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Sample records for 3-day diet records

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Validity of Electronic Diet Recording Nutrient Estimates Compared to Dietitian Analysis of Diet Records: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. Objective To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Methods Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R 2) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. Results No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively

  3. Setting the Record Straight. The Truth About Fad Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat Foods Council, Parker, CO.

    The Setting the Record Straight information packet presents facts to set the record straight about nutrition and debunk fad diets. The kit features materials designed to communicate the importance of balanced eating. Materials include: a time line of fad diets; four reproducible fad diet book review handouts that show the misleading claims rampant…

  4. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  5. Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Bryan B; Bross, Rachelle; Morrison, Gillian; Zadeh, Kalantar; Kopple, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies suggest that maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients report dietary energy intakes (EI) that are lower than what is actually ingested. Data supporting this conclusion have several important limitations. The present study introduces a novel approach of assessing underreporting of EI in MHD patients. Design Comparisons of EI of free-living MHD patients determined from food records to their measured energy needs. Setting Metabolic research ward. Subjects 13 clinically stable MHD patients with unchanging weights whose EI was assessed by dietitian-interview-assisted 3-day food records. Intervention EI was compared to 1) patients’ resting energy expenditure (REE), measured by indirect calorimetry, and estimated total energy expenditure (TEE), and 2) patients’ dietary energy requirements (DER) measured while patients underwent nitrogen balance studies and consumed a constant energy diet in a research ward for a mean duration of 89.5 days. DER was calculated as the actual EI during the research study corrected for changes in body fat and lean body mass measured by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Main Outcome Measure Underreporting of energy intake was determined by an EI:REE ratio <1.27 and an EI:TEE ratio or EI:DEE ratio <1.0. Results Seven of the 13 MHD patients studied were male. Patient’s ages were 47.7±SD 9.7 years; BMI averaged 25.4±2.8 kg/m2, and dialysis vintage was 53.3±37.1 months. The EI:REE ratio (1.03±0.23) was significantly less than the cut-off value for under-reporting of 1.27 (p=0.001); 12 of 13 patients had EI:REE ratios <1.27. The mean EI:TEE ratio was significantly less than the cut-off value of 1.0 (0.73±0.17, p<0.0001), and 12 MHD patients had EI:TEE ratios <1.0. The EI:DER ratio was also less than 1.0 (0.83±0.25, p=0.012), and 10 MHD had EI:DER ratios <1.0. Conclusion Dietitian interview-assisted diet records by MHD patients substantially underestimate the patient’s dietary energy intake. PMID:25682334

  6. Validation of a dietary vitamin D questionnaire using multiple diet records and the block 98 health habits and history questionnaire in healthy postmenopausal women in northern California.

    PubMed

    Hacker-Thompson, Andrea; Schloetter, Monique; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in older women and can negatively impact bone status. A simple method by which clinicians and researchers can evaluate a patient's vitamin D dietary intake could help identify individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study was done to validate a short dietary vitamin D questionnaire. Postmenopausal women (n=122), with a mean age of 63.9 ± 7.8 years, completed a Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire (BVDQ), the Block Health History and Habits Questionnaire 1998 (BHHHQ98), a 3-day food record, and an evaluation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, and Bland-Altman analyses to compare the performance of the BVDQ to the BHHHQ98 and to the diet record. As assessed by the BVDQ, vitamin D intake averaged 178.7 ± 112.3 IU per day, correlating well with the Block HHHQ98 (r=0.51, P<0.001) and the 3-day food record (r=0.43, P<0.001). Compared with the food record, both the BVDQ and the BHHHQ98 overestimated dietary vitamin D intake by less than 100 IU/day. The two questionnaires performed nearly identically at all levels of vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to vitamin D intake as measured by either the BVDQ or the BHHHQ98, but did correlate weakly with vitamin D intake from the 3-day diet record (r=0.20, P=0.04). The Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire correlated well with the longer and more intense dietary assessment methods, making it a simple and accurate instrument for assessing vitamin D intake.

