure and particle velocity fields on the aperture surfaces of this volume, divided into elementary areas called patches and the inversion of impedances matrices, numerically computed from a modal basis obtained by FEM. Theoretically, the method is applicable to sources with complex 3D geometries and measurements can be carried out in a non-anechoic environment even in the presence of other stationary sources outside the virtual cavity. In the present paper, the theoretical background of the iPTF method is described and the results (numerical and experimental) for a source with simple geometry (two baffled pistons driven in antiphase) are presented and discussed.

  13. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.; Hudson, R.; Gokhale, N.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  14. Migration in Confined 3D Environments Is Determined by a Combination of Adhesiveness, Nuclear Volume, Contractility, and Cell Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Lautscham, Lena A; Kämmerer, Christoph; Lange, Janina R; Kolb, Thorsten; Mark, Christoph; Schilling, Achim; Strissel, Pamela L; Strick, Reiner; Gluth, Caroline; Rowat, Amy C; Metzner, Claus; Fabry, Ben

    2015-09-01

    In cancer metastasis and other physiological processes, cells migrate through the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix of connective tissue and must overcome the steric hindrance posed by pores that are smaller than the cells. It is currently assumed that low cell stiffness promotes cell migration through confined spaces, but other factors such as adhesion and traction forces may be equally important. To study 3D migration under confinement in a stiff (1.77 MPa) environment, we use soft lithography to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices consisting of linear channel segments with 20 μm length, 3.7 μm height, and a decreasing width from 11.2 to 1.7 μm. To study 3D migration in a soft (550 Pa) environment, we use self-assembled collagen networks with an average pore size of 3 μm. We then measure the ability of four different cancer cell lines to migrate through these 3D matrices, and correlate the results with cell physical properties including contractility, adhesiveness, cell stiffness, and nuclear volume. Furthermore, we alter cell adhesion by coating the channel walls with different amounts of adhesion proteins, and we increase cell stiffness by overexpression of the nuclear envelope protein lamin A. Although all cell lines are able to migrate through the smallest 1.7 μm channels, we find significant differences in the migration velocity. Cell migration is impeded in cell lines with larger nuclei, lower adhesiveness, and to a lesser degree also in cells with lower contractility and higher stiffness. Our data show that the ability to overcome the steric hindrance of the matrix cannot be attributed to a single cell property but instead arises from a combination of adhesiveness, nuclear volume, contractility, and cell stiffness.

  15. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  16. Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3d City Models - the Energy Atlas of Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, A.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of increasing greenhouse gas emission and global demographic change with the simultaneous trend to urbanization, it is a big challenge for cities around the world to perform modifications in energy supply chain and building characteristics resulting in reduced energy consumption and carbon dioxide mitigation. Sound knowledge of energy resource demand and supply including its spatial distribution within urban areas is of great importance for planning strategies addressing greater energy efficiency. The understanding of the city as a complex energy system affects several areas of the urban living, e.g. energy supply, urban texture, human lifestyle, and climate protection. With the growing availability of 3D city models around the world based on the standard language and format CityGML, energy system modelling, analysis and simulation can be incorporated into these models. Both domains will profit from that interaction by bringing together official and accurate building models including building geometries, semantics and locations forming a realistic image of the urban structure with systemic energy simulation models. A holistic view on the impacts of energy planning scenarios can be modelled and analyzed including side effects on urban texture and human lifestyle. This paper focuses on the identification, classification, and integration of energy-related key indicators of buildings and neighbourhoods within 3D building models. Consequent application of 3D city models conforming to CityGML serves the purpose of deriving indicators for this topic. These will be set into the context of urban energy planning within the Energy Atlas Berlin. The generation of indicator objects covering the indicator values and related processing information will be presented on the sample scenario estimation of heating energy consumption in buildings and neighbourhoods. In their entirety the key indicators will form an adequate image of the local energy situation for

