Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1989-01-01
Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
Adaptive 3D single-block grids for the computation of viscous flows around wings
Hagmeijer, R.; Kok, J.C.
1996-12-31
A robust algorithm for the adaption of a 3D single-block structured grid suitable for the computation of viscous flows around a wing is presented and demonstrated by application to the ONERA M6 wing. The effects of grid adaption on the flow solution and accuracy improvements is analyzed. Reynolds number variations are studied.
Multigrid Computations of 3-D Incompressible Internal and External Viscous Rotating Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheng, Chunhua; Taylor, Lafayette K.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Jiang, Min-Yee; Whitfield, David L.
1996-01-01
This report presents multigrid methods for solving the 3-D incompressible viscous rotating flows in a NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor and a marine propeller 4119. Numerical formulations are given in both the rotating reference frame and the absolute frame. Comparisons are made for the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness between the steady-state scheme and the time-accurate scheme for simulating viscous rotating flows for complex internal and external flow applications. Prospects for further increase in efficiency and accuracy of unsteady time-accurate computations are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
Decay of the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-08-01
We establish the optimal Lp - L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5) time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model with damping and analyse the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. It is observed that the fraction effect of the damping affects the dispersion of fluids and enhances the time decay rate of solution. Our method of proof consists of Hodge decomposition technique, Lp - L2 estimates for the linearized equations, and delicate energy estimates.
Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Viscous Incompressible Flow Computations for 3-D Steady and Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.
Preconditioned upwind methods to solve 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, C. H.
1990-01-01
A computational method for calculating low-speed viscous flowfields is developed. The method uses the implicit upwind-relaxation finite-difference algorithm with a nonsingular eigensystem to solve the preconditioned, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates. The technique of local time stepping is incorporated to accelerate the rate of convergence to a steady-state solution. An extensive study of optimizing the preconditioned system is carried out for two viscous flow problems. Computed results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental data.
A Computational Model for Suspended Large Rigid Bodies in 3D Unsteady Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Feng
1999-11-01
A 3D numerical model for computing large rigid objects suspended in fluid flow has been developed. Rather than calculating the surface pressure upon the solid body, we evaluate the net force and torque based on a volume force formulation. The total effective force is obtained by summing up the forces at the Eulerian grids occupied by the rigid body. The effects of the moving bodies are coupled to the fluid flow by imposing the velocity field of the bodies to the fluid. A Poisson equation is used to compute the pressure over the whole domain. The objects are identified by color functions and calculated by the PPM scheme and a tangent function transformation which scales the transition region of the computed interface to a compact thickness. The model is then implemented on a parallel computer of distributed memory and validated with Stokes and low Reynolds number flows.
3-D viscous flow CFD analysis of the propeller effect on an advanced ducted propeller subsonic inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iek, Chanthy; Boldman, Donald R.; Ibrahim, Mounir
1993-01-01
The time-marching Navier-Stokes code PARC3D was used to study the 3D viscous flow associated with an advanced ducted propeller subsonic inlet at take-off operating conditions. At a free stream Mach number of 0.2, experimental data for the inlet-with-propeller test model indicated that the airflow was attached on the cowl windward lip at an angle of attack of 25 deg became unstable at 29 deg, and separated at 30 deg. An experimental study with a similar inlet and without propeller (through-flow) indicated that flow separation occurred at an angle of attack a few degrees below the value observed when the inlet was tested with the propeller, indicating the propeller's favorable effect on inlet performance. In the present numerical study, flow blockage analogous to the propeller was modeled via a PARC3D computational boundary condition (BC), the 'screen BC', based on 1-1/2 dimension actuator disk theory. The application of the screen BC in this numerical study provided results similar to those of past experimental efforts in which either the blockage device or the propeller was used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iek, Chanthy; Boldman, Donald R.; Ibrahim, Mounir
1993-01-01
A time marching Navier-Stokes code called PARC3D was used to study the 3-D viscous flow associated with an advanced ducted propeller (ADP) subsonic inlet at take-off operating conditions. At a free stream Mach number of 0.2, experimental data for the inlet-with-propeller test model indicated that the airflow was attached on the cowl windward lip at an angle of attack of 25 degrees became unstable at 29 degrees, and separated at 30 degrees. An experimental study with a similar inlet and with no propeller (through-flow) indicated that flow separation occurred at an angle of attack a few degrees below the value observed when the inlet was tested with the propeller. This tends to indicate that the propeller exerts a favorable effect on the inlet performance. During the through-flow experiment a stationary blockage device was used to successfully simulate the propeller effect on the inlet flow field at angles of attack. In the present numerical study, this flow blockage was modeled via a PARC3D computational boundary condition (BC) called the screen BC. The principle formulation of this BC was based on the one-and-half dimension actuator disk theory. This screen BC was applied at the inlet propeller face station of the computational grid. Numerical results were obtained with and without the screen BC. The application of the screen BC in this numerical study provided results which are similar to the results of past experimental efforts in which either the blockage device or the propeller was used.
Simulation of 3-D viscous flow within a multi-stage turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row.
Assessment of an Unstructured-Grid Method for Predicting 3-D Turbulent Viscous Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.
1996-01-01
A method Is presented for solving turbulent flow problems on three-dimensional unstructured grids. Spatial discretization Is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation using an accurate lin- ear reconstruction scheme and upwind flux differencing. Time is advanced by an implicit backward- Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the sublayer region of the boundary layer. A systematic assessment of the method is presented to devise guidelines for more strategic application of the technology to complex problems. The assessment includes the accuracy In predictions of skin-friction coefficient, law-of-the-wall behavior, and surface pressure for a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, and for the ONERA M6 wing under a high Reynolds number, transonic, separated flow condition.
Assessment of an Unstructured-Grid Method for Predicting 3-D Turbulent Viscous Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.
1996-01-01
A method is presented for solving turbulent flow problems on three-dimensional unstructured grids. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation using an accurate linear reconstruction scheme and upwind flux differencing. Time is advanced by an implicit backward-Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the sublayer region of the boundary layer. A systematic assessment of the method is presented to devise guidelines for more strategic application of the technology to complex problems. The assessment includes the accuracy in predictions of skin-friction coefficient, law-of-the-wall behavior, and surface pressure for a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, and for the ONERA M6 wing under a high Reynolds number, transonic, separated flow condition.
An adaptive grid method for computing the high speed 3D viscous flow about a re-entry vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bockelie, Michael J.; Smith, Robert E.
1992-01-01
An algebraic solution adaptive grid generation method that allows adapting the grid in all three coordinate directions is presented. Techniques are described that maintain the integrity of the original vehicle definition for grid point movement on the vehicle surface and that avoid grid cross over in the boundary layer portion of the grid lying next to the vehicle surface. The adaptive method is tested by computing the Mach 6 hypersonic three dimensional viscous flow about a proposed Martian entry vehicle.
A prediction of 3-D viscous flow and performance of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, John; Moore, Joan G.
1989-01-01
A prediction of the 3-D turbulent flow in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Impeller has been made. The calculation was made for the compressor design conditions with the specified uniform tip clearance gap. The predicted performance is significantly worse than that predicted in the NASA design study. This is explained by the high tip leakage flow in the present calculation and by the different model adopted for tip leakage flow mixing. The calculation gives an accumulation for high losses in the shroud/pressure-side quadrant near the exit of the impeller. It also predicts a region of meridional backflow near the shroud wall. Both of these flow features should be extensive enough in the NASA impeller to allow detailed flow measurements, leading to improved flow modelling. Recommendations are made for future flow studies in the NASA impeller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.
1982-01-01
The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Epard, J.-L.
2016-05-01
The Helvetic nappe system exhibits three-dimensional (3-D) features such as the lateral variation in geometry between the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes or the Rawil depression. We perform 3-D finite element simulations of linear and power-law viscous flow to investigate fold nappe formation during shortening of a half graben with laterally varying thickness. 3-D ellipsoids and corresponding 2-D intersection ellipses are used to quantify finite strain. Fold nappes which formed above a thicker graben have (i) larger amplitudes, (ii) a less sheared and thinned overturned limb, and (iii) a larger thickness than fold nappes formed above a thinner graben. These results agree with observations for the Morcles and Doldenhorn nappes. We also perform 3-D simulations for a tectonic scenario suggested for the evolution of the Rawil depression. The basement is shortened and extended laterally and includes a graben which is oblique to the shortening direction and acts as mechanical weak zone. The graben causes laterally varying basement uplift generating a depression whose amplitude depends on the graben orientation and the stress exponent of basement and sediments. The axial plunge of the depression is smaller (approximately 10°) than the observed plunge (approximately 30°) indicating that additional processes are required to explain the geometry of the Rawil depression.
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, W. N.
1992-06-01
This paper describes the application of a solution-adaptive, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver to the problem of the flow in turbine internal coolant passages. First the variation of Nusselt number in a cylindrical, multi-ribbed duct is predicted and found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental data. Then the flow is computed in the serpentine coolant passage of a radial inflow turbine including modeling the internal baffles and pin fins. The aerodynamics of the passage, particularly that associated with the pin fins, is found to be complex. The predicted heat transfer coefficients allow zones of poor coolant penetration and potential hot spots to be identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Seongik
In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.
3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability.
Lipton, Jeffrey I; Lipson, Hod
2016-08-09
Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing.
3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipton, Jeffrey I.; Lipson, Hod
2016-08-01
Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing.
3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability
Lipton, Jeffrey I.; Lipson, Hod
2016-01-01
Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing. PMID:27503148
3D Printing Variable Stiffness Foams Using Viscous Thread Instability.
Lipton, Jeffrey I; Lipson, Hod
2016-01-01
Additive manufacturing of cellular structures has numerous applications ranging from fabrication of biological scaffolds and medical implants, to mechanical weight reduction and control over mechanical properties. Various additive manufacturing processes have been used to produce open regular cellular structures limited only by the resolution of the printer. These efforts have focused on printing explicitly designed cells or explicitly planning offsets between strands. Here we describe a technique for producing cellular structures implicitly by inducing viscous thread instability when extruding material. This process allows us to produce complex cellular structures at a scale that is finer than the native resolution of the printer. We demonstrate tunable effective elastic modulus and density that span two orders of magnitude. Fine grained cellular structures allow for fabrication of foams for use in a wide range of fields ranging from bioengineering, to robotics to food printing. PMID:27503148
Computation of viscous incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan
1989-01-01
Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.
Mineral lineation produced by 3-D rotation of rigid inclusions in confined viscous simple shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques, Fernando O.
2016-08-01
The solid-state flow of rocks commonly produces a parallel arrangement of elongate minerals with their longest axes coincident with the direction of flow-a mineral lineation. However, this does not conform to Jeffery's theory of the rotation of rigid ellipsoidal inclusions (REIs) in viscous simple shear, because rigid inclusions rotate continuously with applied shear. In 2-dimensional (2-D) flow, the REI's greatest axis (e1) is already in the shear direction; therefore, the problem is to find mechanisms that can prevent the rotation of the REI about one axis, the vorticity axis. In 3-D flow, the problem is to find a mechanism that can make e1 rotate towards the shear direction, and so generate a mineral lineation by rigid rotation about two axes. 3-D analogue and numerical modelling was used to test the effects of confinement on REI rotation and, for narrow channels (shear zone thickness over inclusion's least axis, Wr < 2), the results show that: (1) the rotational behaviour deviates greatly from Jeffery's model; (2) inclusions with aspect ratio Ar (greatest over least principle axis, e1/e3) > 1 can rotate backwards from an initial orientation w e1 parallel to the shear plane, in great contrast to Jeffery's model; (3) back rotation is limited because inclusions reach a stable equilibrium orientation; (4) most importantly and, in contrast to Jeffery's model and to the 2-D simulations, in 3-D, the confined REI gradually rotated about an axis orthogonal to the shear plane towards an orientation with e1 parallel to the shear direction, thus producing a lineation parallel to the shear direction. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that confined simple shear can be responsible for the mineral alignment (lineation) observed in ductile shear zones.
Formation of coherent structures in 3D laminar mixing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman
2009-11-01
Mixing under laminar flow conditions is key to a wide variety of industrial systems of size extending from microns to meters. Examples range from the traditional (and still very relevant) mixing of viscous fluids via compact processing equipment down to emerging micro-fluidics applications. Profound insight into laminar mixing mechanisms is imperative for further advancement of mixing technology (particularly for complex micro-fluidics systems) yet remains limited to date. The present study concentrates on a fundamental transport phenomenon of potential relevance to laminar mixing: the formation of coherent structures in the web of 3D fluid trajectories due to fluid inertia. Such coherent structures geometrically determine the transport properties of the flow and better understanding of their formation and characteristics may offer ways to control and manipulate the mixing properties of laminar flows. The formation of coherent structures and its impact upon 3D transport properties is demonstrated by way of examples.
Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Champney, Joelle Milene
1986-01-01
The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.
Extension of a three-dimensional viscous wing flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Bernard C.; Chen, Shyi-Yaung; Thoren, Stephen J.; Shamroth, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
Three-dimensional unsteady viscous effects can significantly influence the performance of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These effects are important in both flows about helicopter rotors in forward flight and flows about 3-D (swept and tapered) supercritical wings. A computational procedure for calculating such flow field is developed, and therefore would be of great value in the design process as well as in understanding the corresponding flow phenomena. The procedure is based upon an alternating direction technique employing the Linearized Block Implicit method for solving 3-D viscous flow problems. In order to demonstrate the viability of this method, 2-D and 3-D problems are computed. These include the flow over a 2-D NACA 0012 airfoil under steady and oscillating conditions, and the steady, skewed, 3-D flow on a flat plate. Although actual 3-D flows over wings were not obtained, the ground work was laid for considering such flows. The description of the computational procedure and results are given.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles
2015-12-01
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil
2015-12-31
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.
Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp
2013-01-01
Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080
A quasi-3D viscous-inviscid interaction code: Q3UIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, N. R.; Sørensen, J. N.; Shen, W. Z.
2014-12-01
A computational model for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine airfoils under rotation and subjected to steady and unsteady motions developed in [1] is presented herein. The model is based on a viscous-inviscid interaction technique using strong coupling between the viscous and inviscid parts. The rotational effects generated by centrifugal and Coriolis forces are introduced in Q3UIC via the streamwise and spanwise integral boundary layer momentum equations. A special inviscid version of the code has been developed to cope with massive separation. To check the ability of the code wind turbine airfoils in steady and unsteady conditions for a large range of angles of attack are considered here. Further, the new quasi-3D code Q3UIC is used to perform a parametric study of a wind turbine airfoil under rotation confined to its boundary layer.
3D flow focusing for microfluidic flow cytometry with ultrasonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Daghighi, Yasaman; van de Vondervoort, Mia; Kolios, Michael C.; Tsai, Scott S. H.
2015-11-01
We are developing a flow cytometer that detects unique acoustic signature waves generated from single cells due to interactions between the cells and ultrasound waves. The generated acoustic waves depend on the size and biomechanical properties of the cells and are sufficient for identifying cells in the medium. A microfluidic system capable of focusing cells through a 10 x 10 μm ultrasound beam cross section was developed to facilitate acoustic measurements of single cells. The cells are streamlined in a hydro-dynamically 3D focused flow in a 300 x 300 μm channel made using PDMS. 3D focusing is realized by lateral sheath flows and an inlet needle (inner diameter 100 μm). The accuracy of the 3D flow focusing is measured using a dye and detecting its localization using confocal microscopy. Each flowing cell would be probed by an ultrasound pulse, which has a center frequency of 375 MHz and bandwidth of 250 MHz. The same probe would also be used for recording the scattered waves from the cells, which would be processed to distinguish the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the cells, eventually identifying them. This technique has potential applications in detecting circulating tumor cells, blood cells and blood-related diseases.
ICEd-ALE Treatment of 3-D Fluid Flow.
1999-09-13
Version: 00 SALE3D calculates three-dimensional fluid flow at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitudemore » results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a three-dimensional network of arbitrarily shaped, six-sided deformable cells, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
A unified viscous theory of lift and drag of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, John E.
1991-01-01
A unified viscous theory of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings is developed with numerical examples. The viscous theory of the load distribution is unique and tends to the classical inviscid result with Kutta condition in the high Reynolds number limit. A new theory of 2-D section induced drag is introduced with specific applications to three cases of interest: (1) constant angle of attack; (2) parabolic camber; and (3) a flapped airfoil. The first case is also extended to a profiled leading edge foil. The well-known drag due to absence of leading edge suction is derived from the viscous theory. It is independent of Reynolds number for zero thickness and varies inversely with the square root of the Reynolds number based on the leading edge radius for profiled sections. The role of turbulence in the section induced drag problem is discussed. A theory of minimum section induced drag is derived and applied. For low Reynolds number the minimum drag load tends to the constant angle of attack solution and for high Reynolds number to an approximation of the parabolic camber solution. The parabolic camber section induced drag is about 4 percent greater than the ideal minimum at high Reynolds number. Two new concepts, the viscous induced drag angle and the viscous induced separation potential are introduced. The separation potential is calculated for three 2-D cases and for a 3-D rectangular wing. The potential is calculated with input from a standard doublet lattice wing code without recourse to any boundary layer calculations. Separation is indicated in regions where it is observed experimentally. The classical induced drag is recovered in the 3-D high Reynolds number limit with an additional contribution that is Reynold number dependent. The 3-D viscous theory of minimum induced drag yields an equation for the optimal spanwise and chordwise load distribution. The design of optimal wing tip planforms and camber distributions is possible with the viscous 3-D wing theory.
Parallel Finite Element Solution of 3D Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carey, G. F.; McLay, R.; Bicken, G.; Barth, B.; Pehlivanov, A.
1999-01-01
A domain decomposition strategy and parallel gradient-type iterative solution scheme have been developed and implemented for computation of complex 3D viscous flow problems involving heat transfer and surface tension effects. Details of the implementation issues are described together with associated performance and scalability studies. Representative Rayleigh-Benard and microgravity Marangoni flow calculations and performance results on the Cray T3D and T3E are presented. The work is currently being extended to tightly-coupled parallel "Beowulf-type" PC clusters and we present some preliminary performance results on this platform. We also describe progress on related work on hierarchic data extraction for visualization.
Asthenospheric Mantle Flow by Viscous Fingering Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weeraratne, D. S.; Parmentier, E.
2010-12-01
We investigate mantle flow in the oceanic asthenospheric by lateral flow of viscous fingering instabilities. In this model, the asthenosphere acts as a channel for mantle flow from an off axis source to the spreading center, perhaps on a global scale. This phenomenon may be observed by linear chains of intraplate volcanism on young seafloor near ridge axes where we suggest asthenospheric fingering material may induce melting beneath thin lithosphere. We perform laboratory fluid experiments of viscous fingering in miscible high viscosity fluids which flow radially through a Hele-Shaw cell. Fluids with low Reynolds number provide scaling to the Earth's mantle where viscous forces dominate and chemical diffusion is slow. We find that viscous fingers are well developed in this geodynamic regime with the fingering wavelength (λ f) controlled by viscous dissipation in the displaced fluid. Fingering patterns approach a constant wavelength after an initial growth phase and depend on plate spacing (B) as {λ f} = 12B. We also observe the formation of a film layer surrounding low viscosity fingers as they propagate. When density differences exist between the two fluids, the film layer above the finger is higher density, inherently unstable, and begins to downwell as a Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities observed in shadowgraphs as white striations within each finger that are linear and regularly spaced. We find the wavelength of striations ({λ st}) scales with finger growth as {λ st}= 4 {λ f}. The application of a moving surface plate is observed to align all fingers in a linear direction parallel to plate motion both downstream and upstream. These experiments suggest that mantle flow in the Earth's asthenosphere may be exhibit instabilities governed by viscous fingering if sufficient viscosity variations are present between the depleted asthenosphere and the introduction of low viscosity, volatile rich, off-axis plume material. This viscous fingering model predicts a
Line relaxation methods for the solution of 2D and 3D compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, O.; Probert, E. J.; Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.
1993-01-01
An implicit finite element based algorithm for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is outlined, and the solution of the resulting equation by a line relaxation on general meshes of triangles or tetrahedra is described. The problem of generating and adapting unstructured meshes for viscous flows is reexamined, and an approach for both 2D and 3D simulations is proposed. An efficient approach appears to be the use of an implicit/explicit procedure, with the implicit treatment being restricted to those regions of the mesh where viscous effects are known to be dominant. Numerical examples demonstrating the computational performance of the proposed techniques are given.
Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.
Viscous Energy Loss in the Presence of Abnormal Aortic Flow
Barker, A.J.; van Ooij, P.; Bandi, K.; Garcia, J.; Albaghdadi, M.; McCarthy, P.; Bonow, R. O.; Carr, J.; Collins, J.; Malaisrie, C.; Markl, M.
2014-01-01
Purpose To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses, and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. Methods 4D flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n=12, age=37±10), patients with aortic dilation (n=16, age=52±8), and patients with aortic valve stenosis matched for age and aortic size (n=14, age=46±15), using a relationship between the 3D velocity field and viscous energy dissipation. Results Viscous energy loss was significantly elevated in the thoracic aorta for patients with dilated aorta (3.6±1.3 mW, p=0.024) and patients with aortic stenosis (14.3±8.2 mW, p<0.001) compared to healthy volunteers (2.3±0.9 mW). The same pattern of significant differences were seen in the ascending aorta, where viscous energy losses in patients with dilated aortas (2.2±1.1 mW, p=0.021) and patients with aortic stenosis (10.9±6.8 mW, p<0.001) were elevated compared to healthy volunteers (1.2±0.6 mW). Conclusion This technique provides a capability to quantify the contribution of abnormal laminar blood flow to increased ventricular afterload. In this pilot study, viscous energy loss in patient cohorts was significantly elevated and indicates that cardiac afterload is increased due to abnormal flow. PMID:24122967
Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1998-01-01
Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.
Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi
2002-01-01
In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.
Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2000-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Paramecia swimming in viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, P.; Jana, S.; Giarra, M.; Vlachos, P. P.; Jung, S.
2015-12-01
Ciliates like Paramecia exhibit fore-aft asymmetry in their body shapes, and preferentially swim in the direction of the slender anterior rather than the wider posterior. However, the physical reasons for this preference are not well understood. In this work, we propose that specific features of the fluid flow around swimming Paramecia confer some energetic advantage to the preferred swimming direction. Therefore, we seek to understand the effects of body asymmetry and swimming direction on the efficiency of swimming and the flux of fluid into the cilia layer (and thus of food into the oral groove), which we assumed to be primary factors in the energy budgets of these organisms. To this end, we combined numerical techniques (the boundary element method) and laboratory experiments (micro particle image velocimetry) to develop a quantitative model of the flow around a Paramecium and investigate the effect of the body shape on the velocity fields, as well as on the swimming and feeding behaviors. Both simulation and experimental results show that velocity fields exhibit fore-aft asymmetry. Moreover, the shape asymmetry revealed an increase of the fluid flux into the cilia layer compared to symmetric body shapes. Under the assumption that cilia fluid intake and feeding efficiency are primary factors in the energy budgets of Paramecia, our model predicts that the anterior swimming direction is energetically favorable to the posterior swimming direction.
An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.
Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geil, T.; Steinhoff, J.
1983-01-01
A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is being compiled. These data will be used to evaluate and verify three dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leballeur, J. C.; Girodroux-Lavigne, P.
1992-01-01
Three previous papers have shown that the viscous inviscid numerical methods were capable of calculating separated turbulent flows. The 'Semi-inverse method' and the models of the first author allow the computation of massive separations, stalled flows, and shock wave-boundary layer interactions, in two-dimensional or quasi-three-dimensional conditions, from low speeds to supersonic speeds. The 'Semi-implicit' method for time-consistent coupling allows for the computation of time-accurate transonic separated flow and buffer computations in two-dimensions. The present paper shows that the viscous-inviscid interaction approach is also able to compute the fully three-dimensional flow separation phenomena. The method is based on a thin-layer approximation of the theory of 'Defect-Formulation' that provides the viscous-inviscid splitting of the Navier-Stokes equations. A parametric analytical modelling of the 3D-turbulent velocity profiles is involved. Numerically, the 3D-velocity profiles are discretized in the normal z-direction and driven by parametric integral 3D-equations in direct or inverse modes in the x-direction. The viscous-inviscid coupling is fully 3D and solved the time-consistency problem with an extension of the 'Semi-implicit' method previously suggested in two-dimensions. A 3D inviscid subroutine with TSP approximation is used. Results are obtained for transonic steady flows over wings with shock-induced transonic separation. The method provides results for highly three-dimensional flow separations, such as induced by a three-dimensional through at the wall of a flat plate. The 3D viscous-inviscid coupling and the 3D model of the velocity field provide three-dimensional instantaneous skin-friction lines whose patterns exhibit the same complex topology as Navier-Stokes solvers, with foci, nodes, and saddle-points.
Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.
2001-01-01
A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.
USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.
2014-01-01
This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.
Incompressible viscous flow in tubes with occlusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Huaxiong
Viscous, incompressible flow in tubes with partial occlusion is investigated using numerical and experimental procedures. The study is related to the problem of atherosclerosis, one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system. One of the computational difficulties in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the lack of pressure or vorticity boundary conditions. A finite difference approach, referred to as the interior constraint (IC) method, is proposed to resolve this difficulty. As a general numerical method, it is formulated for both the stream function-vorticity and primitive (physical) variable formulations. The procedure is explained using a one dimensional model with extensive numerical tests presented for two dimensional cases, including flow in a driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step. Results are obtained with second-order accuracy. Next, the IC method is applied to flow in a tube with an occlusion, which is used as the model for blood flow in stenosed arteries in the study of the pathology of atherosclerosis. Numerical results are obtained for both steady and pulsatile flows. Results are compared with those of SIMPLE, one of the commercially available numerical algorithms. The pulsatile flow study revealed several interesting new features. It suggested that the high shear stress is not likely to initiate atherosclerosis lesions. The recirculation region, which is a prominent feature of the unsteady flow, is more likely to cause the initiation and development of the disease. Experimental measurements for steady flow complement the numerical study and show qualitative agreement.
Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.
Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, R. A.
1984-01-01
The experimental contract objective is to provide a complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow within a large rectangular turning duct. The data are to be used to evaluate and verify three-dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical contract objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.
Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.
3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.
Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T
2016-08-01
The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively.
3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.
Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T
2016-08-01
The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively. PMID:27377354
Joint 3d Estimation of Vehicles and Scene Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menze, M.; Heipke, C.; Geiger, A.
2015-08-01
driving. While much progress has been made in recent years, imaging conditions in natural outdoor environments are still very challenging for current reconstruction and recognition methods. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which reasons jointly about 3D scene flow as well as the pose, shape and motion of vehicles in the scene. Towards this goal, we incorporate a deformable CAD model into a slanted-plane conditional random field for scene flow estimation and enforce shape consistency between the rendered 3D models and the parameters of all superpixels in the image. The association of superpixels to objects is established by an index variable which implicitly enables model selection. We evaluate our approach on the challenging KITTI scene flow dataset in terms of object and scene flow estimation. Our results provide a prove of concept and demonstrate the usefulness of our method.
Simulation of a 3D unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straka, Petr
2012-04-01
The contribution deals with a numerical simulation of an unsteady flow in an axial turbine stage. The solution is performed using an in-house numerical code developed in the Aeronautical and Test Institute, Plc. in Prague. The numerical code is based on a finite volume discretization of governing equations (Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations) and a two-equations turbulence model. The temporal integration is based on the implicit second-order backward Euler formula, which is realized through the iteration process in dual time. The proposed numerical method is used for solution of the 3D, unsteady, viscous turbulent flow of a perfect gas in the axial turbine stage. The flow path consists of an input nozzle, stator blade-wheel, rotor blade-wheel, a shroud-seal gap and a diffuser. Attention is paid to the influence of a secondary flow structures, such as generated vortices and flow in shroud-seal gap.
Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional viscous cascade flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, L. A.
1991-01-01
A 3-D code for viscous cascade flow prediction was developed. The space discretization uses a cell-centered scheme with eigenvalue scaling to weigh the artificial dissipation terms. Computational efficiency of a four stage Runge-Kutta scheme is enhanced by using variable coefficients, implicit residual smoothing, and a full multigrid method. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. A zonal, nonperiodic grid is used to minimize mesh distortion in and downstream of the throat region. Applications are presented for an annular vane with and without end wall contouring, and for a large scale linear cascade. The calculation is validated by comparing with experiments and by studying grid dependency.
An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.
1995-01-01
Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.
Viscous flow through a rotating square channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheshgi, H. S.; Scriven, L. E.
1985-10-01
Fully developed flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid driven by a pressure gradient through a square channel that rotates about an axis perpendicular to the channel roof is analyzed here with the aid of the penalty/Galerkin/finite element method. Coriolis force throws fast-moving fluid in the channel core in the direction of the cross product of the mean fluid velocity with the channel's angular velocity. Two vortex cells form when convective inertial force is weak. Asymptotic limits of rectilinear flow and geostrophic plug flow are approached when viscous force or Coriolis force dominates, respectively. A flow structure with an ageostrophic, virtually inviscid core is uncovered when Coriolis and convective inertial forces are both strong. This ageostrophic two-vortex structure becomes unstable when the strength of convective inertial force increases past a critical value. The two-vortex family of solutions metamorphoses into a family of four-vortex solutions at an imperfect bifurcation composed of a pair of turning points.
Hypersonic viscous flow over large roughness elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-06-01
Viscous flow over discrete or distributed surface roughness has great implications for hypersonic flight due to aerothermodynamic considerations related to laminar-turbulent transition. Current prediction capability is greatly hampered by the limited knowledge base for such flows. To help fill that gap, numerical computations are used to investigate the intricate flow physics involved. An unstructured mesh, compressible Navier-Stokes code based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for two roughness shapes investigated in wind tunnel experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. It was found through 2D parametric study that at subcritical Reynolds numbers, spontaneous absolute instability accompanying by sustained vortex shedding downstream of the roughness is likely to take place at subsonic free-stream conditions. On the other hand, convective instability may be the dominant mechanism for supersonic boundary layers. Three-dimensional calculations for both a rectangular and a cylindrical roughness element at post-shock Mach numbers of 4.1 and 6.5 also confirm that no self-sustained vortex generation from the top face of the roughness is observed, despite the presence of flow unsteadiness for the smaller post-shock Mach number case.
Hypersonic Viscous Flow Over Large Roughness Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2009-01-01
Viscous flow over discrete or distributed surface roughness has great implications for hypersonic flight due to aerothermodynamic considerations related to laminar-turbulent transition. Current prediction capability is greatly hampered by the limited knowledge base for such flows. To help fill that gap, numerical computations are used to investigate the intricate flow physics involved. An unstructured mesh, compressible Navier-Stokes code based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for two roughness shapes investigated in wind tunnel experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. It was found through 2D parametric study that at subcritical Reynolds numbers, spontaneous absolute instability accompanying by sustained vortex shedding downstream of the roughness is likely to take place at subsonic free-stream conditions. On the other hand, convective instability may be the dominant mechanism for supersonic boundary layers. Three-dimensional calculations for both a rectangular and a cylindrical roughness element at post-shock Mach numbers of 4.1 and 6.5 also confirm that no self-sustained vortex generation from the top face of the roughness is observed, despite the presence of flow unsteadiness for the smaller post-shock Mach number case.
Radiative coupled viscous flow with massive blowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, Y. S.
1973-01-01
An analysis of the fully-coupled viscous, radiating flow past an ablating blunt body at hyperbolic entry conditions is presented. A detailed thermodynamics computation, as well as a realistic radiation transport model, is included. A locally nonsimilar approach is employed to solve the conservation equations away from the stagnation point. The validity of the locally nonsimilar approach is demonstrated for some nonablating cases. Sample calculations are made for the typical flight condition of a Jovian entry probe. The effects of the downstream injection of the ablation products of a carbon heat shield on the flux distribution around the body are discussed in detail. It is found that most of the radiative energy is absorbed by the injected carbon gas and dumped into the wake.
Complex flow dynamics around 3D microbot prototypes.
Martínez-Aranda, Sergio; Galindo-Rosales, Francisco J; Campo-Deaño, Laura
2016-02-28
A new experimental setup for the study of the complex flow dynamics around 3D microbot prototypes in a straight microchannel has been developed and assessed. The ultimate aim of this work is focused on the analysis of the morphology of different microbot prototypes to get a better insight into their efficiency when they swim through the main conduits of the human circulatory system. The setup consists of a fused silica straight microchannel with a 3D microbot prototype fastened in the center of the channel cross-section by an extremely thin support. Four different prototypes were considered: a cube, a sphere and two ellipsoids with aspect ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 4, respectively. Flow visualization and micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measurements were performed using Newtonian and viscoelastic blood analogue fluids. An efficiency parameter, ℑ, to discriminate the prototypes in terms of flow disturbance has been proposed.
A Volume Rendering Framework for Visualizing 3D Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Hsien-Hsi; Li, Liya; Shen, Han-Wei; Tai, Wen-Kai
In this paper, we present a volume rendering framework for visualizing 3D flow fields. We introduce the concept of coherence field which evaluates the representativeness of a given streamline set for the underlying 3D vector field. Visualization of the coherence field can provide effective visual feedback to the user for incremental insertion of more streamline seeds. Given an initial set of streamlines, a coherence volume is constructed from a distance field to measure the similarity between the existing streamlines and those in their nearby regions based on the difference between the approximate and the actual vector directions. With the visual feedback obtained from rendering the coherence volume, new streamline seeds can be selected by the user or by a heuristic seed selection algorithm to adaptively improve the coherence volume. An improved volume rendering technique that can render user-defined appearance textures is proposed to facilitate macro-visualization of 3D vector fields.
The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin
2015-10-01
3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.
Hypersonic Viscous Flow Over Large Roughness Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2009-01-01
Viscous flow over discrete or distributed surface roughness has great implications for hypersonic flight due to aerothermodynamic considerations related to laminar-turbulent transition. Current prediction capability is greatly hampered by the limited knowledge base for such flows. To help fill that gap, numerical computations are used to investigate the intricate flow physics involved. An unstructured mesh, compressible Navier-Stokes code based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for two roughness shapes investigated in wind tunnel experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. It was found through 2D parametric study that at subcritical Reynolds numbers of the boundary layers, absolute instability resulting in vortex shedding downstream, is likely to weaken at supersonic free-stream conditions. On the other hand, convective instability may be the dominant mechanism for supersonic boundary layers. Three-dimensional calculations for a rectangular or cylindrical roughness element at post-shock Mach numbers of 4.1 and 6.5 also confirm that no self-sustained vortex generation is present.
Magma rheology from 3D geometry of martian lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allemand, P.; Deschamps, A.; Lesaout, M.; Delacourt, C.; Quantin, C.; Clenet, H.
2012-04-01
Volcanism is an important geologic agent which has been recently active at the surface of Mars. The composition of individual lava flows is difficult to infer from spectroscopic data because of the absence of crystallized minerals and the possible cover of the flows by dust. The 3D geometry of lava flows provides an interesting alternative to infer the chemical composition of lavas and effusion rates. Indeed, chemical composition exerts a strong control on the viscosity and yield strength of the magma and global geometry of lava flow reflects its emplacement rate. Until recently, these studies where realized from 2D data. The third dimension, which is a key parameter, was deduced or supposed from local shadow measurements on MGS Themis IR images with an uncertainty of more than 500%. Recent CTX data (MRO mission) allow to compute Digital Elevation Model at a resolution of 1 or 2 pixels (5 to 10 m) with the help of Isis and the Ames Stereo Pipeline pipe line. The CTX images are first transformed in format readable by Isis. The external geometric parameters of the CTX camera are computed and added to the image header with Isis. During a correlation phase, the homologous pixels are searched on the pair of stereo images. Finally, the DEM is computed from the position of the homologous pixels and the geometrical parameters of the CTX camera. Twenty DEM have been computed from stereo images showing lava flows of various ages on the region of Cerberus, Elyseum, Daedalia and Amazonis planitia. The 3D parameters of the lava flows have been measured on the DEMs and tested against shadows measurement. These 3D parameters have been inverted to estimate the viscosity and the yield strength of the flow. The effusion rate has also been estimated. These parameters have been compared to those of similar lava flows of the East Pacific rise.
A new numerical approach for compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, J. C.; Lekoudis, S. G.
1982-01-01
A numerical approach for computing unsteady compressible viscous flows was developed. This approach offers the capability of confining the region of computation to the viscous region of the flow. The viscous region is defined as the region where the vorticity is nonnegligible and the difference in dilatation between the potential flow and the real flow around the same geometry is also nonnegligible. The method was developed and tested. Also, an application of the procedure to the solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible internal flows is presented.
GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2014-05-01
Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.
Numerical study of the effects of icing on viscous flow over wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankar, L. N.
1993-01-01
The progress made during the period 1 Jan. - 30 Jun. 1993 on the numerical study of the effects of icing on viscous flow over wings is summarized. The tasks performed were development of 3-D boundary layer methods for accurate estimates of the velocity field and surface heat transfer rates in the vicinity of the leading edge ice shape; studies of the effects of icing on 3-D highlift system performance; and continued improvement and validation of the 3-D Navier-Stokes solver. Results are discussed.
Matching multistage schemes to viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleb, William Leonard
A method to accelerate convergence to steady state by explicit time-marching schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The combination of cell-Reynolds-number-based multistage time stepping and local preconditioning makes solving steady-state viscous flow problems competitive with the convergence rates typically associated with implicit methods, without the associated memory penalty. Initially, various methods are investigated to extend the range of multistage schemes to diffusion-dominated cases. It is determined that the Chebyshev polynomials are well suited to serve as amplification factors for these schemes; however, creating a method that can bridge the continuum from convection-dominated to diffusion-dominated regimes proves troublesome, until the Manteuffel family of polynomials is uncovered. This transformation provides a smooth transition between the two extremes; and armed with this information, sets of multistage coefficients are created for a given spatial discretization as a function of cell Reynolds number according to various design criteria. As part of this process, a precise definition for the numerical time step is hammered out, something which up to this time, has been set via algebraic arguments only. Next are numerical tests of these sets of variable multistage coefficients. To isolate the effects of the variable multistage coefficients, the test case chosen is very simple: circular advection-diffusion. The numerical results support the analytical analysis by demonstrating an order of magnitude improvement in convergence rate for single-grid relaxation and a factor of three for multigrid relaxation. Building upon the success of the scalar case, preconditioning is applied to make the Navier-Stokes system of equations behave more nearly as a single scalar equation. Then, by applying the variable multistage coefficient scheme to a typical boundary-layer flow problem, the results affirm the benefits of local preconditioning
3-D Flow Visualization of a Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurow, Brian; Williams, Steven; Lynch, Kyle
2009-11-01
A recently developed 3-D flow visualization technique is used to visualize large-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. The technique is based on the scanning of a laser light sheet through the flow field similar to that of Delo and Smits (1997). High-speeds are possible using a recently developed MHz rate pulse burst laser system, an ultra-high-speed camera capable of 500,000 fps and a galvanometric scanning mirror yielding a total acquisition time of 136 microseconds for a 220 x 220 x 68 voxel image. In these experiments, smoke is seeded into the boundary layer formed on the wall of a low-speed wind tunnel. The boundary layer is approximately 1.5'' thick at the imaging location with a free stream velocity of 24 ft/s yielding a Reynolds number of 18,000 based on boundary layer thickness. The 3-D image volume is approximately 4'' x 4'' x 4''. Preliminary results using 3-D iso-surface visualizations show a collection of elongated large-scale structures inclined in the streamwise direction. The spanwise width of the structures, which are located in the outer region, is on the order of 25 -- 50% of the boundary layer thickness.
Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; Mcmorris, Harlan
1995-01-01
The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.
Optic flow aided navigation and 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rollason, Malcolm
2013-10-01
An important enabler for low cost airborne systems is the ability to exploit low cost inertial instruments. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) can provide a navigation solution, when GPS is denied, by integrating measurements from inertial sensors. However, the gyrometer and accelerometer biases of low cost inertial sensors cause compound errors in the integrated navigation solution. This paper describes experiments to establish whether (and to what extent) the navigation solution can be aided by fusing measurements from an on-board video camera with measurements from the inertial sensors. The primary aim of the work was to establish whether optic flow aided navigation is beneficial even when the 3D structure within the observed scene is unknown. A further aim was to investigate whether an INS can help to infer 3D scene content from video. Experiments with both real and synthetic data have been conducted. Real data was collected using an AR Parrot quadrotor. Empirical results illustrate that optic flow provides a useful aid to navigation even when the 3D structure of the observed scene is not known. With optic flow aiding of the INS, the computed trajectory is consistent with the true camera motion, whereas the unaided INS yields a rapidly increasing position error (the data represents ~40 seconds, after which the unaided INS is ~50 metres in error and has passed through the ground). The results of the Monte Carlo simulation concur with the empirical result. Position errors, which grow as a quadratic function of time when unaided, are substantially checked by the availability of optic flow measurements.
Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, U. B.
1984-01-01
One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.
Decay of the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-06-01
We establish the optimal {Lp-L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5)} time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model and analyze the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. Compared with the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model (Zhang and Zhu in J Differ Equ 258:2315-2338, 2015), our results imply that the friction effect of the damping is stronger than the dissipation effect of the viscosities and enhances the decay rate of the velocity. Our proof is based on Hodge decomposition technique, the {Lp-L2} estimates for the linearized equations and an elaborate energy method.
Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varade, Vijay; Agrawal, Amit; Pradeep, A. M.
2015-02-01
An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow.
Patterns of 3D flow in a rotating cylinder array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, Anna; Dabiri, John; Koseff, Jeffrey
2015-11-01
Experimental data are presented for large arrays of rotating, finite-height cylinders, which show that the three-dimensional flows are strongly dependent on the geometric and rotational configurations of the array. Two geometric configurations of the cylinders, each with two rotational configurations, were examined for a total of four arrays. 2D PIV was conducted in multiple intersecting horizontal and vertical sheets at a location far downstream of the leading edge of the array in order to build up a picture of the 3D developed flow patterns. It was found that the rotation of the cylinders drives the formation of streamwise and transverse flow patterns between cylinders. These horizontal flow patterns, by conservation of mass, drive vertical flows through the top of the array. As the array of rotating cylinders may provide insight into the flow kinematics of an array of vertical axis wind turbines, this planform flux is of particular interest as it would bring down into the array high kinetic energy fluid from above the array, thus increasing the energy resource available to turbines far downstream of the leading edge of the array.
Numerical computation of viscous flow around bodies and wings moving at supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tannehill, J. C.