  7. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Cerling, Thure E; Harris, John M; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-04-19

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C(4) grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15-10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C(3) to mixed C(3)/C(4) or C(4) diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9-3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C(4) grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C(4) grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C(4)-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C(4)-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C(3)-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C(4) grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C(3) diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change.

  8. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kevin T.; Cerling, Thure E.; Harris, John M.; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G.; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C4 grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15–10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C3 to mixed C3/C4 or C4 diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9–3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C4 grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C4 grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C4-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C4-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C3-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C4 grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C3 diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change. PMID:21464327

  9. Northern Goshawk diet in Minnesota: An Analysis using video recording systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smithers, B.L.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We used video-recording systems to collect diet information at 13 Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nests in Minnesota during the 2000, 2001, and 2002 breeding seasons. We collected 4871 hr of video footage, from which 652 prey deliveries were recorded. The majority of prey deliveries identified were mammals (62%), whereas birds (38%) composed a smaller proportion of diet. Mammals accounted for 61% of biomass delivered, and avian prey items accounted for 39% of prey biomass. Sciurids and leporids accounted for 70% of the identified prey. Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were the dominant mammals identified in the diet, while American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) were the dominant avian prey delivered to nests. On average, breeding goshawks delivered 2.12 prey items/d, and each delivery averaged 275 g for a total of 551 g delivered/d. However, daily (P < 0.001) and hourly (P = 0.01) delivery rates varied among nests. Delivery rates (P = 0.01) and biomass delivered (P = 0.038) increased with brood size. Diversity and equitability of prey used was similar among nests and was low throughout the study area, most likely due to the dominance of red squirrel in the diet. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr; Ruskin, David N; Masino, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet-fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  11. Does the Medicare 3-Day Rule Increase Length of Stay?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Victor H; Ong, Alvin; Post, Zachary; Orozco, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Medicare will only cover a stay in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after TKA if the patient stays for at least 3 days at the inpatient hospital. The 3-day stay rule was instituted in 1965, to prevent over utilization of Medicare. We retrospectively reviewed 800 consecutive TKA, identifying patients that were discharged to rehab after surgery. 322 patients were discharged to SNF after surgery (209 Medicare, 113 private insurances). The LOS was 2.3 days for privately insured patients and 3.02 for Medicare recipients (P<0.05). No difference was found with regard to age, BMI, and ASA score. The Medicare 3-day rule independently increased the LOS in patients who required inpatient rehab, leading to increased cost. We suggest that this rule must be revised.

  12. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  13. BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet with a Mobile Food Record among Adults Participating in Dietary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Pollard, Christina M.; Norman, Richard; Wright, Janine L.; Harray, Amelia J.; Shoneye, Charlene L.; Solah, Vicky A.; Hunt, Wendy J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4-day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow-up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake. PMID:28272343

  14. High Protein Diet Maintains Glucose Production During Exercise-Induced Energy Deficit: A Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-28

    Robinson Hall Boston, MA 02115 Phone: 617-373-5543 Fax: 617-373-2968 c.sceppa@neu.edu Ellen L. Glickman Telephone: 508-233-4868 Fax: 508-233-5833...anthropometry (height and weight), body composition (dual-energy x- ray absorptiometry or 7 DEXA), 3-day diet records, and 3-day physical activity records...ratio of these nutrients in the diet remained approximately 1:2, respectively. Meals were served according to a fixed schedule, but water and sugar

  15. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  16. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  17. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  18. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-09-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m3. However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m3. Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm3 with a size range of 15-710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm3 when the reactor was stopped.