  17. Ontological implications of being in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morie, Jacquelyn F.

    2008-02-01

    The idea of Virtual Reality once conjured up visions of new territories to explore, and expectations of awaiting worlds of wonder. VR has matured to become a practical tool for therapy, medicine and commercial interests, yet artists, in particular, continue to expand the possibilities for the medium. Artistic virtual environments created over the past two decades probe the phenomenological nature of these virtual environments. When we inhabit a fully immersive virtual environment, we have entered into a new form of Being. Not only does our body continue to exist in the real, physical world, we are also embodied within the virtual by means of technology that translates our bodied actions into interactions with the virtual environment. Very few states in human existence allow this bifurcation of our Being, where we can exist simultaneously in two spaces at once, with the possible exception of meta-physical states such as shamanistic trance and out-of-body experiences. This paper discusses the nature of this simultaneous Being, how we enter the virtual space, what forms of persona we can don there, what forms of spaces we can inhabit, and what type of wondrous experiences we can both hope for and expect.

  18. Human and tree classification based on a model using 3D ladar in a GPS-denied environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2013-05-01

    This study explained a method to classify humans and trees by extraction their geometric and statistical features in data obtained from 3D LADAR. In a wooded GPS-denied environment, it is difficult to identify the location of unmanned ground vehicles and it is also difficult to properly recognize the environment in which these vehicles move. In this study, using the point cloud data obtained via 3D LADAR, a method to extract the features of humans, trees, and other objects within an environment was implemented and verified through the processes of segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. First, for the segmentation, the radially bounded nearest neighbor method was applied. Second, for the feature extraction, each segmented object was divided into three parts, and then their geometrical and statistical features were extracted. A human was divided into three parts: the head, trunk and legs. A tree was also divided into three parts: the top, middle, and bottom. The geometric features were the variance of the x-y data for the center of each part in an object, using the distance between the two central points for each part, using K-mean clustering. The statistical features were the variance of each of the parts. In this study, three, six and six features of data were extracted, respectively, resulting in a total of 15 features. Finally, after training the extracted data via an artificial network, new data were classified. This study showed the results of an experiment that applied an algorithm proposed with a vehicle equipped with 3D LADAR in a thickly forested area, which is a GPS-denied environment. A total of 5,158 segments were obtained and the classification rates for human and trees were 82.9% and 87.4%, respectively.

  19. Ensuring Quality in a Virtual Reference Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbier, Pat; Ward, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Soon after AskALibrarian, Florida's Statewide Virtual Reference Desk, began to offer Chat Reference to the public in 2003, a Quality Assurance Workgroup was established to ensure that the service patrons received would be friendly, accurate, and adequate. To make certain that best practices were used in answering the real time questions, two…

  20. Intelligent Tutors in Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Peng; Slator, Brian M.; Vender, Bradley; Jin, Wei; Kariluoma, Matti; Borchert, Otto; Hokanson, Guy; Aggarwal, Vaibhav; Cosmano, Bob; Cox, Kathleen T.; Pilch, André; Marry, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Research into virtual role-based learning has progressed over the past decade. Modern issues include gauging the difficulty of designing a goal system capable of meeting the requirements of students with different knowledge levels, and the reasonability and possibility of taking advantage of the well-designed formula and techniques served in other…

  1. Tasks for Easily Modifiable Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of learner interaction in virtual worlds have tended to select basic tasks involving open-ended communication. There is evidence that such tasks are supportive of language acquisition, however it may also be beneficial to consider more complex tasks. Research in task-based learning has identified features such as non-linguistic…

  2. 3D Face Model Dataset: Automatic Detection of Facial Expressions and Emotions for Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickerur, Satyadhyan; Joshi, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Emotion detection using facial images is a technique that researchers have been using for the last two decades to try to analyze a person's emotional state given his/her image. Detection of various kinds of emotion using facial expressions of students in educational environment is useful in providing insight into the effectiveness of tutoring…

  3. Using virtual reality environment to improve joint attention associated with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or dangerous consequences to deal with. Joint attention is a critical skill in the disorder characteristics of children with PDD. The absence of joint attention is a deficit frequently affects their social relationship in daily life. Therefore, this study designed the Joint Attention Skills Learning (JASL) systems with data glove tool to help children with PDD to practice joint attention behavior skills. The JASL specifically focus the skills of pointing, showing, sharing things and behavior interaction with other children with PDD. The system is designed in playroom-scene and presented in the first-person perspectives for users. The functions contain pointing and showing, moving virtual objects, 3D animation, text, speaking sounds, and feedback. The method was employed single subject multiple-probe design across subjects' designs, and analysis of visual inspection in this study. It took 3 months to finish the experimental section. Surprisingly, the experiment results reveal that the participants have further extension in improving the joint attention skills in their daily life after using the JASL system. The significant potential in this particular treatment of joint attention for each participant will be discussed in details in this paper.