1984-01-01
Research in aerodynamics is discussed. The development of equilibrium air curve fits; computation of hypersonic rarefield leading edge flows; computation of 2-D and 3-D blunt body laminar flows with an impinging shock; development of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric real gas blunt body code; a study of an over-relaxation procedure forthe MacCormack finite-difference scheme; computation of 2-D blunt body turbulent flows with an impinging shock; computation of supersonic viscous flow over delta wings at high angles of attack; and computation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter flowfield are discussed.
Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2008-11-01
High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.
MPSalsa 3D Simulations of Chemically Reacting Flows
Many important scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. Currently, computer simulations of these complex reacting flow problems are limited to idealized systems in one or two spatial dimensions when coupled with a detailed, fundamental chemistry model. The goal of our research is to develop, analyze and implement advanced MP numerical algorithms that will allow high resolution 3D simulations with an equal emphasis on fluid flow and chemical kinetics modeling. In our research, we focus on the development of new, fully coupled, implicit solution strategies that are based on robust MP iterative solution methods (copied from http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/). These simulations are needed for scientific and technical areas such as: combustion research for transportation, atmospheric chemistry modeling for pollution studies, chemically reacting flow models for analysis and control of manufacturing processes, surface catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process modeling for production of advanced semiconductor materials (http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/).
This project website provides six QuickTime videos of these simulations, along with a small image gallery and slideshow animations. A list of related publications and conference presentations is also made available.
Modeling Electric Current Flow in 3D Fractured Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.
2014-12-01
The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for modeling electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity model where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to 3D remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost modeling approach adapted to 3D simulations in fractured media, our model is (i) validated and compared to existing modeling approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on
Kutta-Joukowski force expression for viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Juan; Xu, YiZhe; Wu, ZiNiu
2015-02-01
The Kutta Joukowski (KJ) theorem, relating the lift of an airfoil to circulation, was widely accepted for predicting the lift of viscous high Reynolds number flow without separation. However, this theorem was only proved for inviscid flow and it is thus of academic importance to see whether there is a viscous equivalent of this theorem. For lower Reynolds number flow around objects of small size, it is difficult to measure the lift force directly and it is thus convenient to measure the velocity flow field solely and then, if possible, relate the lift to the circulation in a similar way as for the inviscid KJ theorem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relevant conditions under which a viscous equivalent of the KJ theorem exists that reduces to the inviscid KJ theorem for high Reynolds number viscous flow and remains correct for low Reynolds number steady flow. It has been shown that if the lift is expressed as a linear function of the circulation as in the classical KJ theorem, then the freestream velocity must be corrected by a component called mean deficit velocity resulting from the wake. This correction is small only when the Reynolds number is relatively large. Moreover, the circulation, defined along a loop containing the boundary layer and a part of the wake, is generally smaller than that based on inviscid flow assumption. For unsteady viscous flow, there is an inevitable additional correction due to unsteadiness.
Comparing two methods of simulating mirco-scale viscous flows in a porous channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Hui; Han, Jie; Jin, Yan; Wang, Lian-Ping
2007-11-01
Water flows in natural soil porous media are important to colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants and other phenomena with groundwater as the carrier. The 3D micro-scale flow is complicated due to the complex geometry. The transport and deposition of colloids in such flows are affected by several physical and chemical forces involved. In this talk, we first compare two methods of simulating viscous flows in both 2D and 3D channels filled with glass-bead particles. The first method is Physalis developed by Prosperetti's group, at Johns Hopkins, based on solving the Navier-Stokes equation using a combination of numerical solution and local analytical Stokes flow representation. The second method is a meso-scale approach by solving a lattice Boltzmann equation. Specific implementation issues will be discussed. The two methods yield almost identical flows. Preliminary simulation results as well as parallel experimental results on colloid deposition in the porous channel will also be presented.
A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafa, Ibrahim
1998-12-01
Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.
Slat Cove Unsteadiness Effect of 3D Flow Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2006-01-01
Previous studies have indicated that 2D, time accurate computations based on a pseudo-laminar zonal model of the slat cove region (within the framework of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations) are inadequate for predicting the full unsteady dynamics of the slat cove flow field. Even though such computations could capture the large-scale, unsteady vorticity structures in the slat cove region without requiring any external forcing, the simulated vortices were excessively strong and the recirculation zone was unduly energetic in comparison with the PIV measurements for a generic high-lift configuration. To resolve this discrepancy and to help enable physics based predictions of slat aeroacoustics, the present paper is focused on 3D simulations of the slat cove flow over a computational domain of limited spanwise extent. Maintaining the pseudo-laminar approach, current results indicate that accounting for the three-dimensionality of flow fluctuations leads to considerable improvement in the accuracy of the unsteady, nearfield solution. Analysis of simulation data points to the likely significance of turbulent fluctuations near the reattachment region toward the generation of broadband slat noise. The computed acoustic characteristics (in terms of the frequency spectrum and spatial distribution) within short distances from the slat resemble the previously reported, subscale measurements of slat noise.
Negative Magnetoresistance in Viscous Flow of Two-Dimensional Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, P. S.
2016-10-01
At low temperatures, in very clean two-dimensional (2D) samples, the electron mean free path for collisions with static defects and phonons becomes greater than the sample width. Under this condition, the electron transport occurs by formation of a viscous flow of an electron fluid. We study the viscous flow of 2D electrons in a magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D layer. We calculate the viscosity coefficients as the functions of magnetic field and temperature. The off-diagonal viscosity coefficient determines the dispersion of the 2D hydrodynamic waves. The decrease of the diagonal viscosity in magnetic field leads to negative magnetoresistance which is temperature and size dependent. Our analysis demonstrates that this viscous mechanism is responsible for the giant negative magnetoresistance recently observed in the ultrahigh-mobility GaAs quantum wells. We conclude that 2D electrons in those structures in moderate magnetic fields should be treated as a viscous fluid.
Development of an Aeroelastic Analysis Including a Viscous Flow Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Bakhle, Milind A.
2001-01-01
Under this grant, Version 4 of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes aeroelastic code (TURBO-AE) has been developed and verified. The TURBO-AE Version 4 aeroelastic code allows flutter calculations for a fan, compressor, or turbine blade row. This code models a vibrating three-dimensional bladed disk configuration and the associated unsteady flow (including shocks, and viscous effects) to calculate the aeroelastic instability using a work-per-cycle approach. Phase-lagged (time-shift) periodic boundary conditions are used to model the phase lag between adjacent vibrating blades. The direct-store approach is used for this purpose to reduce the computational domain to a single interblade passage. A disk storage option, implemented using direct access files, is available to reduce the large memory requirements of the direct-store approach. Other researchers have implemented 3D inlet/exit boundary conditions based on eigen-analysis. Appendix A: Aeroelastic calculations based on three-dimensional euler analysis. Appendix B: Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of blade vibration using the turbo-V3.1 code.
Stabilized finite elements for 3D reactive flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braack, M.; Richter, Th.
2006-07-01
Objective of this work is the numerical solution of chemically reacting flows in three dimensions described by detailed reaction mechanism. The contemplated problems include, e.g. burners with 3D geometry. Contrary to the usual operator splitting method the equations are treated fully coupled with a Newton solver. This leads to the necessity of the solution of large linear non-symmetric, indefinite systems. Due to the complexity of the regarded problems we combine a variety of numerical methods, as there are goal-oriented adaptive mesh refinement, a parallel multigrid solver for the linear systems and economical stabilization techniques for the stiff problems.By blocking the solution components for every ansatz function and applying special matrix structures for each block of degrees of freedom, we can significantly reduce the required memory effort without worsening the convergence. Considering the Galerkin formulation of the regarded problems this is established by using lumping of the mass matrix and the chemical source terms. However, this technique is not longer feasible for standard stabilized finite elements as for instance Galerkin least squares techniques or streamline diffusion. Those stabilized schemes are well established for Navier-Stokes flows but for reactive flows, they introduce many further couplings into the system compared to Galerkin formulations. In this work, we discuss this issue in connection with combustion in more detail and propose the local projection stabilization technique for reactive flows. Beside the robustness of the arising linear systems we are able to maintain the problem-adapted matrix structures presented above. Finally, we will present numerical results for the proposed methods. In particular, we simulate a methane burner with a detailed reaction system involving 15 chemical species and 84 elementary reactions.
3D RECONNECTION AND FLOW DYNAMICS IN THE SSX EXPERIMENT
Brown, M. R.; Cothran, C. D.; Cohen, D. H.; Horwitz, J.; Chaplin, V.
2009-07-26
Several new experimental results are reported from plasma merging studies at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) with relevance to collisionless three-dimensional magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas. First, recent high-resolution velocity measurements of impurity ions using ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) show bi-directional outflow jets at 40 km/s (nearly the Alfven speed). The SSX IDS instrument measures with 1 mus or better time resolution the width and Doppler shift of the C{sub III} impurity (H plasma) 229.7 nm line to determine the temperature and line-averaged flow velocity during spheromak merging events. High flow speeds are corroborated using an in situ Mach probe. Second, ion heating to nearly 10{sup 6} K is observed after reconnection events in a low-density kinetic regime. Transient electron heating is inferred from bursts on a 4-channel soft x-ray array as well as vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Third, the out-of-plane magnetic field and the in-plane Lorentz force in a reconnection volume both show a quadrupolar structure at the ion inertial scale (c/omega{sub pi}). Time resolved vector magnetic field measurements on a 3D lattice B(r, t)) enables this measurement. Earlier work at SSX has shown that formation of three-dimensional structure at the ion inertial scale is temporally and spatially correlated with the observation of superthermal, super-Alfvenic ions accelerated along the X-line normal to the local 2D plane of reconnection. Each of these measurements will be related to and compared with similar observations in a solar or space context. Keywords: spheromak, flow, heating.
Disappearance of criticality in thermal explosion for reactive viscous flows
Shonhiwa, T.; Zaturska, M.B.
1987-02-01
The thermal stability of a reactive viscous flow was first investigated by Adler, who considered the steady development flow between symmetrically heated parallel walls. He used a power series in a defined viscous heating parameter and, assuming the Frank-Kamenetskii exponential approximation to the Arrhenius term, obtained an expression for the critical Frank-Kamenetskii parameter in series form. Subsequently Zaturska used the same approach for four other simple flows, each an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, namely, Poiseuille pipe flow, axial flow between concentric circular cylinders, rotating flow between concentric circular cylinders, and plane Couette flow, and also applied the step-function reaction-rate approximation and constant reaction-rate approximation to the five flows.
Accounting For Compressibility In Viscous Flow In Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinle, Frank W.; Gee, Ken; Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1991-01-01
Method developed to account for effects of compressibility in viscous flows through long, circular pipes of uniform diameter. Based on approximation of variations in density and velocity across pipe cross section by profile equations developed for boundary-layer flow between flat plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
Computational Challenges of Viscous Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Kim, Chang Sung
2004-01-01
Over the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discipline. Although incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to the rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low-speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient CFD took become increasingly important in fluid engineering for incompressible and low-speed flow. This paper reviews some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discusses some of the current challenges faced in computing incompressible flows.
Viscous Fingering Induced Flow Instability in Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography
Mayfield, Kirsty; Shalliker, R. Andrew; Catchpoole, Heather J.; Sweeney, Alan P.; Wong, Victor; Guiochon, Georges A
2005-07-01
Viscous fingering is a flow instability phenomenon that results in the destabilisation of the interface between two fluids of differing viscosities. The destabilised interface results in a complex mixing of the two fluids in a pattern that resembles fingers. The conditions that enhance this type of flow instability can be found in coupled chromatographic separation systems, even when the solvents used in each of the separation stages have seemingly similar chemical and physical properties (other than viscosity). For example, the viscosities of acetonitrile and methanol are sufficiently different that instability at the interface between these two solvents can be established and viscous fingering results. In coupled chromatographic systems, the volume of solvent transported from one separation dimension to the second often exceeds the injection volume by two or more orders of magnitude. As a consequence, viscous fingering may occur, when otherwise following the injection of normal analytical size injection plugs viscous fingering would not occur. The findings in this study illustrate the onset of viscous fingering in emulated coupled chromatographic systems and show the importance of correct solvent selection for optimum separation performance.
Free surface and flow problem for a viscous liquid
Zaytsev, M. L. Akkerman, V. B.
2011-10-15
An exact closed system of equations is proposed for describing the shape of the free surface of a viscous steady-state liquid in the 2D case in terms of the surface itself. A method that lowers the dimensionality in the Navier-Stokes equation is demonstrated, and its application in problems of steady-state flow past solids is considered.
Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.
2011-01-01
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
Energy-decomposition analysis for viscous free-surface flows.
Colagrossi, Andrea; Bouscasse, Benjamin; Marrone, Salvatore
2015-11-01
This work is dedicated to the energy decomposition analysis of a viscous free-surface flow. In the presence of a free surface, the viscous dissipation for a Newtonian liquid can be decomposed into two terms: an enstrophy component and a free-surface deformation component. The latter requires the evaluation of volume and surface integrals in the meshless framework. The analysis is based on the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formalism. The behavior of the energy terms is studied in standing wave problems by changing the viscosity and the wave amplitude. Finally, an analysis of a complex shallow water breaking wave case is provided. It is shown that in presence of intense breaking phenomena the two energy components are always comparable, whereas generally the free surface component is dominant on the viscous dissipation of gravity waves. PMID:26651775
Energy-decomposition analysis for viscous free-surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colagrossi, Andrea; Bouscasse, Benjamin; Marrone, Salvatore
2015-11-01
This work is dedicated to the energy decomposition analysis of a viscous free-surface flow. In the presence of a free surface, the viscous dissipation for a Newtonian liquid can be decomposed into two terms: an enstrophy component and a free-surface deformation component. The latter requires the evaluation of volume and surface integrals in the meshless framework. The analysis is based on the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formalism. The behavior of the energy terms is studied in standing wave problems by changing the viscosity and the wave amplitude. Finally, an analysis of a complex shallow water breaking wave case is provided. It is shown that in presence of intense breaking phenomena the two energy components are always comparable, whereas generally the free surface component is dominant on the viscous dissipation of gravity waves.
Adaptive mesh generation for viscous flows using Delaunay triangulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1990-01-01
A method for generating an unstructured triangular mesh in two dimensions, suitable for computing high Reynolds number flows over arbitrary configurations is presented. The method is based on a Delaunay triangulation, which is performed in a locally stretched space, in order to obtain very high aspect ratio triangles in the boundary layer and the wake regions. It is shown how the method can be coupled with an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver to produce a solution adaptive mesh generation procedure for viscous flows.
Adaptive mesh generation for viscous flows using Delaunay triangulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1988-01-01
A method for generating an unstructured triangular mesh in two dimensions, suitable for computing high Reynolds number flows over arbitrary configurations is presented. The method is based on a Delaunay triangulation, which is performed in a locally stretched space, in order to obtain very high aspect ratio triangles in the boundary layer and the wake regions. It is shown how the method can be coupled with an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver to produce a solution adaptive mesh generation procedure for viscous flows.
Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.
2013-09-01
A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.
Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz
2009-02-01
In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.
Viscous flow calculations in turbomachinery channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martelli, F.; Michelassi, V.
1993-02-01
An implicit procedure based on the artificial compressibility formulation is presented for the numerical solution of the two-dimensional incompressible steady Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of large separated regions. Turbulence effects are accounted for by the Chien low Reynolds number form of the K - \\varepsilon turbulence model and the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic expression for turbulent viscosity. The governing equations are written in conservative form and irnplicitly solved in fully coupled form using the approximate factorization technique. Preliminary tests were carried out in a laminar flow regime to check the accuracy and stability of the method in two-dimensional and cylindrical axisymmetric flow configurations. After testing in laminar and turbulent flow regimes and comparing the two turbulence models, the code was successfully applied to an actual gas turbine diffuser at low Mach numbers.
Simultaneous 3D Strain and Flow Fields Measurement of a Model Artery under Unsteady Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Mostafa; Sheng, Jian
2011-11-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction imposes challenges in both aero-elasticity and biomedical studies. A simultaneous solid deformation and fluid flow measurement technique based on digital in-line holographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been developed. It allows us to measure concurrently 3D strain field of a deforming structure and the unsteady flow near it. To facilitate the measurement, both wall and flow are seeded with tracer particles distinguished by size. The motion of these tracers provides the 3D deformation of the wall and the 3D velocity distribution of the flow separately. A fully index matched facility including transparent artery and NaI solution is constructed to enable observations near the wall or through the complex geometry. An arterial model with the inner diameter of 9.5 mm and the thickness of 0.9 mm is manufactured from the cross-linked transparent PDMS at the mixing ratio of 1:10 and doped with mono-dispersed 19 μm polystyrene particles. A cinematic holographic PTV system is used to trace the 3D particle motion in the model and flow simultaneously. Preliminary study is performed within a sample volume of 15 × 15 × 75 mm with the spatial resolution of 7.4 μm in lateral and 10 μm in depth. Uncertainty and accuracy analysis will be reported. NSF Grant No: CBET-0844647.
Viscous transonic flow computation over Space Shuttle configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fujii, K.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code capable of predicting steady-state viscous flows is applied to the transonic flow over a Space Shuttle configuration. The code is written in the generalized coordinate system, and the grid-generation code of Fujii (1983) is used for the discretization of the flow field. The flow-field computation is done using the CRAY 1S computer at NASA Ames. The computed result is physically reasonable, even though no experimental data is available for the comparison purpose.
Effects of Presence, Copresence, and Flow on Learning Outcomes in 3D Learning Spaces
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassell, Martin D.; Goyal, Sandeep; Limayem, Moez; Boughzala, Imed
2012-01-01
The level of satisfaction and effectiveness of 3D virtual learning environments were examined. Additionally, 3D virtual learning environments were compared with face-to-face learning environments. Students that experienced higher levels of flow and presence also experienced more satisfaction but not necessarily more effectiveness with 3D virtual…
Recent Enhancements to USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for Unsteady Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Chung, James J.
2004-01-01
The NASA USM3D unstructured flow solver is undergoing extensions to address dynamic flow problems in support of NASA and NAVAIR efforts to study the applicability of Computational Fluid Dynamics tools for the prediction of aircraft stability and control characteristics. The initial extensions reported herein include two second-order time stepping schemes, Detached-Eddy Simulation, and grid motion. This paper reports the initial code verification and validation assessment of the dynamic flow capabilities of USM3D. The cases considered are the classic inviscid shock-tube problem, low Reynolds number wake shedding from a NACA 0012 airfoil, high Reynolds number DES-based wake shedding from a 4-to-1 length-to-diameter cylinder, and forced pitch oscillation of a NACA 0012 airfoil with inviscid and turbulent flow.
Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.
2007-01-01
Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the
Downstream boundary conditions for viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G.; Gunzburger, M.
1977-01-01
The problem of the specification of artificial outflow conditions in flow problems is studied. It is shown that for transport type equations incorrect outflow conditions will adversely affect the solution only in a small region near the outflow boundary, while for elliptic equations, e.g. those governing the streamfunction or pressure, a correct boundary specification is essential. In addition, integral outflow boundary conditions for fluid dynamical problems are considered. It is shown that such conditions are well posed, and their effect on the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations is also considered.
White, Diana; Coombe, Dennis; Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537
Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537
Flow effects of blood constitutive equations in 3D models of vascular anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neofytou, Panagiotis; Tsangaris, Sokrates
2006-06-01
The effects of different blood rheological models are investigated numerically utilizing two three- dimensional (3D) models of vascular anomalies, namely a stenosis and an abdominal aortic aneurysm model. The employed CFD code incorporates the SIMPLE scheme in conjunction with the finite-volume method with collocated arrangement of variables. The approximation of the convection terms is carried out using the QUICK differencing scheme, whereas the code enables also multi-block computations, which are useful in order to cope with the two-block grid structure of the current computational domain. Three non-Newtonian models are employed, namely the Casson, Power-Law and Quemada models, which have been introduced in the past for modelling the rheological behaviour of blood and cover both the viscous as well as the two-phase character of blood. In view of the haemodynamical mechanisms related to abnormalities in the vascular network and the role of the wall shear stress in initiating and further developing of arterial diseases, the present study focuses on the 3D flow field and in particular on the distribution as well as on both low and high values of the wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anomaly. Finally, a comparison is made between the effects of each rheological model on the aforementioned parameters. Results show marked differences between simulating blood as Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid and furthermore the Power-Law model exhibits different behaviour in all cases compared to the other models whereas Quemada and Casson models exhibit similar behaviour in the case of the stenosis but different behaviour in the case of the aneurysm.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
Convergence acceleration of viscous and inviscid hypersonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheer, A.; Hafez, M.; Cheung, S.; Flores, J.
1989-01-01
The convergence of inviscid and viscous hypersonic flow calculations using a two-dimensional flux-splitting code is accelerated by applying a Richardson-type overrelaxation method. Successful results are presented for various cases; and a 50 percent savings in computer time is usually achieved. An analytical formula for the overrelaxation factor is derived, and the performance of this scheme is confirmed numerically. Moreover, application of this overrelaxation scheme produces a favorable preconditioning for Wynn's epsilon-algorithm. Both techniques have been extended to viscous three-dimensional flows and applied to accelerate the convergence of the compressible Navier-Stokes code. A savings of 40 percent in computer time is achieved in this case.
3D topographic correction of the BSR heat flow and detection of focused fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tao; Li, Hong-Lin; Zou, Chang-Chun
2014-06-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is a seismic indicator of the bottom of a gas hydrate stability zone. Its depth can be used to calculate the seafloor surface heat flow. The calculated BSR heat flow variations include disturbances from two important factors: (1) seafloor topography, which focuses the heat flow over regions of concave topography and defocuses it over regions of convex topography, and (2) the focused warm fluid flow within the accretionary prism coming from depths deeper than BSR. The focused fluid flow can be detected if the contribution of the topography to the BSR heat flow is removed. However, the analytical equation cannot solve the topographic effect at complex seafloor regions. We prove that 3D finite element method can model the topographic effect on the regional background heat flow with high accuracy, which can then be used to correct the topographic effect and obtain the BSR heat flow under the condition of perfectly flat topography. By comparing the corrected BSR heat flow with the regional background heat flow, focused fluid flow regions can be detected that are originally too small and cannot be detected using present-day equipment. This method was successfully applied to the midslope region of northern Cascadia subducting margin. The results suggest that the Cucumber Ridge and its neighboring area are positive heat flow anomalies, about 10%-20% higher than the background heat flow after 3D topographic correction. Moreover, the seismic imaging associated the positive heat flow anomaly areas with seabed fracture-cavity systems. This suggests flow of warm gas-carrying fluids along these high-permeability pathways, which could result in higher gas hydrate concentrations.
Vortex-dominated flow with viscous core structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Ting, L.
1985-01-01
Recent theoretical studies of vortex-dominated flows are reviewed with special emphasis on those for which the viscous core structures play an important role. The problems to be described are: The interaction and merging of two-dimensional vortices and of curved vortex filaments, the roll-up and decay of trailing far wakes, and the initiation of vortex breakdown. The analysis utilizes finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations complemented by asymptotic expansion techniques.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Implementation of Flow Tripping Capability in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Harrid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Frink, Neal T.
2006-01-01
A flow tripping capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. The capability is based on prescribing an appropriate profile of turbulence model variables to energize the boundary layer in a plane normal to a specified trip region on the body surface. We demonstrate this approach using the k-e two-equation turbulence model of USM3D. Modification to the solution procedure primarily consists of developing a data structure to identify all unstructured tetrahedral grid cells located in the plane normal to a specified surface trip region and computing a function based on the mean flow solution to specify the modified profile of the turbulence model variables. We leverage this data structure and also show an adjunct approach that is based on enforcing a laminar flow condition on the otherwise fully turbulent flow solution in user specified region. The latter approach is applied for the solutions obtained using other one- and two-equation turbulence models of USM3D. A key ingredient of the present capability is the use of a graphical user-interface tool PREDISC to define a trip region on the body surface in an existing grid. Verification of the present modifications is demonstrated on three cases, namely, a flat plate, the RAE2822 airfoil, and the DLR F6 wing-fuselage configuration.
Implementation of Flow Tripping Capability in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Frink, Neal T.
2006-01-01
A flow tripping capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. The capability is based on prescribing an appropriate profile of turbulence model variables to energize the boundary layer in a plane normal to a specified trip region on the body surface. We demonstrate this approach using the k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model of USM3D. Modification to the solution procedure primarily consists of developing a data structure to identify all unstructured tetrahedral grid cells located in the plane normal to a specified surface trip region and computing a function based on the mean flow solution to specify the modified profile of the turbulence model variables. We leverage this data structure and also show an adjunct approach that is based on enforcing a laminar flow condition on the otherwise fully turbulent flow solution in user-specified region. The latter approach is applied for the solutions obtained using other one-and two-equation turbulence models of USM3D. A key ingredient of the present capability is the use of a graphical user-interface tool PREDISC to define a trip region on the body surface in an existing grid. Verification of the present modifications is demonstrated on three cases, namely, a flat plate, the RAE2822 airfoil, and the DLR F6 wing-fuselage configuration.
Viscous flow separation caused by the Marangoni effect in competition with capillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaie, A.; Stoeber, B.
2015-07-01
This letter provides an analytical model that describes the viscous flow separation in a drying thin polymer solution film. While conventional flow separation occurs due to an adverse pressure gradient opposing fluid inertia, here we show that flow separation can also be caused by the Marangoni effect in an evaporation-driven creeping flow. The flow separation behavior strongly depends on the surface tension distribution and the interface profile. Viscous flow separation adds to the current understanding of flow physics during the drying of thin films, in addition to the well-known capillary transport and the Marangoni effect.
Inviscid and viscous interactions in subsonic corner flows.
Chung, Kung-Ming; Chang, Po-Hsiung; Chang, Keh-Chin
2013-01-01
A flap can be used as a high-lift device, in which a downward deflection results in a gain in lift at a given geometric angle of attack. To characterize the aerodynamic performance of a deflected surface in compressible flows, the present study examines a naturally developed turbulent boundary layer past the convex and concave corners. This investigation involves the analysis of mean and fluctuating pressure distributions. The results obtained indicate strong inviscid-viscous interactions. There are upstream expansion and downstream compression for the convex-corner flows, while the opposite trend is observed for the concave-corner flows. A combined flow similarity parameter, based on the small perturbation theory, is proposed to scale the flow characteristics in both subsonic convex- and concave-corner flows. PMID:23935440
Inviscid and Viscous Interactions in Subsonic Corner Flows
Chung, Kung-Ming; Chang, Po-Hsiung; Chang, Keh-Chin
2013-01-01
A flap can be used as a high-lift device, in which a downward deflection results in a gain in lift at a given geometric angle of attack. To characterize the aerodynamic performance of a deflected surface in compressible flows, the present study examines a naturally developed turbulent boundary layer past the convex and concave corners. This investigation involves the analysis of mean and fluctuating pressure distributions. The results obtained indicate strong inviscid-viscous interactions. There are upstream expansion and downstream compression for the convex-corner flows, while the opposite trend is observed for the concave-corner flows. A combined flow similarity parameter, based on the small perturbation theory, is proposed to scale the flow characteristics in both subsonic convex- and concave-corner flows. PMID:23935440
Hydroelastic response and stability of a hydrofoil in viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducoin, Antoine; Young, Yin L.
2013-04-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydroelastic response and stability of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow. The focus is on viscous effects, such as laminar to turbulent transition and stall, on the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) response and hydroelastic stability of flexible hydrofoils. The numerical approach is based on the coupling between a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver, CFX, and a simple two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) system that simulates the tip section bend and twist deformations of a cantelivered, rectangular hydrofoil. The hydrodynamic loading is assumed to be uniform in the spanwise direction, and the hydrofoil is assumed to undergo bend and twist deformation along the spanwise direction only. The CFD solver is first validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of the lift, drag, and moment coefficients of a rigid NACA0012 hydrofoil over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The coupled viscous FSI solver is then validated by comparing numerical predictions with experimental measurements of (i) the lift coefficient of a rigid (stainless steel) NACA66 hydrofoil and (ii) the tip section displacement of a flexible (POM Polyacetate) NACA66 hydrofoil with the same initial (un-deformed) geometry. The hydrodynamic responses of the rigid and flexible NACA66 hydrodfoils are compared to identify FSI effects in viscous flow, including transition, stall, and static divergence. The results show that the flexible hydrofoil undergoes a clockwise twist deformation because the center of pressure is to the left of the elastic axis (center of twist), which increases the effective angle of attack and moves the center of pressure toward the leading edge; the resultant increase in lift and moment will further increase the effective angle of attack until the twist capacity is exceeded, i.e. static divergence or material failure occurs. The results show that viscous effects tend to
SSME 3-D Turnaround Duct flow analysis - CFD predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brankovic, Andreja; Stowers, Steven T.; Mcconnaughey, Paul
1988-01-01
CFD analysis is presently employed to obtain an improved flowfield for an individual flowpath in the case of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Turn-Around Duct (TAD), which conducts the flow exiting from the gas turbines into the fuel bowl. It is demonstrated that the application of CFD to TAD flow analysis, giving attention to the duct's configuration and to the number, shape, and alignment of the diffuser struts, can enhance understanding of flow physics and result in improved duct design and performance.
Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.
Weighted-mean scheme for solving incompressible viscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Q. Q.
1981-01-01
The problem of how a boundary layer responds to the motion of a convexed vortex on a porous wall was investigated. The wall velocity is approximately given by Darcy's law. The vorticity-stream function approach was adopted for solving Navier-Stokes equations of two dimensional incompressible viscous flows. The weighted-mean scheme was used for constructing finite difference approximations of spatial derivatives. Several test problems were solved and numerical results demonstrate clearly the accuracy, stability, and efficiency of the scheme. The weighted mean scheme then can be applied to the vortical flow problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Limanskiy, A. V.; Timoshenko, V. I.
1986-01-01
Numerical results on the hypersonic gas flow in viscous interaction regime past sharp circular cones with thermally destructible Teflon surface are presented. Characteristics of the mutual influence between the thermochemical decomposition of the surface and the viscous interaction are revealed.
On upstream blocking in a viscous diffusive stratified flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koop, C. G.; Redekopp, L. G.
1975-01-01
The effect of diffusion of specie upon the flow about a transverse flat plate moving horizontally in a viscous stratified medium is considered. Asymptotic expansions are used to define a parameter regime where a viscous-diffusive-buoyancy balance is dominant. The solution, expressed in terms of an inverse Fourier transform, is numerically integrated. The results show that, as in the non-diffusive problem, a region of closed streamlines exists ahead of the body. However, unlike the case where diffusion is neglected, the density field within this recirculating region is uniquely determined and found to be statically stable. It is also found that varying the relative amount of diffusion affects not only the density distribution, but the velocity profile as well, indicating a strong coupling between the vorticity and specie equation.
Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu
2016-06-01
We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.
Nonequilibrium viscous flow over Jovian entry probes at high altitudes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Szema, K. Y.; Tiwari, S. N.
1979-01-01
The viscous chemical nonequilibrium flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated at high altitudes using two different methods. First method is only for the stagnation region and integrates the full Navier-Stokes equations from the body surface to the freestream. The second method uses viscous shock layer equations between the body surface and the shock. Due to low Reynolds numbers, both methods use surface slip boundary conditions and the second method also uses shock slip boundary conditions. The results of the two methods are compared at the stagnation point. It is found that the entire shock layer is under chemical nonequilibrium at higher altitudes and that the slip boundary conditions are important at these altitudes.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, J.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
Turbulent flow within turbomachines having arbitrary blade geometries is examined. Effects of turbulence are modeled using two equations, one expressing the development of the turbulence kinetic energy and the other its dissipation rate. To account for complicated blade geometries, the flow equations are formulated in terms of a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The analysis is applied to a radial inflow turbine. The solution obtained indicates the severity of the complex interaction mechanism that occurs between the different flow regimes (i.e., boundary layers, recirculating eddies, separation zones, etc.). Comparison with nonviscous flow solutions tend to justify strongly the inadequacy of using the latter with standard boundary layer techniques to obtain viscous flow details within turbomachine rotors. Capabilities and limitations of the present method of analysis are discussed.
Adaptive multigrid domain decomposition solutions for viscous interacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, Stanley G.; Srinivasan, Kumar
1992-01-01
Several viscous incompressible flows with strong pressure interaction and/or axial flow reversal are considered with an adaptive multigrid domain decomposition procedure. Specific examples include the triple deck structure surrounding the trailing edge of a flat plate, the flow recirculation in a trough geometry, and the flow in a rearward facing step channel. For the latter case, there are multiple recirculation zones, of different character, for laminar and turbulent flow conditions. A pressure-based form of flux-vector splitting is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations, which are represented by an implicit lowest-order reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) system and a purely diffusive, higher-order, deferred-corrector. A trapezoidal or box-like form of discretization insures that all mass conservation properties are satisfied at interfacial and outflow boundaries, even for this primitive-variable, non-staggered grid computation.
Axisymmetric viscous gravity currents flowing over a deep porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spannuth, Melissa; Neufeld, Jerome; Wettlaufer, John S.; Grae Worster, M.
2006-11-01
When a viscous fluid flows over a porous substrate, it not only spreads but also seeps into the underlying medium. Such flows have relevance to the design of shingle beds for use as safety features around storage facilities of dense fluids and to flow through fissures in porous rocks. Whereas previous investigations have been confined to two-dimensional flows of fixed volume, we have investigated currents fed by a constant fluid flux flowing axisymmetrically over a deep porous bed. Our experimental system consisted of glycerin spreading over monodisperse glass spheres of known permeability and the data were analyzed using scaling analyses. We have also solved a mathematical model using the well-known equations for a viscous gravity current spreading due to the slope of its free surface augmented by a simple draining law. Its predictions agree well with our experimental results and quantify, in particular, the maximum distance to which the current spreads as a function of the material and input properties.
Laser direct writing 3D structures for microfluidic channels: flow meter and mixer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chih-Lang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lin, Zheng-Da; Wu, Bo-Long; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Shin, Chow-Shing; Baldeck, Patrice L.
2015-03-01
The 3D laser direct-writing technology is aimed at the modeling of arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) complex microstructures by scanning a laser-focusing point along predetermined trajectories. Through the perspective technique, the details of designed 3D structures can be properly fabricated in a microchannel. This study introduces a direct reading flow meter and a 3D passive mixer fabricated by laser direct writing for microfluidic applications. The flow meter consists of two rod-shaped springs, a pillar, an anchor, and a wedge-shaped indicator, installed inside a microfluidic channel. The indicator is deflected by the flowing fluid while restrained by the spring to establish an equilibrium indication according to the flow rate. The measurement is readily carried out by optical microscopy observation. The 3D passive Archimedes-screw-shaped mixer is designed to disturb the laminar flow 3D direction for enhancing the mixing efficiency. The simulation results indicate that the screw provides 3D disturbance of streamlines in the microchannel. The mixing demonstration for fluids flowing in the micrchannel approximately agrees with the simulation result. Thanks to the advantage of the laser direct writing technology, this study performs the ingenious applications of 3D structures for microchannels.
3D automatic Cartesian grid generation for Euler flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.
1993-01-01
We describe a Cartesian grid strategy for the study of three dimensional inviscid flows about arbitrary geometries that uses both conventional and CAD/CAM surface geometry databases. Initial applications of the technique are presented. The elimination of the body-fitted constraint allows the grid generation process to be automated, significantly reducing the time and effort required to develop suitable computational grids for inviscid flowfield simulations.
Vorticity Generation on a Flat Surface in 3D Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casciola, C. M.; Piva, R.; Bassanini, P.
1996-12-01
Vortex methods, based on the splitting into Euler and Stokes operators, have been successfully adopted in numerical solutions of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in free-space. Here we deal with their application to flows bounded by solid walls, discussing in particular the boundary conditions for vorticity and their approximation. In two dimensions this has been accomplished by introducing a vortex sheet at the wall, determined by the local slip-velocity, as an approximation of the vorticity source. For three-dimensional flows, we analyze in the context of the Stokes substep the integral equation for the vorticity source and its connection with the creation algorithm adopted in vortex methods. The present analysis leads to a formulation which shows the connection between the exact vorticity source at the wall and the discrete vorticity creation operator adopted in the Chorin-Marsden formula. In particular, the slip velocity at the wall is identified as an approximate solution of the integral equation for the vorticity source and the corresponding error estimate is also discussed. Besides showing the consistency of this approximation, we indicate a numerical procedure which provides a wall-generation of solenoidal vorticity. This is a crucial issue for an accurate application of vortex methods to three-dimensional flows.
Efficient solutions of two-dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, J. H.; Napolitano, M.
1986-01-01
A simple, efficient, and robust numerical technique is provided for solving two dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows at moderate to high Reynolds numbers. The proposed approach employs an incremental multigrid method and an extrapolation procedure based on minimum residual concepts to accelerate the convergence rate of a robust block-line-Gauss-Seidel solver for the vorticity-stream function Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for the driven cavity flow problem using uniform and nonuniform grids and for the flow past a backward facing step in a channel. For this second problem, mesh refinement and Richardson extrapolation are used to obtain useful benchmark solutions in the full range of Reynolds numbers at which steady laminar flow is established.
High speed viscous flow calculations about complex configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaussee, D. S.
1986-01-01
Applications of the NASA Ames Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code to a variety of complex generic configurations is presented. The algorithm, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and grid generators are discussed as applied to these configurations. The PNS code was used as the mainline procedure to numerically simulate the viscous supersonic flow over these generic configurations. The turbulence model that was used in this study is the Baldwin-Lomax model. The boundary conditions are the usual viscous no slip at the wall, and a characteristic procedure is used to fit the bow shock wave which is the outermost boundary. An elliptic grid generator is employed to discretize the flow domain. In addition, an equilibrium air capability has been incorporated into the code. It uses the curve fits of Tannehill, et al. The flow regimes vary from a Mach number of 2 up to 25. Both laminar and turbulent flow are considered. Varying angles of attack have also been computed. Configurations vary from simple cone-type bodies to lifting winged bodies, such as the space shuttle or the generic supersonic cruise fighter.
High speed viscous flow calculations about complex configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaussee, D. S.
1986-04-01
Applications of the NASA Ames Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code to a variety of complex generic configurations is presented. The algorithm, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and grid generators are discussed as applied to these configurations. The PNS code was used as the mainline procedure to numerically simulate the viscous supersonic flow over these generic configurations. The turbulence model that was used in this study is the Baldwin-Lomax model. The boundary conditions are the usual viscous no slip at the wall, and a characteristic procedure is used to fit the bow shock wave which is the outermost boundary. An elliptic grid generator is employed to discretize the flow domain. In addition, an equilibrium air capability has been incorporated into the code. It uses the curve fits of Tannehill, et al. The flow regimes vary from a Mach number of 2 up to 25. Both laminar and turbulent flow are considered. Varying angles of attack have also been computed. Configurations vary from simple cone-type bodies to lifting winged bodies, such as the space shuttle or the generic supersonic cruise fighter.
Foam rheology: A model of viscous effects in shear flow
Kraynik, A.M.; Reinelt, D.A.
1988-01-01
Foams consisting of gas bubbles dispersed in a continuous network of thin liquid films display a remarkable range of rheological characteristics that include a finite shear modulus, yield stress, non-Newtonian viscosity, and slip at the wall. Progress in developing micromechanical theories to describe foam rheology has depended upon two-dimensional models, which in most cases are assumed to have perfectly ordered structure. Princen accounted for surface tension and geometrical effects, and analyzed the nonlinear elastic response of a spatially periodic foam in simple shear. His analysis has been extended to account for more general deformations. Khan and Armstrong and Kraynik and Hansen have proposed ad hoc models for viscous effects in foam rheology. Their models capture numerous qualitative phenomena but incorporate relaxation mechanisms based upon overly simplified assumptions of liquid flow in the thin films. Mysels, Shinoda, and Frankel considered soap films with interfaces that are inextensible due to the presence of surfactants. They analyzed the primary flow that occurs when such films are slowly withdrawn from or recede into essentially static junction regions such as the Plateau borders in a foam. Adopting this mechanism, Schwartz and Princen considered small periodic deformations of a foam and calculated the energy dissipation due to viscous flow in the thin films. In the following, we also adopt the basic interfacial and viscous mechanisms introduced by Mysels et al. and analyze simple shearing deformations of finite amplitude. The configuration and effective stress of the foam are determined. Under these deformation conditions, the foam is a nonlinear viscoelastic material. Results for the uniform expansion of a foam are also presented. 11 refs., 3 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borderie, Sandra; Graveleau, Fabien; Witt, César; Vendeville, Bruno C.
2016-04-01
Accretionary wedges are generally segmented both across and along strike because of diverse factors including tectonic and stratigraphic inheritance. In fold-and-thrust belts, along-strike stratigraphic changes in the foreland sequence are classically observed and cause a curvature of the deformation front. Although the parameters controlling this curvature are well documented, the structural interactions and mutual influences between adjacent provinces are much less analyzed. To investigate this question, we deformed analogue models in a compressional box equipped with digital cameras and a topographic measurement apparatus. Models where shortened above a basal frictional detachment (glass microbeads) and segmentation was tested by having a region in which we added an interbedded viscous level (silicone polymer) within the sedimentary cover (dry sand). By changing the number (2 or 3) and the relative width of the purely frictional and viscous provinces, our goal was to characterize geometrically and kinematically the interactions between the viscous and the purely frictional provinces. We used a commercial geomodeller to generate 3-D geometrical models. The results indicate that regardless of the relative width of the purely frictional vs. viscous provinces, the deformation style in the frictional province is not influenced by the presence of the adjacent viscous province. On the contrary, the structural style and the deformation kinematics in the viscous province is significantly impacted by the presence or absence of an adjacent purely frictional province. At first order, the deformation style in the viscous province depends on its width, and three structural styles can be defined along strike. Far from the frictional area, structures are primarily of salt-massif type, and they do not seem to be influenced by the frictional wedge province. Towards the frictional province, deformation changes gradually to a zone of purely forethrusts (foreland verging), and
New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.
1983-01-01
Several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. The role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some modifications are mentioned.
New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.
1983-01-01
This paper considers several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. Following this, the role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing recent work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some recent modifications are mentioned.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1990-01-01
Because of the complexity of helicopter flow field, a zonal method of analysis of computational aerodynamics is required. Here, a new procedure for coupling potential and viscous flow is proposed. An overlapping, velocity coupling technique is to be developed with the unique feature that the potential flow surface singularity strengths are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes at a smoother inner fluid boundary. The closed-loop iteration method proceeds until the velocity field is converged. This coupling should provide the means of more accurate viscous computations of the near-body and rotor flow fields with resultant improved analysis of such important performance parameters as helicopter fuselage drag and rotor airloads.