  19. Plasma biochemistry in the horse during 3-day event competition.

    PubMed

    Rose, R J; Ilkiw, J E; Arnold, K S; Backhouse, J W; Sampson, D

    1980-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 16 Thoroughbred horses before, during and after the second day of a 3-day event. Plasma osmolality, concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, glucose, bilirubin, iron, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, inorganic phosphate, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were measured. Significant differences from pre-event values were found in all parameters with the greatest changes being found after the cross-country phase. Most parameters showed significant rises following exercise, except calcium and chloride, which decreased. It was deduced from the changes in biochemistry that dehydration, reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased glycogenolysis and increased lipid metabolism, were a result of this form of competitive exercise.

  20. Feasibility of Assessing Diet with a Mobile Food Record for Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bathgate, Katherine E.; Sherriff, Jill L.; Leonard, Helen; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Technology-based methods for assessing diet in those with disability remains largely unexplored. The aim was to assess the feasibility of assessing diet with an image-based mobile food record application (mFR) in 51 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (PANDs). Adherence was also assessed with the instruction to include a fiducial marker object in the before and after eating images. The PANDs sample completed a four-day mFR and results were compared with a sample of young adults from the Connecting Health and Technology study (CHAT, n = 244). Compared to the CHAT sample, PANDs participants reported more fruit (2.2 ± 1.8 versus 1.0 ± 0.9 serves respectively) and vegetables (2.4 ± 1.3 versus 1.9 ± 1.0 serves, respectively), but no differences in energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and beverages were observed. Compared to CHAT, PANDs participants captured fewer images with the mFR (4.9 ± 2.3 versus 4.0 ± 1.5 images, respectively). Adherence to the instruction to include the fiducial marker in images was lower for PANDs compared with the CHAT sample (90.3% versus 96.5%). Due to the quality of information captured in images and the high acceptability of the fiducial marker, the mFR shows great promise as a feasible method of assessing diet in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. PMID:28335382

  1. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.

  2. Effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet on fecal bile acids and neutral sterols.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Engle, A; Simi, B; O'Brien, L T; Barnard, R J; Pritikin, N; Wynder, E L

    1988-07-01

    The effect of a diet low in total fat and high in complex carbohydrates on the excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols and on serum lipids was studied in women, 46-47 years old, who were consuming a mixed Western diet. Participants kept an initial 3-day food record while consuming their normal diet (pre-diet period). During the dietary intervention period (experimental diet) which lasted for 26 days, all volunteers consumed a low-calorie, low-fat (less than 10% of total calories), high-fiber (37 g/day, high-carbohydrate diet. At the 1-year follow-up, the participants completed another 3-day food record, which indicates that these volunteers maintained their caloric and fat intake at levels slightly higher than the experimental diet, but lower than the pre-diet period. Individual 24-hr fecal samples for 2 days and blood samples were collected from the volunteers during each dietary period. Fecal samples were analyzed for neutral sterols and bile acids, and blood samples were analyzed to ascertain cholesterol and triglyceride levels. There were no significant differences in the excretion of neutral sterols between the dietary periods. Fecal secondary bile acids were significantly lower during the experimental and follow-up diet periods compared with the pre-test diet period. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower during the experimental and follow-up diet periods than during the pre-test diet period. These results suggest that switching from a high-fat, low-fiber diet to a low-fat, high-fiber diet can reduce the excretion of bile acids which are thought to be involved in the promotion of colon cancer.

  3. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  4. Evaluation of a Nutrition Care Process-based audit instrument, the Diet-NCP-Audit, for documentation of dietetic care in medical records.