  4. 3D environment modeling and location tracking using off-the-shelf components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Robert H.

    2016-05-01

    The remarkable popularity of smartphones over the past decade has led to a technological race for dominance in market share. This has resulted in a flood of new processors and sensors that are inexpensive, low power and high performance. These sensors include accelerometers, gyroscope, barometers and most importantly cameras. This sensor suite, coupled with multicore processors, allows a new community of researchers to build small, high performance platforms for low cost. This paper describes a system using off-the-shelf components to perform position tracking as well as environment modeling. The system relies on tracking using stereo vision and inertial navigation to determine movement of the system as well as create a model of the environment sensed by the system.

  5. A workout for virtual bodybuilders (design issues for embodiment in multi-actor virtual environments)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Steve; Bowers, John; Fahlen, Lennart E.; Greenhalgh, Chris; Snowdon, Dave

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of user embodiment within collaborative virtual environments. By user embodiment we mean the provision of users with appropriate body images so as to represent them to others and also to themselves. By collaborative virtual environments we mean multi-user virtual reality systems which support cooperative work (although we argue that the results of our exploration may also be applied to other kinds of collaborative systems). The main part of the paper identifies a list of embodiment design issues including: presence, location, identity, activity, availability, history of activity, viewpoint, action point, gesture, facial expression, voluntary versus involuntary expression, degree of presence, reflecting capabilities, manipulating the user's view of others, representation across multiple media, autonomous and distributed body parts, truthfulness and efficiency. Following this, we show how these issues are reflected in our own DIVE and MASSIVE prototype collaborative virtual environments.

  6. In silico exploration of c-KIT inhibitors by pharmaco-informatics methodology: pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR, docking studies, and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Bari, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    c-KIT is a component of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family, classified as type-III receptor tyrosine kinase. c-KIT has been reported to be involved in, small cell lung cancer, other malignant human cancers, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with mast cells. Available c-KIT inhibitors suffer from tribulations of growing resistance or cardiac toxicity. A combined in silico pharmacophore and structure-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel potential c-KIT inhibitors. In the present study, five molecules from the ZINC database were retrieved as new potential c-KIT inhibitors, using Schrödinger's Maestro 9.0 molecular modeling suite. An atom-featured 3D QSAR model was built using previously reported c-KIT inhibitors containing the indolin-2-one scaffold. The developed 3D QSAR model ADHRR.24 was found to be significant (R2 = 0.9378, Q2 = 0.7832) and instituted to be sufficiently robust with good predictive accuracy, as confirmed through external validation approaches, Y-randomization and GH approach [GH score 0.84 and Enrichment factor (E) 4.964]. The present QSAR model was further validated for the OECD principle 3, in that the applicability domain was calculated using a "standardization approach." Molecular docking of the QSAR dataset molecules and final ZINC hits were performed on the c-KIT receptor (PDB ID: 3G0E). Docking interactions were in agreement with the developed 3D QSAR model. Model ADHRR.24 was explored for ligand-based virtual screening followed by in silico ADME prediction studies. Five molecules from the ZINC database were obtained as potential c-KIT inhibitors with high in -silico predicted activity and strong key binding interactions with the c-KIT receptor.