A dual reciprocal boundary element formulation for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lafe, Olu
1993-01-01
The advantages inherent in the boundary element method (BEM) for potential flows are exploited to solve viscous flow problems. The trick is the introduction of a so-called dual reciprocal technique in which the convective terms are represented by a global function whose unknown coefficients are determined by collocation. The approach, which is necessarily iterative, converts the governing partial differential equations into integral equations via the distribution of fictitious sources or dipoles of unknown strength on the boundary. These integral equations consist of two parts. The first is a boundary integral term, whose kernel is the unknown strength of the fictitious sources and the fundamental solution of a convection-free flow problem. The second part is a domain integral term whose kernel is the convective portion of the governing PDEs. The domain integration can be transformed to the boundary by using the dual reciprocal (DR) concept. The resulting formulation is a pure boundary integral computational process.
Unstructured viscous flow solution using adaptive hybrid grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galle, Martin
1995-01-01
A three dimensional finite volume scheme based on hybrid grids containing both tetrahedral and hexahedral cells is presented. The application to hybrid grids offers the possibility to combine the flexibility of tetrahedral meshes with the accuracy of hexahedral grids. An algorithm to compute a dual mesh for the entire computational domain was developed. The dual mesh technique guarantees conservation in the whole flow field even at interfaces between hexahedral and tetrahedral domains and enables the employment of an accurate upwind flow solver. The hybrid mesh can be adapted to the solution by dividing cells in areas of insufficient resolution. The method is tested on different viscous and inviscid cases for hypersonic, transonic and subsonic flows.
Calculation of viscous supersonic flows over finned bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, M. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Rizk, Y. M.
1983-01-01
The parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations are used to calculate the viscous, supersonic flow fields about a six-finned projectile and a generic four-finned missile at angles of attack. Since current computer speeds and storage preclude a fully three-dimensional calculation using the unsteady, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes equations, the applicability of the PNS equations to the above flow fields is of considerable interest. Two important aspects of the calculation are grid generation and the type of smoothing used to prevent nonphysical solutions. This paper includes a description of the grid-generation process. Results in the form of density contours and velocity vector plots are presented for the two configurations. The applicability of the PNS equations to the complicated flow fields considered is successfully demonstrated.
Viscous effects in tube flow initiated by an expansion wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, K.-O.; Russell, D. A.
1977-01-01
An examination is made of the effect of the turbulent boundary layer on the uniformity of the flow initiated by a nonsteady expansion wave traveling in a long, constant-area tube. Closed-form expressions for the flow perturbations first are obtained from the linearized equations of motion. Measured static pressure histories for both lowand high-tube Mach numbers are used for comparison. Detailed discussions of the limitations of the linearized model and its extension to high-tube Mach numbers are given. Agreement is shown between a modified version of the linearized model and the experimental results. A model of viscous nonsteady pipe flow is used to explain the nonlinear pressure decay observed at very large length-to-diameter ratios.
Perspectives on hypersonic viscous and nonequilibrium flow research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, H. K.
1992-01-01
An attempt is made to reflect on current focuses in certain areas of hypersonic flow research by examining recent works and their issues. Aspects of viscous interaction, flow instability, and nonequilibrium aerothermodynamics pertaining to theoretical interest are focused upon. The field is a diverse one, and many exciting works may have either escaped the writer's notice or been abandoned for the sake of space. Students of hypersonic viscous flow must face the transition problems towards the two opposite ends of the Reynolds or Knudsen number range, which represents two regimes where unresolved fluid/gas dynamic problems abound. Central to the hypersonic flow studies is high-temperature physical gas dynamics; here, a number of issues on modelling the intermolecular potentials and inelastic collisions remain the obstacles to quantitative predictions. Research in combustion and scramjet propulsion will certainly be benefitted by advances in turbulent mixing and new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) strategies on multi-scaled complex reactions. Even for the sake of theoretical development, the lack of pertinent experimental data in the right energy and density ranges is believed to be among the major obstacles to progress in aerothermodynamic research for hypersonic flight. To enable laboratory simulation of nonequilibrium effects anticipated for transatmospheric flight, facilities capable of generating high enthalpy flow at density levels higher than in existing laboratories are needed (Hornung 1988). A new free-piston shock tunnel capable of realizing a test-section stagnation temperature of 10(exp 5) at Reynolds number 50 x 10(exp 6)/cm is being completed and preliminary tests has begun (H. Hornung et al. 1992). Another laboratory study worthy of note as well as theoretical support is the nonequilibrium flow experiment of iodine vapor which has low activation energies for vibrational excitation and dissociation, and can be studied in a laboratory with modest
Evolution of 3-D geologic framework modeling and its application to groundwater flow studies
Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.
2012-01-01
In this Fact Sheet, the authors discuss the evolution of project 3-D subsurface framework modeling, research in hydrostratigraphy and airborne geophysics, and methodologies used to link geologic and groundwater flow models.
3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)
Crosetto, D.
1992-10-01
A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments.
Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow during VCz growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bänsch, E.; Davis, D.; Langmach, H.; Miller, W.; Rehse, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Uhle, M.
2004-05-01
Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow have been performed for a configuration used at the vapour-pressure-controlled Czochalski growth of GaAs single crystals. Thermal boundary conditions were adapted from a global simulation of the temperature field. The axisymmetric calculations with the code NAVIER confirmed the ones previously perfomed with FIDAP TM. The 3D calculations showed that the flow exhibits an asymmetric transient behaviour beyond a certain critical Reynolds number.
Validation of a Node-Centered Wall Function Model for the Unstructured Flow Code FUN3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Jan-Renee; Vasta, Veer N.; White, Jeffery
2015-01-01
In this paper, the implementation of two wall function models in the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational uid dynamics (CFD) code FUN3D is described. FUN3D is a node centered method for solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured computational grids. The first wall function model, based on the work of Knopp et al., is used in conjunction with the one-equation turbulence model of Spalart-Allmaras. The second wall function model, also based on the work of Knopp, is used in conjunction with the two-equation k-! turbulence model of Menter. The wall function models compute the wall momentum and energy flux, which are used to weakly enforce the wall velocity and pressure flux boundary conditions in the mean flow momentum and energy equations. These wall conditions are implemented in an implicit form where the contribution of the wall function model to the Jacobian are also included. The boundary conditions of the turbulence transport equations are enforced explicitly (strongly) on all solid boundaries. The use of the wall function models is demonstrated on four test cases: a at plate boundary layer, a subsonic di user, a 2D airfoil, and a 3D semi-span wing. Where possible, different near-wall viscous spacing tactics are examined. Iterative residual convergence was obtained in most cases. Solution results are compared with theoretical and experimental data for several variations of grid spacing. In general, very good comparisons with data were achieved.
Extended 3D Approach for Quantification of Abnormal Ascending Aortic Flow
Sigovan, Monica; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Wrenn, Jarrett; Tseng, Elaine E.; Saloner, David; Hope, Michael D.
2015-01-01
Background Flow displacement quantifies eccentric flow, a potential risk factor for aneurysms in the ascending aorta, but only at a single anatomic location. The aim of this study is to extend flow displacement analysis to 3D in patients with aortic and aortic valve pathologies. Methods 43 individuals were studied with 4DFlow MRI in 6 groups: healthy, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) with aortic stenosis (AS) but no dilatation, TAV with dilatation but no AS, and TAV with both AS and dilatation, BAV without AS or dilatation, BAV without AS but with dilation. The protocol was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained. Flow displacement was calculated for multiple planes along the ascending aorta, and 2D and 3D analyses were compared. Results Good correlation was found between 2D flow displacement and both maximum and average 3D values (r>0.8). Healthy controls had significantly lower flow displacement values with all approaches (p<0.05). The highest flow displacement was seen with stenotic TAV and aortic dilation (0.24±0.02 with maximum flow displacement). The 2D approach underestimated the maximum flow displacement by more than 20% in 13 out of 36 patients (36%). Conclusions The extended 3D flow displacement analysis offers a more comprehensive quantitative evaluation of abnormal systolic flow in the ascending aorta than 2D analysis. Differences between patient subgroups are better demonstrated, and maximum flow displacement is more reliable assessed. PMID:25721998
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald
1990-01-01
A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.
Computation of multi-dimensional viscous supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buggeln, R. C.; Kim, Y. N.; Mcdonald, H.
1986-01-01
A method has been developed for two- and three-dimensional computations of viscous supersonic jet flows interacting with an external flow. The approach employs a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations which allows solution as an initial-boundary value problem in space, using an efficient noniterative forward marching algorithm. Numerical instability associated with forward marching algorithms for flows with embedded subsonic regions is avoided by approximation of the reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations in the subsonic regions of the boundary layers. Supersonic and subsonic portions of the flow field are simultaneously calculated by a consistently split linearized block implicit computational algorithm. The results of computations for a series of test cases associated with supersonic jet flow is presented and compared with other calculations for axisymmetric cases. Demonstration calculations indicate that the computational technique has great promise as a tool for calculating a wide range of supersonic flow problems including jet flow. Finally, a User's Manual is presented for the computer code used to perform the calculations.
Vortex motion in wall-bounded viscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.
1985-01-01
A factor of general interest in a broad class of wall-bounded flows is the dynamic evolution of vortical structures through the flow. The structures are three-dimensional, and an overall mathematical description of such entities has not yet been formulated. One of the objectives of the present investigation is concerned with the establishment of a framework, based on first principles, which may form a basis for more detailed analytical studies. Another aim is related to the establishment of boundary and initial conditions in numerical experiments. The mathematical framework employed involves the method of matched asymptotic expansions, and an inner solution field is constructed which consists of a two-dimensional vortical structure. The outer solution field is taken to be an otherwise undisturbed laminar two-dimensional parallel or self-similar viscous flowfield.
Chemical nonequilibrium and viscous flow computation for conic aerobrake bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.
1988-01-01
Three-dimensional analyses are presented for the viscous, reactive flow over a complete entry-body configuration with a wide-angle conic surface. The predictive method uses a split approach that solves iteratively the Navier-Stokes and the continuity equations of chemical species. The finite-difference formulation and the computational grid are adapted to the bow shock and the conformally mapped body such that the velocity components are in the computational spherical-polar space. Combinations of several conic forebody and afterbody configurations have been studied using wind-tunnel, Space Shuttle, and aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) entry conditions. The effects of the borebody bluntness and of finite-rate chemical reactions on the shock layer, the wall catalycity on the boundary layer, the shear-layer impingement on the afterbody, and the base-flow environment are discussed.
Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.
Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L
2013-03-06
In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.
Determining 3D Flow Fields via Multi-camera Light Field Imaging
Truscott, Tadd T.; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R.; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.
2013-01-01
In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture 1. Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet. PMID:23486112
Numerical computation of viscous flow about unconventional airfoil shapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahmed, S.; Tannehill, J. C.
1990-01-01
A new two-dimensional computer code was developed to analyze the viscous flow around unconventional airfoils at various Mach numbers and angles of attack. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme. Both laminar and turbulent flows can be computed. A new nonequilibrium turbulence closure model was developed for computing turbulent flows. This two-layer eddy viscosity model was motivated by the success of the Johnson-King model in separated flow regions. The influence of history effects are described by an ordinary differential equation developed from the turbulent kinetic energy equation. The performance of the present code was evaluated by solving the flow around three airfoils using the Reynolds time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Excellent results were obtained for both attached and separated flows about the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Integrated Technology A 153W airfoil. Based on the comparison of the numerical solutions with the available experimental data, it is concluded that the present code in conjunction with the new nonequilibrium turbulence model gives excellent results.
Flow Characteristics of Distinctly Viscous Multilayered Intestinal Fluid Motion
Pandey, S. K.; Chaube, M. K.; Tripathi, Dharmendra
2015-01-01
The goal of this investigation is to study the three layered (core layer, intermediate layer, and peripheral layer) tubular flow of power law fluids with variable viscosity by peristalsis in order to investigate the strength of the role played by an artificially generated intermediate layer to ease constipation. The solution is carried out under the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations in the wave frame of reference as the flow is creeping one. The stream functions for each layer such as core layer, intermediate layer, and peripheral layer are determined. The expressions for axial pressure gradient, interfaces, trapping, and reflux limits are obtained. The effects of power law index and viscosities on pressure across one wavelength, mechanical efficiency, and trapping are discussed numerically. It is found that the pressure required to restrain flow rates and the mechanical efficiency increase with the viscosities of the intermediate and peripheral layers as well as with the flow behaviour index. It is observed that the axisymmetric flow in intestines is less prone to constipation than two-dimensional flow and may be more easily overcome with introducing a viscous intermediate layer. PMID:27041980
ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.
McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon
2005-01-01
This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.
Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1997-01-01
This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.
Reacting Multi-Species Gas Capability for USM3D Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Schuster, David M.
2012-01-01
The USM3D Navier-Stokes flow solver contributed heavily to the NASA Constellation Project (CxP) as a highly productive computational tool for generating the aerodynamic databases for the Ares I and V launch vehicles and Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV). USM3D is currently limited to ideal-gas flows, which are not adequate for modeling the chemistry or temperature effects of hot-gas jet flows. This task was initiated to create an efficient implementation of multi-species gas and equilibrium chemistry into the USM3D code to improve its predictive capabilities for hot jet impingement effects. The goal of this NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment was to implement and validate a simulation capability to handle real-gas effects in the USM3D code. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Computation of viscous flows over airfoils, including separation, with a coupling approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leballeur, J. C.
1983-01-01
Viscous incompressible flows over single or multiple airfoils, with or without separation, were computed using an inviscid flow calculation, with modified boundary conditions, and by a method providing calculation and coupling for boundary layers and wakes, within conditions of strong viscous interaction. The inviscid flow is calculated with a method of singularities, the numerics of which were improved by using both source and vortex distributions over profiles, associated with regularity conditions for the fictitious flows inside of the airfoils. The viscous calculation estimates the difference between viscous flow and inviscid interacting flow, with a direct or inverse integral method, laminar or turbulent, with or without reverse flow. The numerical method for coupling determines iteratively the boundary conditions for the inviscid flow. For attached viscous layers regions, an underrelaxation is locally calculated to insure stability. For separated or separating regions, a special semi-inverse algorithm is used. Comparisons with experiments are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.; Firoozabadi, A.
2013-12-01
Most problems of interest in hydrogeology and subsurface energy resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most naturally represented in numerical reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods are a natural choice to describe fluid flow on unstructured meshes, because the governing equations can be readily discretized for any grid-element geometry. In this work, we consider the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by tetrahedra, prisms, or hexahedra, and compare to simulations on 3D structured grids. We employ a combination of mixed hybrid finite element methods to solve for the pressure and flux fields in a fractional flow formulation, and higher-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for the mass transport equations. These methods are well suited to simulate flow in heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide a globally continuous pressure and flux field, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in the phase properties, such as compositions and saturations. The increased accuracy from using higher-order methods improves the modeling of highly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We present several numerical examples to study convergence rates and the (lack of) sensitivity to gridding/mesh orientation, and mesh quality. These examples consider gravity depletion, water and gas injection in oil saturated subsurface reservoirs with species exchange between up to three fluid phases. The examples demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods in the study of challenging multiphase flow problems in porous, geometrically complex, subsurface media.
Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hixon, Duane; Sankar, L. N.
1993-01-01
During the past two decades, there has been significant progress in the field of numerical simulation of unsteady compressible viscous flows. At present, a variety of solution techniques exist such as the transonic small disturbance analyses (TSD), transonic full potential equation-based methods, unsteady Euler solvers, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. These advances have been made possible by developments in three areas: (1) improved numerical algorithms; (2) automation of body-fitted grid generation schemes; and (3) advanced computer architectures with vector processing and massively parallel processing features. In this work, the GMRES scheme has been considered as a candidate for acceleration of a Newton iteration time marching scheme for unsteady 2-D and 3-D compressible viscous flow calculation; from preliminary calculations, this will provide up to a 65 percent reduction in the computer time requirements over the existing class of explicit and implicit time marching schemes. The proposed method has ben tested on structured grids, but is flexible enough for extension to unstructured grids. The described scheme has been tested only on the current generation of vector processor architecture of the Cray Y/MP class, but should be suitable for adaptation to massively parallel machines.
Computation of multi-dimensional viscous supersonic jet flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Y. N.; Buggeln, R. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1986-01-01
A new method has been developed for two- and three-dimensional computations of viscous supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions adjacent to solid boundaries. The approach employs a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations which allows solution as an initial-boundary value problem in space, using an efficient noniterative forward marching algorithm. Numerical instability associated with forward marching algorithms for flows with embedded subsonic regions is avoided by approximation of the reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations in the subsonic regions of the boundary layers. Supersonic and subsonic portions of the flow field are simultaneously calculated by a consistently split linearized block implicit computational algorithm. The results of computations for a series of test cases relevant to internal supersonic flow is presented and compared with data. Comparison between data and computation are in general excellent thus indicating that the computational technique has great promise as a tool for calculating supersonic flow with embedded subsonic regions. Finally, a User's Manual is presented for the computer code used to perform the calculations.
Instability of a cantilevered flexible plate in viscous channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, T. S.; Lucey, A. D.
2005-10-01
The stability of a flexible cantilevered plate in viscous channel flow is studied as a representation of the dynamics of the human upper airway. The focus is on instability mechanisms of the soft palate (flexible plate) that cause airway blockage during sleep. We solve the Navier Stokes equations for flow with Reynolds numbers up to 1500 fully coupled with the dynamics of the plate motion solved using finite-differences. The study is 2-D and based upon linearized plate mechanics. When both upper and lower airways are open, the plate is found to lose its stability through a flutter mechanism and a critical Reynolds number exists. When one airway is closed, the plate principally loses its stability through a divergence mechanism and a critical flow speed exists. However, below the divergence-onset flow speed, flutter can exist for low levels of structural damping in the flexible plate. Our results serve to extend understanding of flow-induced instability of cantilevered flexible plates and will ultimately improve the diagnosis and treatment of upper-airway disorders.
Lattice Boltzmann methods for viscous fluid flows and for two-phase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inamuro, Takaji
2006-09-01
Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for viscous fluid flows and for two-phase fluid flows are presented. First, the LBMs for incompressible viscous fluid flows and for temperature fields are described. Then, we derive a lattice kinetic scheme (LKS) which is an improved scheme of the LBM. The LKS does not require any velocity distribution functions and is more stable than the LBMs. In addition, the LBM for two-phase fluid flows is presented. The method can simulate flows with the density ratio up to 1000. Numerical examples of unsteady flows in a three-dimensional porous structure, binary droplet collision and rising bubbles in a square duct are illustrated. It is expected that the LBMs (and LKS) will become promising numerical schemes for simulating complex fluid flows.
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
Viscous Flow Structures Downstream of a Model Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemsing, Frank; Erath, Byron
2013-11-01
In tracheoesophageal speech (TES), the glottis is replaced by the tissue of the pharyngeoesophageal segment (PES) as the vibrating element of speech production. During TES air is forced from the lungs into the esophagus via a prosthetic tube that connects the trachea with the esophagus. Air moving up the esophagus incites self-sustained oscillations of the surgically created PES, generating sound analogous to voiced speech. Despite the ubiquity with which TES is employed as a method for restoring speech to laryngectomees, the effect of viscous flow structures on voice production in TES is not well understood. Of particular interest is the flow exiting the prosthetic connection between the trachea and esophagus, because of its influence on the total pressure loss (i.e. effort required to produce speech), and the fluid-structure energy exchange that drives the PES. Understanding this flow behavior can inform prosthesis design to enhance beneficial flow structures and mitigate the need for adjustment of prosthesis placement. This study employs a physical model of the tracheoesophageal geometry to investigate the flow structures that arise in TES. The geometry of this region is modeled at three times physiological scale using water as the working fluid to obtain nondimensional numbers matching flow in TES. Modulation of the flow is achieved with a computer controlled gate valve at a scaled frequency of 0.22 Hz to mimic the oscillations of the PES. Particle image velocimetry is used to resolve flow characteristics at the tracheoesophageal prosthesis. Data are acquired for three cases of prosthesis insertion angle.
A Parallel Multigrid Solver for Viscous Flows on Anisotropic Structured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prieto, Manuel; Montero, Ruben S.; Llorente, Ignacio M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents an efficient parallel multigrid solver for speeding up the computation of a 3-D model that treats the flow of a viscous fluid over a flat plate. The main interest of this simulation lies in exhibiting some basic difficulties that prevent optimal multigrid efficiencies from being achieved. As the computing platform, we have used Coral, a Beowulf-class system based on Intel Pentium processors and equipped with GigaNet cLAN and switched Fast Ethernet networks. Our study not only examines the scalability of the solver but also includes a performance evaluation of Coral where the investigated solver has been used to compare several of its design choices, namely, the interconnection network (GigaNet versus switched Fast-Ethernet) and the node configuration (dual nodes versus single nodes). As a reference, the performance results have been compared with those obtained with the NAS-MG benchmark.
3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry
Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J
2013-01-01
Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products. PMID:23766811
Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.
2015-03-01
It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.
3D vector flow using a row-column addressed CMUT array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Engholm, Mathias; Lei, Anders; Stuart, Mathias Bo; Beers, Christopher; Moesner, Lars Nordahl; Bagge, Jan Peter; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2016-04-01
This paper presents an in-house developed 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) applied for 3-D blood flow estimation. The probe breaks with conventional transducers in two ways; first, the ultrasonic pressure field is generated from thousands of small vibrating micromachined cells, and second, elements are accessed by row and/or column indices. The 62+62 2-D row-column addressed prototype CMUT probe was used for vector flow estimation by transmitting focused ultrasound into a flow-rig with a fully developed parabolic flow. The beam-to-flow angle was 90°. The received data was beamformed and processed offline. A transverse oscillation (TO) velocity estimator was used to estimate the 3-D vector flow along a line originating from the center of the transducer. The estimated velocities in the lateral and axial direction were close to zero as expected. In the transverse direction a characteristic parabolic velocity profile was estimated with a peak velocity of 0.48 m/s +/- 0.02 m/s in reference to the expected 0.54 m/s. The results presented are the first 3-D vector flow estimates obtained with a row-column CMUT probe, which demonstrates that the CMUT technology is feasible for 3-D flow estimation.
The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.
2016-06-01
Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.
2D Mixed Convection Thermal Incompressible Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermudez, Blanca; Nicolas, Alfredo
2005-11-01
Mixed convection thermal incomprressible viscous fluid flows in rectangular cavities are presented. These kind of flows may be governed by the time-dependent Boussinesq approximation in terms of the stream function-vorticity variables formulation. The results are obtained with a simple numerical scheme based mainly on a fixed point iterative process applied to the non-linear system of elliptic equations that is obtained after a second order time discretization. Numerical experiments are reported for the problem of a cavity with fluid boundary motion on the top. Some results correspond to validation examples and others, to the best of our knowledge, correspond to new results. To show that the new results are correct, a mesh size and time independence studies are carried out, and the acceptable errors are measured point-wise. For the optimal mesh size and time step the final times when the steady state is reached, as solution from the unsteady problem, are reported; it should be seen that they are larger than the ones for natural convection which, physically speaking, show the agreement that mixed convection flows are more active than those of natural convection due to the fluid boundary motion on the top of the cavity. The flow parameters are: the Reynolds number, the Grashof number and the aspect ratio.
Improving segmentation of 3D touching cell nuclei using flow tracking on surface meshes.
Li, Gang; Guo, Lei
2012-01-01
Automatic segmentation of touching cell nuclei in 3D microscopy images is of great importance in bioimage informatics and computational biology. This paper presents a novel method for improving 3D touching cell nuclei segmentation. Given binary touching nuclei by the method in Li et al. (2007), our method herein consists of several steps: surface mesh reconstruction and curvature information estimation; direction field diffusion on surface meshes; flow tracking on surface meshes; and projection of surface mesh segmentation to volumetric images. The method is validated on both synthesised and real 3D touching cell nuclei images, demonstrating its validity and effectiveness.
Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional viscous cascade flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli, L. A.
1991-01-01
A three-dimensional code for viscous cascade flow prediction has been developed. The space discretization uses a cell-centered scheme with eigenvalue scaling to weigh the artificial dissipation terms. Computational efficiency of a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is enhanced by using variable coefficients, implicit residual smoothing, and a full-multigrid method. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulence closure. A zonal, nonperiodic grid is used to minimize mesh distortion in and downstream of the throat region. Applications are presented for an annular vane with and without end wall contouring, and for a large-scale linear cascade. The calculation is validated by comparing with experiments and by studying grid dependency.
Numerical simulation of viscous cavitating flow around a ship propeller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhi-Feng; Fang, Shi-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Zhao-Wen; Liu, Ping-Xiang; Du, Xuan-Min
2011-09-01
In the present study, cavitation and a ship propeller wake are reported by computed fluid dynamics based on viscous multiphase flow theory. Some recent validation results with a hybrid grid based on unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) and bubble dynamics equations are presented to predict velocity, pressure and vapor volume fraction in propeller wake in a uniform inflow. Numerical predictions of sheet cavitation, tip vortex cavitation and hub vortex cavitation are in agreement with the experimental data, same as numerical predictions of longitudinal and transversal evolution of the axial velocity. Blade and shaft rate frequency of propeller is well predicted by the computed results of pressure, and tip vortex is the most important to generate the pressure field within the near wake. The overall results indicate that the present approach is reliable for prediction of cavitation and propeller wake on the condition of uniform inflow.
Calculation of unsteady transonic flows with mild separation by viscous-inviscid interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howlett, James T.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating viscous effects in two- and three-dimensional unsteady transonic flow fields. An integral boundary-layer method for turbulent viscous flow is coupled with the transonic small-disturbance potential equation in a quasi-steady manner. The viscous effects are modeled with Green's lag-entrainment equations for attached flow and an inverse boundary-layer method for flows that involve mild separation. The boundary-layer method is used stripwise to approximate three-dimensional effects. Applications are given for two-dimensional airfoils, aileron buzz, and a wing planform. Comparisons with inviscid calculations, other viscous calculation methods, and experimental data are presented. The results demonstrate that the present technique can economically and accurately calculate unsteady transonic flow fields that have viscous-inviscid interactions with mild flow separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
The initial-value problem for viscous channel flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Jackson, T. L.; Lasseigne, D. G.
1995-01-01
Plane viscous channel flows are perturbed and the ensuing initial-value problems are investigated in detail. Unlike traditional methods where traveling wave normal modes are assumed for solution, this works offers a means whereby completely arbitrary initial input can be specified without having to resort to eigenfunction expansions. The full temporal behavior, including both early time transients and the long time asymptotics, can be determined for any initial disturbance. Effects of three-dimensionality can be assessed. The bases for the analysis are: (a) linearization of the governing equations; (b) Fourier decomposition in the spanwise and streamwise directions of the flow; and (c) direct numerical integration of the resulting partial differential equations. All of the stability data that are known for such flows can be reproduced. Also, the optimal initial condition can be determined in a straight forward manner and such optimal conditions clearly reflect transient growth data that is easily determined by a rational choice of a basis for the initial conditions. Although there can be significant transient growth for subcritical values of the Reynolds number using this approach it does not appear possible that arbitrary initial conditions will lead to the exceptionally large transient amplitudes that have been determined by optimization of normal modes. The approach is general and can be applied to other classes of problems where only a finite discrete spectrum exists, such as the boundary layer for example.
Airfoil shape optimization using sensitivity analysis on viscous flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eleshaky, Mohamed E.; Baysal, Oktay
1993-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method has previously been developed by the authors using the Euler equations and has been applied to supersonic-hypersonic nozzle designs. This method has also included a flowfield extrapolation (or flow prediction) method based on the Taylor series expansion of an existing CFD solution. The present paper reports on the extension of this method to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in order to account for the viscous effects. Also, to test the method under highly nonlinear conditions, it has been applied to the transonic flows. Initially, the success of the flow prediction method is tested. Then, the overall method is demonstrated by optimizing the shapes of two supercritical transonic airfoils at zero angle of attack. The first one is shape optimized to achieve a minimum drag while obtaining a lift above a specified value. Whereas, the second one is shape optimized for a maximum lift while attaining a drag below a specified value. The results of these two cases indicate that the present method can produce successfully optimized aerodynamic shapes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katamine, Eiji; Kanai, Ryoma
2015-11-01
This paper presents a numerical solution to shape identification problem of steady-state viscous flow fields. In this study, a shape identification problem is formulated for flow velocity distribution prescribed problem, while the total dissipated energy is constrained to less than a desired value, in the viscous flow field. The square error integral between the actual flow velocity distributions and the prescribed flow velocity distributions in the prescribed sub-domains is used as the objective functional. Shape gradient of the shape identification problem is derived theoretically using the Lagrange multiplier method, adjoint variable method, and the formulae of the material derivative. Reshaping is carried out by the traction method proposed as an approach to solving shape optimization problems. The validity of proposed method is confirmed by results of 2D numerical analysis.
3D Structures: Microfluidic Stamping on Sheath Flow (Small 24/2016).
Yoon, Dong Hyun; Tanaka, Daiki; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Shoji, Shuichi
2016-06-01
A microfluidic stamping method to form functional shapes on a cross section in fibre-shaped flow is presented by D. H. Yoon and co-workers on page 3224. Microfluidic stamping and overstamping allowed various cross sectional shapes on the three-dimensional flow. Dimension of the flows is controlled via a change in combination of 3D structures and fluidic conditions, which correspond to stamp type and stamping force. PMID:27306739
Numerical Simulations of Complex Three-Dimensional Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinthorsson, Erlendur
Four issues related to accurate numerical simulations of three-dimensional, viscous, compressible flows in complex -shaped geometries are addressed. First, a new formulation of the "compressible" Navier-Stokes equations for rotating reference frames was developed, which can easily be implemented into existing computer codes. The equations developed have the same form as the governing equations for inertial reference frames except for source terms that account for the effects of the rotation of the reference frame. The governing equations were tested by simulating the flow of air through a coolant passage inside a radial turbine blade. Second, new techniques were developed to enhance control over grid-point distribution in algebraic grid generation. These techniques are (a) a modified way to control orthogonality of the grid at boundaries, (b) a new interpolation function based on tension splines that improves control over grid-line curvature, and (c) multidimensional stretching functions that allow arbitrary clustering of grid points. Also, compatibility conditions were identified, which must be satisfied by the data that define the geometry and control grid-point distribution. The new techniques were used to generate a grid system for a complex-shaped coolant passage geometry with U-bends and pin fins. Third, several iterative techniques were developed for reducing or eliminating approximate-factorization errors in implicit finite-difference and finite-volume methods. The convergence of the iteration processes was analyzed. Also analyzed was the stability of the techniques when used with the ADI three-factored scheme. The techniques were tested by applying them to stabilize and accelerate convergence in the ADI three-factored scheme for the linear advection equation. Finally, three flux-vector splitting schemes were tested in a simulation of complex, low Mach number, viscous flow. The artificial dissipation created by these schemes at low Mach numbers was analyzed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, Michael J.; Won, Mark J.; Cosentino, Gary B.; Te, Alexander
1993-01-01
Subsonic inlet ducts for advanced, high-performance aircraft are evolving towards complex three-dimensional shapes for reasons of overall integration and weight. These factors lead to diffuser geometries that may sacrifice inlet performance, unless careful attention to design details and boundary layer management techniques are employed. The ability of viscous computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such geometries to aid the aircraft configurator in this complex design problem is herein examined. The RANS-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver is applied to model the complex flowfield occurring in a representative diffuser geometry and the solutions are compared to experimental results from a static test of the inlet duct. The computational results are shown to compare very favorably with experimental results over a range of mass flow rates, including those involving large amounts of separation in the diffuser. In addition, a novel grid topology is presented, and two turbulence models are evaluated in this study as part of the RANS-3D code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.
High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.
Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong
2015-10-19
Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm^{3}. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377
Time-lapse 3-D seismic imaging of shallow subsurface contaminant flow.
McKenna, J; Sherlock, D; Evans, B
2001-12-01
This paper presents a physical modelling study outlining a technique whereby buoyant contaminant flow within water-saturated unconsolidated sand was remotely monitored utilizing the time-lapse 3-D (TL3-D) seismic response. The controlled temperature and pressure conditions, along with the high level of acquisition repeatability attainable using sandbox physical models, allow the TL3-D seismic response to pore fluid movement to be distinguished from all other effects. TL3-D seismic techniques are currently being developed to monitor hydrocarbon reserves within producing reservoirs in an endeavour to improve overall recovery. However, in many ways, sandbox models under atmospheric conditions more accurately simulate the shallow subsurface than petroleum reservoirs. For this reason, perhaps the greatest application for analogue sandbox modelling is to improve our understanding of shallow groundwater and environmental flow mechanisms. Two fluid flow simulations were conducted whereby air and kerosene were injected into separate water-saturated unconsolidated sand models. In both experiments, a base 3-D seismic volume was recorded and compared with six later monitor surveys recorded while the injection program was conducted. Normal incidence amplitude and P-wave velocity information were extracted from the TL3-D seismic data to provide visualization of contaminant migration. Reflection amplitudes displayed qualitative areal distribution of fluids when a suitable impedance contrast existed between pore fluids. TL3-D seismic reflection tomography can potentially monitor the change in areal distribution of fluid contaminants over time, indicating flow patterns. However, other research and this current work have not established a quantifiable relationship between either normal reflection amplitudes and attenuation and fluid saturation. Generally, different pore fluids will have unique seismic velocities due to differences in compressibility and density. The predictable
Using flow information to support 3D vessel reconstruction from rotational angiography
Waechter, Irina; Bredno, Joerg; Weese, Juergen; Barratt, Dean C.; Hawkes, David J.
2008-07-15
For the assessment of cerebrovascular diseases, it is beneficial to obtain three-dimensional (3D) morphologic and hemodynamic information about the vessel system. Rotational angiography is routinely used to image the 3D vascular geometry and we have shown previously that rotational subtraction angiography has the potential to also give quantitative information about blood flow. Flow information can be determined when the angiographic sequence shows inflow and possibly outflow of contrast agent. However, a standard volume reconstruction assumes that the vessel tree is uniformly filled with contrast agent during the whole acquisition. If this is not the case, the reconstruction exhibits artifacts. Here, we show how flow information can be used to support the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerline and radii in this case. Our method uses the fast marching algorithm to determine the order in which voxels are analyzed. For every voxel, the rotational time intensity curve (R-TIC) is determined from the image intensities at the projection points of the current voxel. Next, the bolus arrival time of the contrast agent at the voxel is estimated from the R-TIC. Then, a measure of the intensity and duration of the enhancement is determined, from which a speed value is calculated that steers the propagation of the fast marching algorithm. The results of the fast marching algorithm are used to determine the 3D centerline by backtracking. The 3D radius is reconstructed from 2D radius estimates on the projection images. The proposed method was tested on computer simulated rotational angiography sequences with systematically varied x-ray acquisition, blood flow, and contrast agent injection parameters and on datasets from an experimental setup using an anthropomorphic cerebrovascular phantom. For the computer simulation, the mean absolute error of the 3D centerline and 3D radius estimation was 0.42 and 0.25 mm, respectively. For the experimental datasets, the mean absolute
3-D model of a radial flow sub-watt methanol fuel processor
Holladay, J. D.; Wang, Y.
2015-10-01
A 3-D model is presented for a novel sub-watt packed bed reactor. The reactor uses an annular inlet flow combined with a radial flow packed bed reactor. The baseline reactor is compared to a reactor with multiple outlets and a reactor with 3 internal fins. Increasing the outlets from 1 to 4 did improve the flow distribution, but did not increase the performance in the simulation. However, inserting fins allowed a decrease in temperature with same inlet flow of approximately 35K. Or the inlet flow rate could be increased by a factor of 2.8x while maintaining >99% conversion.
3D-printed and CNC milled flow-cells for chemiluminescence detection.
Spilstead, Kara B; Learey, Jessica J; Doeven, Egan H; Barbante, Gregory J; Mohr, Stephan; Barnett, Neil W; Terry, Jessica M; Hall, Robynne M; Francis, Paul S
2014-08-01
Herein we explore modern fabrication techniques for the development of chemiluminescence detection flow-cells with features not attainable using the traditional coiled tubing approach. This includes the first 3D-printed chemiluminescence flow-cells, and a milled flow-cell designed to split the analyte stream into two separate detection zones within the same polymer chip. The flow-cells are compared to conventional detection systems using flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with the fast chemiluminescence reactions of an acidic potassium permanganate reagent with morphine and a series of adrenergic phenolic amines. PMID:24881540
Numerical Optimization Strategy for Determining 3D Flow Fields in Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Alex; Sigurdson, Marin; Mezic, Igor; Meinhart, Carl
2015-11-01
We present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for generating 3D flow fields from 2D PIV experimental data. An optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based simulation of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved representation of 3D steady state flow conditions. These results can be used to investigate mixing phenomena. Experimental conditions were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the temperature and velocity fields, as well as the quasi-static electric fields. The governing equations were based on a theoretical model for ac electrothermal flows. A Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm was used to achieve a better fit by minimizing the error between 2D PIV experimental velocity data and numerical simulation results at the measurement plane. By applying this hybrid method, the normalized RMS velocity error between the simulation and experimental results was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The optimization algorithm altered 3D fluid circulation patterns considerably, providing a more accurate representation of the 3D experimental flow field. This method can be generalized to a wide variety of flow problems. This research was supported by the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies through grant W911NF-09-0001 from the U.S. Army Research Office.
One-layer microfluidic device for hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing operating in low flow speed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daghighi, Yasaman; Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing techniques in microfluidics are categorized as (a) sheathless techniques which require high flow rates and long channels, resulting in high operating cost and high flow rates which are inappropriate for applications with flow rate limitations, and (b) sheath-flow based techniques which usually require excessive sheath flow rate to achieve hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing. Many devices based on these principles use complicated fabrication methods to create multi-layer microchannels. We have developed a sheath-flow based microfluidic device that is capable of hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing. In this device the main flow (black ink) in a low speed, and a sheath flow, enter through two inlets and enter a 180 degree curved channel (300 × 300 μm cross-section). Main flow migrates outwards into the sheath-flow due to centrifugal effects and consequently, vertical focusing is achieved at the end of the curved channel. Then, two other sheath flows horizontally confine the main flow to achieve horizontal focusing. Thus, the core flow is three-dimensionally focused at the center of the channel at the downstream. Using centrifugal force for 3D flow-focusing in a single-layer fabricated microchannel has been previously investigated by few groups. However, their demonstrated designs required high flow speed (>1 m/s) which is not suitable for many applications that live biomedical specie are involved. Here, we introduce a new design which is operational in low flow speed (<0.05 m/s) and is suitable for applications involving live cells. This microfluidic device can be used in detecting, counting and isolating cells in many biomedical applications.
Mass Accretion Rate of Rotating Viscous Accretion Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Myeong-Gu
2009-11-01
The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim α disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczyński-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate \\dot{m} ≡ \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B, where \\dot{M} is the mass accretion rate and \\dot{M}_B is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05 ≲ \\dot{m} ≤ 1 when α = 0.01. We also find that the dimensionless mass accretion rate is roughly independent of the radius of the outer boundary but inversely proportional to the angular momentum at the outer boundary and proportional to the viscosity parameter, \\dot{m} ≃ 9.0 α λ^{-1} when 0.1 ≲ \\dot{m} ≲ 1, where the dimensionless angular momentum measure λ ≡ l out/lB is the specific angular momentum of gas at
MASS ACCRETION RATE OF ROTATING VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW
Park, Myeong-Gu
2009-11-20
The mass accretion rate of transonic spherical accretion flow onto compact objects such as black holes is known as the Bondi accretion rate, which is determined only by the density and the temperature of gas at the outer boundary. A rotating accretion flow has angular momentum, which modifies the flow profile from the spherical Bondi flow, and hence its mass accretion rate, but most work on disc accretion has taken the mass flux to be given with the relation between that parameter and external conditions left uncertain. Within the framework of a slim alpha disk, we have constructed global solutions of the rotating, viscous, hot accretion flow in the Paczynski-Wiita potential and determined its mass accretion rate as a function of density, temperature, and angular momentum of gas at the outer boundary. We find that the low angular momentum flow resembles the spherical Bondi flow and its mass accretion rate approaches the Bondi accretion rate for the same density and temperature at the outer boundary. The high angular momentum flow on the other hand is the conventional hot accretion disk with advection, but its mass accretion rate can be significantly smaller than the Bondi accretion rate with the same boundary conditions. We also find that solutions exist only within a limited range of dimensionless mass accretion rate m-dotident toM-dot/M-dot{sub B}, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate and M-dot{sub B} is the Bondi accretion rate: when the temperature at the outer boundary is equal to the virial temperature, solutions exist only for 0.05approx
Modeling and control of flow-induced vibrations of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caverly, Ryan James; Li, Chenyang; Chae, Eun Jung; Forbes, James Richard; Young, Yin Lu
2016-06-01
In this paper, a reduced-order model (ROM) of the flow-induced vibrations of a flexible cantilevered hydrofoil is developed and used to design an active feedback controller. The ROM is developed using data from high-fidelity viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations and includes nonlinear terms to accurately capture the effect of lock-in. An active linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is designed based on a linearization of the ROM and is implemented in simulation with the ROM and the high-fidelity viscous FSI model. A controller saturation method is also presented that ensures that the control force applied to the system remains within a prescribed range. Simulation results demonstrate that the LQG controller successfully suppresses vibrations in both the ROM and viscous FSI simulations using a reasonable amount of control force.
Propagation and damping of slow MHD waves in a flowing viscous coronal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Nagendra; Kumar, Anil; Murawski, K.
2016-04-01
We investigate the propagation of slow MHD waves in a flowing viscous solar coronal plasma. The compressive viscosity and steady flow along and opposite to the wave propagation are taken into account to study the damping of slow waves. We numerically solve the MHD equations by MacCormack method to examine the effect of steady flow on the damping of slow MHD waves in viscous solar coronal plasma. Amplitude of velocity perturbation and damping time of slow waves decrease with the increase in the value of Mach number. Flow causes a phase shift in the perturbed velocity amplitude and an increase in wave period. The damping of slow waves in flowing viscous plasma is stronger than the damping of waves in viscous plasma. Slow wave in backward flow damps earlier than the wave in forward flow.
Building Chondrites: SPH Simulations of a Jet Flow in a 3D Protoplanetary Disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pignatale, F. C.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Cuello, N.; Bourdon, B.; Fitoussi, C.