    PubMed

    Lövestam, Elin; Orrevall, Ylva; Koochek, Afsaneh; Karlström, Brita; Andersson, Agneta

    2014-06-01

    Adequate documentation in medical records is important for high-quality health care. Documentation quality is widely studied within nursing, but studies are lacking within dietetic care. The aim of this study was to translate, elaborate and evaluate an audit instrument, based on the four-step Nutrition Care Process model, for documentation of dietetic care in medical records. The audit instrument includes 14 items focused on essential parts of dietetic care and the documentation's clarity and structure. Each item is to be rated 0-1 or 0-2 points, with a maximum total instrument score of 26. A detailed manual was added to facilitate the interpretation and increase the reliability of the instrument. The instrument is based on a similar tool initiated 9 years ago in the United States, which in this study was translated to Swedish and further elaborated. The translated and further elaborated instrument was named Diet-NCP-Audit. Firstly, the content validity of the Diet-NCP-Audit instrument was tested by five experienced dietitians. They rated the relevance and clarity of the included items. After a first rating, minor improvements were made. After the second rating, the Content Validity Indexes were 1.0, and the Clarity Index was 0.98. Secondly, to test the reliability, four dietitians reviewed 20 systematically collected dietetic notes independently using the audit instrument. Before the review, a calibration process was performed. A comparison of the reviews was performed, which resulted in a moderate inter-rater agreement with Krippendorff's α = 0.65-0.67. Grouping the audit results in three levels: lower, medium or higher range, a Krippendorff's α of 0.74 was considered high reliability. Also, an intra-rater reliability test-retest with a 9 weeks interval, performed by one dietitian, showed strong agreement. To conclude, the evaluated audit instrument had high content validity and moderate to high reliability and can be used in auditing documentation of dietetic

  5. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  6. Long-term telemetric recording of arterial pressure and heart rate in mice fed basal and high NaCl diets.

    PubMed

    Carlson, S H; Wyss, J M

    2000-02-01

    Research examining the control of arterial pressure in mice has primarily relied on tail-cuff plethysmography and, more recently, on tethered arterial catheters. In contrast, the radiotelemetry method has largely become the "gold standard" for long-term monitoring of arterial pressure and heart rate in rats. Whereas smaller telemetry probes have recently been developed, no published studies have used radiotelemetric monitoring of arterial pressure in mice, largely because of a relatively low success rate in small mice (ie, <30 g body weight). We report on the development of a protocol for the use of these probes to continuously monitor arterial pressure and heart rate in mice as small as 19 g body weight. To test the accuracy and reliability of this method, adult C57/BL6 mice were monitored for 3 weeks during exposure to a basal followed by a high NaCl diet. The results demonstrate that carotid and aortic placements of the telemetry probe provide equally accurate monitoring of arterial pressure and heart rate, but the carotid placement has a much greater rate of success. Exposure to a high NaCl diet increases both the amplitude of the arterial pressure rhythm (+ 6.0+/-0.6 mm Hg, approximately 32%) and the average mean arterial pressure (+ 8.6+/-1.1 mm Hg, approximately 8%), as would be predicted from previous studies in NaCl-resistant rats. Thus, the data demonstrate that telemetric recording of long-term arterial pressure and heart rate provides a powerful tool with which to define the mechanisms of cardiovascular control in mice.

  7. Tolerability of 3-day, once-daily azithromycin suspension versus standard treatments for community-acquired paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Treadway, G; Reisman, A

    2001-11-01

    Tolerability of azithromycin oral suspension, 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days, was assessed in paediatric patients (< or = 18 years) with respiratory or skin and soft-tissue infections. Of 2425 patients evaluated, 1213 received azithromycin and 1212 received standard regimens of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefixime, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, erythromycin, or penicillin V. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving azithromycin than comparators (7.9 vs. 11.5%, P=0.003), while discontinuation rates were similar (1.0 and 1.1%, respectively). Significantly fewer gastrointestinal events were recorded for azithromycin than comparators (6.5 vs. 9.9%, P=0.002), and their duration was significantly shorter (mean 2.3 vs. 5.0 days, P=0.0001). Azithromycin paediatric oral suspension is well tolerated and associated with significantly fewer adverse events than comparators.