  7. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  8. 3D Indoor Building Environment Reconstruction using Least Square Adjustment, Polynomial Kernel, Interval Analysis and Homotopy Continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Mioc, Darka

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, municipalities intend to have 3D city models for facility management, disaster management and architectural planning. Indoor models can be reconstructed from construction plans but sometimes, they are not available or very often, they differ from `as-built' plans. In this case, the buildings and their rooms must be surveyed. One of the most utilized methods of indoor surveying is laser scanning. The laser scanning method allows taking accurate and detailed measurements. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanner is costly and time consuming. In this paper, several techniques for indoor 3D building data acquisition have been investigated. For reducing the time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, the Trimble LaserAce 1000 range finder is used. The proposed approache use relatively cheap equipment: a light Laser Rangefinder which appear to be feasible, but it needs to be tested to see if the observation accuracy is sufficient for the 3D building modelling. The accuracy of the rangefinder is evaluated and a simple spatial model is reconstructed from real data. This technique is rapid (it requires a shorter time as compared to others), but the results show inconsistencies in horizontal angles for short distances in indoor environments. The range finder horizontal angle sensor was calibrated using a least square adjustment algorithm, a polynomial kernel, interval analysis and homotopy continuation.

  9. Occluded human recognition for a leader following system using 3D range and image data in forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk; Ilyas, Muhammad; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the occluded target recognition and tracking method for a leader-following system by fusing 3D range and image data acquired from 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and a color camera installed on an autonomous vehicle in forest environment. During 3D data processing, the distance-based clustering method has an instinctive problem in close encounters. In the tracking phase, we divide an object tracking process into three phases based on occlusion scenario; before an occlusion (BO) phase, a partially or fully occlusion phase and after an occlusion (AO) phase. To improve the data association performance, we use camera's rich information to find correspondence among objects during above mentioned three phases of occlusion. In this paper, we solve a correspondence problem using the color features of human objects with the sum of squared distance (SSD) and the normalized cross correlation (NCC). The features are integrated with derived windows from Harris corner. The experimental results for a leader following on an autonomous vehicle are shown with LIDAR and camera for improving a data association problem in a multiple object tracking system.

  10. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  11. Sino-VirtualMoon: A 3D web platform using Chang’E-1 data for collaborative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Lin, Hui; Wen, Yongning; He, Li; Hu, Mingyuan

    2012-05-01

    The successful launch of the Chinese Chang’E-1 satellite created a valuable opportunity for lunar research, and represented China’s remarkable leap in deep space exploration. With the observed data acquired by Chang’E-1 satellite, a web platform was developed aims at providing an open research workspace for experts to conduct collaborative scientific research on the Moon. Excepting for supporting 3D visualization, the platform also provides collaborative tools for the basic geospatial analysis of the Moon, and supports collaborative simulation about the dynamic formation of lunar impact craters caused by the collision of meteors (or small asteroids). Based on this platform, related multidisciplinary experts can contribute their domain knowledge conveniently for collaborative scientific research of the Moon.

  12. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases. PMID:28178293

  13. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry.

    PubMed

    Dullin, Christian; Ufartes, Roser; Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases.

  14. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  15. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  16. Communicating Situation Awareness in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Seattle, "The Treatment of Akinesia Using Virtual Images." Ph.D. M.E., In Progress, University of Washington, Seattle. Geoffrey M. Silverton (Research...hitl.washington.edu Robert G. Futamura UW / HITL futamura@u.washington.edu Jerry Prothero UW / HITL prothero@hitl.washington.edu Geoffrey Silverton UW / HITL geoffs...Glenna Satalich Navigating and wayfinding in VR Geoff Silverton HITLab Testbed specifications Ryoko Williamson Exploring the effect of information