2016-08-01
We present SPH simulations of jet flows in 3D discs to investigate the transport of refractory material toward the outer cold disc regions. Dust grains are captured by the disc at distances up to 40 AU, with dust aggregates mimicking chondrites.
Tracking left ventricular borders in 3D echocardiographic sequences using motion-guided optical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, K. Y. Esther; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G.; van Stralen, Marijn; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.
2009-02-01
For obtaining quantitative and objective functional parameters from three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic sequences, automated segmentation methods may be preferable to cumbersome manual delineation of 3D borders. In this study, a novel optical-flow based tracking method is proposed for propagating 3D endocardial contours of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle. To take full advantage of the time-continuous nature of cardiac motion, a statistical motion model was explicitly embedded in the optical flow solution. The cardiac motion was modeled as frame-to-frame affine transforms, which were extracted using Procrustes analysis on a set of training contours. Principal component analysis was applied to obtain a compact model of cardiac motion throughout the whole cardiac cycle. The parameters of this model were resolved in an optical flow manner, via spatial and temporal gradients in image intensity. The algorithm was tested on 36 noncontrast and 28 contrast enhanced 3D echocardiographic sequences in a leave-one-out manner. Good results were obtained using a combination of the proposed motion-guided method and a purely data-driven optical flow approach. The improvement was particularly noticeable in areas where the LV wall was obscured by image artifacts. In conclusion, the results show the applicability of the proposed method in clinical quality echocardiograms.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
Comparison of Tomo-PIV and 3D-PTV for microfluidic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyoungsoo; Westerweel, Jerry; Elsinga, Gerrit E.
2013-02-01
Two 3D-3C velocimetry techniques for micro-scale measurements are compared: tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) and 3D particle-tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). Both methods are applied to experimental data from a confined shear-driven liquid droplet over a moving surface. The droplet has 200 μm height and 2 mm diameter. Micro 3D-PTV and Tomo-PIV are used to obtain the tracer particle distribution and the flow velocity field for the same set of images. It is shown that the reconstructed particle distributions are distinctly different, where Tomo-PIV returns a nearly uniform distribution over the height of the volume, as expected, and PTV reveals a clear peak in the particle distribution near the plane of focus. In Tomo-PIV, however, the reconstructed particle peak intensity decreases in proportion to the distance from the plane of focus. Due to the differences in particle distributions, the measured flow velocities are also different. In particular, we observe Tomo-PIV to be in closer agreement with mass conservation. Furthermore, the random noise level is found to increase with distance to the plane of focus at a higher rate for 3D-PTV as compared to Tomo-PIV. Thus, for a given noise threshold value, the latter method can measure reliably over a thicker volume.
3-D Flow Field Diagnostics and Validation Studies using Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The measurement of 3-D three-component velocity fields is of great importance in both ground and space experiments for understanding materials processing and fluid physics. Here, we present the investigation results of stereoscopic tracking velocimetry (STV) for measuring 3-D velocity fields. The effort includes diagnostic technology development, experimental velocity measurement, and comparison with analytical and numerical computation. The advantages of STV stems from the system simplicity for building compact hardware and in software efficiency for continual near-real-time process monitoring. It also has illumination flexibility for observing volumetric flow fields from arbitrary directions. STV is based on stereoscopic CCD observations of particles seeded in a flow. Neural networks are used for data analysis. The developed diagnostic tool is tested with a simple directional solidification apparatus using Succinonitrile. The 3-D velocity field in the liquid phase is measured and compared with results from detailed numerical computations. Our theoretical, numerical, and experimental effort has shown STV to be a viable candidate for reliably quantifying the 3-D flow field in materials processing and fluids experiments.
Rheological properties and the mechanism of a viscous flow of aqueous pectin solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netesova, G. A.; Kotov, V. V.; Bodyakina, I. M.; Lukin, A. L.
2012-09-01
The rheological properties and mechanisms of a viscous flow of diluted apple pectin solutions are investigated. It is found that the rise in solution viscosity upon an increase in concentration and a drop in temperature is, along with the corresponding degree to which the interaction between pectin molecules and solvent is reduced, associated with the processes of structuring. The entropy of a viscous flow of pectin solutions is found to be positive: it grows with a rise in concentration is virtually temperature independent. It is established that the entropy factor makes the main contribution to the free energy value of a viscous flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigou, C.; Audoly, B.
2016-11-01
The stability of thin viscous sheets has been studied so far in the special case where the base flow possesses a direction of invariance: the linear stability is then governed by an ordinary differential equation. We propose a mathematical formulation and a numerical method of solution that are applicable to the linear stability analysis of viscous sheets possessing no particular symmetry. The linear stability problem is formulated as a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem in a 2D domain and is solved numerically using the finite-element method. Specifically, we consider the case of a viscous sheet in an open flow, which falls in a bath of fluid; the sheet is mildly stretched by gravity and the flow can become unstable by 'curtain' modes. The growth rates of these modes are calculated as a function of the fluid parameters and of the geometry, and a phase diagram is obtained. A transition is reported between a buckling mode (static bifurcation) and an oscillatory mode (Hopf bifurcation). The effect of surface tension is discussed.
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.
2008-11-01
Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.
A Kinetic 13-Moment Boundary Conditions Method for Particle Simulations of Viscous Rarefied Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averkin, Sergey; Gatsonis, Nikolaos
2015-11-01
The kinetic 13-moment (Navier-Stokes-Fourrier) boundary condition method is developed for direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations of rarefied gas flows. The particles are injected into the computational domain from the inlet and outlet following the first-order Chapman-Enskog distribution function. The unknown parameters of the Chapman-Enskog distribution function are reconstructed from the full 13-moment (Navier-Stokes-Fourier) equations discretized on the boundaries with the wave amplitudes calculated by the local one dimensional inviscid (LODI) formulation used in compressible (continuous) flow computations. The kinetic-moment boundary conditions are implemented in an unstructured 3D DSMC (U3DSMC) code and are supplemented with a neighboring-cell sampling approach and a time-average smoothing techniques to speed up convergence and reduce fluctuations. Simulations of a pressure-driven viscous subsonic flow in a circular tube are used for verification and validation of the boundary conditions. In addition, the present method is compared to the previously developed kinetic-moment boundary conditions derived from the five-moment (Euler) equations. AFOSR-FA9550-14-1-0366 Computational Mathematics Program.
Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri
2013-04-01
PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North
High-resolution shock-capturing schemes for inviscid and viscous hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Montagne, J.-L.
1988-01-01
A class of implicit Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) type algorithms suitable for transonic and supersonic multidimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was extended to hypersonic computations. The improved conservative shock-capturing schemes are spatially second- and third-order, and are fully implicit. They can be first- or second-order accurate in time and are suitable for either steady or unsteady calculations. Enhancement of stability and convergence rate for hypersonic flows is discussed. With the proper choice of the temporal discretization and suitable implicit linearization, these schemes are fairly efficient and accurate for very complex two-dimensional hypersonic inviscid and viscous shock interactions. This study is complimented by a variety of steady and unsteady viscous and inviscid hypersonic blunt-body flow computations. Due to the inherent stiffness of viscous flow problems, numerical experiments indicated that the convergence rate is in general slower for viscous flows than for inviscid steady flows.
Three-dimensional viscous rotor flow calculations using a viscous-inviscid interaction approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Ching S.; Bridgeman, John O.
1990-01-01
A three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction analysis was developed to predict the performance of rotors in hover and in forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The analysis solves the full-potential and boundary-layer equations by finite-difference numerical procedures. Calculations were made for several different model rotor configurations. The results were compared with predictions from a two-dimensional integral method and with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreement between predictions and test data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, J. L.; Simpson, R. L.
1997-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques were used to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over a range of low Reynolds numbers. The goals of this research were (1) an increased understanding of the flow physics in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers,(2) to observe and quantify differences between 2D and 3D TBL flow structures, and (3) to document Reynolds number effects for 3D TBLs. The LDV data have provided results detailing the turbulence structure of the 2D and 3D TBLs. These results include mean Reynolds stress distributions, flow skewing results, and U and V spectra. Effects of Reynolds number for the 3D flow were also examined. Comparison to results with the same 3D flow geometry but at a significantly higher Reynolds number provided unique insight into the structure of 3D TBLs. While the 3D mean and fluctuating velocities were found to be highly dependent on Reynolds number, a previously defined shear stress parameter was discovered to be invariant with Reynolds number. The hydrogen bubble technique was used as a flow visualization tool to examine the near-wall flow structure of 2D and 3D TBLs. Both the quantitative and qualitative results displayed larger turbulent fluctuations with more highly concentrated vorticity regions for the 2D flow.
Viscous effect on airfoils for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. C.
1982-01-01
The viscous effect on aerodynamic performance of an arbitrary airfoil executing low frequency maneuvers during transonic flight was investigated. The small disturbance code, LTRAN2, was modified by using a conventional integral method, BLAYER, for the boundary layer and an empirical relation, viscous wedge, for simulating the suddenly thickened boundary layer behind the shock. Before the shock, only the boundary layer displacement thickness was evaluated. After the shock, the empirical wedge thickness was superimposed on the boundary layer thickness along the surface as well as in the wake region. The pressure coefficients were calculated for both steady and unsteady states. The viscous solution takes fewer iterations to obtain the converged steady state solution. Comparisons made with experimental data and the inviscid solution show that the viscous solution agrees better with the experimental data with about the same (or slightly less) amount of computational time.
Effects of 3D PIV post-processing on impulse and force analysis in vortical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra
2014-11-01
Vortical flows measured using 3D PIV techniques are fundamentally filtered versions of physical phenomena, with velocity information lost below the length and time scales of the measurement system. In the context of propulsive vortices, such as those generated during biological locomotion, these factors, combined with experimental noise and error, can lead to inaccuracies in analysis of the vortex momentum and net thrust. As a result, while 3D velocity measurements remove many of the assumptions required to analyze planar PIV data, they should not be considered absolute physical quantities. Our work focuses on post-processing for 3D PIV data sets to enable the extraction of accurate, quantitative 3D force measurements for unsteady vortical propulsion. In this study, we compare utilizing measurement signal processing techniques, orthogonal decomposition, and identification of coherent structures to measure the impulse of a canonical vortex ring generated by a mechanical piston. In particular, we consider the ability of these methods to confront the influences of limited spatial resolution and arbitrary geometries, and make recommendations for a general procedure for propulsion analysis from 3D PIV data, regardless of which PIV technique is used to obtain the velocity fields.
3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild
2005-01-01
An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.
Aspects of Turbulent Flow over 2D and 3D Bedforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.
2004-05-01
Sediment transport in sand bedded alluvial channels is strongly conditioned by bedforms. Understanding the turbulent flow field over bedforms is crucial to understanding flow resistance in rivers. Most of the research on flow over bedforms has focused on straight crested, two-dimensional bedforms, and the characteristics of the turbulent flow field are fairly well understood. In contrast, few studies have examined flow over 3D bedforms, which typically have irregular heights, lengths, and crestlines. This paper reports on experiments undertaken to examine how 3D dune morphology affects the turbulent flow field and, ultimately, flow resistance. An experiment was designed to examine flow over fixed bedforms 0.45 m long and 25 mm high in a 0.5 m wide and 17 m long flume. In each experimental run, discharge and dune size were held constant, but the crest shape was varied. Flow over six bedform crest shapes was examined, including a 2D crest, a saddle shaped crest, a lobe shaped crest, a regular 3D crest alignment, an irregular 3D crest alignment and a sinuous crest. Measurements of velocity were made at a sampling rate of 50 Hz using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at 350-500 points over a dune in each morphology. Three-dimensional bedforms significantly modify the flow field over a dune. Lobe shaped configurations cause lateral and vertical divergence of momentum and turbulent energy, thereby enhancing the level of turbulence compared to a 2D bedform. Saddle shaped crestlines cause lateral and vertical convergence of momentum and turbulent energy towards a small area in the lee, thereby reducing the level of turbulence. Other bedform morphologies (regular, irregular and sinuous crests) exhibited characteristics of both lobes and saddles, but the net effect was to reduce levels of turbulence. Total drag, calculated from spatially averaged Reynolds stress profiles, can be enhanced or reduced by as much as 50 %. These results suggest that current conceptions of bedforms
Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.
2013-12-01
The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater
Evaluation of the 3-D channeling flow in a fractured type of oil/gas reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, T.; Watanabe, N.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tamagawa, T.
2013-12-01
An understanding of the flow and transport characteristics through rock fracture networks is of critical importance in many engineering and scientific applications. These include effective recovery of targeted fluid such as oil/gas, geothermal, or potable waters, and isolation of hazardous materials. Here, the formation of preferential flow path (i.e. channeling flow) is one of the most significant characteristics in considering fluid flow through rock fracture networks; however, the impact of channeling flow remains poorly understood. In order to deepen our understanding of channeling flow, the authors have developed a novel discrete fracture network (DFN) model simulator, GeoFlow. Different from the conventional DFN model simulators, we can characterize each fracture not by a single aperture value but by a heterogeneous aperture distribution in GeoFlow [Ishibashi et al., 2012]. As a result, the formation of 3-D preferential flow paths within fracture network can be considered by using this simulator. Therefore, we would challenge to construct the precise fracture networks whose fractures have heterogeneous aperture distributions in field scale, and to analyze fluid flows through the fracture networks by GeoFlow. In the present study, the Yufutsu oil/gas field in Hokkaido, Japan is selected as the subject area for study. This field is known as the fractured type of reservoir, and reliable DFN models can be constructed for this field based on the 3-D seismic data, well logging, in-situ stress measurement, and acoustic emission data [Tamagawa et al., 2012]. Based on these DFN models, new DFN models for 1,080 (East-West) × 1,080 (North-South) × 1,080 (Depth) m^3, where fractures are represented by squares of 44-346 m on a side, are re-constructed. In these new models, scale-dependent aperture distributions are considered for all fractures constructing the fracture networks. Note that the multi-scale modeling of fracture flow has been developed by the authors
Utilization of an efficient numerical method for viscous flow problem solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, J. C.
1981-02-01
This report describes two workshops organized and conducted at two U.S. Army Laboratories for the purpose of transfering new knowledge and new techniques developed for the use of the integral-representation approach in computing complex viscous flows.
Viscous interaction of flow redevelopment after flow reattachment with supersonic external streams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, W. L.; Spring, D. J.
1975-01-01
A flow model has been developed to study the flow development after reattachment with supersonic external streams. Special attention is given to the pressure difference across the viscous layer, and it is suggested that such a flow redevelopment can be treated as a relaxation of this pressure difference. Upon correlating the pressure difference with a slope parameter of the velocity profile, the system of equations governing the flow would produce a saddle point singularity corresponding to the fully rehabilitated asymptotic flow condition. A method of calculation for this flowfield, in conjunction with the matching of the upstream flow, has been derived and is discussed. Samples of calculations are also presented. Reasonably good agreement with experimental data has also been observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karsyan, A. Zh.
2014-07-01
A steady problem of a slow axisymmetric flow of a viscous incompressible fluid around an oblate spheroid covered by a viscous film is solved analytically with the use of the Stokes approximation. Surface tension on the interface between the fluids is taken into account. Expressions for velocity components and stream functions are presented. A formula for determining the force action of the incoming flow onto the oblate spheroid is derived.
Large-scale computation of incompressible viscous flow by least-squares finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to large-scale/three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system which can be solved effectively by simple iterative methods. The first-order velocity-Bernoulli function-vorticity formulation for incompressible viscous flows is also tested. For three-dimensional cases, an additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of the vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The simple substitution of the Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. To show the validity of this scheme for large-scale computation, we give numerical results for 2D driven cavity problem at Re = 10000 with 408 x 400 bilinear elements. The flow in a 3D cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 50 x 50 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Goertler-like vortices are observed for Re = 1,000.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of a Flow over a 3D Cube in a wind Tunnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shock, Richard; Chen, Hudong; Yakhot, Victor
2001-06-01
It is argued that even a simplified version of the Boltzmann equation in a relaxation time approximation is equivalent to the hydrodynamic equations, involving infinite number of non-linear terms. Used for turbulence modelling, where the relaxation time and mean -free path are both space and field dependent, this equation is equivalent to the classic Navier-Stokes + turbulent model representations, provided the gradients are small. If, however, the non-equilibrium effects are strong, all higher non-linearities cannot be neglected. Thus, the Boltmann approximation can be extremely usefull for description of strongly non-equilibrium and time - dependent flows. This fact has been demonstrated on a wide variety of flows of both academic and industrial interest ranging from a simple 2D channel flow to 3D flows over various production cars. In this talk the quality of the approach is demonstrated on a simulation of the flow over a 3D cube in a wind tunnel. The predicted parameters of this strongly unsteady flow are compared with experimental data. The agreement is very good.
Ultrarapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria Using a 3D Immunomagnetic Flow Assay
Lee, Wonjae; Kwon, Donghoon; Chung, Boram; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Au, Anthony; Folch, Albert; Jeon, Sangmin
2015-01-01
We developed a novel 3D immunomagnetic flow assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in a large-volume food sample. Antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters (AbMNCs) were magnetically immobilized on the surfaces of a 3D-printed cylindrical microchannel. The injection of a Salmonella-spiked sample solution into the microchannel produced instant binding between the AbMNCs and the Salmonella bacteria due to their efficient collisions. Nearly perfect capture of the AbMNCs and AbMNCs-Salmonella complexes was achieved under a high flow rate by stacking permanent magnets with spacers inside the cylindrical separator to maximize the magnetic force. The concentration of the bacteria in solution was determined using ATP luminescence measurements. The detection limit was better than 10 cfu/mL, and the overall assay time, including the binding, rinsing, and detection steps for a 10 mL sample took less than 3 min. To our knowledge, the 3D immunomagnetic flow assay described here provides the fastest high-sensitivity, high-capacity method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24856003
3D hydro-mechanically coupled groundwater flow modelling of Pleistocene glaciation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rühaak, Wolfram; Bense, Victor F.; Sass, Ingo
2014-06-01
Pleistocene glaciation led to temporal and spatial variations of sub-surface pore fluid pressure. In basins covered by ice sheets, fluid flow and recharge rates are strongly elevated during glaciations as compared to inter-glacial periods. Present-day hydrogeological conditions across formerly glaciated areas are likely to still reflect the impact of glaciations that ended locally more than 10 thousand years before present. 3D hydro-mechanical coupled modelling of glaciation can help to improve the management of groundwater resources in formerly glaciated basins. An open source numerical code for solving linear elasticity, which is based on the finite element method (FEM) in 3D, has been developed. By coupling this code with existing 3D flow codes it is possible to enable hydro-mechanical coupled modelling. Results of two benchmark simulations are compared to existing analytical solutions to demonstrate the performance of the newly developed code. While the result for a fluid-structure coupled case is in reasonable agreement with the analytical model, the result for a classical structure-fluid coupled benchmark showed that the analytical solution only matches the numerical result when the relevant coupling parameter (loading efficiency) is known in advance. This indicates that the applicability of widely applied approaches using an extra term in the groundwater flow equation for vertical stress to simulate hydro-mechanical coupling might have to be re-evaluated. A case study with the commercial groundwater simulator FEFLOW demonstrates the newly developed solution.
Ultrarapid detection of pathogenic bacteria using a 3D immunomagnetic flow assay.
Lee, Wonjae; Kwon, Donghoon; Chung, Boram; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Au, Anthony; Folch, Albert; Jeon, Sangmin
2014-07-01
We developed a novel 3D immunomagnetic flow assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in a large-volume food sample. Antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters (AbMNCs) were magnetically immobilized on the surfaces of a 3D-printed cylindrical microchannel. The injection of a Salmonella-spiked sample solution into the microchannel produced instant binding between the AbMNCs and the Salmonella bacteria due to their efficient collisions. Nearly perfect capture of the AbMNCs and AbMNCs-Salmonella complexes was achieved under a high flow rate by stacking permanent magnets with spacers inside the cylindrical separator to maximize the magnetic force. The concentration of the bacteria in solution was determined using ATP luminescence measurements. The detection limit was better than 10 cfu/mL, and the overall assay time, including the binding, rinsing, and detection steps for a 10 mL sample took less than 3 min. To our knowledge, the 3D immunomagnetic flow assay described here provides the fastest high-sensitivity, high-capacity method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, M. R.; Farquharson, J.; Tuffen, H.
2014-12-01
The 2011-2012 eruption at Cordón-Caulle, Chile, afforded the opportunity to observe and measure active rhyolitic lava for the first time. In 2012 and 2013, ~2500 photos were acquired on foot, parallel to flow fronts on the north and north-east of the flow field. Image suites were then processed into 3-D point clouds using Structure-from-Motion Multi-view Stereo (SfM-MVS) freeware. Interpolating these clouds into digital elevation models for dates in 2012-13 enabled analysis of the changing flow field dimensions [1], from which velocity, depth and rheological parameters, e.g.viscosity, could be estimated [see Fig. 1]. Viscosities ranged from 7.5 x109 to 1.1 x1011Pa s, allowing for uncertainties in slope, surface displacement and velocity. Temperatures were modeled using a 1D finite difference method; in concert with viscosities of flow units these values compared well with published non-Arrhenian viscosity models. Derived thermodynamic and force ratios confirmed flow characteristics inferred from the image analyses. SfM-MVS represents an effective method of quantifying and displaying variation in the flow field, indicating several parallels between rhyolite emplacement and that of low-silica lavas. Initially channelised lava spread laterally and stagnated due to topography and the influence of the surface crust. Continued effusion resulted in iterative emplacement of breakout lobes, promoting lateral extension of the flow field. Insulation of the flow core by the viscous crust allowed this process to continue after effusion had ceased, creating features comparable to low-silica lavas, despite high viscosity and low effusion rates. This suggests that compound flow emplacement may be described by universal, cross-compositional models encompassing rheological differences of many orders of magnitude. Tuffen et al. 2013, Nat. Comms., 4, 2709, doi:10.1038/ncomms3709
A modular segmented-flow platform for 3D cell cultivation.
Lemke, Karen; Förster, Tobias; Römer, Robert; Quade, Mandy; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Grodrian, Andreas; Gastrock, Gunter
2015-07-10
In vitro 3D cell cultivation is promised to equate tissue in vivo more realistically than 2D cell cultivation corresponding to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, a scalable 3D cultivation platform was developed. This platform, called pipe-based bioreactors (pbb), is based on the segmented-flow technology: aqueous droplets are embedded in a water-immiscible carrier fluid. The droplet volumes range from 60 nL to 20 μL and are used as bioreactors lined up in a tubing like pearls on a string. The modular automated platform basically consists of several modules like a fluid management for a high throughput droplet generation for self-assembly or scaffold-based 3D cell cultivation, a storage module for incubation and storage, and an analysis module for monitoring cell aggregation and proliferation basing on microscopy or photometry. In this report, the self-assembly of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs), the cell proliferation, the cell viability as well as the influence on the cell differentiation to cardiomyocytes are described. The integration of a dosage module for medium exchange or agent addition will enable pbb as long-term 3D cell cultivation system for studying stem cell differentiation, e.g. cardiac myogenesis or for diagnostic and therapeutic testing in personalized medicine.
Contact Effects in thin 3D-Topological Insulators: How does the current flow?
Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau
2015-01-01
The effect of different contact configurations (semi-infinite extended-channel, normal metal and ferromagnetic metal) on quantum transport through thin Bi2Se3 three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) slab (channel) has been investigated through Non-Equilibrium Green Function. The issue of contact dependent current flow and distribution across quintuple layers of 3D-TI has been addressed in this work and applied to expound the explanation for recent experimental work on electrical detection of spin-momentum locking on topological surface for long channel device. A theoretical model is propounded to develop a microscopic understanding of transport in 3D-TI in which contact type and magnetization concur with helical surface states of the TI channel to manifest seemingly counter-intuitive current distribution across layers. The quantum transport calculations for short channel devices with magnetic source and drain contacts postulate negative surface current for anti-phase magnetization whose axis is transverse to both current and quintuple layers. For in-phase magnetization at the two terminals, it is shown that observations can change fundamentally to result in anomalous current distribution. Such results are explained to stem from the confinement of 3D-TI between ferromagnetic contacts along the transport direction. A simple mechanism to validate topological insulators via quantum transport experiments has also been suggested. PMID:25820460
Nonhydrostatic granular flow over 3-D terrain: New Boussinesq-type gravity waves?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Hutter, Kolumban; Giraldez, Juan V.; Hager, Willi H.
2015-01-01
granular mass flow is a basic step in the prediction and control of natural or man-made disasters related to avalanches on the Earth. Savage and Hutter (1989) pioneered the mathematical modeling of these geophysical flows introducing Saint-Venant-type mass and momentum depth-averaged hydrostatic equations using the continuum mechanics approach. However, Denlinger and Iverson (2004) found that vertical accelerations in granular mass flows are of the same order as the gravity acceleration, requiring the consideration of nonhydrostatic modeling of granular mass flows. Although free surface water flow simulations based on nonhydrostatic depth-averaged models are commonly used since the works of Boussinesq (1872, 1877), they have not yet been applied to the modeling of debris flow. Can granular mass flow be described by Boussinesq-type gravity waves? This is a fundamental question to which an answer is required, given the potential to expand the successful Boussinesq-type water theory to granular flow over 3-D terrain. This issue is explored in this work by generalizing the basic Boussinesq-type theory used in civil and coastal engineering for more than a century to an arbitrary granular mass flow using the continuum mechanics approach. Using simple test cases, it is demonstrated that the above question can be answered in the affirmative way, thereby opening a new framework for the physical and mathematical modeling of granular mass flow in geophysics, whereby the effect of vertical motion is mathematically included without the need of ad hoc assumptions.
Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Gao-Lian
1991-01-01
Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.
3D-PTV measurement of the phototactic movement of algae in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Tatsuyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takami
2012-11-01
Recently, swimming motion of algae cells is researched actively, because algae fuel is one of the hottest topic in engineering. It is known that algae swim toward the light for photosynthesis however, the effect of a background flow on the unidirectional swimming is unclear. In this study, we used Volvox as a model alga and placed them in a simple shear flow with or without light stimulus. The shear flow was generated by moving two flat sheets in the opposite direction tangentially. A red LED light (wave length 660 nm) was used as an observation light source, and a white LED light was used to stimulate cells for the phototaxis. The trajectories of individual cells were measured by a 3D-PTV system, consists of a pair of high-speed camera with macro lenses. The results were analyzed to understand the effect of the background shear flow on the phototaxis of cells.
Incorporating preferential flow into a 3D model of a forested headwater catchment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaser, Barbara; Jackisch, Conrad; Hopp, Luisa; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian
2016-04-01
Preferential flow plays an important role for water flow and solute transport. The inclusion of preferential flow, for example with dual porosity or dual permeability approaches, is a common feature in transport simulations at the plot scale. But at hillslope and catchment scales, incorporation of macropore and fracture flow into distributed hydrologic 3D models is rare, often due to limited data availability for model parameterisation. In this study, we incorporated preferential flow into an existing 3D integrated surface subsurface hydrologic model (HydroGeoSphere) of a headwater region (6 ha) of the forested Weierbach catchment in western Luxembourg. Our model philosophy was a strong link between measured data and the model setup. The model setup we used previously had been parameterised and validated based on various field data. But existing macropores and fractures had not been considered in this initial model setup. The multi-criteria validation revealed a good model performance but also suggested potential for further improvement by incorporating preferential flow as additional process. In order to pursue the data driven model philosophy for the implementation of preferential flow, we analysed the results of plot scale bromide sprinkling and infiltration experiments carried out in the vicinity of the Weierbach catchment. Three 1 sqm plots were sprinkled for one hour and excavated one day later for bromide depth profile sampling. We simulated these sprinkling experiments at the soil column scale, using the parameterisation of the base headwater model extended by a second permeability domain. Representing the bromide depth profiles was successful without changing this initial parameterisation. Moreover, to explain the variability between the three bromide depth profiles it was sufficient to adapt the dual permeability properties, indicating the spatial heterogeneity of preferential flow. Subsequently, we incorporated the dual permeability simulation in the
3D imaging of particle-scale rotational motion in cyclically driven granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Matt; Powers, Dylan; Cooper, Eric; Losert, Wolfgang
Recent experimental advances have enabled three-dimensional (3D) imaging of motion, structure, and failure within granular systems. 3D imaging allows researchers to directly characterize bulk behaviors that arise from particle- and meso-scale features. For instance, segregation of a bidisperse system of spheres under cyclic shear can originate from microscopic irreversibilities and the development of convective secondary flows. Rotational motion and frictional rotational coupling, meanwhile, have been less explored in such experimental 3D systems, especially under cyclic forcing. In particular, relative amounts of sliding and/or rolling between pairs of contacting grains could influence the reversibility of both trajectories, in terms of both position and orientation. In this work, we apply the Refractive Index Matched Scanning technique to a granular system that is cyclically driven and measure both translational and rotational motion of individual grains. We relate measured rotational motion to resulting shear bands and convective flows, further indicating the degree to which pairs and neighborhoods of grains collectively rotate.
RV functional imaging: 3-D echo-derived dynamic geometry and flow field simulations.
Pasipoularides, Ares D; Shu, Ming; Womack, Michael S; Shah, Ashish; Von Ramm, Olaf; Glower, Donald D
2003-01-01
We describe a novel functional imaging approach for quantitative analysis of right ventricular (RV) blood flow patterns in specific experimental animals (or humans) using real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography (RT3D). The method is independent of the digital imaging modality used. It comprises three parts. First, a semiautomated segmentation aided by intraluminal contrast medium locates the RV endocardial surface. Second, a geometric scheme for dynamic RV chamber reconstruction applies a time interpolation procedure to the RT3D data to quantify wall geometry and motion at 400 Hz. A volumetric prism method validated the dynamic geometric reconstruction against simultaneous sonomicrometric canine measurements. Finally, the RV endocardial border motion information is used for mesh generation on a computational fluid dynamics solver to simulate development of the early RV diastolic inflow field. Boundary conditions (tessellated endocardial surface nodal velocities) for the solver are directly derived from the endocardial geometry and motion information. The new functional imaging approach may yield important kinematic information on the distribution of instantaneous velocities in the RV diastolic flow field of specific normal or diseased hearts. PMID:12388220
Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping
2004-09-01
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.
Limiting flows of a viscous fluid with stationary separation zones with Re approaching infinity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taganov, G. I.
1982-01-01
The limiting flows of a viscous noncondensable fluid, which are approached by flows with stationary separation zones behind planar symmetrical bodies, with an unlimited increase in the Reynolds number are studied. Quantitative results are obtained in the case of a circulation flow inside of a separation zone.
3D FEM Geometry and Material Flow Optimization of Porthole-Die Extrusion
Ceretti, Elisabetta; Mazzoni, Luca; Giardini, Claudio
2007-05-17
The aim of this work is to design and to improve the geometry of a porthole-die for the production of aluminum components by means of 3D FEM simulations. In fact, the use of finite element models will allow to investigate the effects of the die geometry (webs, extrusion cavity) on the material flow and on the stresses acting on the die so to reduce the die wear and to improve the tool life. The software used to perform the simulations was a commercial FEM code, Deform 3D. The technological data introduced in the FE model have been furnished by METRA S.p.A. Company, partner in this research. The results obtained have been considered valid and helpful by the Company for building a new optimized extrusion porthole-die.
Calcium signaling in response to fluid flow by chondrocytes in 3D alginate culture.
Degala, Satish; Williams, Rebecca; Zipfel, Warren; Bonassar, Lawrence J
2012-05-01
Quantifying the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolic response of chondrocytes is difficult due to complicated structure of cartilage ECM and the coupled nature of the mechanical stimuli presented to the cells. In this study we describe the effects of fluid flow, particularly hydrostatic pressure and wall shear stress, on the Ca(2+) signaling response of bovine articular chondrocytes in 3D culture. Using well-established alginate hydrogel system to maintain spherical chondrocyte morphology, we altered solid volume fraction to change scaffold mechanics. Fluid velocities in the bulk of the scaffolds were directly measured via an optical technique and scaffold permeability and aggregate modulus was characterized to quantify the mechanical stimuli presented to cells. Ca(2+) signaling response to direct perfusion of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds increased monotonically with flow rate and was found more directly dependent on fluid velocity rather than shear stress or hydrostatic pressure. Chondrocytes in alginate scaffolds responded to fluid flow at velocities and shear stresses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than seen in previous monolayer studies. Our data suggest that flow-induced Ca(2+) signaling response of chondrocytes in alginate culture may be due to mechanical signaling pathways, which is influenced by the 3D nature of cell shape.
Cauchy's almost forgotten Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation for 3D incompressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel; Villone, Barbara
2014-09-01
Two prized papers, one by Augustin Cauchy in 1815, presented to the French Academy and the other by Hermann Hankel in 1861, presented to Göttingen University, contain major discoveries on vorticity dynamics whose impact is now quickly increasing. Cauchy found a Lagrangian formulation of 3D ideal incompressible flow in terms of three invariants that generalize to three dimensions the now well-known law of conservation of vorticity along fluid particle trajectories for two-dimensional flow. This has very recently been used to prove analyticity in time of fluid particle trajectories for 3D incompressible Euler flow and can be extended to compressible flow, in particular to cosmological dark matter. Hankel showed that Cauchy's formulation gives a very simple Lagrangian derivation of the Helmholtz vorticity-flux invariants and, in the middle of the proof, derived an intermediate result which is the conservation of the circulation of the velocity around a closed contour moving with the fluid. This circulation theorem was to be rediscovered independently by William Thomson (Kelvin) in 1869. Cauchy's invariants were only occasionally cited in the 19th century - besides Hankel, foremost by George Stokes and Maurice Lévy - and even less so in the 20th until they were rediscovered via Emmy Noether's theorem in the late 1960, but reattributed to Cauchy only at the end of the 20th century by Russian scientists.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaussee, Denny S.
1988-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics tool has been developed capable of analyzing the viscous supersonic/hypersonic flow about realistic configurations. This techniques can predict the flow in regions of canopies, wings, and canards in addition to the usual simple symmetric configurations. It also allows for interactions between aerodynamic surfaces such as the vortex interaction between canards and wings.
North Cascadia heat flux and fluid flow from gas hydrates: Modeling 3-D topographic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-lin; He, Tao; Spence, George D.
2014-01-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) of gas hydrate is well imaged from two perpendicular seismic grids in the region of a large carbonate mound, informally called Cucumber Ridge off Vancouver Island. We use a new method to calculate 3-D heat flow map from the BSR depths, in which we incorporate 3-D topographic corrections after calibrated by the drilling results from nearby (Integrated) Ocean Drilling Program Site 889 and Site U1327. We then estimate the associated fluid flow by relating it to the topographically corrected heat flux anomalies. In the midslope region, a heat flux anomaly of 1 mW/m2 can be associated with an approximate focused fluid flow rate of 0.09 mm/yr. Around Cucumber Ridge, high rates of focused fluid flow were observed at steep slopes with values more than double the average regional diffusive fluid discharge rate of 0.56 mm/yr. As well, in some areas of relatively flat seafloor, the focused fluid flow rates still exceeded 0.5 mm/yr. On the seismic lines the regions of focused fluid flow were commonly associated with seismic blanking zones above the BSR and sometimes with strong reflectors below the BSR, indicating that the faults/fractures provide high-permeability pathways for fluids to carry methane from BSR depths to the seafloor. These high fluid flow regions cover mostly the western portion of our area with gas hydrate concentration estimations of ~6% based on empirical correlations from Hydrate Ridge in south off Oregon, significantly higher than previously recognized values of ~2.5% in the eastern portion determined from Site U1327.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
Viscous singular shock profiles for a system of conservation laws modeling two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Ting-Hao
2016-08-01
This paper is concerned with singular shocks for a system of conservation laws via the Dafermos regularization ut + f(u)x = ɛtuxx. For a system modeling incompressible two-phase fluid flow, the existence of viscous profiles is proved using Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory. The weak convergence and the growth rate of the viscous solution are also derived; the weak limit is the sum of a piecewise constant function and a δ-measure supported on a shock line, and the maximum value of the viscous solution is of order exp (1 / ɛ).
The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.
1993-01-01
An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.
Flow control on a 3D backward facing ramp by pulsed jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Pierric; Bortolus, Dorian; Grasso, Francesco
2014-06-01
This paper presents an experimental study of flow separation control over a 3D backward facing ramp by means of pulsed jets. Such geometry has been selected to reproduce flow phenomena of interest for the automotive industry. The base flow has been characterised using PIV and pressure measurements. The results show that the classical notchback topology is correctly reproduced. A control system based on magnetic valves has been used to produce the pulsed jets whose properties have been characterised by hot wire anemometry. In order to shed some light on the role of the different parameters affecting the suppression of the slant recirculation area, a parametric study has been carried out by varying the frequency and the momentum coefficient of the jets for several Reynolds numbers. xml:lang="fr"
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
Mimicking Natural Laminar to Turbulent Flow Transition: A Systematic CFD Study Using PAB3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2005-01-01
For applied aerodynamic computations using a general purpose Navier-Stokes code, the common practice of treating laminar to turbulent flow transition over a non-slip surface is somewhat arbitrary by either treating the entire flow as turbulent or forcing the flow to undergo transition at given trip locations in the computational domain. In this study, the possibility of using the PAB3D code, standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and the Girimaji explicit algebraic stresses model to mimic natural laminar to turbulent flow transition was explored. The sensitivity of flow transition with respect to two limiters in the standard k-epsilon turbulence model was examined using a flat plate and a 6:1 aspect ratio prolate spheroid for our computations. For the flat plate, a systematic dependence of transition Reynolds number on background turbulence intensity was found. For the prolate spheroid, the transition patterns in the three-dimensional boundary layer at different flow conditions were sensitive to the free stream turbulence viscosity limit, the reference Reynolds number and the angle of attack, but not to background turbulence intensity below a certain threshold value. The computed results showed encouraging agreements with the experimental measurements at the corresponding geometry and flow conditions.
Reconstruction and Visualization of Coordinated 3D Cell Migration Based on Optical Flow.
Kappe, Christopher P; Schütz, Lucas; Gunther, Stefan; Hufnagel, Lars; Lemke, Steffen; Leitte, Heike
2016-01-01
Animal development is marked by the repeated reorganization of cells and cell populations, which ultimately determine form and shape of the growing organism. One of the central questions in developmental biology is to understand precisely how cells reorganize, as well as how and to what extent this reorganization is coordinated. While modern microscopes can record video data for every cell during animal development in 3D+t, analyzing these videos remains a major challenge: reconstruction of comprehensive cell tracks turned out to be very demanding especially with decreasing data quality and increasing cell densities. In this paper, we present an analysis pipeline for coordinated cellular motions in developing embryos based on the optical flow of a series of 3D images. We use numerical integration to reconstruct cellular long-term motions in the optical flow of the video, we take care of data validation, and we derive a LIC-based, dense flow visualization for the resulting pathlines. This approach allows us to handle low video quality such as noisy data or poorly separated cells, and it allows the biologists to get a comprehensive understanding of their data by capturing dynamic growth processes in stills. We validate our methods using three videos of growing fruit fly embryos.
Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang
2016-02-01
In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).
Bulk flow coupled to a viscous interfacial film sheared by a rotating knife edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
The measurement of the interfacial properties of highly viscous biofilms, such as DPPC (the primary component of lung surfactant), present on the surface of liquids (bulk phase) continues to attract significant attention. Most measurement techniques rely on shearing the interfacial film and quantifying its viscous response in terms of a surface (excess) viscosity at the air-liquid interface. The knife edge viscometer offers a significant advantage over other approaches used to study highly viscous films as the film is directly sheared by a rotating knife edge in direct contact with the film. However, accurately quantifying the viscous response is non-trivial and involves accounting for the coupled interfacial and bulk phase flows. Here, we examine the nature of the viscous response of water insoluble DPPC films sheared in a knife edge viscometer over a range of surface packing, and its influence on the strength of the coupled bulk flow. Experimental results, obtained via Particle Image Velocimetry in the bulk and at the surface (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), are compared with numerical flow predictions to quantify the coupling across hydrodynamic flow regimes, from the Stokes flow limit to regimes where flow inertia is significant. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Formation of Interfacial Patterns in Aggregation and Viscous Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vicsek, Tamás
1987-01-01
Computer simulations and experiments on viscous fingering are used to investigate the effects of fluctuations, driving force and anisotropy on the growth of two dimensional unstable interfaces. It is demonstrated that variations of the diffusion-limited aggregation model capture many of the most important features of Laplacian pattern formation. In the viscous fingering experiments carried out in a radial Hele-Shaw cell with nematic or smectic liquid crystals a number of unexpected morphological phase transitions can be observed including crossovers from tip splitting to dendritic growth and from fractal to homogeneous structures. The investigations reviewed here suggest that the role of noise, driving force and anisotropy is crucial in the formation of patterns and it is the complex interplay of these factors which produces the great variety of morphologies found in nature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stremel, Paul M.
1995-01-01
A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.
Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.
Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-09-19
Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope. PMID:27661949
Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.
Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-09-19
Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope.
Segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images based on continuous max-flow optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Carrasco, J. A.; Acha-Piñero, B.; Serrano, C.
2015-03-01
In this paper an algorithm to carry out the automatic segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images has been implemented. Automatic segmentation of bone structures is of special interest for radiologists and surgeons to analyze bone diseases or to plan some surgical interventions. This task is very complicated as bones usually present intensities overlapping with those of surrounding tissues. This overlapping is mainly due to the composition of bones and to the presence of some diseases such as Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, etc. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures is a very time-consuming task due to the 3D essence of the bones. Usually, this segmentation is implemented manually or with algorithms using simple techniques such as thresholding and thus providing bad results. In this paper gray information and 3D statistical information have been combined to be used as input to a continuous max-flow algorithm. Twenty CT images have been tested and different coefficients have been computed to assess the performance of our implementation. Dice and Sensitivity values above 0.91 and 0.97 respectively were obtained. A comparison with Level Sets and thresholding techniques has been carried out and our results outperformed them in terms of accuracy.
Rotary slanted single wire CTA - a useful tool for 3D flows investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonáš, P.
2013-04-01
The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the instantaneous velocity vector. Some recommendations are presented based on long time experiences, e.g. on the choice of probe, on the probe calibration, to the measurement organization and to the evaluation of results.
Reactive Flow Modeling of Liquid Explosives via ALE3D/Cheetah Simulations
Kuo, I W; Bastea, S; Fried, L E
2010-03-10
We carried out reactive flow simulations of liquid explosives such as nitromethane using the hydrodynamic code ALE3D coupled with equations of state and reaction kinetics modeled by the thermochemical code Cheetah. The simulation set-up was chosen to mimic cylinder experiments. For pure unconfined nitromethane we find that the failure diameter and detonation velocity dependence on charge diameter are in agreement with available experimental results. Such simulations are likely to be useful for determining detonability and failure behavior for a wide range of experimental conditions and explosive compounds.