  8. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  9. Pineal gland: influence on gonads of male rats treated with androgen 3 days after birth.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J; Hoffman, J C; Rubin, P H

    1968-04-26

    Either blinding or the injection of 1 milligram of testosterone propionate into male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days old, results in testes and accessory organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) that are smaller than normal when the rats are 72 days old. The response to blinding is prevented by removal of the pineal gland, whereas the response to treatment with testosterone is unaffected by pinealectomy. Combination of the two treatments in 3-day- old rats causes testes to be less than one-third their normal size at 72 days of age; pinealectomy in these rats permits the reproductive organs to grow to the same size as those in the androgen-treated animals.

  10. Bland diet

    MedlinePlus

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may also need a bland ...

  11. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... animal products The lacto vegetarian diet, which includes plant foods plus dairy products The lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, which includes both dairy products and eggs People who follow vegetarian diets can get ...

  13. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  14. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  15. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  16. Diet and nutritional status of children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Flammarion, Sophie; Santos, Clarisse; Guimber, Dominique; Jouannic, Lyne; Thumerelle, Caroline; Gottrand, Frédéric; Deschildre, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the food intakes and nutritional status of children with food allergies following an elimination diet. We conducted a cross sectional study including 96 children (mean age 4.7 ± 2.5 years) with food allergies and 95 paired controls (mean age 4.7 ± 2.7 years) without food allergies. Nutritional status was assessed using measurements of weight and height and Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Nutrient intakes assessment was based on a 3-day diet record. Children with food allergies had weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores lower than controls (0.1 versus 0.6 and 0.2 versus 0.8 respectively). Children with 3 or more food allergies were smaller than those with 2 or less food allergies (p = 0.04). A total of 62 children with food allergies and 52 controls completed usable diet records. Energy, protein and calcium intakes were similar in the two groups. Children with food allergies were smaller for their age than controls even when they received similar nutrient intakes. Nutritional evaluation is essential for the follow up of children with food allergies.

  17. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance.

  18. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  19. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  20. Effect of 3-day dry immersion on ventilatory response to hypercapnic hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Dyachenko, Alexander; Shulagin, Yury; Ermolaev, Evgeny

    . This increase was 34% and 23% respectively. Tidal volume sensitivity in tests 2 and 3 increased in comparison with test 1 (P<0.05). Points of apnea in the 2-nd test changed to increased P _{CO2} values compared with 1-st test (P<0.05} and in the tests 2 and 3 compared with the test 4 (P<0.02). Thus, the VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased. Conclusion: Ventilation reaction to hypercapnia combined with hypoxia was changed during 3-day dry immersion. The VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased.

  1. Low energy density diet, weight loss maintenance, and risk of cardiovascular disease following a recent weight reduction program: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Golgis; Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year. LED diet contained 30% fat, 15% protein, and 55% carbohydrate was administered to the test group, and a usual diet including 35% fat, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrate was prescribed to the control group for 7 months. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 days food records. Biochemical markers and anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Weight reduced in LED diet consumers compared to usual diet consumers (−0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.002). The results was the same regarding waist circumference (−0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.004). Fasting blood sugar also decreased in LED diet group (−9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.4 ± 1.0%, P = 0.0001). LED diet group had a drop in percent change of their total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 ± 0.4%, P = 0.04) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 vs. −0.3 ± 0.9%, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Our findings confirmed beneficial effects of LED diet on attenuating weight regain in subjects with history of recent weight reduction. It might be derived from higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber among LED diet than usual diet consumers. PMID:27904578

  2. Physiological responses to the endurance test of a 3-day-event during hot and cool weather.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W