  17. Scalable Multi-Platform Distribution of Spatial 3d Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, J.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models provide powerful user interfaces for communication of 2D and 3D geoinformation. Providing high quality visualization of massive 3D geoinformation in a scalable, fast, and cost efficient manner is still a challenging task. Especially for mobile and web-based system environments, software and hardware configurations of target systems differ significantly. This makes it hard to provide fast, visually appealing renderings of 3D data throughout a variety of platforms and devices. Current mobile or web-based solutions for 3D visualization usually require raw 3D scene data such as triangle meshes together with textures delivered from server to client, what makes them strongly limited in terms of size and complexity of the models they can handle. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for provisioning of massive, virtual 3D city models on different platforms namely web browsers, smartphones or tablets, by means of an interactive map assembled from artificial oblique image tiles. The key concept is to synthesize such images of a virtual 3D city model by a 3D rendering service in a preprocessing step. This service encapsulates model handling and 3D rendering techniques for high quality visualization of massive 3D models. By generating image tiles using this service, the 3D rendering process is shifted from the client side, which provides major advantages: (a) The complexity of the 3D city model data is decoupled from data transfer complexity (b) the implementation of client applications is simplified significantly as 3D rendering is encapsulated on server side (c) 3D city models can be easily deployed for and used by a large number of concurrent users, leading to a high degree of scalability of the overall approach. All core 3D rendering techniques are performed on a dedicated 3D rendering server, and thin-client applications can be compactly implemented for various devices and platforms.

  18. A Compact 3D Omnidirectional Range Sensor of High Resolution for Robust Reconstruction of Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marani, Roberto; Renò, Vito; Nitti, Massimiliano; D'Orazio, Tiziana; Stella, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an accurate range sensor for the three-dimensional reconstruction of environments is designed and developed. Following the principles of laser profilometry, the device exploits a set of optical transmitters able to project a laser line on the environment. A high-resolution and high-frame-rate camera assisted by a telecentric lens collects the laser light reflected by a parabolic mirror, whose shape is designed ad hoc to achieve a maximum measurement error of 10 mm when the target is placed 3 m away from the laser source. Measurements are derived by means of an analytical model, whose parameters are estimated during a preliminary calibration phase. Geometrical parameters, analytical modeling and image processing steps are validated through several experiments, which indicate the capability of the proposed device to recover the shape of a target with high accuracy. Experimental measurements show Gaussian statistics, having standard deviation of 1.74 mm within the measurable range. Results prove that the presented range sensor is a good candidate for environmental inspections and measurements. PMID:25621605

  19. Effects of field-of-view restriction on manoeuvring in a 3-D environment.

    PubMed

    Toet, A; Jansen, S E M; Delleman, N J

    2008-03-01

    Field-of-view (FOV) restrictions are known to affect human behaviour and to degrade performance for a range of different tasks. However, the relationship between human locomotion performance in complex environments and FOV size is currently not fully known. This paper examined the effects of FOV restrictions on the performance of participants manoeuvring through an obstacle course with horizontal and vertical barriers. All FOV restrictions tested (the horizontal FOV was either 30 degrees , 75 degrees or 120 degrees , while the vertical FOV was always 48 degrees ) significantly reduced performance compared to the unrestricted condition. Both the time and the number of footsteps needed to traverse the entire obstacle course increased with a decreasing FOV size. The relationship between FOV restriction and manoeuvring performance that was determined can be used to formulate requirements for FOV restricting devices that are deployed to perform time-limited human locomotion tasks in complex structured environments, such as night-vision goggles and head-mounted displays used in training and entertainment systems.

  20. Effects of Kinetic Processes in Shaping Io's Global Plasma Environment: A 3D Hybrid Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Combi, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral gases in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter s corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io. Stationary simulations of this problem have already been done using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the electrodynamics approaches. One of the major results of recent simplified two-fluid model simulations [Saur, J., Neubauer, F.M., Strobel, D.F., Summers, M.E., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (SMP5), 1-18] was the production of the structure of the double-peak in the magnetic field signature of the Io flyby. These could not be explained before by standard MHD models. In this paper, we present a hybrid simulation for Io with kinetic ions and fluid electrons. This method employs a fluid description for electrons and neutrals, whereas for ions a particle approach is used. We also take into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes and solve self-consistently for electric and magnetic fields. Our model may provide a much more accurate description for the ion dynamics than previous approaches and allows us to account for the realistic anisotropic ion velocity distribution that cannot be done in fluid simulations with isotropic temperatures. The first results of such a simulation of the dynamics of ions in Io s environment are discussed in this paper. Comparison with the Galileo IO flyby results shows that this approach provides an accurate physical basis for the interaction and can therefore naturally reproduce all the observed salient features.