Computational flow development for unsteady viscous flows: Foundation of the numerical method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bratanow, T.; Spehert, T.
1978-01-01
A procedure is presented for effective consideration of viscous effects in computational development of high Reynolds number flows. The procedure is based on the interpretation of the Navier-Stokes equations as vorticity transport equations. The physics of the flow was represented in a form suitable for numerical analysis. Lighthill's concept for flow development for computational purposes was adapted. The vorticity transport equations were cast in a form convenient for computation. A statement for these equations was written using the method of weighted residuals and applying the Galerkin criterion. An integral representation of the induced velocity was applied on the basis of the Biot-Savart law. Distribution of new vorticity, produced at wing surfaces over small computational time intervals, was assumed to be confined to a thin region around the wing surfaces.
Kinetic depth effect and optic flow--I. 3D shape from Fourier motion.
Dosher, B A; Landy, M S; Sperling, G
1989-01-01
Fifty-three different 3D shapes were defined by sequences of 2D views (frames) of dots on a rotating 3D surface. (1) Subjects' accuracy of shape identifications dropped from over 90% to less than 10% when either the polarity of the stimulus dots was alternated from light-on-gray to dark-on-gray on successive frames or when neutral gray interframe intervals were interposed. Both manipulations interfere with motion extraction by spatio-temporal (Fourier) and gradient first-order detectors. Second-order (non-Fourier) detectors that use full-wave rectification are unaffected by alternating-polarity but disrupted by interposed gray frames. (2) To equate the accuracy of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) planar direction-of-motion discrimination in standard and polarity-alternated stimuli, standard contrast was reduced. 3D shape discrimination survived contrast reduction in standard stimuli whereas it failed completely with polarity-alternation even at full contrast. (3) When individual dots were permitted to remain in the image sequence for only two frames, performance showed little loss compared to standard displays where individual dots had an expected lifetime of 20 frames, showing that 3D shape identification does not require continuity of stimulus tokens. (4) Performance in all discrimination tasks is predicted (up to a monotone transformation) by considering the quality of first-order information (as given by a simple computation on Fourier power) and the number of locations at which motion information is required. Perceptual first-order analysis of optic flow is the primary substrate for structure-from-motion computations in random dot displays because only it offers sufficient quality of perceptual motion at a sufficient number of locations.
Study on 3-D simulation of flow and turbidity in an oxbow lake in tidal compartment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, H.; Momonoe, H.; Hamamoto, S.
2010-12-01
We aimed to make flow and turbidity simulation model for an oxbow lake in tidal compartment. The oxbow has two bottle-necks and inflow river from urban district. Bed topography of the oxbow is former meandering channel of large-basin river. Therefore characteristic of flow and water quality is complex. First, field observation was conducted to clarify the characteristics of flow and water quality in the oxbow. From observation results, flow and resuspension phenomena in the oxbow were affected by wind and tide, and the balance of the two factors changed longitudinally. Next, we built 3-D simulation model of flow which took account of the field observation results. In order to investigate effective water quality improvement, we set some test cases: condition of wind, inflow river were changed. From the simulation results, tide was the most important factor, however at the upper part of the oxbow, where the tidal power seemed to be weaker, flow and turbidity were clearly affected by the wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osawa, Yasuo
New powerful parallel computational tools are developed for 3D simulation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions. The base method for flow simulation is a finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element formulation is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) techniques. These stabilization techniques facilitate simulation of flows with high Reynolds numbers, and allow us to use equal-order interpolation functions for velocity and pressure without generating numerical oscillations. A multi-domain computational method is developed to simulate wake flow both in the near and far downstream. The formulations lead to coupled nonlinear equation systems which are solved, at every time step, with the Newton-Raphson method. The overall formulation and solution techniques are implemented on parallel platforms such as the CRAY T3E and SGI PowerChallenge. Two phases of vortex shedding for flow past a cylinder is simulated to verify the accuracy of this method. The Enhanced-Discretization Interface Capturing Technique (EDICT) is utilized to simulate wake flow accurately. Fluid-structure coupling solution method based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation is applied to simulate a parachute behavior in the unsteady wake.
Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.
1973-01-01
The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, J. P.; Hasenclever, J.; Shi, C.
2009-12-01
Computational studies of mantle convection face large challenges to obtain fast and accurate solutions for variable viscosity 3d flow. Recently we have been using parallel (MPI-based) MATLAB to more thoroughly explore possible pitfalls and algorithmic improvements to current ‘best-practice’ variable viscosity Stokes and D’Arcy flow solvers. Here we focus on study of finite-element solvers based on a decomposition of the equations for incompressible Stokes flow: Ku + Gp = f and G’u = 0 (K-velocity stiffness matrix, G-discretized gradient operator, G’=transpose(G)-discretized divergence operator) into a single equation for pressure Sp==G’K^-1Gp =G’K^-1f, in which the velocity is also updated as part of each pressure iteration. The outer pressure iteration is solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients (CG) (Maday and Patera, 1989), with a multigrid-preconditioned CG solver for the z=K^-1 (Gq) step of each pressure iteration. One fairly well-known pitfall (Fortin, 1985) is that constant-pressure elements can generate a spurious non-zero flow under a constant body force within non-rectangular geometries. We found a new pitfall when using an iterative method to solve the Kz=y operation in evaluating each G’K^-1Gq product -- even if the residual of the outer pressure equation converges to zero, the discrete divergence of this equation does not correspondingly converge; the error in the incompressibility depends on roughly the square of the tolerance used to solve each Kz=y velocity-like subproblem. Our current best recipe is: (1) Use flexible CG (cf. Notay, 2001) to solve the outer pressure problem. This is analogous to GMRES for a symmetric positive definite problem. It allows use of numerically unsymmetric and/or inexact preconditioners with CG. (2) In this outer-iteration, use an ‘alpha-bar’ technique to find the appropriate magnitude alpha to change the solution in each search direction. This improvement allows a similar iterative tolerance of
Evaporation rate from square capillaries limited by corner flow viscous losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoogland, F.; Lehmann, P.; Yiotis, A.; Or, D.
2012-04-01
High evaporation rates from soil surfaces are sustained by capillary flows drawing water from the receding drying front along liquid pathways in crevices of the pore space. With increasing depth of the drying front viscous losses add to growing gravitational head and at a certain depth overcome capillary drive and disrupt liquid pathways. Viscous losses are significant in fine textured media resulting in earlier capillary failure than predicted by gravity-capillary force balance. To reproduce limitations of viscous corner flow on evaporation rates from angular pores (capillaries) we imaged drying dynamics from a square shaped glass capillary using a high speed camera, to provide for detailed record on receding menisci and thickness of liquid corner films including detachment dynamics at the top of the capillary. Additionally, deposition patterns of dye delineated regions of high rates of phase change (evaporation) showing a decrease in drying rate with recession of menisci and films into the capillary due to increasing diffusive path and reduced gradients. Effects of viscous losses on evaporation dynamics were systematically evaluated by varying ratio of viscous, gravity and capillary forces using different liquids (water, ethanol and octane), capillary geometry (0.5 and 1.0 mm width), and flow rate and direction with respect to gravity (horizontal and vertical arrangement). Experimental results were compared with analytical solutions for corner flow considering viscous losses. Preliminary results indicate that the maximum (main) meniscus depth supporting corner flow is not only dependent on the effective conductivity behind the interfaces, but also on interfacial processes taking place at the very top of the capillary. The pore scale findings will be incorporated into macroscopic models for determining viscous losses from soils and for estimating elapsed times for transition from high capillary-sustained evaporation rates to diffusion limited rates.
3D High-Resolution Seismic Imaging of Fluid Flow Anomalies on the Norwegian Continental Shelf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planke, S.; Eriksen, F. N.; Eriksen, O. K.; Myklebust, R.; Stokke, H. H.
2015-12-01
Fluid flow anomalies are common on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Such features are imaged by multiple P-Cable high resolution seismic 2D lines and 3D cubes in the Norwegian Barents Sea. P-Cable is a high resolution 3D seismic system consisting of multiple streamers attached to a cross cable that is towed perpendicular to the vessels steaming direction. The short offset, high frequency source and closely spaced streamers facilitates for excellent vertical and horizontal resolution that provides key information for understanding the sub-surface. Recent data have been broadband processed, and the method has proven to enhance the imaging of the sub-surface significantly. Barents Sea P-Cable surveys have targeted shallow fluid anomalies in the uppermost ca. 500 meters of the sub-surface. New data have been acquired in 2012, 2014 and 2015. The most recent data focus on the southeast part of the Norwegian Barents Sea where P-Cable data give a new insight into the subsurface not provided by conventional seismic data in the region. Geologically, the Barents Sea region is characterized by Paleozoic and Mesozoic siliciclastic successions overlaid in most areas by a thin cover of Cenozoic glacial sediments. Hydrocarbon-rich Jurassic and Triassic sequences are locally situated in the shallow sub-surface as a result of extensive late Cenozoic uplift and erosion. The unloading has been reported to reactivate and create new faults in addition to initiate further migration of fluids in the sub-surface (Chand et al., 2012). The presence of shallow hydrocarbon systems creates an optimal setting for imaging fluid flow anomalies with high resolution 3D seismic data. The Barents Sea P-Cable data image a range of fluid related features such as cross-cutting reflections and bright spots, chimney structures, acoustic masking, pockmarks and mud volcanoes.
Brightness-compensated 3-D optical flow algorithm for monitoring cochlear motion patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Tiedemann, Miriam; Fridberger, Anders; Ulfendahl, Mats; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet
2010-09-01
A method for three-dimensional motion analysis designed for live cell imaging by fluorescence confocal microscopy is described. The approach is based on optical flow computation and takes into account brightness variations in the image scene that are not due to motion, such as photobleaching or fluorescence variations that may reflect changes in cellular physiology. The 3-D optical flow algorithm allowed almost perfect motion estimation on noise-free artificial sequences, and performed with a relative error of <10% on noisy images typical of real experiments. The method was applied to a series of 3-D confocal image stacks from an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig cochlea. The complex motions caused by slow pressure changes in the cochlear compartments were quantified. At the surface of the hearing organ, the largest motion component was the transverse one (normal to the surface), but significant radial and longitudinal displacements were also present. The outer hair cell displayed larger radial motion at their basolateral membrane than at their apical surface. These movements reflect mechanical interactions between different cellular structures, which may be important for communicating sound-evoked vibrations to the sensory cells. A better understanding of these interactions is important for testing realistic models of cochlear mechanics.
Flow-Through Stream Modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D: Certainties and Limitations.
Ben Simon, Rose; Bernard, Stéphane; Meurville, Charles; Rebour, Vincent
2015-01-01
This paper aims to assess MODFLOW and MT3D capabilities for simulating the spread of contaminants from a river exhibiting an unusual relationship with an alluvial aquifer, with the groundwater head higher than the river head on one side and lower on the other (flow-through stream). A series of simulation tests is conducted using a simple hypothetical model so as to characterize and quantify these limitations. Simulation results show that the expected contaminant spread could be achieved with a specific configuration composed of two sets of parameters: (1) modeled object parameters (hydraulic groundwater gradient, hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer and streambed), and (2) modeling parameters (vertical discretization of aquifer, horizontal refinement of stream modeled with River [RIV] package). The influence of these various parameters on simulation results is investigated, and potential complications and errors are identified. Contaminant spread from stream to aquifer is not always reproduced by MT3D due to the RIV package's inability to simulate lateral exchange fluxes between stream and aquifer. This paper identifies the need for a MODFLOW streamflow package allowing lateral stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow routine calculations. Such developments could be of particular interest for modeling contaminated flow-through streams.
3D conformation of a flexible fiber in a turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verhille, Gautier; Bartoli, Adrien
2016-07-01
A growing number of studies is devoted to anisotropic particles in turbulent flows. In most cases, the particles are assumed to be rigid and their deformations are neglected. We present an adaptation of classical computer vision tools to reconstruct from two different images the 3D conformation of a fiber distorted by the turbulent fluctuations in a von Kármán flow. This technique allows us notably to characterize the fiber deformation by computing the correlation function of the orientation of the tangent vector. This function allows us to tackle the analogy between polymers and flexible fibers proposed by Brouzet et al. (Phys Rev Lett 112(7):074501, 2014). We show that this function depends on an elastic length ℓ _e which characterizes the particle flexibility, as is the case for polymers, but also on the fiber length L, contrary to polymers.
Measuring the orientation and rotation rate of 3D printed particles in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Greg; Marcus, Guy G.; Parsa, Shima; Kramel, Stefan; Ni, Rui; Cole, Brendan
2014-11-01
The orientation distribution and rotations of anisotropic particles plays a key role in many applications ranging from icy clouds to papermaking and drag reduction in pipe flow. Experimental access to time resolved orientations of anisotropic particles has not been easy to achieve. We have found that 3D printing technology can be used to fabricate a wide range of particle shapes with smallest dimension down to 300 μm. So far we have studied rods, crosses, jacks, tetrads, and helical shapes. We extract the particle orientations from stereoscopic video images using a method of least squares optimization in Euler angle space. We find that in turbulence the orientation and rotation rate of many particles can be understood using a simple picture of alignment of both the vorticity and a long axis of the particle with the Lagrangian stretching direction of the flow. This research is supported by NSF Grant DMR-1208990.
Measuring the orientation and rotation rate of 3D printed particles in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voth, Greg; Kramel, Stefan; Cole, Brendan
2015-03-01
The orientation distribution and rotations of anisotropic particles plays a key role in many applications ranging from icy clouds to papermaking and drag reduction in pipe flow. Experimental access to time resolved orientations of anisotropic particles has not been easy to achieve. We have found that 3D printing technology can be used to fabricate a wide range of particle shapes with smallest dimension down to 300 ?m. So far we have studied rods, crosses, jacks, tetrads, and helical shapes. We extract the particle orientations from stereoscopic video images using a method of least squares optimization in Euler angle space. We find that in turbulence the orientation and rotation rate of many particles can be understood using a simple picture of alignment of both the vorticity and a long axis of the particle with the Lagrangian stretching direction of the flow.
MRI-based aortic blood flow model in 3D ballistocardiography.
Lejeune, L; Prisk, G K; Nonclercq, A; Migeotte, P-F
2015-01-01
Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a non-invasive technique which measures the acceleration of a body induced by cardiovascular activity, namely the force exerted by the beating heart. A one dimensional aortic flow model based on the transmission lines theory is developped and applied to the simulation of three dimensional BCG. A four-element Windkessel model is used to generate the pressure-wave. Using transverse MRI slices of a human subject, a reconstruction of the aorta allows the extraction of parameters used to relate the local change in mass of the 1D flow model to 3D acceleration BCG. Simulated BCG curves are then compared qualitatively with the ensemble average curves of the same subject recorded in sustained microgravity. Confirming previous studies, the main features of the y-axis are well simulated. The simulated z-axis, never attempted before, shows important similarities. The simulated x-axis is less faithful and suggests the presence of reflections. PMID:26737946
A computer program to calculate radiating viscous stagnation streamline flow with strong blowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, G. L.; Garrett, L. B.
1973-01-01
A computer program (program LEE) has been developed to calculate the fully coupled solution of the radiating viscous stagnation streamline flow with strong blowing. The report describes the digital computer program, including FORTRAN IV listing, flow charts, instructions for the user, and a test case with input and output. Program LEE is available through COSMIC.
A 3-D implicit finite-volume model of shallow water flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Weiming; Lin, Qianru
2015-09-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed to simulate shallow water flows in large water bodies, such as coastal and estuarine waters. The eddy viscosity is determined using a newly modified mixing length model that uses different mixing length functions for the horizontal and vertical shear strain rates. The 3-D shallow water flow equations with the hydrostatic pressure assumption are solved using an implicit finite-volume method based on a quadtree (telescoping) rectangular mesh on the horizontal plane and the sigma coordinate in the vertical direction. The quadtree technique can locally refine the mesh around structures or in high-gradient regions by splitting a coarse cell into four child cells. The grid nodes are numbered with a one-dimensional index system that has unstructured grid feature for better grid flexibility. All the primary variables are arranged in a non-staggered grid system. Fluxes at cell faces are determined using a Rhie and Chow-type momentum interpolation, to avoid the possible spurious checkerboard oscillations caused by linear interpolation. Each of the discretized governing equations is solved iteratively using the flexible GMRES method with ILUT preconditioning, and coupling of water level and velocity among these equations is achieved by using the SIMPLEC algorithm with under-relaxation. The model has been tested in four cases, including steady flow near a spur-dyke, tidal flows in San Francisco Bay and Gironde Estuary, and wind-induced current in a flume. The calculated water levels and velocities are in good agreement with the measured values.
Computed Tomography 3-D Imaging of the Metal Deformation Flow Path in Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Judy; Beshears, Ronald; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.
2005-01-01
In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path is required. Marker studies are the principal method of studying the metal deformation flow path around the FSW pin tool. In our study, we have used computed tomography (CT) scans to reveal the flow pattern of a lead wire embedded in a FSW weld seam. At the welding temperature of aluminum, the lead becomes molten and is carried with the macro-flow of the weld metal. By using CT images, a 3-dimensional (3D) image of the lead flow pattern can be reconstructed. CT imaging was found to be a convenient and comprehensive way of collecting and displaying tracer data. It marks an advance over previous more tedious and ambiguous radiographic/metallographic data collection methods.
Numerical solution of inviscid and viscous laminar and turbulent flow around the airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slouka, Martin; Kozel, Karel
2016-03-01
This work deals with the 2D numerical solution of inviscid compressible flow and viscous compressible laminar and turbulent flow around the profile. In a case of turbulent flow algebraic Baldwin-Lomax model is used and compared with Wilcox k-omega model. Calculations are done for NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoil profile for the different angles of upstream flow. Numerical results are compared and discussed with experimental data.
Viscous flow in simple curved gaps. I - An asymptotic theory. II - Viscous stress and shape function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, D.-N.; Tong, W.
1989-01-01
The present asymptotic theory for generalized incompressible two-dimensional steady flow in curved channels has been constructed in the limit when gas thickness approaches zero with its lateral dimensions fixed; successive asymptotic solution terms are analytically generated by quadratures. In the second part of this work, the curvature of the gap treated is arbitrary. It is established that each term in the series solution of velocity and pressure is the product of a scale factor and a universal shape functions. Various interaction modes between the volume rate-of-flow, curvature, and its variations, are identified and quantitatively characterized.
Test Problems for Reactive Flow HE Model in the ALE3D Code and Limited Sensitivity Study
Gerassimenko, M.
2000-03-01
We document quick running test problems for a reactive flow model of HE initiation incorporated into ALE3D. A quarter percent change in projectile velocity changes the outcome from detonation to HE burn that dies down. We study the sensitivity of calculated HE behavior to several parameters of practical interest where modeling HE initiation with ALE3D.
Analytical comparison of hypersonic flight and wind tunnel viscous/inviscid flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fivel, H. J.; Masek, R. V.; Mockapetris, L. J.
1975-01-01
Flow fields were computed about blunted, 0.524 and 0.698 radians, cone configurations to assess the effects of nonequilibrium chemistry on the flow field geometry, boundary layer edge conditions, boundary layer profiles, and heat transfer and skin friction. Analyses were conducted at typical space shuttle entry conditions for both laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow. In these calculations, a wall temperature of 1365 K (2000 F) was assumed. The viscous computer program used in this investigation was a modification of the Blottner non-similar viscous code which incorporated a turbulent eddy viscosity model after Cebeci. The results were compared with equivalent calculations for similar (scaled) configurations at typical wind tunnel conditions. Wind tunnel test gases included air, nitrogen, CF4 and helium. The viscous computer program used for wind tunnel conditions was the Cebeci turbulent non-similar computer code.
Estimation of Rheological Properties of Viscous Debris Flow Using a Belt Conveyor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hübl, J.; Steinwendtner, H.
2000-09-01
Rheological parameters of viscous debris flows are influenced by a great amount of factors and are therefore extremely difficult to estimate. Because of this uncertainties a belt conveyor (conveyor channel) was constructed to measure flow behaviour and rheological properties of natural debris flow material. The upward movement of the smooth rubberised belt between fixed lateral plastic walls causes a stationary wave relative to these bends. This special experimental design enables to study behaviour of viscous ebris flow material with maximum grain diameters up to 20 mm within several minutes and to hold measuring equipment very simple. The conveyor channel was calibrated first with Xanthan, a natural polysaccharide used as thickener in food technology, whose rheological properties are similar to viscous debris flow material. In a second step natural debris flow material was investigated. Velocities and rheological parameters were measured with varying solid concentration and slope of the channel. In cases where concentration of coarse particles exceed around 15% by volume the conveyor channel obtains an alternative to expensive commercial viscometers for determination of rheological parameters of viscous debris flows.
Development of an explicit multiblock/multigrid flow solver for viscous flows in complex geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinthorsson, E.; Liou, M. S.; Povinelli, L. A.
1993-01-01
A new computer program is being developed for doing accurate simulations of compressible viscous flows in complex geometries. The code employs the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The eddy viscosity model of Baldwin and Lomax is used to model the effects of turbulence on the flow. A cell centered finite volume discretization is used for all terms in the governing equations. The Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM) is used to compute the inviscid fluxes, while central differencing is used for the diffusive fluxes. A four-stage Runge-Kutta time integration scheme is used to march solutions to steady state, while convergence is enhanced by a multigrid scheme, local time-stepping, and implicit residual smoothing. To enable simulations of flows in complex geometries, the code uses composite structured grid systems where all grid lines are continuous at block boundaries (multiblock grids). Example results shown are a flow in a linear cascade, a flow around a circular pin extending between the main walls in a high aspect-ratio channel, and a flow of air in a radial turbine coolant passage.
The mantle wedge's transient 3-D flow regime and thermal structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, D. R.; Le Voci, G.; Goes, S.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.
2016-01-01
Arc volcanism, volatile cycling, mineralization, and continental crust formation are likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure. Wedge flow is often assumed to follow a regular corner-flow pattern. However, studies that incorporate a hydrated rheology and thermal buoyancy predict internal small-scale-convection (SSC). Here, we systematically explore mantle-wedge dynamics in 3-D simulations. We find that longitudinal "Richter-rolls" of SSC (with trench-perpendicular axes) commonly occur if wedge hydration reduces viscosities to Pa s, although transient transverse rolls (with trench-parallel axes) can dominate at viscosities of Pa s. Rolls below the arc and back arc differ. Subarc rolls have similar trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular dimensions of 100-150 km and evolve on a 1-5 Myr time-scale. Subback-arc instabilities, on the other hand, coalesce into elongated sheets, usually with a preferential trench-perpendicular alignment, display a wavelength of 150-400 km and vary on a 5-10 Myr time scale. The modulating influence of subback-arc ridges on the subarc system increases with stronger wedge hydration, higher subduction velocity, and thicker upper plates. We find that trench-parallel averages of wedge velocities and temperature are consistent with those predicted in 2-D models. However, lithospheric thinning through SSC is somewhat enhanced in 3-D, thus expanding hydrous melting regions and shifting dehydration boundaries. Subarc Richter-rolls generate time-dependent trench-parallel temperature variations of up to K, which exceed the transient 50-100 K variations predicted in 2-D and may contribute to arc-volcano spacing and the variable seismic velocity structures imaged beneath some arcs.
Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1997-01-01
The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On
Inverse cascades sustained by the transfer rate of angular momentum in a 3D turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burguete, Javier; Lopez-Caballero, Miguel
2013-11-01
The existence of energy cascades as signatures of conserved magnitudes is one of the universal characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work we present the evidence of an inverse cascade in a fully developed 3D experimental turbulent flow where the conserved magnitude is the angular momentum. We analyze the behavior of a fluid in a closed cavity where two inhomogeneous and strongly turbulent flows collide in a thin region. The experimental volume is a closed cylinder (diameter of 20 cm) where two impellers rotate in opposite directions. A key characteristic of this setup the high stability of the propellers (the instantaneous fluctuations are below 0 . 1 %). We have performed PIV and LDA measurements of the velocity fields. Typical characteristics of the turbulent flow in this setup are: turbulence intensity 50 % , the Reλ = 900 , the Taylor microscale λT = 1 . 8 mm and the integral scale LI = 15 mm. The analysis of the data series reveal that below the injection scales an inverse cascade can be identified (-1/3 in time, -7/3 in space) that can be explained as the transfer of angular momentum between the diferent fluid layers. A. de la Torre, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 99 (2007) 054101. M. Lopez-Caballero, J. Burguete, Phys Rev Lett 110 (2013) 124501.
Simulation of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air Using TLNS3D Flow Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli
2007-01-01
Although the actuator geometry is highly three-dimensional, the outer flowfield is nominally two-dimensional because of the high aspect ratio of the rectangular slot. For the present study, this configuration is modeled as a two-dimensional problem. A multi-block structured grid available at the CFDVAL2004 website is used as a baseline grid. The periodic motion of the diaphragm is simulated by specifying a sinusoidal velocity at the diaphragm surface with a frequency of 450 Hz, corresponding to the experimental setup. The amplitude is chosen so that the maximum Mach number at the jet exit is approximately 0.1, to replicate the experimental conditions. At the solid walls zero slip, zero injection, adiabatic temperature and zero pressure gradient conditions are imposed. In the external region, symmetry conditions are imposed on the side (vertical) boundaries and far-field conditions are imposed on the top boundary. A nominal free-stream Mach number of 0.001 is imposed in the free stream to simulate incompressible flow conditions in the TLNS3D code, which solves compressible flow equations. The code was run in unsteady (URANS) mode until the periodicity was established. The time-mean quantities were obtained by running the code for at least another 15 periods and averaging the flow quantities over these periods. The phase-locked average of flow quantities were assumed to be coincident with their values during the last full time period.
Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada
2015-12-01
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a
Simulation of 3D flows past hypersonic vehicles in FlowVision software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitskiy, D. V.; Bartenev, G. Y.; Pokhilko, V. I.
2015-11-01
A new implicit velocity-pressure split method is discussed in the given presentation. The method implies using conservative velocities, obtained at the given time step, for integration of the momentum equation and other convection-diffusion equations. This enables simulation of super- and hypersonic flows with account of motion of solid boundaries. Calculations of known test cases performed in the FlowVision software are demonstrated. It is shown that the method allows one to carry out calculations at high Mach numbers with integration step essentially exceeding the explicit time step.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.
Investigation of parabolic computational techniques for internal high-speed viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, O. L.; Power, G. D.
1985-01-01
A feasibility study was conducted to assess the applicability of an existing parabolic analysis (ADD-Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct), developed previously for subsonic viscous internal flows, to mixed supersonic/subsonic flows with heat addition simulating a SCRAMJET combustor. A study was conducted with the ADD code modified to include additional convection effects in the normal momentum equation when supersonic expansion and compression waves were present. It is concluded from the present study that for the class of problems where strong viscous/inviscid interactions are present a global iteration procedure is required.
Application of viscous-inviscid interaction methods to transonic turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, D.; Pletcher, R. H.
1986-01-01
Two different viscous-inviscid interaction schemes were developed for the analysis of steady, turbulent, transonic, separated flows over axisymmetric bodies. The viscous and inviscid solutions are coupled through the displacement concept using a transpiration velocity approach. In the semi-inverse interaction scheme, the viscous and inviscid equations are solved in an explicitly separate manner and the displacement thickness distribution is iteratively updated by a simple coupling algorithm. In the simultaneous interaction method, local solutions of viscous and inviscid equations are treated simultaneously, and the displacement thickness is treated as an unknown and is obtained as a part of the solution through a global iteration procedure. The inviscid flow region is described by a direct finite-difference solution of a velocity potential equation in conservative form. The potential equation is solved on a numerically generated mesh by an approximate factorization (AF2) scheme in the semi-inverse interaction method and by a successive line overrelaxation (SLOR) scheme in the simultaneous interaction method. The boundary-layer equations are used for the viscous flow region. The continuity and momentum equations are solved inversely in a coupled manner using a fully implicit finite-difference scheme.
Inverse wing design in transonic flow including viscous interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, Leland A.; Ratcliff, Robert R.; Gally, Thomas A.; Campbell, Richard L.
1989-01-01
Several inverse methods were compared and initial results indicate that differences in results are primarily due to coordinate systems and fuselage representations and not to design procedures. Further, results from a direct-inverse method that includes 3-D wing boundary layer effects, wake curvature, and wake displacement are represented. These results show that boundary layer displacements must be included in the design process for accurate results.
VALIDATION OF CFD PREDICTIONS OF FLOW IN A 3D ALVEOLATED BEND WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA
VAN ERTBRUGGEN, C.; CORIERI, P.; THEUNISSEN, R.; RIETHMULLER, M.L.; DARQUENNE, C.
2008-01-01
Verifying numerical predictions with experimental data is an important aspect of any modeling studies. In the case of the lung, the absence of direct in-vivo flow measurements makes such verification almost impossible. We performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in a 3D scaled-up model of an alveolated bend with rigid walls that incorporated essential geometrical characteristics of human alveolar structures and compared numerical predictions with experimental flow measurements made in the same model by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Flow in both models was representative of acinar flow during normal breathing (0.82 ml/s). The experimental model was built in silicone and silicone oil was used as the carrier fluid. Flow measurements were obtained by an ensemble averaging procedure. CFD simulation was performed with STAR-CCM+ (CD-Adapco) using a polyhedral unstructured mesh. Velocity profiles in the central duct were parabolic and no bulk convection existed between the central duct and the alveoli. Velocities inside the alveoli were ∼2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean velocity in the central duct. CFD data agreed well with those obtained by PIV. In the central duct, data agreed within 1%. The maximum simulated velocity along the centerline of the model was 0.5% larger than measured experimentally. In the alveolar cavities, data agreed within 15% on average. This suggests that CFD techniques can satisfactorily predict acinar-type flow. Such a validation ensure a great degree of confidence in the accuracy of predictions made in more complex models of the alveolar region of the lung using similar CFD techniques. PMID:17915225
Assessing GPR Signal Polarization for 3D Imaging of Fracture Flow Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoflias, G. P.; Baker, M.; Becker, M. W.
2011-12-01
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an effective geophysical method for imaging fractures. Recent studies have employed GPR to image flow paths in fractured aquifers and have demonstrated the potential for relating radar signal attributes to tracer concentration and fracture hydraulic properties. Flow in natural fractures is highly heterogeneous and occurs through channeled paths of varying direction, width and aperture. Therefore, radar imaging of channeled flow may exhibit polarization effects analogous to imaging pipes in the subsurface. Electromagnetic wave polarization properties have been recognized for their significance in imaging buried pipes and rebar, as well as heterogeneous geologic environments including dipping layers and faults. In this study we explore EM wavefield polarization effects for 3D imaging of flow channels along a sub-horizontal water-saturated fracture in bedrock. Three-dimensional 50 and 100 MHz GPR reflection data were acquired using broadside and cross-polarized dipole antenna pairs oriented at 0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees to the survey grid lines. Although the sub-horizontal fracture surface was imaged by all surveys, significant differences in spatial variability of reflector amplitude strength is observed among the data grids suggesting strong signal polarization dependence. One approach for compensating dipole source radiation effects is to sum orthogonal orientation components to simulate circular source radiation. Comparison of summed orthogonal component grids shows very good agreement in imaging high amplitude features of the fracture reflector, delineating the position of channels along the fracture. We conclude that GPR polarization properties are important for accurate imaging of flow channeling along fractures. Acquisition of two orthogonal orientation broadside data using dipole source-receiver pairs is shown to be adequate for imaging flow channeling.
Viscous flow interpretation of Comet Halley's mystery transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-de-Tejada, H.
1989-08-01
A study of the solar wind within Comet Halley's ionosheath is presented. It is shown that the plasma changes seen across the intermediate ('mystery') transition, located approximately half way between the bow shock and the cometopause along the Giotto trajectory, are similar to those occurring across an equivalent transition present within the Venus ionosheath. As in Venus, the observed plasma changes are consistent with those expected from the onset of friction phenomena between the shocked solar wind and the main body of ionospheric plasma. It is suggested that the intermediate transition on Comet Halley's ionosheath represents the outer boundary of a thick viscous boundary layer that develops from the nose of the cometopause and extends along the flanks of the ionosheath. On the basis of this interpretation it is concluded that the subsolar position of the cometopause may have reached about 340,000 km upstream from the nucleus at the time of the Giotto measurements.
Multilevel local refinement and multigrid methods for 3-D turbulent flow
Liao, C.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.; Huang, T.T.
1996-12-31
A numerical approach based on multigrid, multilevel local refinement, and preconditioning methods for solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. 3-D turbulent flow around an underwater vehicle is computed. 3 multigrid levels and 2 local refinement grid levels are used. The global grid is 24 x 8 x 12. The first patch is 40 x 16 x 20 and the second patch is 72 x 32 x 36. 4th order artificial dissipation are used for numerical stability. The conservative artificial compressibility method are used for further improvement of convergence. To improve the accuracy of coarse/fine grid interface of local refinement, flux interpolation method for refined grid boundary is used. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data. The local refinement can improve the prediction accuracy significantly. The flux interpolation method for local refinement can keep conservation for a composite grid, therefore further modify the prediction accuracy.
Progress Toward Overset-Grid Moving Body Capability for USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandyna, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Noack, Ralph W.
2005-01-01
A static and dynamic Chimera overset-grid capability is added to an established NASA tetrahedral unstructured parallel Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3D. Modifications to the solver primarily consist of a few strategic calls to the Donor interpolation Receptor Transaction library (DiRTlib) to facilitate communication of solution information between various grids. The assembly of multiple overlapping grids into a single-zone composite grid is performed by the Structured, Unstructured and Generalized Grid AssembleR (SUGGAR) code. Several test cases are presented to verify the implementation, assess overset-grid solution accuracy and convergence relative to single-grid solutions, and demonstrate the prescribed relative grid motion capability.
Electroosmotic flow through a microparallel channel with 3D wall roughness.
Chang, Long; Jian, Yongjun; Buren, Mandula; Sun, Yanjun
2016-02-01
In this paper, a perturbation method is introduced to study the EOF in a microparallel channel with 3D wall roughness. The corrugations of the two walls are periodic sinusoidal waves of small amplitude in two directions either in phase or half-period out of phase. Based on linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Laplace equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations, the perturbation solutions of velocity, electrical potential, and volume flow rate are obtained. By using numerical computation, the influences of the wall corrugations on the mean velocity are analyzed. The variations of electrical potential, velocity profile, mean velocity, and their dependences on the wave number α and β of wall corrugations in two directions, the nondimensional electrokinetic width K, and the zeta potential ratio between the lower wall and the upper wall ς are analyzed graphically. PMID:26333852
Hopper, R.W.
1984-12-01
The coalescence of two equal viscous cylinders under the influence of capillarity is of interest in the theory of sintering. Although the flow in typical cylinder coalescence experiments is not planar, the plane-flow case is of general interest and is a good approximation in the early stage. An essentially exact analytic solution giving the shape as a function of time for slow plane flow is presented in simple closed form. 15 references, 2 figures, 1 table.
Hopper, R.W.
1984-12-01
The coalescence of two equal viscous cylinders under the influence of capillarity is of interest in the theory of sintering. Although the flow in typical cylinder coalescence experiments is not planar, the plane-flow case is of general interest and is a good approximation in the early stage. An essentially exact analytic solution giving the shape as a function of time for slow plane flow is presented in simple closed form. 16 references, 2 figures, 1 table.
Viscous shock layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.
1975-01-01
The viscous shock layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow fields. Solutions are obtained using an implicit finite difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cone configurations at free stream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.
Viscous-shock-layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.
1975-01-01
The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.
Theory of viscous transonic flow over airfoils at high Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.; Mead, H. R.
1977-01-01
This paper considers viscous flows with unseparated turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional airfoils at transonic speeds. Conventional theoretical methods are based on boundary layer formulations which do not account for the effect of the curved wake and static pressure variations across the boundary layer in the trailing edge region. In this investigation an extended viscous theory is developed that accounts for both effects. The theory is based on a rational analysis of the strong turbulent interaction at airfoil trailing edges. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to develop formal series solutions of the full Reynolds equations in the limit of Reynolds numbers tending to infinity. Procedures are developed for combining the local trailing edge solution with numerical methods for solving the full potential flow and boundary layer equations. Theoretical results indicate that conventional boundary layer methods account for only about 50% of the viscous effect on lift, the remaining contribution arising from wake curvature and normal pressure gradient effects.
Ergodic theory and experimental visualization of chaos in 3D flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Mezic, Igor
2000-11-01
In his motivation for the ergodic hypothesis Gibbs invoked an analogy with fluid mixing: “…Yet no fact is more familiar to us than that stirring tends to bring a liquid to a state of uniform mixture, or uniform densities of its components…”. Although proof of the ergodic hypothesis is possible only for the simplest of systems using methods from ergodic theory, the use of the hypothesis has led to many accurate predictions in statistical mechanics. The problem of fluid mixing, however, turned out to be considerably more complicated than Gibbs envisioned. Chaotic advection can indeed lead to efficient mixing even in non-turbulent flows, but many non-mixed islands are known to persist within well-mixed regions. In numerical studies, Poincaré maps can be used to reveal the structure of such islands but their visualization in the laboratory requires laborious experimental procedures and is possible only for certain types of flows. Here we propose the first non-intrusive, simple to implement, and generally applicable technique for constructing experimental Poincaré maps and apply it to a steady, 3D, vortex breakdown bubble. We employ standard laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and construct Poincaré maps by time averaging a sufficiently long sequence of instantaneous LIF images. We also show that ergodic theory methods provide a rigorous theoretical justification for this approach whose main objective is to reveal the non-ergodic regions of the flow.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221
Multigrid direct numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Chaoqun; Liu, Zhining
1993-01-01
A new technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition at relatively low CPU cost. Most other spatial numerical simulations require high CPU cost and blow up at the stage of flow breakdown. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all used for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The cost for a typical case with 162 x 34 x 34 grid is around 2 CRAY-YMP CPU hours for 10 T-S periods.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N. Hafizah; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
Viscous flow solutions for slender bodies of revolution at incidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.
1991-01-01
Flow over slender prolate spheroids at incidence is examined. The incidence angle is chosen high enough to cause streamwise separation of the flow in addition to crossflow separation generally observed at lower incidence angles. The freestream Mach number for the cases investigated here is subsonic, thus precluding the use of parabolized procedures. Laminar, transitional and turbulent flow cases are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.
2016-09-01
The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip boundary condition can be applied. The measured viscous slip coefficients of binary gas mixtures exhibit a concave function of the molar ratio of the mixture, showing a similar profile with numerical results. However, from the detailed comparison between the measured and numerical values with the complete and incomplete accommodation at a surface, it is inappropriate to estimate the viscous slip coefficient for the mixture numerically by employing separately measured tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for each component. The time variation of the molar ratio in the downstream chamber was measured by sampling the gas from the chamber using the quadrupole mass spectrometer. In our measurements, it is indicated that the volume flow rate of argon is larger than that of helium because of the difference in the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient.
Investigation of viscous/inviscid interaction in transonic flow over airfoils with suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vemuru, C. S.; Tiwari, S. N.
1988-01-01
The viscous/inviscid interaction over transonic airfoils with and without suction is studied. The streamline angle at the edge of the boundary layer is used to couple the viscous and inviscid flows. The potential flow equations are solved for the inviscid flow field. In the shock region, the Euler equations are solved using the method of integral relations. For this, the potential flow solution is used as the initial and boundary conditions. An integral method is used to solve the laminar boundary-layer equations. Since both methods are integral methods, a continuous interaction is allowed between the outer inviscid flow region and the inner viscous flow region. To avoid the Goldstein singularity near the separation point the laminar boundary-layer equations are derived in an inverse form to obtain solution for the flows with small separations. The displacement thickness distribution is specified instead of the usual pressure distribution to solve the boundry-layer equations. The Euler equations are solved for the inviscid flow using the finite volume technique and the coupling is achieved by a surface transpiration model. A method is developed to apply a minimum amount of suction that is required to have an attached flow on the airfoil. The turbulent boundary layer equations are derived using the bi-logarithmic wall law for mass transfer. The results are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data and with the results of other computational methods.
Enhancement of USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for High-Speed High-Temperature Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.
2009-01-01
Large temperature and pressure fluctuations have a profound effect on turbulence development in transonic and supersonic jets. For high-speed, high-temperature jet flows, standard turbulence models lack the ability to predict the observed mixing rate of a shear layer. Several proposals to address this deficiency have been advanced in the literature to modify the turbulence transport equations in a variety of ways. In the present study, some of the most proven and simple modifications to two-equation turbulence models have been selected and implemented in NASA's USM3D tetrahedral Navier-Stokes flow solver. The modifications include the addition of compressibility correction and pressure dilatation terms in the turbulence transport equations for high-speed flows, and the addition of a simple modification to the Boussinesq's closure model coefficient for high-temperature jets. The efficacy of the extended models is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for two supersonic axisymmetric jet test cases at design pressure ratio.
Viscous analyses for flow through subsonic and supersonic intakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povinelli, Louis A.; Towne, Charles E.
1986-01-01
A parabolized Navier-Stokes code was used to analyze a number of diffusers typical of a modern inlet design. The effect of curvature of the diffuser centerline and transitioning cross sections was evaluated to determine the primary cause of the flow distortion in the duct. Results are presented for S-shaped intakes with circular and transitioning cross sections. Special emphasis is placed on verification of the analysis to accurately predict distorted flow fields resulting from pressure-driven secondary flows. The effect of vortex generators on reducing the distortion of intakes is presented. Comparisons of the experimental and analytical total pressure contours at the exit of the intake exhibit good agreement. In the case of supersonic inlets, computations of the inlet flow field reveal that large secondary flow regions may be generated just inside of the intake. These strong flows may lead to separated flow regions and cause pronounced distortions upstream of the compressor.
Development of seismic anisotropy during subduction-induced 3D mantle flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faccenda, M.; capitanio, F. A.
2012-12-01
Subduction zones are convergent margins where the rigid lithosphere sinks into the Earth's mantle inducing complex 3D flow patterns. Seismic anisotropy generated by strain-induced lattice/crystal preferred orientation (LPO/CPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals is commonly used to study flow in the mantle and its relations with plate motions. As the development of seismic anisotropy due to upper and lower plate motions occurs at depths and timescales such that it is not directly observable, numerical modelling provides a useful tool to investigate these processes. We computed the seismic anisotropy of dry olivine-enstatite aggregates due to strain-induced LPO in 3D mechanical models of dynamic subduction by using, respectively, D-Rex and Underworld. Subsequently, FSTRACK was used to compute seismogram synthetics and SKS splitting patterns. We found that for relatively narrow subducting plates, retreat motions are maximized producing strong subslab trench-parallel anisotropy. Here, synthetic data reproduce quite well the observations in analogous subduction systems like Calabria and South Sandwich, where the fast azimuths orients parallel to the trench in the forearc and follow the toroidal flow patterns on the slab edges. Furthermore, we found that the amount of anisotropy is proportional to the amount of subduction, while it does not depend on the rate at which the plate subducts. On the other hand, larger subducting plates subducts mainly by plate advance, favoring poloidal motions and trench-perpendicular anisotropy. Additional Earth-like plate geometries involving along-trench variation of the subducting plate age that induces differential slab retreat motions are considered. We also tested different olivine fabrics (A, B, C, E type), yielding distinct SKS splitting patterns that may help to constrain the composition of the upper mantle. Although more sophisticated numerical modelling taking into account temperature-dependent mantle rock rheologies and P
Investigation of the effect of wall friction on the flow rate in 2D and 3D Granular Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carballo-Ramirez, Brenda; Pleau, Mollie; Easwar, Nalini; Birwa, Sumit; Shah, Neil; Tewari, Shubha
We have measured the mass flow rate of spherical steel spheres under gravity in vertical, straight-walled 2 and 3-dimensional hoppers, where the flow velocity is controlled by the opening size. Our measurements focus on the role of friction and its placement along the walls of the hopper. In the 2D case, an increase in the coefficient of static friction from μ = 0.2 to 0.6 is seen to decrease the flow rate significantly. We have changed the placement of frictional boundaries/regions from the front and back walls of the 2D hopper to the side walls and floor to investigate the relative importance of the different regions in determining the flow rate. Fits to the Beverloo equation show significant departure from the expected exponent of 1.5 in the case of 2D flow. In contrast, 3D flow rates do not show much dependence on wall friction and its placement. We compare the experimental data to numerical simulations of gravity driven hopper granular flow with varying frictional walls constructed using LAMMPS*. *http://lammps.sandia.gov Supported by NSF MRSEC DMR 0820506.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlsohn, Matthias F.; Kemmling, André; Petersen, Arne; Wietzke, Lennart
2016-04-01
Cerebral aneurysms require endovascular treatment to eliminate potentially lethal hemorrhagic rupture by hemostasis of blood flow within the aneurysm. Devices (e.g. coils and flow diverters) promote homeostasis, however, measurement of blood flow within an aneurysm or cerebral vessel before and after device placement on a microscopic level has not been possible so far. This would allow better individualized treatment planning and improve manufacture design of devices. For experimental analysis, direct measurement of real-time microscopic cerebrovascular flow in micro-structures may be an alternative to computed flow simulations. An application of microscopic aneurysm flow measurement on a regular basis to empirically assess a high number of different anatomic shapes and the corresponding effect of different devices would require a fast and reliable method at low cost with high throughout assessment. Transparent three dimensional 3D models of brain vessels and aneurysms may be used for microscopic flow measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV), however, up to now the size of structures has set the limits for conventional 3D-imaging camera set-ups. On line flow assessment requires additional computational power to cope with the processing large amounts of data generated by sequences of multi-view stereo images, e.g. generated by a light field camera capturing the 3D information by plenoptic imaging of complex flow processes. Recently, a fast and low cost workflow for producing patient specific three dimensional models of cerebral arteries has been established by stereo-lithographic (SLA) 3D printing. These 3D arterial models are transparent an exhibit a replication precision within a submillimeter range required for accurate flow measurements under physiological conditions. We therefore test the feasibility of microscopic flow measurements by PIV analysis using a plenoptic camera system capturing light field image sequences. Averaging across a sequence of
Bio-inspired robotic legs drive viscous recirculating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takagi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Rintaro
2015-11-01
Crustaceans actuate multiple legs in a well-coordinated sequence to generate suitable flow for feeding and swimming. Inspired by tiny crustacean larvae operating at low Reynolds number, we study a scaled-up model in which slender rods oscillate independently in a bath of glycerol. Experiments reveal qualitatively different flow patterns depending on the phase and orientation of actuated rods. The observations are analyzed in the framework of slender-body theory for Stokes flow. This study shows that simple oscillatory motion of multiple legs can produce complex recirculating flows, with potential applications for mixing and pumping.
Profile Optimization Method for Robust Airfoil Shape Optimization in Viscous Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wu
2003-01-01
Simulation results obtained by using FUN2D for robust airfoil shape optimization in transonic viscous flow are included to show the potential of the profile optimization method for generating fairly smooth optimal airfoils with no off-design performance degradation.
Convective flows of viscous fluid in spherical layers. Certain astrophysical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yavorskaya, I. M.
1980-01-01
The convective stability of a viscous liquid in spherical layers is investigated taking into consideration rotation, the latitudinal temperature gradient, and shear flow. The results of calculating nonlinear convective motion in spherical layers are examined. A discussion is given of the applicability of the results obtained to studying convection in astrophysical objects.
The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
The Chimera overset grid method is reviewed and discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is discussed. A variety of recent applications of the method is presented. Current limitations of the approach are defined.
Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…
Linear stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas. 2. viscous problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.
2016-03-01
Based on the linear theory, stability of viscous disturbances in a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas described by a system of linearized equations of two-temperature gas dynamics including shear and bulk viscosity is studied. It is demonstrated that two sets are identified in the spectrum of the problem of stability of plane waves, similar to the case of a perfect gas. One set consists of viscous acoustic modes, which asymptotically converge to even and odd inviscid acoustic modes at high Reynolds numbers. The eigenvalues from the other set have no asymptotic relationship with the inviscid problem and are characterized by large damping decrements. Two most unstable viscous acoustic modes (I and II) are identified; the limits of these modes were considered previously in the inviscid approximation. It is shown that there are domains in the space of parameters for both modes, where the presence of viscosity induces appreciable destabilization of the flow. Moreover, the growth rates of disturbances are appreciably greater than the corresponding values for the inviscid flow, while thermal excitation in the entire considered range of parameters increases the stability of the viscous flow. For a vibrationally excited gas, the critical Reynolds number as a function of the thermal nonequilibrium degree is found to be greater by 12% than for a perfect gas.
GRUMFOIL: A computer code for the viscous transonic flow over airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mead, H. R.; Melnik, R. E.
1985-01-01
A user's manual which describes the operation of the computer program, GRUMFOIL is presented. The program computes the viscous transonic flow over two dimensional airfoils using a boundary layer type viscid-inviscid interaction approach. The inviscid solution is obtained by a multigrid method for the full potential equation. The boundary layer solution is based on integral entrainment methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelidis, Dionysios; Chawdhary, Saurabh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-11-01
A novel numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined fully unstructured Cartesian grids in domains with arbitrarily complex immersed boundaries. Owing to the utilization of the fractional step method on an unstructured Cartesian hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, flux mismatch and pressure discontinuity issues are avoided and the divergence free constraint is inherently satisfied to machine zero. Auxiliary/hanging nodes are used to facilitate the discretization of the governing equations. The second-order accuracy of the solver is ensured by using multi-dimension Lagrange interpolation operators and appropriate differencing schemes at the interface of regions with different levels of refinement. The sharp interface immersed boundary method is augmented with local near-boundary refinement to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries. The discrete momentum equation is solved with the matrix free Newton-Krylov method and the Krylov-subspace method is employed to solve the Poisson equation. The second-order accuracy of the proposed method on unstructured Cartesian grids is demonstrated by solving the Poisson equation with a known analytical solution. A number of three-dimensional laminar flow simulations of increasing complexity illustrate the ability of the method to handle flows across a range of Reynolds numbers and flow regimes. Laminar steady and unsteady flows past a sphere and the oblique vortex shedding from a circular cylinder mounted between two end walls demonstrate the accuracy, the efficiency and the smooth transition of scales and coherent structures across refinement levels. Large-eddy simulation (LES) past a miniature wind turbine rotor, parameterized using the actuator line approach, indicates the ability of the fully unstructured solver to simulate complex turbulent flows. Finally, a geometry resolving LES of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine illustrates
CFD Simulation of 3D Flow field in a Gas Centrifuge
Dongjun Jiang; Shi Zeng
2006-07-01
A CFD method was used to study the whole flow field in a gas centrifuge. In this paper, the VSM (Vector Splitting Method) of the FVM (Finite Volume Method) was used to solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit second-order upwind scheme was adopted. The numerical simulation was successfully performed on a parallel cluster computer and a convergence result was obtained. The simulation shows that: in the withdrawal chamber, a strong detached shock wave is formed in front of the scoop; as the radial position increases, the shock becomes stronger and the distance to scoop front surface is smaller. An oblique shock forms in the clearance between the scoop and the centrifuge wall; behind the shock-wave, the radially-inward motion of gas is induced because of the imbalance of the pressure gradient and the centrifugal force. In the separation chamber, a countercurrent is introduced. This indicates that CFD method can be used to study the complex three-dimensional flow field of gas centrifuges. (authors)
Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, William B, III
2015-01-01
Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.
USM3D Simulations of Saturn V Plume Induced Flow Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deere, Karen; Elmlilgui, Alaa; Abdol-Hamid, K. S.
2011-01-01
The NASA Constellation Program included the Ares V heavy lift cargo vehicle. During the design stage, engineers questioned if the Plume Induced Flow Separation (PIFS) that occurred along Saturn V rocket during moon missions at some flight conditions, would also plague the newly proposed rocket. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was offered as a tool for initiating the investigation of PIFS along the Ares V rocket. However, CFD best practice guidelines were not available for such an investigation. In an effort to establish a CFD process and define guidelines for Ares V powered simulations, the Saturn V vehicle was used because PIFS flight data existed. The ideal gas, computational flow solver USM3D was evaluated for its viability in computing PIFS along the Saturn V vehicle with F-1 engines firing. Solutions were computed at supersonic freestream conditions, zero degree angle of attack, zero degree sideslip, and at flight Reynolds numbers. The effects of solution sensitivity to grid refinement, turbulence models, and the engine boundary conditions on the predicted PIFS distance along the Saturn V were discussed and compared to flight data from the Apollo 11 mission AS-506.
3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time
Ko, Eunjeong; Ahn, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Yi
2016-01-01
Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1) a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2) the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further. PMID:26821025
A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme
2016-06-01
In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.
Simulation of bacteria transport processes in a river with Flow3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Bui, Minh Duc; Rutschmann, Peter
2014-05-01
Water quality aspects are getting more and more important due to the European water Framework directive (WFD). One problem related to this topic is the inflow of untreated wastewater due to combined sewer overflows into a river. The wastewater mixture contains even bacteria like E. coli and Enterococci which are markers for water quality. In our work we investigated the transport of these bacteria in river Isar by using a large-scale flume in the outside area of our lab (Oskar von Miller Institute). Therefor we could collect basic data and knowledge about the processes which occur during bacteria sedimentation and remobilisation. In our flume we could use the real grain with the exact size distribution curve as in the river Isar which we want to simulate and we had the chance to nurture a biofilm which is realistic for the analysed situation. This biofilm plays an important role in the remobilisation processes, because the bacteria are hindered to be washed out back into the bulk phase as fast and in such an amount as this would happen without biofilm. The results of our experiments are now used for a module in the 3D software Flow3D to simulate the effects of a point source inlet of raw wastewater on the water quality. Therefor we have to implement the bacteria not as a problem of concentration with advection and diffusion but as single particles which can be inactivated during the process of settling and need to be hindered from remobilisation by the biofilm. This biofilm has special characteristic, it is slippery and has a special thickness which influences the chance of bacteria being removed. To achieve realistic results we have to include the biofilm with more than a probabilistic-tool to make sure that our module is transferable. The module should be as flexible as possible to be improved step by step with increasing quality of dataset.
Dual Variational Principles for 3-D Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, G. L.
Just recently the exact variational principles (VP) of the full 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow have been successfully established for the first time by the present author by means of a systematic reversed deduction method via the undetermined function. As a continuation and further development of that - a pair of new dual (reciprocal)VP is generated herein by means of the Friedrichs involutory transformation. These VP have the advantage over the previous ones that they possess apparent physical meaning of energy, providing a new rigorous theoretical basis for the finite element analysis of 3-D viscous flow.
Topological analysis of computed three-dimensional viscous flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deiwert, G. S.
1982-01-01
Computed solutions of the time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for three dimensional flows having thin shear layers are analyzed using topological concepts. Specific examples include the transonic flow over a body of revolution with conical afterbody at moderate angles of incidence to the free stream. Experimental flow-visualization techniques are simulated graphically to visualize the computed flow. Scalar and vector fluid dynamics properties such as pressure, shear stress, and vorticity on the body surface are presented as topological maps, and their relationship to one another in terms of orientation and singular points is discussed. The extrapolation from these surface topologies toward the understanding of external flow-field behavior is and demonstrated.
Computation of viscous flow in curved ducts and comparison with experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.
1983-01-01
A three dimensional analysis for fully viscous subsonic internal flow is evaluated. The analysis, designated PEPSIG, solves an approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations by an implicit spatial marching procedure. Results of calculations are presented for laminar flow through two different circular cross-sectioned 180 degree bends, and for laminar and turbulent flow through circular and square cross-sectioned 22.5 to 22.5 degree S-ducts. Quantitative comparisons with experimental data are shown for all cases. Special emphasis is placed on verifying the ability of the analysis to accurately predict the distorted flow fields resulting from pressure-driven secondary flows.
Flow of an elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of slowly varying curvature.
Sarin, V B
1993-03-01
Curvature forms an important feature of thoracic aorta and this paper deals with the flow of an idealized elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of circular cross-section and slowly varying curvature, under a pressure gradient. The flow is assumed to be steady and at low Reynolds numbers. By using the series expansion method of Dean (Phil Mag 4 (1927) 208-223; Phil Mag 5 (1928) 673-693) in powers of a parameter L, which can be considered as the square of ratio of the centrifugal force induced by the circular motion of the fluid to the viscous force, it is shown that in a tube of increasing curvature, there will be delay in setting up of the secondary motion. The wall shear stress, an important parameter in physiological flows, is calculated. The flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube of circular cross section is discussed, as a particular case. PMID:8449591
Deformation of a flexible fiber in a viscous flow past an obstacle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, H. M.; Hulin, J.-P.; Auradou, H.; D'Angelo, M. V.
2015-01-01
We study the deformation and transport of elastic fibers in a viscous Hele-Shaw flow with curved streamlines. The variations of the global velocity and orientation of the fiber follow closely those of the local flow velocity. The ratios of the curvatures of the fibers by the corresponding curvatures of the streamlines reflect a balance between elastic and viscous forces: this ratio is shown experimentally to be determined by a dimensionless Sperm number Sp combining the characteristic parameters of the flow (transverse velocity gradient, viscosity, fiber diameter/cell gap ratio) and those of the fiber (diameter, effective length, Young's modulus). For short fibers, the effective length is that of the fiber; for long ones, it is equal to the transverse characteristic length of the flow. For Sp ≲ 250, the ratio of the curvatures increases linearly with Sp; for Sp ≳ 250, the fiber reaches the same curvature as the streamlines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.; Trulio, J. G.
1971-01-01
A numerical method is presented for the calculation of steady, three-dimensional, viscous, compressible flow fields about slender bodies at angle of attack and at supersonic speeds. Approximations are introduced in modeling the flow in the longitudinal direction. Accordingly, the flow fields calculated with the program were computed with a model that permits viscous crossflow together with inviscid axial flow. An analysis of the errors introduced by such a treatment is presented. Numerical calculations were made and compared with experimental results for an ogive-cylinder and an airplane fuselage configuration. Generally, good agreement with experiment was obtained. However, boundary layer separation and body vortex positions differed from experimental locations on the ogive-cylinder, and the shock induced by the fuselage canopy was predicted at a slightly different location.
Mignot, E; Bonakdari, H; Knothe, P; Lipeme Kouyi, G; Bessette, A; Rivière, N; Bertrand-Krajewski, J-L
2012-01-01
Open-channel junctions are common occurrences in sewer networks and flow rate measurement often occurs near these singularities. Local flow structures are 3D, impact on the representativeness of the local flow measurements and thus lead to deviations in the flow rate estimation. The present study aims (i) to measure and simulate the flow pattern in a junction flow, (ii) to analyse the impact of the junction on the velocity distribution according to the distance from the junction and thus (iii) to evaluate the typical error derived from the computation of the flow rate close to the junction. PMID:22828313
Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.
2010-12-01
Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.
Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography
Charles R. Tolle; Timothy A. White; Karen S. Miller; Denis E. Clark; Herschel B. Smartt
2008-06-01
There exists significant prior work using tracers or pre-placed hardened markers within friction stir welding (FSWing) to experimentally explore material flow within the FSW process. Our experiments replaced markers with a thin sheet of copper foil placed between the 6061 aluminum lap and butt joints that were then welded. The absorption characteristics of x-rays for copper and aluminum are significantly different allowing for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) to be used to demonstrate the material movement within the weldment on a much larger scale than previously shown. 3D CT reconstruction of the copper components of the weldment allows for a unique view into the final turbulent state of the welding process as process parameters are varied. The x-ray CT data of a section of the weld region was collected using a cone-beam x-ray imaging system developed at the INL. Six-hundred projections were collected over 360-degrees using a 160-kVp Bremsstrahlung x-ray generator (25-micrometer focal spot) and amorphoussilicon x-ray detector. The region of the object that was imaged was about 3cm tall and 1.5cm x 1cm in cross section, and was imaged at a magnification of about 3.6x. The data were reconstructed on a 0.5x0.5x0.5 mm3 voxel grid. After reconstruction, the aluminum and copper could be easily discriminated using a gray level threshold allowing visualization of the copper components. Fractal analysis of the tomographic reconstructed material topology is investigated as a means to quantify macro level material flow based on process parameters. The results of multi-pass FSWs show increased refinement of the copper trace material. Implications of these techniques for quantifying process flow are discussed.
Inkjet Printing of Viscous Monodisperse Microdroplets by Laser-Induced Flow Focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delrot, Paul; Modestino, Miguel A.; Gallaire, François; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe
2016-08-01
The on-demand generation of viscous microdroplets to print functional or biological materials remains challenging using conventional inkjet-printing methods, mainly due to aggregation and clogging issues. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we implement a jetting method to print viscous microdroplets by laser-induced shockwaves. We experimentally investigate the dependence of the jetting regimes and the droplet size on the laser-pulse energy and on the inks' physical properties. The range of printable liquids with our device is significantly extended compared to conventional inkjet printers's performances. In addition, the laser-induced flow-focusing phenomenon allows us to controllably generate viscous microdroplets up to 210 mPa s with a diameter smaller than the nozzle from which they originated (200 μ m ). Inks containing proteins are printed without altering their functional properties, thus demonstrating that this jetting technique is potentially suitable for bioprinting.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oser, Matthew D.
1995-01-01
As both computers and flow-analyzing equations have increased in sophistication, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has evolved into a fixture for advanced aircraft design. While CFD codes have improved in accuracy and efficiency, their ability to encompass viscous effects is lacking in certain areas. For example, current CFD codes cannot accurately predict or correct for the increased drag due to these viscous effects at some flow conditions. However, by analyzing an airfoil's turbulent boundary layer, one can predict not only flow separation via the shape factor parameter, but also viscous drag via the momentum thickness. Various codes have been written which can calculate turbulent boundary layer parameters. The goal of my research is to develop procedures for modifying an airfoil (via its local pressure distribution) to eliminate boundary layer separation and/or to reduce viscous drag. The modifications to the local pressure distribution necessary to achieve these objectives will be determined using a direct-iterative method installed into a turbulent boundary layer analyzer. Furthermore, the modifications should preserve the basic characteristics of the original airfoil.
On a modification of GLS stabilized FEM for solving incompressible viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burda, P.; Novotný, J.; Ístek, J.
2006-07-01
We deal with 2D flows of incompressible viscous fluids with high Reynolds numbers. Galerkin Least Squares technique of stabilization of the finite element method is studied and its modification is described. We present a number of numerical results obtained by the developed method, showing its contribution to solving flows with high Reynolds numbers. Several recommendations and remarks are included. We are interested in positive as well as negative aspects of stabilization, which cannot be divorced.
Ferer, M; Ji, Chuang; Bromhal, Grant S; Cook, Joshua; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H
2004-01-01
Invasion percolation with trapping (IPT) and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) are simple fractal models, which are known to describe two-phase flow in porous media at well defined, but unphysical limits of the fluid properties and flow conditions. A decade ago, Fernandez, Rangel, and Rivero predicted a crossover from IPT (capillary fingering) to DLA (viscous fingering) for the injection of a zero-viscosity fluid as the injection velocity was increased from zero. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2958 (1991)
Numerical study of the effects of icing on viscous flow over wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankar, L. N.
1994-01-01
An improved hybrid method for computing unsteady compressible viscous flows is presented. This method divides the computational domain into two zones. In the outer zone, the unsteady full-potential equation (FPE) is solved. In the inner zone, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a diagonal form of an alternating-direction implicit (ADI) approximate factorization procedure. The two zones are tightly coupled so that steady and unsteady flows may be efficiently solved. Characteristic-based viscous/inviscid interface boundary conditions are employed to avoid spurious reflections at that interface. The resulting CPU times are less than 60 percent of that required for a full-blown Navier-Stokes analysis for steady flow applications and about 60 percent of the Navier-Stokes CPU times for unsteady flows in non-vector processing machines. Applications of the method are presented for a rectangular NACA 0012 wing in low subsonic steady flow at moderate and high angles of attack, and for an F-5 wing in steady and unsteady subsonic and transonic flows. Steady surface pressures are in very good agreement with experimental data and are essentially identical to Navier-Stokes predictions. Density contours show that shocks cross the viscous/inviscid interface smoothly, so that the accuracy of full Navier-Stokes equations can be retained with a significant savings in computational time.
An implicit numerical scheme for the simulation of internal viscous flows on unstructured grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Pletcher, Richard H.
1994-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically for two-dimensional steady viscous laminar flows. The grids are generated based on the method of Delaunay triangulation. A finite-volume approach is used to discretize the conservation law form of the compressible flow equations written in terms of primitive variables. A preconditioning matrix is added to the equations so that low Mach number flows can be solved economically. The equations are time marched using either an implicit Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure or a solver based on a conjugate gradient like method. A four color scheme is employed to vectorize the block Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure. This increases the memory requirements minimally and decreases the computer time spent solving the resulting system of equations substantially. A factor of 7.6 speed up in the matrix solver is typical for the viscous equations. Numerical results are obtained for inviscid flow over a bump in a channel at subsonic and transonic conditions for validation with structured solvers. Viscous results are computed for developing flow in a channel, a symmetric sudden expansion, periodic tandem cylinders in a cross-flow, and a four-port valve. Comparisons are made with available results obtained by other investigators.
A critical assessment of viscous models of trench topography and corner flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, J.; Hager, B. H.; Raefsky, A.
1984-01-01
Stresses for Newtonian viscous flow in a simple geometry (e.g., corner flow, bending flow) are obtained in order to study the effect of imposed velocity boundary conditions. Stress for a delta function velocity boundary condition decays as 1/R(2); for a step function velocity, stress goes as 1/R; for a discontinuity in curvature, the stress singularity is logarithmic. For corner flow, which has a discontinuity of velocity at a certain point, the corresponding stress has a 1/R singularity. However, for a more realistic circular-slab model, the stress singularity becomes logarithmic. Thus the stress distribution is very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in evaluating the applicability of viscous models of trench topography it is essential to use realistic geometries. Topography and seismicity data from northern Hoshu, Japan, were used to construct a finite element model, with flow assumed tangent to the top of the grid, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow (power law 3 rheology). Normal stresses at the top of the grid are compared to the observed trench topography and gravity anomalies. There is poor agreement. Purely viscous models of subducting slables with specified velocity boundary conditions do not predict normal stress patterns compatible with observed topography and gravity. Elasticity and plasticity appear to be important for the subduction process.
A multi-domain method for subsonic viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Daniel C.; Sindir, Munir M.
1992-01-01
We have developed a Schwarz type domain decomposition method for a pressure base, two- and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. This technique allows one to partition a flow path, which can be characterized by complex geometry and/or complicated flow physics, into smaller sub-domains according to the local geometric simplicity or estimated flow scales. We can, then, sweep the sub-domains in some order and solve the Navier-Stokes equations using as boundary conditions, along the domain interfaces, the Dirichlet conditions which are taken from the most recent update of the solution in the adjacent neighboring domains. With this technique, one can minimize the adverse effects caused by grid skewness and the stiffness problem caused by disparate flow scales. Here, we report the results of a few fundamental flow cases to demonstrate that a judicious use of the multi-domain method can offer a significant convergence acceleration over the traditional one-domain method. This method can be extended to exploit the architecture of a parallel computer to further improve the speed.
Viscous flow and crystallization behavior of selected lunar compositions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cukierman, M.; Klein, L.; Scherer, G.; Hopper, R. W.; Uhlmann, D. R.
1973-01-01
The flow characteristics of lunar compositions 15555 and 68502 have been determined over a wide range of viscosity. The temperature ranges covered by the measurements are 1201-1410 and 622-695 C for the 15555 composition and 1261-1515 and 725-840 C for 68502 composition. Reliable data could not be obtained over the intermediate ranges of temperature because of the occurrence of crystallization. The experimental data in the high temperature regions are found to be in close agreement with predictions of the semiempirical model of Bottinga and Weill. The results on these compositions are compared with previous data on other lunar compositions and on anorthite; and the importance of the flow behavior in interpreting lunar flows and phase morphologies is emphasized. Data are also reported on the kinetics of crystallization of the 15555 composition over the temperature interval from 700 to 1020 C.
Viscous Flutter of a Finite Elastic Membrane in Poiseuille Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, L.
2001-10-01
Flow-induced vibration in a collapsible tube is relevant to many biomedical applications including the human respiratory system. This paper presents a linear analysis of the coupling between Poiseuille flow and a tensioned membrane of finite length using an eigenvalue approach. The undisturbed state of the channel flow is perfectly parallel. To some extent, this configuration bridges the gap between two types of theoretical models: one for the travelling-wave flutter in an infinite, flexible channel, and the other for the self-induced oscillation of a collapsing section of a Starling-resistor tube. In our study, we focus on the parameter range where the wall-to-fluid mass ratio is high (100), and the Reynolds number based on the maximum flow velocity in the channel is moderately high (200). Eigenmodes representing both static divergence and flutter are found. Particular attention is paid to the energetics of flutter modes. It is shown that energy transfer from the flow to the membrane occurs as a result of unstable, downstream-travelling waves, while the upstream-travelling waves are stable and release most of the transferred energy back to the flow. Coupling between different in vacuo modes offers another view of the origin of energy transfer. In addition, an energy conservation analysis similar to the one used in aeroacoustics is carried out. It is shown that terms directly proportional to fluid viscosity contribute most to the production of fluctuation energy, leading to a special type of dynamic instability which resembles both Tollmien-Schlichting instability in the sense that the fluid viscosity destabilises, and traditional travelling wave flutter since the structural damping plays the role of stabilising. Effects of the membrane mass, length and structural damping are also studied. The characteristics of the membrane flutter are found to depend crucially on the upstream and downstream boundary conditions.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turan, A.; Vandoormaal, J. P.
1988-01-01
The performance of discrete methods for the prediction of fluid flows can be enhanced by improving the convergence rate of solvers and by increasing the accuracy of the discrete representation of the equations of motion. This report evaluates the gains in solver performance that are available when various acceleration methods are applied. Various discretizations are also examined and two are recommended because of their accuracy and robustness. Insertion of the improved discretization and solver accelerator into a TEACH mode, that has been widely applied to combustor flows, illustrates the substantial gains to be achieved.
Viscous flow over spinning cones at angle of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, T. C.; Rubin, S. G.
1973-01-01
A numerical finite-difference method is developed for evaluating the Magnus coefficients on spinning cones in laminar flow. The merged layer, the strong interaction region, and the downstream boundary layer are all considered. The numerical method is a predictor-corrector scheme developed for three-dimensional flows with or without crossflow diffusion. This method is particularly useful in problems in which a symmetry plane does not exist. Several contributions to the Magnus force and moments are considered. These include asymmetries in displacement thickness, centrifugal force and crossflow shear, and the effects of crossflow separation and vortex formation. Comparisons are made with experimental data and other analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leigh, S. J.; Purssell, C. P.; Billson, D. R.; Hutchins, D. A.
2014-09-01
Flow sensing is an essential technique required for a wide range of application environments ranging from liquid dispensing to utility monitoring. A number of different methodologies and deployment strategies have been devised to cover the diverse range of potential application areas. The ability to easily create new bespoke sensors for new applications is therefore of natural interest. Fused deposition modelling is a 3D printing technology based upon the fabrication of 3D structures in a layer-by-layer fashion using extruded strands of molten thermoplastic. The technology was developed in the late 1980s but has only recently come to more wide-scale attention outside of specialist applications and rapid prototyping due to the advent of low-cost 3D printing platforms such as the RepRap. Due to the relatively low-cost of the printers and feedstock materials, these printers are ideal candidates for wide-scale installation as localized manufacturing platforms to quickly produce replacement parts when components fail. One of the current limitations with the technology is the availability of functional printing materials to facilitate production of complex functional 3D objects and devices beyond mere concept prototypes. This paper presents the formulation of a simple magnetite nanoparticle-loaded thermoplastic composite and its incorporation into a 3D printed flow-sensor in order to mimic the function of a commercially available flow-sensing device. Using the multi-material printing capability of the 3D printer allows a much smaller amount of functional material to be used in comparison to the commercial flow sensor by only placing the material where it is specifically required. Analysis of the printed sensor also revealed a much more linear response to increasing flow rate of water showing that 3D printed devices have the potential to at least perform as well as a conventionally produced sensor.
Thermocapillary bubble flow and coalescence in a rotating cylinder: A 3D study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, A.; Al-mazidi, M.
2015-12-01
The process of thermocapillary bubbles rising in a rotating 3D cylinder in zero gravity was analysed and presented numerically with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by means of the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Calculations were carried out to investigate in detail the effect of the rotational speed of the hosted liquid on the trajectory of both single and group bubbles driven by the Marangoni force in zero-gravity conditions. For rotational speeds from 0.25 to 2 rad/s, bubble displacement with angular motion was found to be directed between the hotter surface and the rotational axis. This is contrary to the conventional bubble flow from areas of high pressure to low pressure, radial direction, or from cold to hot regions, axial direction. The results demonstrate that for the ratio of rotational speeds to the thermocapillary bubble velocity larger than unity, the surface tension gradient is the dominant force and the bubble motion towards the hotter. On the other hand, for ratio less than 1, the bubble motion is dominated and is significantly affected by centrifugal force. As rotation speed increases, the amount of deflection increases and the Marangoni effect vanishes. The current study is novel in the sense that single- and multi-bubble motion incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment has never been numerically investigated.
A 3-D Vortex Code for Parachute Flow Predictions: VIPAR Version 1.0
STRICKLAND, JAMES H.; HOMICZ, GREGORY F.; PORTER, VICKI L.; GOSSLER, ALBERT A.
2002-07-01
This report describes a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the VIPAR code (Vortex Inflation PARachute code) is described herein. This version contains several first order algorithms that we are in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator that can be used to produce a large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an ExodusII database file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two ExodusII files that can be post processed and viewed using software such as EnSight{trademark}.
Effects of flow control over a 3D turret -- Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, Ryan; Andino, Marlyn; Schmit, Ryan; Camphouse, Chris; Myatt, James; Glauser, Mark
2007-11-01
Building upon the 3D turret work done at Syracuse University an extended study was conducted in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Subsonic Aerodynamic Research Laboratory (SARL) wind tunnel at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The SARL experiments were performed at higher Reynolds and Mach numbers and therefore present a more complex, more challenging flow. Synthetic jets mounted upstream of the aperture were used to generate multiple actuation cases in order to provide a rich ensemble for plant model development based on the split POD method of Camphouse (2007). PIV velocity data was acquired along with simultaneous surface pressure data at various planes across the turret with and without open-loop control. In addition, a simple proportional closed-loop control was performed using the bandpass filtered first POD mode coefficient of the surface pressure as the feedback signal. The amplitude of the feedback signal was calibrated using the open-loop results which were the most effective in reducing the separation zone of the turret.
A Quasi-3-D Theory for Impedance Eduction in Uniform Grazing Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.
2005-01-01
A 2-D impedance eduction methodology is extended to quasi-3-D sound fields in uniform or shearing mean flow. We introduce a nonlocal, nonreflecting boundary condition to terminate the duct and then educe the impedance by minimizing an objective function. The introduction of a parallel, sparse, equation solver significantly reduces the wall clock time for educing the impedance when compared to that of the sequential band solver used in the 2-D methodology. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the methodology is demonstrated using two examples. In the first example, we show that the method reproduces the known impedance of a ceramic tubular test liner. In the second example, we illustrate that the approach educes the impedance of a four-segment liner where the first, second, and fourth segments consist of a perforated face sheet bonded to honeycomb, and the third segment is a cut from the ceramic tubular test liner. The ability of the method to educe the impedances of multisegmented liners has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of time and cost required to determine the impedance of several uniform liners by allowing them to be placed in series in the test section and to educe the impedance of each segment using a single numerical experiment. Finally, we probe the objective function in great detail and show that it contains a single minimum. Thus, our objective function is ideal for use with local, inexpensive, gradient-based optimizers.
Numerical studies of incompressible viscous flow in a driven cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
A series of project papers is presented in computational fluid dynamics. The work was performed during the 1973-74 academic year at Old Dominion University. Each paper briefly examines a numerical method(s) that can be applied to the Navier-Stokes equations governing incompressible flow in a driven cavity. Solutions obtained with a cubic spline procedure are also included.
Flow Induced Coalescence of Drops in a Viscous Liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal, L. Gary
2002-11-01
The problem of flow-induced coalescence has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. In recent years, this work has been motivated by the role that this process plays in the formation of polymer blends, which is currently the major route to new polymeric materials with desired macroscopic properties. In order to control this process, we need to understand the conditions for coalescence and their dependence on fluid and flow properties, including the effects of surfactants (known as "compatibilizers" in the polymer blend literature). With a few exceptions, experimental studies have been based upon measurements of the mean drop size (or size distribution) in an emulsion or blend following flow in either blending devices or simple rheometry flows. The four-roll mill, on the other hand, provides an opportunity to study the coalescence process at the scale of individual drops. When such experiments are carried out, we find some surprises vis a vis expectations from simple models of the drop collision/film drainage and rupture process that leads to coalescence. In this talk, we review recent experimental work in this field, and discuss the relationship to present theory
Reconstruction of unsteady viscous flows using data assimilation schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mons, V.; Chassaing, J.-C.; Gomez, T.; Sagaut, P.
2016-07-01
This paper investigates the use of various data assimilation (DA) approaches for the reconstruction of the unsteady flow past a cylinder in the presence of incident coherent gusts. Variational, ensemble Kalman filter-based and ensemble-based variational DA techniques are deployed along with a 2D compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, which is also used to generate synthetic observations of a reference flow. The performance of these DA schemes is thoroughly analyzed for various types of observations ranging from the global aerodynamic coefficients of the cylinder to the full 2D flow field. Moreover, different reconstruction scenarios are investigated in order to assess the robustness of these methods for large scale DA problems with up to 105 control variables. In particular, we show how an iterative procedure can be used within the framework of ensemble-based methods to deal with both non-uniform unsteady boundary conditions and initial field reconstruction. The different methodologies developed and assessed in this work give a review of what can be done with DA schemes in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) paradigm. In the same time, this work also provides useful information which can also turn out to be rational arguments in the DA scheme choice dedicated to a specific CFD application.
A survey of the role of thermodynamic stability in viscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horne, W. C.; Smith, C. A.; Karamcheti, K.
1991-01-01
The stability of near-equilibrium states has been studied as a branch of the general field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. By treating steady viscous flow as an open thermodynamic system, nonequilibrium principles such as the condition of minimum entropy-production rate for steady, near-equilibrium processes can be used to generate flow distributions from variational analyses. Examples considered in this paper are steady heat conduction, channel flow, and unconstrained three-dimensional flow. The entropy-production-rate condition has also been used for hydrodynamic stability criteria, and calculations of the stability of a laminar wall jet support this interpretation.
Stability of boundary layers within high-speed viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyttle, Ian John
2003-10-01
A numerical study was undertaken to predict the stability of a variety of high-speed boundary-layer flows. Using a finite-volume code, the Navier-Stokes equations were solved for a series of flows around spherically blunted cones. These solutions were used to perform linear-stability analyses for second-mode disturbances. Two investigations were undertaken using an ideal-gas model: the Stetson experiment and a recent experiment conducted at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Russia. Comparisons were made with both basic-state and disturbance state quantities. For both cases, linear-growth regions have been identified. For the Stetson case, using an experimentally determined wall-temperature distribution for the basic-state appeared to give better agreement with the experimentally measured growth than does the classical adiabatic-wall boundary condition. For the Russian experiment, initial comparisons were made in order to continue a careful collaboration. A third investigation was made which used a chemical non-equilibrium model, considering a Mach 13.5 flow in upper-atmospheric conditions. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the sensitivity of second-mode growth predictions to changes (within accepted uncertainties) in thermodynamic, reaction-rate; and transport models. The magnitude of change in the stability results correlated strongly with changes in the basic-state thermal boundary-layer profile, consistent with second-mode theory. The largest change in the stability behavior was observed for the case where the transport model was changed. For high-speed flows, the development of computational techniques is in some ways ahead of the experimental community's ability to verify the results. As these techniques are applied to flows in thermochemical non-equilibrium, the fidelity of the constitutive relationships should be considered.
A blowup criterion for viscous, compressible, and heat-conductive magnetohydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Lili; Wang, Yongfu
2015-09-01
In this paper, we proved a blowup criterion for the two-dimensional (2D) viscous, compressible, and heat-conducting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows for Cauchy problem, which depends only on the divergence of the velocity vector field, as well as for the case of bounded domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This result indicates that the nature of the blowup for compressible models of viscous media in 2D space is similar to the barotropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations and does not depend on further sophistication of the MHD model. More precisely, taking into account the magnetic effects and heat conductivity does not introduce any new features in the blowup mechanism of full MHD flows, especially, which is independent of the temperature and the magnetic field. The results also imply the global regularity of the strong solution to compressible MHD flows, provided that velocity divergence remains bounded.
Calculation of the virtual current in an electromagnetic flow meter with one bubble using 3D model.
Zhang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Yantao
2004-04-01
Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction flow measurement, the Laplace equation in a complicated three-dimensional (3D) domain is solved by an alternating method. Virtual current potentials are obtained for an electromagnetic flow meter with one spherical bubble inside. The solutions are used to investigate the effects of bubble size and bubble position on the virtual current. Comparisons are done among the cases of 2D and 3D models, and of point electrode and large electrode. The results show that the 2D model overestimates the effect, while large electrodes are least sensitive to the bubble. This paper offers fundamentals for the study of the behavior of an electromagnetic flow meter in multiphase flow. For application, the results provide a possible way to estimate errors of the flow meter caused by multiphase flow.
Viscous pressure correction in the irrotational flow outside Prandtl's boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Daniel; Wang, Jing
2004-11-01
We argue that boundary layers on solid with irrotational motion outside are like a gas bubble because the shear stress vanishes at the edge of the boundary layer but the irrotational shear stress does not. This discrepancy induces a pressure correction and an additional drag which can be advertised as due to the viscous dissipation of the irrotational flow. Typically, this extra correction to the drag would be relatively small. A much more interesting implication of the extra pressure theory arises from the consideration of the effects of viscosity on the normal stress on a solid boundary which are entirely neglected in Prandtl's theory. It is very well known and easily demonstrated that as a consequence of the continuity equation the viscous normal stress must vanish on a rigid solid. It follows that all the greatly important effects of viscosity on the normal stress are buried in the pressure and the leading order effects of viscosity on the normal stress can be obtained from the viscous correction of viscous potential flow.
On a finite-difference method for solving transient viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.
1983-01-01
A method has been developed to solve the unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equation with the property of consistency and the ability of minimizing the equation stiffness. It relies on innovative extensions of the state-of-the-art finite-difference techniques and is composed of: (1) the upwind scheme for split-flux and the central scheme for conventional flux terms in the inviscid and viscous regions, respectively; (2) the characteristic treatment of both inviscid and viscous boundaries; (3) an ADI procedure compatible with interior and boundary points; and (4) a scalar matrix coefficient including viscous terms. The performance of this method is assessed with four sample problems; namely, a standing shock in the Laval duct, a shock reflected from the wall, the shock-induced boundary-layer separation, and a transient internal nozzle flow. The results from the present method, an existing hybrid block method, and a well-known two-step explicit method are compared and discussed. It is concluded that this method has an optimal trade-off between the solution accuracy and computational economy, and other desirable properties for analyzing transient viscous flow problems.
Viscous computation of a space shuttle flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaussee, D. S.; Rizk, Y. M.; Buning, P. G.
1984-01-01
A procedure is presented, as well as some results, to calculate the flow over the winged orbiter. This necessitates the use of two computer codes. A parabolized marching Navier-Stokes code is used to obtain the solution up to the bow shock-wing shock interaction region and for the region after the interaction. An unsteady Navier-Stokes code is to be used in the region of the shock interaction. Only resuls for the marching code are presented. For the flow conditions calculated, M infinity = 7.9, alpha = 25 deg, T(wall) = 540 R, Re(L) = 60728 per inch, laminar or turbulent, the PNS code was marched up to an X/L = 0.7 which is where the bow shock-wing shock interaction region occurs.
Nonaxisymmetric viscous lower branch modes in axisymmetric supersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Hall, Philip
1988-01-01
In a previous paper, the weakly nonlinear interaction of a pair of axisymmetric lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities in cylindrical supersonic flows was considered. Here the possibility that nonaxisymmetric modes might also exist is investigated. In fact, it is found that such modes do exist and, on the basis of linear theory, it appears that these modes are the most important. The nonaxisymmetric modes are found to exist for flows around cylinders with nondimensional radius alpha less than some critical value alpha sub c. This critical value alpha sub c is found to increase monotonically with the azimuthal wavenumber nu of the disturbance and it is found that unstable modes always occur in pairs. It is also shown that, in general, instability in the form of lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves will occur first for nonaxisymmetric modes and that in the unstable regime the largest growth rates correspond to the latter modes.
Pipe Poiseuille flow of viscously anisotropic, partially molten rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allwright, Jane; Katz, Richard F.
2014-12-01
Laboratory experiments in which synthetic, partially molten rock is subjected to forced deformation provide a context for testing hypotheses about the dynamics and rheology of the mantle. Here our hypothesis is that the aggregate viscosity of partially molten mantle is anisotropic, and that this anisotropy arises from deviatoric stresses in the rock matrix. We formulate a model of pipe Poiseuille flow based on theory by Takei & Holtzman and Takei & Katz. Pipe Poiseuille is a configuration that is accessible to laboratory experimentation but for which there are no published results. We analyse the model system through linearized analysis and numerical simulations. This analysis predicts two modes of melt segregation: migration of melt from the centre of the pipe towards the wall and localization of melt into high-porosity bands that emerge near the wall, at a low angle to the shear plane. We compare our results to those of Takei & Katz for plane Poiseuille flow; we also describe a new approximation of radially varying anisotropy that improves the self-consistency of models over those of Takei & Katz. This study provides a set of baseline, quantitative predictions to compare with future laboratory experiments on forced pipe Poiseuille flow of partially molten mantle.
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin. PMID:25110358
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-10-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navie-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin.
Viscous inviscid interaction in transonic Prandtl Meyer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, A. I.; Wu, X.; Pereira, R. M. S.
2006-12-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of perfect gas flow over a convex corner of a rigid-body contour. It is assumed that the flow is subsonic before the corner. It accelerates around the corner to become supersonic, and then undergoes an additional acceleration in the expansion Prandtl Meyer fan that forms in the supersonic part of the flow behind the corner. The entire process is described by a self-similar solution of the Kármán Guderley equation. The latter shows that the boundary layer approaching the apex of the corner is exposed to a singular pressure gradient, d p / d x ˜ (-x)(-3/5) , where x denotes the coordinate measured along the body surface from the corner apex. Under these conditions, the solution for the boundary layer also develops a singularity. In particular, the longitudinal velocity near the body surface behaves as U ˜ Y(1/2) . Here Y is the normal coordinate scaled with the boundary-layer thickness Re(-1/2) ; Re being the Reynolds number, assumed large in this theory.
Optimum viscous flow in pressure-swirl atomizers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Ghobad; Pereira, Aaron; Yun, Sangsig; Li, Xianguo
2013-11-01
Due to their simple configuration and reliable operation, pressure-swirl atomizers are widely used in applications such as combustion, painting, humidification, and sprinkling. The liquid is swirled by entering into the atomizer tangentially and its surface area is increased as discharges in a large spray angle. Understanding the effects of nozzle geometry and inlet flow condition on the discharge coefficient and spray angle is very important in nozzle design. To this end, the flow field inside a pressure-swirl atomizer has been studied theoretically. The main body of the liquid is taken to be moving in circles round the axis. Within the boundary layer, containing transverse and longitudinal velocity components, the retarded liquid is slowed down by viscosity and driven towards the exit orifice by pressure gradient. The swirling motion of liquid creates a low pressure zone near the nozzle axis and leads to the formation of a helical air-core. Through studying the growth of the boundary layer from nozzle entry to the orifice exit, the portions of the outflow exits the orifice from boundary layer current and also from the main body of the swirling liquid are specified. For a given range of pressure drop values, the optimum nozzle geometry and liquid flowrate are predicted. Additionally, the reason of increasing the flow by increasing liquid viscosity or decreasing orifice diameter is explained. A series of experiments and numerical modeling have also been carried out to support the theoretical results.
Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.
2014-12-01
Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the
Numerical solution of compressible viscous flows at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maccormack, R. W.
1981-01-01
A new numerical method which was used to reduce the computation time required in fluid dynamics to solve the Navier-Stokes equations at flight Reynolds numbers is described. The method is the implicit analogue of the explicit finite different method. It uses this as its first stage, while the second stage removes the restrictive stability condition by recasting the difference equations in an implicit form. The resulting matrix equations to be solved are either upper or lower block bidiagonal equations. The new method makes it possible and practical to calculate many important three dimensional, high Reynolds number flow fields on computers.
Viscous flow and crystallization behavior of tektite glasses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, L. C.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.
1980-01-01
The variation of viscosity with temperature was determined in the 200-2000 K range for a Muong Nong tektite material. The viscosity at the liquidus temperature of 1320 C is 20,000 P; treatments between 900 and 1300 C do not result in significant crystallization in the natural sample except when the sample is heated in contact with a synthetic tektite composition. Two synthetic microtektite with lower SiO2 contents than the Muong Nong material were also examined; heat flow calculations were performed for 2.5 to 10 cm spheres of tektite when cooling by radiation.
Reaction and internal energy relaxation rates in viscous thermochemically non-equilibrium gas flows
Kustova, E. V.; Oblapenko, G. P.
2015-01-15
In the present paper, reaction and energy relaxation rates as well as the normal stress are studied for viscous gas flows with vibrational and chemical non-equilibrium. Using the modified Chapman-Enskog method, multi-temperature models based on the Treanor and Boltzmann vibrational distributions are developed for the general case taking into account all kinds of vibrational energy transitions, exchange reactions, dissociation, and recombination. Integral equations specifying the first-order corrections to the normal mean stress and reaction rates are derived, as well as approximate systems of linear equations for their numerical computation. Generalized thermodynamic driving forces associated with all non-equilibrium processes are introduced. It is shown that normal stresses and rates of non-equilibrium processes can be expressed in terms of the same driving forces; the symmetry of kinetic coefficients in these expressions is proven. The developed general model is applied to a particular case of a pure N{sub 2} viscous flow with slow VT relaxation. Normal stress and rates of vibrational relaxation are studied for various ratios of vibrational and translational temperatures. The cross effects between different vibrational transitions in viscous flows are evaluated, along with the influence of anharmonicity and flow compressibility on the first-order corrections to the relaxation rate. Limits of validity for the widely used Landau–Teller model of vibrational relaxation are indicated.
Reaction and internal energy relaxation rates in viscous thermochemically non-equilibrium gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kustova, E. V.; Oblapenko, G. P.
2015-01-01
In the present paper, reaction and energy relaxation rates as well as the normal stress are studied for viscous gas flows with vibrational and chemical non-equilibrium. Using the modified Chapman-Enskog method, multi-temperature models based on the Treanor and Boltzmann vibrational distributions are developed for the general case taking into account all kinds of vibrational energy transitions, exchange reactions, dissociation, and recombination. Integral equations specifying the first-order corrections to the normal mean stress and reaction rates are derived, as well as approximate systems of linear equations for their numerical computation. Generalized thermodynamic driving forces associated with all non-equilibrium processes are introduced. It is shown that normal stresses and rates of non-equilibrium processes can be expressed in terms of the same driving forces; the symmetry of kinetic coefficients in these expressions is proven. The developed general model is applied to a particular case of a pure N2 viscous flow with slow VT relaxation. Normal stress and rates of vibrational relaxation are studied for various ratios of vibrational and translational temperatures. The cross effects between different vibrational transitions in viscous flows are evaluated, along with the influence of anharmonicity and flow compressibility on the first-order corrections to the relaxation rate. Limits of validity for the widely used Landau-Teller model of vibrational relaxation are indicated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, D. L.; Tsai, C. H.; Wu, C. S.
2015-11-01
An alternative vector potential formulation is used to solve the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in 3D incompressible viscous flow problems with and without through-flow boundaries. Difficulties of the vector potential formulation include the implementation of boundary conditions for through-flow boundaries and the numerical treatment of fourth-order partial differential equations. The advantages on the other hand are the automatic satisfaction of the continuity equation; and pressure is decoupled from the velocity. The objective of this paper is to introduce the appropriate gauge and boundary conditions on the vector potential formulation by a localized meshless method. To handle the divergence-free property, a Coulomb gauge condition is enforced on the vector potential to ensure its existence and uniqueness mathematically. We further improve the algorithm to through-flow problems for the boundary conditions of vector potential by introducing the concept of Stokes' theorem. Based on this innovation, there is no need to include an additional variable to tackle the through-flow fields. This process will greatly simplify the imposition of boundary conditions by the vector potential approach. Under certain conditions, the coupled fourth-order partial differential equations can be easily solved by using this meshless local differential quadrature (LDQ) method. Due to the LDQ capability to deal with the high order differential equations, this algorithm is very attractive to solve this fourth-order vector potential formulation for the N-S equations as comparing to the conventional numerical schemes such as finite element or finite difference methods. The proposed vector potential formulation is simpler and has improved accuracy and efficiency compared to other pressure-free or pressure-coupled algorithms. This investigation can be regarded as the first complete study to obtain the N-S solutions by vector potential formulation through a LDQ method. Two classic 3D benchmark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chojnicki, K. N.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.
2015-12-01
Understanding reactive flow in geomaterials is important for optimizing geologic carbon storage practices, such as using pore space efficiently. Flow paths can be complex in large degrees of geologic heterogeneities across scales. In addition, local heterogeneity can evolve as reactive transport processes alter the pore-scale morphology. For example, dissolved carbon dioxide may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in heterogeneous cementation (and/or dissolution) and evolving flow conditions. Both path and flow complexities are important and poorly characterized, making it difficult to determine their evolution with traditional 2-D transport models. Here we characterize the development of 3-D pore-scale flow with an evolving pore configuration due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation and dissolution. A simple pattern of a microfluidic pore network is used initially and pore structures will become more complex due to precipitation and dissolution processes. At several stages of precipitation and dissolution, we directly visualize 3-D velocity vectors using micro particle image velocimetry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Measured 3-D velocity vectors are then compared to 3-D simulated flow fields which will be used to simulate reactive transport. Our findings will highlight the importance of the 3-D flow dynamics and its impact on estimating reactive surface area over time. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.
Accurate solutions for transonic viscous flow over finite wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, V. N.
1986-01-01
An explicit multistage Runge-Kutta type time-stepping scheme is used for solving the three-dimensional, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. A finite-volume formulation is employed to facilitate treatment of complex grid topologies encountered in three-dimensional calculations. Convergence to steady state is expedited through usage of acceleration techniques. Further numerical efficiency is achieved through vectorization of the computer code. The accuracy of the overall scheme is evaluated by comparing the computed solutions with the experimental data for a finite wing under different test conditions in the transonic regime. A grid refinement study ir conducted to estimate the grid requirements for adequate resolution of salient features of such flows.
Gpu Implementation of a Viscous Flow Solver on Unstructured Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Tianhao; Chen, Long
2016-06-01
Graphics processing units have gained popularities in scientific computing over past several years due to their outstanding parallel computing capability. Computational fluid dynamics applications involve large amounts of calculations, therefore a latest GPU card is preferable of which the peak computing performance and memory bandwidth are much better than a contemporary high-end CPU. We herein focus on the detailed implementation of our GPU targeting Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver based on finite-volume method. The solver employs a vertex-centered scheme on unstructured grids for the sake of being capable of handling complex topologies. Multiple optimizations are carried out to improve the memory accessing performance and kernel utilization. Both steady and unsteady flow simulation cases are carried out using explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The solver with GPU acceleration in this paper is demonstrated to have competitive advantages over the CPU targeting one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, R. C.; Vandam, C. P.
1995-01-01
High-lift system aerodynamics has been gaining attention in recent years. In an effort to improve aircraft performance, comprehensive studies of multi-element airfoil systems are being undertaken in wind-tunnel and flight experiments. Recent developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) offer a relatively inexpensive alternative for studying complex viscous flows by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. Current limitations in computer resources restrict practical high-lift N-S computations to two dimensions, but CFD predictions can yield tremendous insight into flow structure, interactions between airfoil elements, and effects of changes in airfoil geometry or free-stream conditions. These codes are very accurate when compared to strictly 2D data provided by wind-tunnel testing, as will be shown here. Yet, additional challenges must be faced in the analysis of a production aircraft wing section, such as that of the NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). A primary issue is the sweep theory used to correlate 2D predictions with 3D flight results, accounting for sweep, taper, and finite wing effects. Other computational issues addressed here include the effects of surface roughness of the geometry, cove shape modeling, grid topology, and transition specification. The sensitivity of the flow to changing free-stream conditions is investigated. In addition, the effects of Gurney flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil system are predicted.
Isentropic acoustic propagation in a viscous fluid with uniform circular pipeline flow.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-10-01
Isentropic wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a uniform mean flow confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline is considered. A method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to solve the convected acoustic equations. After validating the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of wave modes is addressed. Furthermore, the effect of flow profile on wave attenuation is analyzed. Meanwhile, measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on wave propagation is numerically accounted.
Influence of precursor heating on viscous flow around a Jovian entry body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.
1979-01-01
The influence of changes in precursor region flow properties (resulting from the absorption of radiation from the shock layer) on the entire shock layer flow phenomena was investigated. The axially symmetric case is considered for both the preheating zone (precursor region) and shock layer. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be viscous with chemical equilibrium but radiative nonequilibrium. Realistic thermophysical and spectral models are employed, and results are obtained by implicit finite difference and iterative procedures. The results indicate that precursor heating increases the radiative heating of the body by a maximum of 7.5 percent for 116 km entry conditions.
Hypersonic Laminar Viscous Flow Past Spinning Cones at Angle of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, Ramesh; Rakich, John V.
1982-01-01
Computational results are presented for hypersonic viscous flow past spinning sharp and blunt cones of angle of attack, obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flowfield resulting from spinning motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, cross-flow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, cross-flow separation, and vortex structure. The Magnus force and moments are also computed. Comparisons are made with other theoretical analyses based on boundary-layer and boundary-region equations, and an anomaly is discovered in the displacement thickness contribution to the Magnus force when compared with boundary-layer results.
Isentropic acoustic propagation in a viscous fluid with uniform circular pipeline flow.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-10-01
Isentropic wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a uniform mean flow confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline is considered. A method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to solve the convected acoustic equations. After validating the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of wave modes is addressed. Furthermore, the effect of flow profile on wave attenuation is analyzed. Meanwhile, measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on wave propagation is numerically accounted. PMID:24116397
Adaptive Meshing Techniques for Viscous Flow Calculations on Mixed Element Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1997-01-01
An adaptive refinement strategy based on hierarchical element subdivision is formulated and implemented for meshes containing arbitrary mixtures of tetrahendra, hexahendra, prisms and pyramids. Special attention is given to keeping memory overheads as low as possible. This procedure is coupled with an algebraic multigrid flow solver which operates on mixed-element meshes. Inviscid flows as well as viscous flows are computed an adaptively refined tetrahedral, hexahedral, and hybrid meshes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by generating an adapted hexahedral mesh containing 3 million vertices on a relatively inexpensive workstation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dalsem, W. R.; Steger, J. L.
1985-01-01
A simple and computationally efficient algorithm for solving the unsteady three-dimensional boundary-layer equations in the time-accurate or relaxation mode is presented. Results of the new algorithm are shown to be in quantitative agreement with detailed experimental data for flow over a swept infinite wing. The separated flow over a 6:1 ellipsoid at angle of attack, and the transonic flow over a finite-wing with shock-induced 'mushroom' separation are also computed and compared with available experimental data. It is concluded that complex, separated, three-dimensional viscous layers can be economically and routinely computed using a time-relaxation boundary-layer algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Ortega-Casanova, Joaquin; del Pino, Carlos; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon
2004-11-01
A method for generating a non-uniform cartesian grid for irregular two-dimensional (2D) geometries such that all the boundary points are regular mesh points is given. The resulting non-uniform grid is used to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations for 2D incompressible viscous flows using finite difference approximations. To that end, finite-difference approximations of the derivatives on a non-uniform mesh are given. We test the method with two different examples: the shallow water flow on a lake with irregular contour, and the pressure driven flow through an irregular array of circular cylinders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.; Shaw, Jonathon A.
1994-04-01
This paper is concerned with the flow modelling capabilities of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. This system is aimed primarily at complex aircraft configurations and possesses a unique grid generation strategy in its use of block-structured, unstructured or hybrid grids, depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The main focus of the paper is in demonstrating the recently developed multi-grid, block-structured grid, viscous flow capability of SAUNA, through its evaluation on a number of configurations. Inviscid predictions are also presented, both as a means of interpreting the viscous results and with a view to showing more completely the capabilities of SAUNA. It is shown that accuracy and flexibility are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.
The design/analysis of flows through turbomachinery: A viscous/inviscid approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, D. P.; Reddy, D. R.
1991-01-01
The development of a design/analysis flow solver at NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The solver is axisymmetric and can be run inviscidly with assumed or calculated blockages, or with the viscous terms computed. The blade forces for each blade row are computed from blade-to-blade solutions, correlated data or force model, or from a full three dimensional solution. Codes currently under development can be separated into three distinct elements: the turbomachinery interactive grid generator energy distribution restart code (TIGGERC), the interactive blade element geometry generator (IBEGG), and the viscous/inviscid multi-blade-row average passage flow solver (VIADAC). Several experimental test cases were run to validate the VIADAC code. The tests, representative of typical axial turbomachinery duct axisymmetric wind tunnel body problems, were conducted on an SR7 Spinner axisymmetric body, a NASA Rotor 67 Fan test bed, and a transonic boatail body. The results show the computations to be in good agreement with test data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asghar, S.; Hussain, Q.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2015-07-01
This article addresses the heat transfer in a peristaltic flow of a reactive combustible viscous fluid through a porous saturated medium. The flow here is induced because of travelling waves along the channel walls. It is assumed that exothermic chemical reactions take place within the channel under the Arrhenius kinetics and the convective heat exchange with the ambient medium at the surfaces of the channel walls follows Newton's law of cooling. The analysis is carried out in the presence of viscous dissipation and without consumption of the material. The governing equations are formulated by employing the long-wavelength approximation. Closed-form solutions for the stream function, axial velocity, and axial pressure gradient are obtained. It is found that the temperature decreases at high Biot numbers, and the Nusselt number increases with increasing reaction parameter. The Biot number and reaction parameter produce the opposite effects on the Nusselt number.
Effects of nose bluntness and shock-shock interactions on blunt bodies in viscous hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.
1990-01-01
A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effects of blunt leading edges on the viscous flow field around a hypersonic vehicle such as the proposed National Aero-Space Plane. Attention is focused on two specific regions of the flow field. In the first region, effects of nose bluntness on the forebody flow field are investigated. The second region of the flow considered is around the leading edges of the scramjet inlet. In this region, the interaction of the forebody shock with the shock produced by the blunt leading edges of the inlet compression surfaces is analyzed. Analysis of these flow regions is required to accurately predict the overall flow field as well as to get necessary information on localized zones of high pressure and intense heating. The results for the forebody flow field are discussed first, followed by the results for the shock interaction in the inlet leading edge region.
Numerical computation of two dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, T. L.; Tannehill, J. C.
1974-01-01
Two-dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock have been computed using a time-dependent finite-difference method which solves the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible flow. For low Reynolds number flows, the entire flow field, including the bow shock and impinging shock, has been captured in the computation. For higher Reynolds number flows, the bow shock is treated as a discontinuity across which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations are applied, while the boundary layer and interaction regions are captured as before. Using this latter shock-fitting approach, a Type III shock interaction flow field has been computed with flow conditions corresponding to the space shuttle orbiter freestream conditions at 61 km (200,000 ft).
The least-squares finite element method for low-mach-number compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao
1994-01-01
The present paper reports the development of the Least-Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) for simulating compressible viscous flows at low Mach numbers in which the incompressible flows pose as an extreme. Conventional approach requires special treatments for low-speed flows calculations: finite difference and finite volume methods are based on the use of the staggered grid or the preconditioning technique; and, finite element methods rely on the mixed method and the operator-splitting method. In this paper, however, we show that such difficulty does not exist for the LSFEM and no special treatment is needed. The LSFEM always leads to a symmetric, positive-definite matrix through which the compressible flow equations can be effectively solved. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the method: first, driven cavity flows at various Reynolds numbers; and, buoyancy-driven flows with significant density variation. Both examples are calculated by using full compressible flow equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Liang-sheng; Yu, Long-fei
2016-10-01
Aimed at the hydrodynamic response for marine structures slamming into water, based on the mechanism analysis to the slamming process, and by combining 3D N-S equation and k- ɛ turbulent kinetic equation with structure fully 6DOF motion equation, a mathematical model for the wind-fluid-solid interaction is established in 3D marine structure slamming wave at free poses and wind-wave-flow complex environments. Compared with the results of physical model test, the numerical results from the slamming wave well correspond with the experimental results. Through the mathematical model, the wave-making issue of 3D marine structure at initial pose falls into water in different complex wind, wave and flow environments is investigated. The research results show that various kinds of natural factors and structure initial poses have different influence on the slamming wave, and there is an obvious rule in this process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi
2014-04-01
Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil & gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil & gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 & 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 & 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.
Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi
2014-04-11
Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.
Statistical mechanics of viscous flow in nematic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarman, Sten; Evans, Denis J.
1993-12-01
We derive Green-Kubo (GK) relations for the viscosity coefficients of nematic liquid crystals. These GK relations are similar to, but considerably more complicated than, those of an isotropic fluid. In addition to shear viscosities there are also twist viscosities and cross couplings between the symmetric strain rate and the antisymmetric pressure tensor and vice versa. We show that the twist viscosity is inversely proportional to the mean square displacement of the director. Using the so-called SLLOD equations of motion we construct nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) algorithms that can be used to efficiently calculate the viscosity coefficients of nematic liquid crystals from atomistic computer simulations. We also devise an additional NEMD algorithm for controlling the angular velocity of the director in a nematic fluid. We derive a fluctuation relation for the alignment angle between the director and the streamlines in planar Couette flow and also for the shear induced molecular angular velocity. In an isotropic fluid, close to equilibrium, this angular velocity is equal to half the vorticity. In a nematic liquid crystal it is nearly zero because of cross couplings with the symmetric part of the strain rate tensor. We test the Green-Kubo relations and the NEMD algorithms in a nematic liquid crystal modeled using a modified version of the Gay-Berne potential. In general, the Green-Kubo and NEMD results agree very well.
Velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows
Meir, A.J.
1994-12-31
In this work we discuss some aspects of the velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows. We describe reasonable boundary conditions that should be imposed on the vorticity and a compatibility condition that the vorticity must satisfy. This formulation may give rise to efficient numerical algorithms for approximating solutions of the Stokes problem, which in turn yields an iterative method for approximating solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Fibrous filter efficiency and pressure drop in the viscous-inertial transition flow regime.
Sanchez, Andres L.; Brockmann, John E.; Dellinger, Jennifer Gwynne; Lucero, Daniel A.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee
2011-10-01
Fibrous filter pressure drop and aerosol collection efficiency were measured at low air pressures (0.2 to 0.8 atm) and high face velocities (5 to 20 meters per second) to give fiber Reynolds numbers in the viscous-inertial transition flow regime (1 to 16). In this regime, contemporary filtration theory based on Kuwabara's viscous flow through an ensemble of fibers under-predicts single fiber impaction by several orders of magnitude. Streamline curvature increases substantially as inertial forces become dominant. Dimensionless pressure drop measurements followed the viscous-inertial theory of Robinson and Franklin rather than Darcy's linear pressure-velocity relationship (1972). Sodium chloride and iron nano-agglomerate test aerosols were used to evaluate the effects of particle density and shape factor. Total filter efficiency collapsed when plotted against the particle Stokes and fiber Reynolds numbers. Efficiencies were then fitted with an impactor type equation where the cutpoint Stokes number and a steepness parameter described data well in the sharply increasing portion of the curve (20% to 80% efficiency). The cutpoint Stokes number was a linearly decreasing function of fiber Reynolds number. Single fiber efficiencies were calculated from total filter efficiencies and compared to contemporary viscous flow impaction theory (Stechkina et al. 1969), and numerical simulations from the literature. Existing theories under-predicted measured single fiber efficiencies although the assumption of uniform flow conditions for each successive layer of fibers is questionable; the common exponential relationship between single fiber efficiency and total filter efficiency may not be appropriate in this regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.
1978-01-01
The influence of precursor heating on viscous chemical nonequilibrium radiating flow around a Jovian entry body is investigated. Results obtained for a 45-degree hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's nominal atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicate that the nonequilibrium radiative heating rate is significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating, in general, increases the radiative and convective heating to the body, and this increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.
Analysis of boundary conditions for SSME subsonic internal viscous flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.
1986-01-01
A study was completed of mathematically proper boundary conditions for unique numerical solution of internal, viscous, subsonic flows in the space shuttle main engine. The study has concentrated on well posed considerations, with emphasis on computational efficiency and numerically stable boundary condition statements. The method of implementing the established boundary conditions is applicable to a wide variety of finite difference and finite element codes, as demonstrated.
Numerical analysis of the relaxation of particle and gas phases in dusty supersonic viscous flow
Elangovan, R.
1989-01-01
A numerical method for solving the full dusty gas viscous flow equations is presented. In this method the terms representing drag force, work done by the particles passing through the gas, and heat transfer are evaluated using the trapezoidal rule. The differencing procedure for the remaining terms is similar to the MacCormack explicit predictor-corrector method (MacCormack and Baldwin, 1975). 18 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaoyang; Deng, Xiao-Long
2016-04-01
In this paper, an improved weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is proposed to simulate transient free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids. The improved SPH algorithm includes the implementation of (i) the mixed symmetric correction of kernel gradient to improve the accuracy and stability of traditional SPH method and (ii) the Rusanov flux in the continuity equation for improving the computation of pressure distributions in the dynamics of liquids. To assess the effectiveness of the improved SPH algorithm, a number of numerical examples including the stretching of an initially circular water drop, dam breaking flow against a vertical wall, the impact of viscous and viscoelastic fluid drop with a rigid wall, and the extrudate swell of viscoelastic fluid have been presented and compared with available numerical and experimental data in literature. The convergent behavior of the improved SPH algorithm has also been studied by using different number of particles. All numerical results demonstrate that the improved SPH algorithm proposed here is capable of modeling free surface flows of viscous and viscoelastic fluids accurately and stably, and even more important, also computing an accurate and little oscillatory pressure field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Mingxu; Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Yang, Wuqiang
2016-09-01
The hydrodynamics of gas-solids flow in the bottom of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) are complicated. Three-dimensional (3D) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been used to investigate the hydrodynamics in risers of different shapes. Four different ECT sensors with 12 electrodes each are designed according to the dimension of risers, including two circular ECT sensors, a square ECT sensor and a rectangular ECT sensor. The electrodes are evenly arranged in three planes to obtain capacitance in different heights and to reconstruct the 3D images by linear back projection (LBP) algorithm. Experiments were carried out on the four risers using sands as the solids material. The capacitance and differential pressure are measured under the gas superficial velocity from 0.6 m s-1 to 3.0 m s-1 with a step of 0.2 m s-1. The flow regime is investigated according to the solids concentration and differential pressure. The dynamic property of bubbling flows is analyzed theoretically and the performance of the 3D ECT sensors is evaluated. The experimental results show that 3D ECT can be used in the CFB with different risers to predict the hydrodynamics of gas-solids bubbling flows.
Programmable real-time applications with the 3D-Flow for input data rate systems of hundreds of MHz
Crosetto, D.
1996-02-01
The applicability of the 3D-Flow system to different experimental setups for real-time applications in the range of hundreds of nanoseconds is described. The results of the simulation of several real-time applications using the 3D-Flow demonstrate the advantages of a simple architecture that carries out operations in a balanced manner using regular connections and exceptionally few replicated components compared to conventional microprocessors. Diverse applications can be found that will benefit from this approach: High Energy Physics (HEP), which typically requires discerning patterns from thousands of accelerator particle collision signals up to 40 Mhz input data rate; Medical Imaging, that requires interactive tools for studying fast occurring biological processes; processing output from high-rate CCD cameras in commercial applications, such as quality control in manufacturing; data compression; speech and character recognition; automatic automobile guidance, and other applications. The 3D-Flow system was conceived for experiments at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It was adopted by the Gamma Electron and Muon (GEM) experiment that was to be used for particle identification. The target of the 3D-Flow system was real-time pattern recognition at 100 million frames/sec.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Mingxu; Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Yang, Wuqiang
2016-09-01
The hydrodynamics of gas–solids flow in the bottom of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) are complicated. Three-dimensional (3D) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been used to investigate the hydrodynamics in risers of different shapes. Four different ECT sensors with 12 electrodes each are designed according to the dimension of risers, including two circular ECT sensors, a square ECT sensor and a rectangular ECT sensor. The electrodes are evenly arranged in three planes to obtain capacitance in different heights and to reconstruct the 3D images by linear back projection (LBP) algorithm. Experiments were carried out on the four risers using sands as the solids material. The capacitance and differential pressure are measured under the gas superficial velocity from 0.6 m s‑1 to 3.0 m s‑1 with a step of 0.2 m s‑1. The flow regime is investigated according to the solids concentration and differential pressure. The dynamic property of bubbling flows is analyzed theoretically and the performance of the 3D ECT sensors is evaluated. The experimental results show that 3D ECT can be used in the CFB with different risers to predict the hydrodynamics of gas–solids bubbling flows.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.
1994-09-01
This paper discusses the numerical simulation of groundwater flow through heterogeneous porous media. The focus is on the performance of a parallel multigrid preconditioner for accelerating convergence of conjugate gradients, which is used to compute the hydraulic pressure head. The numerical investigation considers the effects of enlarging the domain, increasing the grid resolution, and varying the geostatistical parameters used to define the subsurface realization. The results were obtained using the PARFLOW groundwater flow simulator on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, R. J.; Haas, J. E.; Katsanis, T.
1984-01-01
A method for calculating turbine stage performance is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by comparing measured and predicted efficiencies for nine different stages. Comparisons are made over a range of turbine pressure ratios and rotor speeds. A quasi-3D flow analysis is used to account for complex passage geometries. Boundary layer analyses are done to account for losses due to friction. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses.
Conveyor belt effect in the flow through a tube of a viscous fluid with spinning particles.
Felderhof, B U
2012-04-28
The extended Navier-Stokes equations describing the steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid with spinning particles are solved for flow through a circular cylindrical tube. The flow caused by an applied torque density in the azimuthal direction and linear in the radial distance from the axis is compared with the flow caused by a uniform applied force density directed along the axis of the tube. In both cases the flow velocity is of Poiseuille type plus a correction. In the first case the flow velocity is caused by the conveyor belt effect of spinning particles. The corrections to the Poiseuille flow pattern in the two cases differ only by a proportionality factor. The spin velocity profiles in the two cases are also proportional. PMID:22559504
McMechan et al.
2001-08-31
Existing reservoir models are based on 2-D outcrop;3-D aspects are inferred from correlation between wells,and so are inadequately constrained for reservoir simulations. To overcome these deficiencies, we initiated a multidimensional characterization of reservoir analogs in the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in Utah.The study was conducted at two sites(Corbula Gulch Coyote Basin); results from both sites are contained in this report. Detailed sedimentary facies maps of cliff faces define the geometry and distribution of potential reservoir flow units, barriers and baffles at the outcrop. High resolution 2-D and 3-D ground penetrating radar(GPR) images extend these reservoir characteristics into 3-D to allow development of realistic 3-D reservoir models. Models use geometric information from the mapping and the GPR data, petrophysical data from surface and cliff-face outcrops, lab analyses of outcrop and core samples, and petrography. The measurements are all integrated into a single coordinate system using GPS and laser mapping of the main sedimentologic features and boundaries. The final step is analysis of results of 3-D fluid flow modeling to demonstrate applicability of our reservoir analog studies to well siting and reservoir engineering for maximization of hydrocarbon production. The main goals of this project are achieved. These are the construction of a deterministic 3-D reservoir analog model from a variety of geophysical and geologic measurements at the field sites, integrating these into comprehensive petrophysical models, and flow simulation through these models. This unique approach represents a significant advance in characterization and use of reservoir analogs. To data,the team has presented five papers at GSA and AAPG meetings produced a technical manual, and completed 15 technical papers. The latter are the main content of this final report. In addition,the project became part of 5 PhD dissertations, 3 MS theses,and two senior undergraduate research
George McMechan; Rucsandra Corbeanu; Craig Forster; Kristian Soegaard; Xiaoxian Zeng; Carlos Aiken; Robert Szerbiak; Janok Bhattacharya; Michael Wizevich; Xueming Xu; Stephen Snelgrove; Karen Roche; Siang Joo Lim; Djuro Navakovic; Christopher White; Laura Crossey; Deming Wang; John Thurmond; William Hammon III; Mamadou BAlde; Ari Menitove
2001-08-31
OAK-B135 (IPLD Cleared) Existing reservoir models are based on 2-D outcrop studies; 3-D aspects are inferred from correlation between wells, and so are inadequately constrained for reservoir simulations. To overcome these deficiencies, we initiated a multidimensional characterization of reservoir analogs in the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in Utah. The study was conducted at two sites (Corbula Gulch and Coyote Basin); results from both sites are contained in this report. Detailed sedimentary facies maps of cliff faces define the geometry and distribution of potential reservoir flow units, barriers and baffles at the outcrop. High resolution 2-D and 3-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) images extend these reservoir characteristics into 3-D, to allow development of realistic 3-D reservoir models. Models use geometric information from the mapping and the GPR data, petrophysical data from surface and cliff-face outcrops, lab analyses of outcrop and core samples, and petrography. The measurements are all integrated into a single coordinate system using GPS and laser mapping of the main sedimentological features and boundaries.The final step is analysis of results of 3-D fluid flow modeling to demonstrate applicability of our reservoir analog studies to well siting and reservoir engineering for maximization of hydrocarbon production. The main goals of the project are achieved. These are the construction of a deterministic 3-D reservoir analog model from a variety of geophysical and geologic measurements at the field sites, integrating these into comprehensive petrophysical models, and flow simulations through these models. This unique approach represents a significant advance in characterization and use of reservoir analogs.
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis for the helicopter tip vortex generation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, S. J.; Levy, R.; Shamroth, S. J.; Govindan, T. R.
1985-01-01
The tip vortex flow field occurring in the vicinity of the tip region of a a helicopter rotor blade is a very complicated three-dimensional, viscous flow phenomenon. The details of the flow in the tip region can have a major effect in determining the generated rotor noise and can significantly affect the performance and dynamic loading of the rotor blade. The three-dimensional viscous subsonic tip vortex generation processes is investigated by a numerical procedure which allows spatial forward-marching integration, utilizing flow approximations from the velocity-decomposition approach of Briley and McDonald. The approach has been applied to compute the laminar and turbulent tip vortex flows for a constant thickness slab airfoil with a square tip, a constant thickness slab airfoil with a half round tip and a NACA 0012 airfoil with a half round tip. The basic mechanism of the tip vortex generation process as well as the prediction of vortex appearance, strength and secondary flow shown by the calculations are in qualitative agreement with experimental results.
HEMP 3D -- a finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow
Wilkins, M.L.
1993-05-26
The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time. Presented here is an update of the 1975 report on the HEMP 3D numerical technique. The present report includes the sliding surface routines programmed by Robert Gulliford.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, ChengYue; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Li, Tian; Wang, JinJun
2016-06-01
Volumetric measurement for the leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown of a delta wing has been conducted by three-dimensional (3D) flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). The 3D flow visualization is employed to show the vortex structures, which was recorded by four cameras with high resolution. 3D dye streaklines of the visualization are reconstructed using a similar way of particle reconstruction in TPIV. Tomographic PIV is carried out at the same time using same cameras with the dye visualization. Q criterion is employed to identify the LEV. Results of tomographic PIV agree well with the reconstructed 3D dye streaklines, which proves the validity of the measurements. The time-averaged flow field based on TPIV is shown and described by sections of velocity and streamwise vorticity. Combining the two measurement methods sheds light on the complex structures of both bubble type and spiral type of breakdown. The breakdown position is recognized by investigating both the streaklines and TPIV velocity fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to extract a pair of conjugated helical instability modes from TPIV data. Therefore, the dominant frequency of the instability modes is obtained from the corresponding POD coefficients of the modes based on wavelet transform analysis.
Multigrid TVD-type scheme for computing inviscid and viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiedermann, Alexander; Iwamoto, Junjiro
1994-06-01
A numerical scheme for the computation of steady-state transonic flow fields is presented, which is based on a total variation diminishing (TVD) approach. Various kinds of the anti-diffusive flux terms have been considered, and their effect on the computed results investigated. The time-dependent governing equations are given in a conservative formulation and solved by a hybrid multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. To obtain an improved convergence rate a multigrid procedure has been added to the scheme. The time-marching method presented has been verified by inviscid and viscous two-dimensional flow-field computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatanaka, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kawahara, M.
A novel FEM scheme that is based on the fractional-step method for solving time-dependent, incompressible viscous flow is presented and employed in the solution of a free-surface flow. The equations are given in indicial notation, as well as in the summation convention for repeated indices. The numerical results obtained exhibit good stability without the specification of Neumann conditions, and are compared in tabular form with the solutions given by Laitone's (1960) approximation. The method is also applicable to problems with artificial, open boundaries.
Validation of a three-dimensional viscous analysis of axisymmetric supersonic inlet flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, T. J.; Anderson, B. H.
1983-01-01
A three-dimensional viscous marching analysis for supersonic inlets was developed. To verify this analysis several benchmark axisymmetric test configurations were studied and are compared to experimental data. Detailed two-dimensional results for shock-boundary layer interactions are presented for flows with and without boundary layer bleed. Three dimensional calculations of a cone at angle of attack and a full inlet at attack are also discussed and evaluated. Results of the calculations demonstrate the code's ability to predict complex flow fields and establish guidelines for future calculations using similar codes.
Wang, Chao; Si, Xinhui; Shen, Yanan; Zheng, Liancun; Lin, Ping
2015-01-01
Since the vessels in the biological tissues are characterized by low seepage Reynolds numbers and contracting or expanding walls, more attention is paid on the viscous flow outside the porous pipe with small expansion or contraction. This paper presents a numerical solution of the flow and heat transfer outside an expanding or contracting porous cylinder. The coupled nonlinear similarity equations are solved by Bvp4c, which is a collocation method with MATLAB. The effects of the different physical parameters, namely the permeability Reynolds number,the expansion ratio and the Prandtl number, on the velocity and temperature distribution are obtained and the results are shown graphically. PMID:26406014
Viscous flow drag reduction; Symposium, Dallas, Tex., November 7, 8, 1979, Technical Papers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hough, G. R.
1980-01-01
The symposium focused on laminar boundary layers, boundary layer stability analysis of a natural laminar flow glove on the F-111 TACT aircraft, drag reduction of an oscillating flat plate with an interface film, electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers, large eddy breakup scheme for turbulent viscous drag reduction, blowing and suction, polymer additives, and compliant surfaces. Topics included influence of environment in laminar boundary layer control, generation rate of turbulent patches in the laminar boundary layer of a submersible, drag reduction of small amplitude rigid surface waves, and hydrodynamic drag and surface deformations generated by liquid flows over flexible surfaces.
Wang, Chao; Si, Xinhui; Shen, Yanan; Zheng, Liancun; Lin, Ping
2015-01-01
Since the vessels in the biological tissues are characterized by low seepage Reynolds numbers and contracting or expanding walls, more attention is paid on the viscous flow outside the porous pipe with small expansion or contraction. This paper presents a numerical solution of the flow and heat transfer outside an expanding or contracting porous cylinder. The coupled nonlinear similarity equations are solved by Bvp4c, which is a collocation method with MATLAB. The effects of the different physical parameters, namely the permeability Reynolds number,the expansion ratio and the Prandtl number, on the velocity and temperature distribution are obtained and the results are shown graphically.
Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1980-01-01
There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturdza, Peter (Inventor); Martins-Rivas, Herve (Inventor); Suzuki, Yoshifumi (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a quasi-simultaneous technique. The simulation includes a fluid-flow mesh of inviscid and boundary-layer fluid cells. An initial fluid property for an inviscid fluid cell is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. An initial boundary-layer fluid property a boundary-layer fluid cell is determined using the initial fluid property and a viscous fluid simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. An updated boundary-layer fluid property is determined for the boundary-layer fluid cell using the initial fluid property, initial boundary-layer fluid property, and an interaction law. The interaction law approximates the inviscid fluid simulation using a matrix of aerodynamic influence coefficients computed using a two-dimensional surface panel technique and a fluid-property vector. An updated fluid property is determined for the inviscid fluid cell using the updated boundary-layer fluid property.
Similar solutions for viscous hypersonic flow over a slender three-fourths-power body of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Chin-Shun
1987-01-01
For hypersonic flow with a shock wave, there is a similar solution consistent throughout the viscous and inviscid layers along a very slender three-fourths-power body of revolution The strong pressure interaction problem can then be treated by the method of similarity. Numerical calculations are performed in the viscous region with the edge pressure distribution known from the inviscid similar solutions. The compressible laminar boundary-layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting two-point boundary value problem is then solved by the Runge-Kutta method with a modified Newton's method for the corresponding boundary conditions. The effects of wall temperature, mass bleeding, and body transverse curvature are investigated. The induced pressure, displacement thickness, skin friction, and heat transfer due to the previously mentioned parameters are estimated and analyzed.
A Unified Wall Boundary Treatment for Viscous and Inviscid Flows in the CE/SE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Zhang, Zeng-Chen; Yu, S. T. John; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
2000-01-01
In the setting of the conservation element-solution element (CE/SE) method, a new and unified wall boundary treatment for the Navier-Stokes and Euler Equations is proposed. In essence, the shear stress exerted on the fluid by a wall is modeled as a source term as a part of local spacetime flux conservation in the vicinity of a wall boundary. When the fluid is inviscid, the source term vanishes and the boundary condition reduces to the usual 'slip' condition. On the other hand, when the fluid is viscous, the source-term effect is consistent with the traditional no-slip condition. Numerical results show that the new treatment is robust, efficient, and accurate for viscous and inviscid flows.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 3. [computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I.; Sheoran, Y.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine blade passages was developed. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation on the blade-to-blade surface. A FORTRAN IV computer program was written based on this method. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The flow may be axial, radial or mixed and there may be a change in stream channel thickness in the through-flow direction. The inputs required for two FORTRAN IV programs are presented. The first program considers laminar flows and the second can handle turbulent flows. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the use of the program, and to show the results that are obtained.
The rate form of equilibrium equation for problems of steady-state, elastic, viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Lung John
1992-07-01
The development of a numerical simulation for steady-state, elastic, viscous flows in two dimensions is presented. A mixed finite element method is used to couple the rate-equilibrium and the rate-constitutive equations by using successive substitution to solve for the velocity field and the stress field simultaneously. The method is applied to the flow analysis of co-rotational Maxwell (CRM), upper convective Maxwell (UCM), and four-element UCM fluid models. A flow through contraction problem is analyzed for the CRM, UCM and four-element UCM models. For both the CRM and UCM modles, the purely elastic case is compared to a solution found by using a linear formulation and it is found to compare favorably. For the purely viscous case, comparison is made with results obtained using the mixed formulation for velocity and pressure. Again, the results compare quite favorably. For the four-element UCM model, it is compared with the conventional UCM model. For the purely elastic and the purely viscous cases both models compare very well, and two examples are given for simulating both the Oldroyd-B and the Kelvin-Voigt models. From this illustration, the four-element UCM model is shown to work well for a wide range of constitutive behaviors. A second example presents an analysis of a metal forming rolling problem in the presence of free surfaces. For the purely elastic case, a decent solution of the velocity and stress distributions in the control volume for both CRM and UCM fluids is found. However, when the viscous effect is increased in the material, the free surface exhibits a continual swelling on the downstream side and the accuracy of the stress distribution deteriorates. In spite of the progress made on the free surface problem, the solutions for free surface problem presented in this dissertation are not yet of sufficient accuracy to be directly applicable to practical forming process design or analysis. The final example is an application of the rate
Monodisperse granular flows in viscous dispersions in a centrifugal acceleration field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei
2016-04-01
Granular flows are encountered in geophysical flows and innumerable industrial applications with particulate materials. When mixed with a fluid, a complex network of interactions between the particle- and fluid-phase develops, resulting in a compound material with a yet unclear physical behaviour. In the study of granular suspensions mixed with a viscous dispersion, the scaling of the stress-strain characteristics of the fluid phase needs to account for the level of inertia developed in experiments. However, the required model dimensions and amount of material becomes a main limitation for their study. In recent years, centrifuge modelling has been presented as an alternative for the study of particle-fluid flows in a reduced scaled model in an augmented acceleration field. By formulating simple scaling principles proportional to the equivalent acceleration Ng in the model, the resultant flows share many similarities with field events. In this work we study the scaling principles of the fluid phase and its effects on the flow of granular suspensions. We focus on the dense flow of a monodisperse granular suspension mixed with a viscous fluid phase, flowing down an inclined plane and being driven by a centrifugal acceleration field. The scaled model allows the continuous monitoring of the flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and mass flow rates at different Ng levels. The experiments successfully identify the effects of scaling the plastic viscosity of the fluid phase, its relation with the deposition of particles over the inclined plane, and allows formulating a discussion on the suitability of simulating particle-fluid flows in a centrifugal acceleration field.
The hypersonic Mach number independence principle in the case of viscous flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kliche, D.; Mundt, Ch.; Hirschel, E. H.
2011-08-01
The hypersonic Mach number independence principle of Oswatitsch is important for hypersonic vehicle design. It explains why, above a certain flight Mach number ( M ∞ ≈ 4-6, depending on the body shape), some aerodynamic properties become independent of the flight Mach number. For ground test facilities this means that it is sufficient for the Mach number in the test section to be high enough, that Mach number independence exists. However, the principle was derived for calorically perfect gas and inviscid flow only. In this paper a theoretical study for blunt bodies in the case of viscous flow is presented. We provide numerical results which give insight into how attached viscous flow behaves at high Mach numbers. The flow past an axisymmetric configuration is analysed by applying a coupled Euler/second-order boundary-layer method. Wall boundaries are treated by assuming an adiabatic or radiation-adiabatic wall for laminar flow. Calorically perfect or equilibrium air is accounted for. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients, and lift-to-drag ratios are given for several combinations of flight Mach number and altitude, i.e. Reynolds number. For blunt bodies considered here, which are pressure dominated, Mach number independence occurs for the adiabatic wall, but not for the radiation-adiabatic wall assumption.
Turbulence structure in the viscous layer of strongly heated gas flows
Shehata, A.M.; McEligot, D.M.
1995-11-01
For dominant forced convection with significant gas property variation, even in low Mach number flow through a circular tube, apparently the only published profile data available to guide (or test) the development of predictive turbulence models are K. R. Perkins` measurements of mean temperature structure. The work here takes the next step: the first mean velocity distributions for this situation are presented. In order to dissect the anatomy of the viscous layer in gaseous, turbulent, tube flow with strong heating, it has been probed via thermal anemometry coupled with diagnostic application of simple computational thermal fluid dynamics. Experiments for air flowing upward in a vertical circular tube were conducted for heating rates causing significant property variation. An unheated entry of fifty diameters preceded the heating. Examination emphasizes the wall region which would conventionally be expected to contain the viscous layer, if the flow were unheated. In the flow called turbulent, after being disturbed in the first few diameters by the heating profiles representing the turbulence quantities appear to recover to approximately self-preserving conditions. In the other two runs with higher heating rates, the turbulence quantities decrease after the immediate thermal entrance until they are small relative to molecular effects.
Lee, Sunbok; Lee, Youngshin; Kim, Dong Ha; Moon, Jun Hyuk
2013-12-11
We for the first time demonstrated carbon-deposited TiO2 inverse opal (C-TiO2 IO) structures as highly efficient visible photocatalysts. The carbon deposition proceeded via high-temperature pyrolysis of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde resol, which had been coated onto the TiO2 IO structures. Carbon deposition formed a carbon layer and doped the TiO2 interface, which synergistically enhanced visible-light absorption. We directly measured the visible-light photocatalytic activity by constructing solar cells comprising the C-TiO2 IO electrode. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in a solution was also evaluated. Photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light was only observed in the presence of the C-TiO2 IO sample and was increased with the content of carbon deposition. The IO structures could be readily decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the surface area and enhance the photocatalytic activity. Notably, the photocatalytic reaction was found to proceed in a viscous polymeric solution. A comparison of the mesoporous TiO2 structure and the IO TiO2 structure revealed that the latter performed better as the solution viscosity increased. This result was attributed to facile diffusion into the fully connected and low-tortuosity macropore network of the IO structure. PMID:24266769
Massively Parallel Linear Stability Analysis with P_ARPACK for 3D Fluid Flow Modeled with MPSalsa
Lehoucq, R.B.; Salinger, A.G.
1998-10-13
We are interested in the stability of three-dimensional fluid flows to small dkturbances. One computational approach is to solve a sequence of large sparse generalized eigenvalue problems for the leading modes that arise from discretizating the differential equations modeling the flow. The modes of interest are the eigenvalues of largest real part and their associated eigenvectors. We discuss our work to develop an effi- cient and reliable eigensolver for use by the massively parallel simulation code MPSalsa. MPSalsa allows simulation of complex 3D fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer with detailed bulk fluid and surface chemical reaction kinetics.
A Note on the Wave Action Density of a Viscous Instability Mode on a Laminar Free-shear Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balsa, Thomas F.
1994-01-01
Using the assumptions of an incompressible and viscous flow at large Reynolds number, we derive the evolution equation for the wave action density of an instability wave traveling on top of a laminar free-shear flow. The instability is considered to be viscous; the purpose of the present work is to include the cumulative effect of the (locally) small viscous correction to the wave, over length and time scales on which the underlying base flow appears inhomogeneous owing to its viscous diffusion. As such, we generalize our previous work for inviscid waves. This generalization appears as an additional (but usually non-negligible) term in the equation for the wave action. The basic structure of the equation remains unaltered.
Mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in viscous multitemperature flows.
Kustova, E V; Oblapenko, G P
2016-03-01
We study coupling of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in nonequilibrium viscous multitemperature flows. A general theoretical model is proposed on the basis of the Chapman-Enskog method modified for strongly nonequilibrium reacting flows; the model differs from models commonly used in computational fluid dynamics since it is able to capture additional cross-coupling terms arising in viscous flow due to compressibility and mutual influence of all nonequilibrium processes occurring in a mixture. The set of fluid dynamic equations is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation; the relaxation terms in these equations are described using the kinetic transport theory formalism. Reaction and relaxation rates depend on the distribution function and thus differ in the zero-order and first-order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method. An algorithm for the calculation of multitemperature reaction and relaxation rates in both inviscid and viscous flows is proposed for the harmonic oscillator model. This algorithm is applied to estimate the mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and dissociation in binary mixtures of N(2) and N, and O(2) and O, under various nonequilibrium conditions. It is shown that modification of the Landau-Teller expression for the VT relaxation term works rather well in nitrogen, whereas it fails to predict correctly the relaxation rate in oxygen at high temperatures. In oxygen (in contrast to nitrogen), the first-order cross effects of dissociation and VT relaxation are found to be significant. A method for calculation of vibrational relaxation time based on the kinetic theory definition is suggested. Two-temperature dissociation rate coefficients are calculated in the zero- and first-order approximations and compared to other models.
Mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in viscous multitemperature flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kustova, E. V.; Oblapenko, G. P.
2016-03-01
We study coupling of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in nonequilibrium viscous multitemperature flows. A general theoretical model is proposed on the basis of the Chapman-Enskog method modified for strongly nonequilibrium reacting flows; the model differs from models commonly used in computational fluid dynamics since it is able to capture additional cross-coupling terms arising in viscous flow due to compressibility and mutual influence of all nonequilibrium processes occurring in a mixture. The set of fluid dynamic equations is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation; the relaxation terms in these equations are described using the kinetic transport theory formalism. Reaction and relaxation rates depend on the distribution function and thus differ in the zero-order and first-order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method. An algorithm for the calculation of multitemperature reaction and relaxation rates in both inviscid and viscous flows is proposed for the harmonic oscillator model. This algorithm is applied to estimate the mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and dissociation in binary mixtures of N2 and N, and O2 and O, under various nonequilibrium conditions. It is shown that modification of the Landau-Teller expression for the VT relaxation term works rather well in nitrogen, whereas it fails to predict correctly the relaxation rate in oxygen at high temperatures. In oxygen (in contrast to nitrogen), the first-order cross effects of dissociation and VT relaxation are found to be significant. A method for calculation of vibrational relaxation time based on the kinetic theory definition is suggested. Two-temperature dissociation rate coefficients are calculated in the zero- and first-order approximations and compared to other models.
Mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in viscous multitemperature flows.
Kustova, E V; Oblapenko, G P
2016-03-01
We study coupling of vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in nonequilibrium viscous multitemperature flows. A general theoretical model is proposed on the basis of the Chapman-Enskog method modified for strongly nonequilibrium reacting flows; the model differs from models commonly used in computational fluid dynamics since it is able to capture additional cross-coupling terms arising in viscous flow due to compressibility and mutual influence of all nonequilibrium processes occurring in a mixture. The set of fluid dynamic equations is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation; the relaxation terms in these equations are described using the kinetic transport theory formalism. Reaction and relaxation rates depend on the distribution function and thus differ in the zero-order and first-order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method. An algorithm for the calculation of multitemperature reaction and relaxation rates in both inviscid and viscous flows is proposed for the harmonic oscillator model. This algorithm is applied to estimate the mutual effect of vibrational relaxation and dissociation in binary mixtures of N(2) and N, and O(2) and O, under various nonequilibrium conditions. It is shown that modification of the Landau-Teller expression for the VT relaxation term works rather well in nitrogen, whereas it fails to predict correctly the relaxation rate in oxygen at high temperatures. In oxygen (in contrast to nitrogen), the first-order cross effects of dissociation and VT relaxation are found to be significant. A method for calculation of vibrational relaxation time based on the kinetic theory definition is suggested. Two-temperature dissociation rate coefficients are calculated in the zero- and first-order approximations and compared to other models. PMID:27078467
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukhman, I. G.
2006-09-01
The framework of the linear theory is employed to study the evolution of an initial compact vortical disturbance in unbounded plane nonparallel viscous incompressible flows with constant velocity gradients. Two types of such flows are known to be possible: hyperbolical and elliptical (as well as an intermediate case of the well-studied parallel Couette flow). The results presented here are obtained for a hyperbolical flow. (Results concerning the elliptical flow are to be issued in a separate publication.) This paper is a development of earlier work by R. R. Lagnado, N. Phan-Thien, and L. G. Leal [Phys. Fluids 27, 1094 (1984)] studying the stability of a hyperbolical flow relative to the simplest perturbations in the form of plane waves with a time-dependent wave vector. The dynamics of vortex intensity is investigated as well as the evolution of its geometrical form and orientation. The results are discussed in the context of the problem of hairpin vortex formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michaely, R.; Bachmann, A. H.; Villiger, M. L.; Blatter, C.; Lasser, T.; Leitgeb, R. A.
2007-07-01
Resonant Doppler Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography is a functional imaging modality for quantifying fast tissue flow. The method profits from the effect of interference fringe blurring in spectrometer-based FDOCT in the presence of sample motion. If the reference path length is changed in resonance with the Doppler frequency of the sample flow the signals of resting structures will be suppressed whereas the signals of blood flow are enhanced. This allows for an easy extraction of vascularization structure. 3D images of blood vessels at the human optic nerve head are obtained with high axial resolution of 8 μm in air and an imaging speed of 17.400 depth profiles per second. An electro-optic modulator allows controlled reference phase shifting during camera integration. A differential approach is presented for the quantification of fast flows that are un-accessible via standard phase sensitive Doppler analysis. Flow velocity analysis extracts only the axial component which is dependent on the orientation of the vessel with respect to the optical axis. 3D information of the segmented vessel structure is readily used to obtain the flow velocity vectors along the individual vessels and to calculate the true angle-corrected flow speed.
Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin
1992-01-01
A finite-difference, three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. In this work, the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady-state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two. Included in the appendix is a paper on incompressible viscous flow through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries. Time-accurate calculations, such as impeller and diffusor interaction, will be reported in future work.
Discontinuous approximation of viscous two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bürger, Raimund; Kumar, Sarvesh; Sudarshan Kumar, Kenettinkara; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo
2016-09-01
Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) and Discontinuous Finite Volume Element (DFVE) methods are applied to a coupled flow-transport problem describing the immiscible displacement of a viscous incompressible fluid in a non-homogeneous porous medium. The model problem consists of nonlinear pressure-velocity equations (assuming Brinkman flow) coupled to a nonlinear hyperbolic equation governing the mass balance (saturation equation). The mass conservation properties inherent to finite volume-based methods motivate a DFVE scheme for the approximation of the Brinkman flow in combination with a RKDG method for the spatio-temporal discretization of the saturation equation. The stability of the uncoupled schemes for the flow and for the saturation equations is analyzed, and several numerical experiments illustrate the robustness of the numerical method.
Time-marching methods for three-dimensional steady and unsteady viscous imcompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, C. H.
1991-01-01
An implicit algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows is presented. The algorithm is based on an upwind-relaxation finite-difference method. Steady-state solutions are carried out using a time-marching solution technique in combination with a local time-stepping strategy. To obtain time-accurate solutions, a subiterative procedure is employed at each physical time step using a global time step to ensure the divergence-free condition. Steady-state flows in several straight ducts and in a square duct with a 90-degree bend are computed and compared with analytical and experimental results. The classical problem of starting flow in a circular pipe is chosen to verify the time accuracy of the present scheme. Finally, the three-dimensional bubble-type vortex breakdown of a slender cylindrical vortex in an unbounded flow is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Y.; Shu, C.; Teo, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Yang, L. M.
2015-11-01
In this paper, a gas-kinetic flux solver (GKFS) is presented for the simulation of incompressible and compressible viscous flows. In this solver, the finite volume method is applied to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations. The inviscid and viscous fluxes at the interface are obtained simultaneously via the gas-kinetic scheme, which locally reconstruct the solution for the continuous Boltzmann equation. Different from the conventional gas-kinetic BGK scheme [1], a simple way is presented in this work to evaluate the non-equilibrium distribution function, which is calculated by the difference of equilibrium distribution functions at the cell interface and its surrounding points. As a consequence, explicit formulations for computing the conservative flow variables and fluxes are simply derived. In particular, three specific schemes are proposed and validated via several incompressible and compressible test examples. Numerical results show that all three schemes can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible flows. On the other hand, Scheme III is much more stable and consistent in simulation of compressible flows.
An upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for viscous, compressible perfect-gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
1990-01-01
An upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for three-dimensional, viscous, compressible, perfect-gas flows is described. The algorithm is derived using a finite-volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Viscous terms are discretized using central differences. The relaxation strategy is well suited for computers employing either vector or parallel architectures. It is also well suited to the numerical solution of the governing equations on unstructured grids. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. Convergence rates and grid refinement studies are conducted for Mach 5 flow through an inlet with a 10 deg compression ramp and Mach 14 flow over a 15 deg ramp. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamics coefficients compare well with experiment data for Mach 10 flow over a blunt body.
Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in a Two-dimensional Cylindrical Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu
2016-11-01
We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flows onto a black hole in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian total variation diminishing plus remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)-like activity developed. The steady-state shocked solution in the inviscid as well as in the viscous regime matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large-amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. This oscillation of the inner part of the disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-quasars. Strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The jets also show the existence of shocks, which are produced as one shell hits the preceding one. The periodicities of the jets and shock oscillation are similar; the jets for the higher viscosity parameter appear to be stronger and faster.
Analysis of viscous heating in a micro-rocket flow and performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moríñigo, José A.; Quesada, José Hermida
2008-06-01
Micro-rockets for propulsion of small spacecrafts exhibit significant differences with regard to their macroscale counterparts, mainly caused by the role of the viscous dissipation and heat transfer processes in the micron-sized scale. The goal of this work is to simulate the transient operation of a micro-rocket to investigate the effects of viscous heating on the flow and performance for four configurations of the expanding gas and wafer material. The modelling follows a multiphysics approach that solves the fluid and solid regions fully coupled. A continuum-based description that incorporates the effects of gas rarefaction through the micro-nozzle, viscous dissipation and heat transfer at the solid-gas interface is presented. Non-equilibrium is addressed with the implementation of a 2nd-order slip-model for the velocity and temperature at the walls. The results stress that solid-fluid coupling exerts a strong influence on the flowfield and performance as well as the effect of the wafer during the first instants of the transient in micro-rockets made of low and high thermal conductivity materials.
Ellingson, William A.; Forster, George A.
1999-11-02
Apparatus and a method for controlling the flow rate of viscous materials through a nozzle includes an apertured main body and an apertured end cap coupled together and having an elongated, linear flow channel extending the length thereof. An end of the main body is disposed within the end cap and includes a plurality of elongated slots concentrically disposed about and aligned with the flow channel. A generally flat cam plate having a center aperture is disposed between the main body and end cap and is rotatable about the flow channel. A plurality of flow control vane assemblies are concentrically disposed about the flow channel and are coupled to the cam plate. Each vane assembly includes a vane element disposed adjacent the end of the flow channel. Rotation of the cam plate in a first direction causes a corresponding rotation of each of the vane elements for positioning the individual vane elements over the aperture in the end cap blocking flow through the flow channel, while rotation in an opposite direction removes the vane elements from the aperture and positions them about the flow channel in a nested configuration in the full open position, with a continuous range of vane element positions available between the full open and closed positions.
Fast particles identification in programmable form at level-0 trigger by means of the 3D-Flow system
Crosetto, Dario B.
1998-10-30
The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on either an FPGA or an ASIC implementation, it can address, in a fully programmable manner, applications where commercially available processors would fail because of throughput requirements. Possible applications include filtering-algorithms (pattern recognition) from the input of multiple sensors, as well as moving any input validated by these filtering-algorithms to a single output channel. Both operations can easily be implemented on a 3D-Flow system to achieve a real-time processing system with a very short lag time. This system can be built either with off-the-shelf FPGAs or, for higher data rates, with CMOS chips containing 4 to 16 processors each. The basic building block of the system, a 3D-Flow processor, has been successfully designed in VHDL code written in ''Generic HDL'' (mostly made of reusable blocks that are synthesizable in different technologies, or FPGAs), to produce a netlist for a four-processor ASIC featuring 0.35 micron CBA (Ceil Base Array) technology at 3.3 Volts, 884 mW power dissipation at 60 MHz and 63.75 mm sq. die size. The same VHDL code has been targeted to three FPGA manufacturers (Altera EPF10K250A, ORCA-Lucent Technologies 0R3T165 and Xilinx XCV1000). A complete set of software tools, the 3D-Flow System Manager, equally applicable to ASIC or FPGA implementations, has been produced to provide full system simulation, application development, real-time monitoring, and run-time fault recovery. Today's technology can accommodate 16 processors per chip in a medium size die, at a cost per processor of less than $5 based on the current silicon die/size technology cost.
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.
2014-05-15
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.
Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope
2012-07-15
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
An axis-free overset grid in spherical polar coordinates for simulating 3D self-gravitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wongwathanarat, A.; Hammer, N. J.; Müller, E.
2010-05-01
Aims: Three dimensional explicit hydrodynamic codes based on spherical polar coordinates using a single spherical polar grid suffer from a severe restriction of the time step size due to the convergence of grid lines near the poles of the coordinate system. More importantly, numerical artifacts are encountered at the symmetry axis of the grid where boundary conditions have to be imposed that flaw the flow near the axis. The first problem can be eased and the second one avoided by applying an overlapping grid technique. Methods: A type of overlapping grid in spherical coordinates is adopted. This so called “Yin-Yang” grid is a two-patch overset grid proposed by Kageyama and Sato for geophysical simulations. Its two grid patches contain only the low-latitude regions of the usual spherical polar grid and are combined together in a simple manner. This property of the Yin-Yang grid greatly simplifies its implementation into a 3D code already employing spherical polar coordinates. It further allows for a much larger time step in 3D simulations using high angular resolution (⪉1°) than that required in 3D simulations using a regular spherical grid with the same angular resolution. Results: The Yin-Yang grid is successfully implemented into a 3D version of the explicit Eulerian grid-based code PROMETHEUS including self-gravity. The modified code successfully passed several standard hydrodynamic tests producing results which are in very good agreement with analytic solutions. Moreover, the solutions obtained with the Yin-Yang grid exhibit no peculiar behaviour at the boundary between the two grid patches. The code has also been successfully used to model astrophysically relevant situations, namely equilibrium polytropes, a Taylor-Sedov explosion, and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. According to our results, the usage of the Yin-Yang grid greatly enhances the suitability and efficiency of 3D explicit Eulerian codes based on spherical polar coordinates for astrophysical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing
2016-10-01
This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Hookey, N.A.
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
On the mechanism of low-pressure imprint lithography: capillarity vs viscous flow.
Khang, Dahl-Young; Lee, Hong H
2008-05-20
Dominant mechanisms in low-pressure imprint lithography processes have been identified for the regimes that are definable in terms of applied pressure, temperature, and mold material characteristics. Capillarity is found to be the dominant mechanism at high temperature and low pressure when stiff, hard molds are used. In the case of flexible thin-film ( approximately 20 microm) molds, both the capillarity and the viscous flow are involved. Both mechanisms are operative in the initial stage of the imprinting, but the capillarity takes over as time progresses.
Numerical Simulation of Supercavitating Flows using a Viscous-Potential Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ji-Hye; Ahn, Byoung-Kwon
2015-12-01
A numerical method was developed to predict the supercavity around axi-symmetric bodies. Employing potential flow, the proposed method computes the cavity shape and drag force, which are the important features of practical concern for supercavitating objects. A method to calculate the frictional drag acting on the wetted body surface was implemented, which is called the viscous-potential method. The results revealed details of the drag curve appearing in the course of an increase in speed and cavity growth. In addition, the supercavity and drag features of the actual shape of the supercavitating torpedo were investigated according to the different depth conditions.
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.
2014-01-01
Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.
Numerical investigation of internal high-speed viscous flows using a parabolic technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, O. L.; Power, G. D.
1985-01-01
A feasibility study has been conducted to assess the applicability of an existing parabolic analysis (ADD-Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct), developed previously for subsonic viscous internal flows, to mixed supersonic/subsonic flows with heat addition simulating a SCRAMJET combustor. A study was conducted with the ADD code modified to include additional convection effects in the normal momentum equation when supersonic expansion and compression waves are present. A set of test problems with weak shock and expansion waves have been analyzed with this modified ADD method and stable and accurate solutions were demonstrated provided the streamwise step size was maintained at levels larger than the boundary layer displacement thickness. Calculations made with further reductions in step size encountered departure solutions consistent with strong interaction theory. Calculations were also performed for a flow field with a flame front in which a specific heat release was imposed to simulate a SCRAMJET combustor. In this case the flame front generated relatively thick shear layers which aggravated the departure solution problem. Qualitatively correct results were obtained for these cases using a marching technique with the convective terms in the normal momentum equation suppressed. It is concluded from the present study that for the class of problems where strong viscous/inviscid interactions are present a global iteration procedure is required.
3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.
Global eigenfunction based actuation and sensor design for compressible, viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natarajan, Mahesh; Freund, Jonathan; Bodony, Daniel
2014-11-01
A method is developed to estimate optimal actuator types and locations for controlling compressible, viscous flows using linear feedback. Based on an analysis of the eigensystem of the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes operator for steady baseflow, the forward and adjoint global modes are used to estimate of where the controller should be placed, and what type of controller (mass, momentum, energy, etc.) it should be. The method is demonstrated using direct numerical simulations of a separated boundary layer in a Mach 0.65 diffuser at different Reynolds numbers. The baseflow is taken as the true steady solution or the time-averaged flow. For sufficiently low Reynolds numbers, global stabilization of the flow is achieved; only partial stabilization is achieved at higher Reynolds numbers. Rolls Royce North America and Office of Naval Research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Turkel, Eli
1997-01-01
A preconditioning scheme has been implemented into a three-dimensional viscous computational fluid dynamics code for turbomachine blade rows. The preconditioning allows the code, originally developed for simulating compressible flow fields, to be applied to nearly-incompressible, low Mach number flows. A brief description is given of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a rotating coordinate system, along with the preconditioning method employed. Details about the conservative formulation of artificial dissipation are provided, and different artificial dissipation schemes are discussed and compared. The preconditioned code was applied to a well-documented case involving the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which detailed experimental data are available for comparison. Performance and flow field data are compared for the near-design operating point of the compressor, with generally good agreement between computation and experiment. Further, significant differences between computational results for the different numerical implementations, revealing different levels of solution accuracy, are discussed.
Unstructured and adaptive mesh generation for high Reynolds number viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1991-01-01
A method for generating and adaptively refining a highly stretched unstructured mesh suitable for the computation of high-Reynolds-number viscous flows about arbitrary two-dimensional geometries was developed. The method is based on the Delaunay triangulation of a predetermined set of points and employs a local mapping in order to achieve the high stretching rates required in the boundary-layer and wake regions. The initial mesh-point distribution is determined in a geometry-adaptive manner which clusters points in regions of high curvature and sharp corners. Adaptive mesh refinement is achieved by adding new points in regions of large flow gradients, and locally retriangulating; thus, obviating the need for global mesh regeneration. Initial and adapted meshes about complex multi-element airfoil geometries are shown and compressible flow solutions are computed on these meshes.
Unsteady viscous effects in the flow over an oscillating surface. [mathematical model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerner, J. I.
1972-01-01
A theoretical model for the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with an oscillating wavy surface over which a fluid is flowing is developed, with an application to wind-driven water waves and to panel flutter in low supersonic flow. A systematic methodology is developed to obtain the surface pressure distribution by considering separately the effects on the perturbed flow of a mean shear velocity profile, viscous stresses, the turbulent Reynolds stresses, compressibility, and three-dimensionality. The inviscid theory is applied to the wind-water wave problem by specializing to traveling-wave disturbances, and the pressure magnitude and phase shift as a function of the wave phase speed are computed for a logarithmic mean velocity profile and compared with inviscid theory and experiment. The results agree with experimental evidence for the stabilization of the panel motion due to the influence of the unsteady boundary layer.
Thermodynamics of viscous flow and elasticity of glass forming liquids in the glass transition range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouxel, T.
2011-11-01
The elastic moduli of glasses from different chemical systems, including oxide, chalcogenide, oxynitride, and metallic, were investigated through the glass transition (Tg), typically from 0.4 to 1.3 Tg. These data were used to interpret the temperature sensitivity of the shear viscosity coefficient obtained on the same materials. The relevant Gibbs free activation energy was estimated from the apparent heat of flow by means of the temperature dependence of the shear elastic modulus. The activation entropy associated with the viscous flow was also derived and was found to correlate with the fragile versus strong character of the glass forming liquids. Finally, the physicochemistry of the flow process was described on the basis of the glass network de-structuration which shows up through the temperature dependence of Poisson's ratio, and an expression for the shear viscosity coefficient is proposed which is chiefly based on the high temperature elastic behavior.
3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.
2015-11-01
We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.
Axisymmetric Granular Collapse: a Transient 3D flow Test of Viscoplasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerswell, Rich; Lacaze, Laurent
2008-11-01
The collapse of a stationary cylinder of granular material onto a horizontal plan is a deceptively simple experiment rich in flow behaviour. Using 3-dimensional soft particle simulations, we reproduce the observed scaling laws for the maximum final runout and height of the deposit as a function of the initial aspect ratio. The flow simulations of this unsteady, largely axisymmetric flow are then used to confront a recently-introduced visco-plastic continuum theory (Jop, Forterre & Pouliquen, Nature, 441,727,2006) which has seen some success modelling steady, unidirectional flows.
Stability analysis for capillary channel flow: 1d and 3d computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grah, Aleksander; Klatte, Jörg; Dreyer, Michael E.
The subject of the presentation are numerical studies on capillary channel flow, based on results of the sounding rocket TEXUS experiments. The flow through a capillary channel is established by a gear pump at the outlet. The channel, consists of two parallel glass plates with a width of 25 mm, a gap of 10 mm and a length of 12 mm. The meniscus of a compensation tube maintains a constant system pressure. Steady and dynamic pressure effects in the system force the surfaces to bend inwards. A maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the channel geometry, the flow regime and the liquid properties. The aim of the experiments is the determination of the free surface shape and to find the maximum flow rate. In order to study the unsteady liquid loop behavior, a dimensionless one-dimensional model and a corresponding three-dimensional model were developed. The one-dimensional model is based on the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the unsteady continuity equation and geometrical conditions for the surface curvature and the flow cross-section. The experimental and evaluated contour data show good agreement for a sequence of transient flow rate perturbations. In the case of steady flow at maximum flow rate, when the "choking" effect occurs, the surfaces collapse and cause gas ingestion into the channel. This effect is related to the Speed Index. At the critical flow rate the Speed Index reaches the value 1, in analogy to the Mach Number. Unsteady choking does not necessarily cause surface collapse. We show, that temporarily Speed Index values exceeding One may be achieved for a perfectly stable supercritical dynamic flow. As a supercritical criterion for the dynamic free surface stability we define a Dynamic Index considering the local capillary pressure and the convective pressure, which is a function of the local velocity. The Dynamic Index is below One for stable flow while D = 1
Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor
2015-08-01
We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ (t ) and pressure p (t ) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Recturb=RecTDR≃(4.8 ±0.2 ) ×105 independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Recturb and RecTDR depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of Cf and Cp, by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998), 10.1063/1.869532; Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.R28; and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005), 10.1088/0953-8984/17/14/008] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Ho, Y.; Basson, A.
1993-01-01
The objective of this research is to simulate steady and unsteady viscous flows, including rotor/stator interaction and tip clearance effects in turbomachinery. The numerical formulation for steady flow developed here includes an efficient grid generation scheme, particularly suited to computational grids for the analysis of turbulent turbomachinery flows and tip clearance flows, and a semi-implicit, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics scheme that directly includes artificial dissipation, and is applicable to both viscous and inviscid flows. The values of these artificial dissipation is optimized to achieve accuracy and convergency in the solution. The numerical model is used to investigate the structure of tip clearance flows in a turbine nozzle. The structure of leakage flow is captured accurately, including blade-to-blade variation of all three velocity components, pitch and yaw angles, losses and blade static pressures in the tip clearance region. The simulation also includes evaluation of such quantities of leakage mass flow, vortex strength, losses, dominant leakage flow regions and the spanwise extent affected by the leakage flow. It is demonstrated, through optimization of grid size and artificial dissipation, that the tip clearance flow field can be captured accurately. The above numerical formulation was modified to incorporate time accurate solutions. An inner loop iteration scheme is used at each time step to account for the non-linear effects. The computation of unsteady flow through a flat plate cascade subjected to a transverse gust reveals that the choice of grid spacing and the amount of artificial dissipation is critical for accurate prediction of unsteady phenomena. The rotor-stator interaction problem is simulated by starting the computation upstream of the stator, and the upstream rotor wake is specified from the experimental data. The results show that the stator potential effects have appreciable influence on the upstream rotor wake
3D FEM analyses on flow field characteristics of the valveless piezoelectric pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Yuan
2016-06-01
Due to the special transportation and heat transfer characteristics, the fractal-like Y-shape branching tube is used in valveless piezoelectric pumps as a no-moving-part valve. However, there have been little analyses on the flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump, which is critical to the performance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes. Flow field of the piezoelectric pump is analyzed by the finite element method, and the pattern of the velocity streamlines is revealed, which can well explain the difference of total flow resistances of the piezoelectric pump. Besides, simplified numerical method is employed to calculate the export flow rate of piezoelectric pump, and the flow field of the piezoelectric pump is presented. The FEM computation shows that the maximum flow rate is 16.4 mL/min. Compared with experimental result, the difference between them is just 55.5%, which verifies the FEM method. The reasons of the difference between dividing and merging flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes are also investigated in this method. The proposed research provides the instruction to design of novel piezoelectric pump and a rapid method to analyse the pump flow rate.
3D FEM analyses on flow field characteristics of the valveless piezoelectric pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Yuan
2016-07-01
Due to the special transportation and heat transfer characteristics, the fractal-like Y-shape branching tube is used in valveless piezoelectric pumps as a no-moving-part valve. However, there have been little analyses on the flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump, which is critical to the performance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes. Flow field of the piezoelectric pump is analyzed by the finite element method, and the pattern of the velocity streamlines is revealed, which can well explain the difference of total flow resistances of the piezoelectric pump. Besides, simplified numerical method is employed to calculate the export flow rate of piezoelectric pump, and the flow field of the piezoelectric pump is presented. The FEM computation shows that the maximum flow rate is 16.4 mL/min. Compared with experimental result, the difference between them is just 55.5%, which verifies the FEM method. The reasons of the difference between dividing and merging flow resistance of the valveless piezoelectric pump with fractal-like Y-shape branching tubes are also investigated in this method. The proposed research provides the instruction to design of novel piezoelectric pump and a rapid method to analyse the pump flow rate.
3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...
LDA measurement of the passage flow field in a 3-D airfoil cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
Three-dimensional internal flow computational models are currently being developed to predict the flow through turbomachinery blade rows. For these codes to be of quantitative value, they must be verified with data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental flow phenomena. In this paper, the complete three-dimensional flow field through a subsonic annular cascade of cambered airfoils is experimentally quantified. In particular, detailed three-dimensional data are obtained to quantify the inlet velocity profile, the cascade passage velocity field, and the exit region flow field. The primary instrumentation for acquiring these data is a single-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer operating in the backscatter mode, with chordwise distributions of airfoil surface static pressure taps also utilized. Appropriate data are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL/TSONIC codes.
Linear and nonlinear instability and ligament dynamics in 3D laminar two-layer liquid/liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant; Scott, David; Bethune, Iain; Spelt, Peter
2013-11-01
We consider the linear and nonlinear stability of two-phase density-matched but viscosity contrasted fluids subject to laminar Poiseuille flow in a channel, paying particular attention to the formation of three-dimensional waves. The Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire analysis is used along with DNS of the 3D two-phase Navier-Stokes equations using our newly launched TPLS Solver (http://edin.ac/10cRKzS). For the parameter regimes considered, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct mechanisms whereby 3D waves enter the system, and dominate at late time. There exists a direct route, whereby 3D waves are amplified by the standard linear mechanism; for certain parameter classes, such waves grow at a rate less than but comparable to that of most-dangerous two-dimensional mode. Additionally, there is a weakly nonlinear route, whereby a purely spanwise wave couples to a streamwise mode and grows exponentially. We demonstrate these mechanisms in isolation and in concert. Consideration is also given to the ultimate state of these waves: persistent three-dimensional nonlinear waves are stretched and distorted by the base flow, thereby producing regimes of ligaments, ``sheets,'' or ``interfacial turbulence.'' HECToR RAP/dCSE Project e174, HPC-Europa 2.
Texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow by real-time advection and volumetric illumination.
Weiskopf, Daniel; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Ertl, Thomas
2007-01-01
This paper presents an interactive technique for the dense texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow, taking into account issues of computational efficiency and visual perception. High efficiency is achieved by a 3D graphics processing unit (GPU)-based texture advection mechanism that implements logical 3D grid structures by physical memory in the form of 2D textures. This approach results in fast read and write access to physical memory, independent of GPU architecture. Slice-based direct volume rendering is used for the final display. We investigate two alternative methods for the volumetric illumination of the result of texture advection: First, gradient-based illumination that employs a real-time computation of gradients, and, second, line-based lighting based on illumination in codimension 2. In addition to the Phong model, perception-guided rendering methods are considered, such as cool/warm shading, halo rendering, or color-based depth cueing. The problems of clutter and occlusion are addressed by supporting a volumetric importance function that enhances features of the flow and reduces visual complexity in less interesting regions. GPU implementation aspects, performance measurements, and a discussion of results are included to demonstrate our visualization approach.
3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.; Hoffman, J. D.
1982-01-01
A new streamwise marching procedure was developed and coded for compressible viscous subsonic flow in planar or axisymmetric ducts with or without centerbodies. The continuity, streamwise momentum, cross-flow momentum, and energy equations are written in generalized orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. To allow the use of a marching procedure, second derivatives in the streamwise momentum equation are written as the sum of a known two dimensional imposed pressure field and an unknown one dimensional viscous correction. For turbulent flow, the Reynolds stress and heat flux terms are modeled using two-layer eddy viscosity turbulence models.
The NCOREL computer program for 3D nonlinear supersonic potential flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, M. J.
1983-01-01
An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.
Packing, alignment and flow of shape-anisotropic grains in a 3D silo experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Börzsönyi, Tamás; Somfai, Ellák; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Mier, Pascal; Rose, Georg; Stannarius, Ralf
2016-09-01
Granular material flowing through bottlenecks, like the openings of silos, tend to clog and thus inhibit further flow. We study this phenomenon in a three-dimensional hopper for spherical and shape-anisotropic particles by means of x-ray tomography. The x-ray tomograms provide information on the bulk of the granular filling, and allows us to determine the particle positions and orientations inside the silo. In addition, it allows us to calculate local packing densities in different parts of the container. We find that in the flowing zone of the silo particles show a preferred orientation and thereby a higher order. Similarly to simple shear flows, the average orientation of the particles is not parallel to the streamlines but encloses a certain angle with it. In most parts of the hopper, the angular distribution of the particles did not reach the one corresponding to stationary shear flow, thus the average orientation angle in the hopper deviates more from the streamlines than in stationary shear flows. In the flowing parts of the silo, shear induced dilation is observed, which is more pronounced for elongated grains than for nearly spherical particles. The clogged state is characterized by a dome, i.e. the geometry of the layer of grains blocking the outflow. The shape of the dome depends on the particle shape.
Progress Towards a Cartesian Cut-Cell Method for Viscous Compressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2011-01-01
The proposed paper reports advances in developing a method for high Reynolds number compressible viscous flow simulations using a Cartesian cut-cell method with embedded boundaries. This preliminary work focuses on accuracy of the discretization near solid wall boundaries. A model problem is used to investigate the accuracy of various difference stencils for second derivatives and to guide development of the discretization of the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. Near walls, quadratic reconstruction in the wall-normal direction is used to mitigate mesh irregularity and yields smooth skin friction distributions along the body. Multigrid performance is demonstrated using second-order coarse grid operators combined with second-order restriction and prolongation operators. Preliminary verification and validation for the method is demonstrated using flat-plate and airfoil examples at compressible Mach numbers. Simulations of flow on laminar and turbulent flat plates show skin friction and velocity profiles compared with those from boundary-layer theory. Airfoil simulations are performed at laminar and turbulent Reynolds numbers with results compared to both other simulations and experimental data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
Updegraff, C.D. ); Lee, C.E. ); Gallegos, D.P. )
1991-02-01
This report constitutes the user's manual for DCM3D. DCM3D is a computer code for solving three-dimensional, ground-water flow problems in variably saturated, fractured porous media. The code is based on a dual-continuum model with porous media comprising one continuum and fractures comprising the other. The continua are connected by a transfer term that depends on the unsaturated permeability of the porous medium. An integrated finite-difference scheme is used to discretize the governing equations in space. The time-dependent term is allowed to remain continuous. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) is solved with a general ODE solver, LSODES. The code is capable of handling transient, spatially dependent source terms and boundary conditions. The boundary conditions can either prescribed head or prescribed flux. 24 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young Won; Yoo, Jung Yul
2015-02-01
Electrophoretic mobility of particles dispersed in an electrolyte solution induces the particles to lag behind a Poiseuille flow in a rectangular microchannel, which causes bidirectional inward migration of particles to the central axis of the channel. As a result, in the present theoretical and experimental study, three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing is clearly realized in such a manner that the particles are aligned in a single file along the axis of the channel as they are transported downstream. Theoretical prediction on the particle migration time provides an excellent assessment of the experimental results. The method proposed in the present study has potential for development of low-cost rapid manufacturing process of sheathless monolayer microchips for 3D particle focusing.
Navier-Stokes simulation of 3-D hypersonic equilibrium air flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagaraj, N.; Lombard, C. K.; Bardina, J.
1988-01-01
A computationally efficient three-dimensional conservative supracharacteristic Navier-Stokes method has been extended to simulate complex external chemically reacting flows of hypersonic reentry vehicles at angle-of-attack. Numerical simulation results of the flow around a sphere-cone-cone-flare reentry vehicle at 10 deg angle-of-attack are presented, in addition to the results of a well-validated two-dimensional code with which the 0-deg axisymmetric flow has been computed. A method for obtaining compositions of species in equilibrium ionized air is proposed.
Effective Wall Friction in Wall-Bounded 3D Dense Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick
2015-10-01
We report numerical simulations on granular shear flows confined between two flat but frictional sidewalls. Novel regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the flow. The effective friction at sidewalls is characterized (effective friction coefficient and orientation of the friction force) for each regime, and its interdependence with slip and force fluctuations is pointed out. We propose a simple scaling law linking the slip velocity to the granular temperature in the main flow direction which leads naturally to another scaling law for the effective friction.