    1995-11-01

    Physiological data were collected during two 3-day-event competitions: one (H) held in hot and the other (CL) in cool conditions. During H, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 2.5 degrees C-35 degrees C and 74-36% respectively, while during CL, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 7.8 degrees C-8.3 degrees C and 46%-41%, respectively. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates were recorded on arrival at the event, at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, at the end of Phase D and for 30 min at 10 min intervals after each horse finished Phase D (Recovery Period). Because of the heat, the rest-pause during the Endurance Test was extended from 10 to 15 min for horses competing in H, and horses at H were aggressively cooled by repetitive bathing with ice water during the rest-pause and the 30 min Recovery Period. Heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the end of Phase C in horses participating at H, as compared to those participating at CL. Heart rates were significantly decreased in both groups after 6 min in the rest-pause and by 10 min after the finish of Phase D. Rectal temperature were significantly higher in horses competing at H than in those competing at CL at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. In both groups, rectal temperatures decreased significantly during the first 6 min in the rest-pause and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. Fifty-five of 79 (69.6%) horses starting Phase A at H completed Phase D, as compared to 23 of 28 (82.1%) of starters at CL (P > 0.05). Of 10 horses eliminated during the rest-pause at H, 3 were lame, 1 had exertional rhabdomyolysis, 4 were exhausted and 2 were lame and exhausted. Two horses were eliminated during the rest-pause at CL:1 was lame and the other had exertional rhabdomyolysis. There was marked individual variation in horses' responses to heat at H. Heat may have limited the effectiveness of evaporative cooling in horses at H

  3. Contextual factors are associated with diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Liu, Aiyi; Laffel, Lori M B; Mehta, Sanjeev N

    2014-08-01

    This study examined differences in diet quality by meal type, location, and time of week in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A sample of youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=252; 48% female) age 8 to 18 years (mean±standard deviation=13.2±2.8 years) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (mean±standard deviation=6.3±3.4 years) completed 3-day diet records. Multilevel linear regression models tested for differences in diet quality indicators by meal type, location, and time of week (weekdays vs weekends). Participants showed greater energy intake and poorer diet quality on weekends relative to weekdays, with lower intake of fruit and vegetables, and higher intake of total and saturated fat. Differences in diet quality were seen across meal types, with higher nutrient density at breakfast and dinner than at lunch and snacks. Participants reported the highest whole-grain and lowest fat intake at breakfast, but higher added sugar than at lunch or dinner. Dinner was characterized by the highest fruit intake, lowest added sugar, and lowest glycemic load, but also the highest sodium intake. The poorest nutrient density and highest added sugar occurred during snacks. Diet quality was poorer for meals consumed away from home than those consumed at home for breakfast, dinner, and snacks. Findings regarding lunch meal location were mixed, with higher nutrient density, lower glycemic load, and less added sugar at home lunches, and lower total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at lunches away from home. Findings indicate impacts of meal type, location, and time of week on diet quality, suggesting targets for nutrition education and behavioral interventions.

  4. Contextual factors are associated with diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Liu, Aiyi; Laffel, Lori M.B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in diet quality by meal type, location, and time of week in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A sample of youth with T1D (n=252; 48% female) age 8 to 18 years (13.2±2.8) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (6.3±3.4) completed 3-day diet records. Multilevel linear regression models tested for differences in diet quality indicators by meal type, location and time of week (weekdays versus weekends). Participants showed greater energy intake and poorer diet quality on weekends relative to weekdays, with lower intake of fruit and vegetables, and higher intake of total and saturated fat. Differences in diet quality were seen across meal types, with higher nutrient density at breakfast and dinner than at lunch and snacks. Participants reported the highest whole grain and lowest fat intake at breakfast, but higher added sugar than at lunch or dinner. Dinner was characterized by the highest fruit intake, lowest added sugar, and lowest glycemic load, but also the highest sodium intake. The poorest nutrient density and highest added sugar occurred during snacks. Diet quality was poorer for meals consumed away from home than those consumed at home for breakfast, dinner, and snacks. Findings regarding lunch meal location were mixed, with higher nutrient density, lower glycemic load, and less added sugar at home lunches, and lower total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at lunches away from home. Findings indicate impacts of meal type, location and time of week on diet quality, suggesting targets for nutrition education and behavioral interventions. PMID:24651028

  5. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  6. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  7. Diverticulitis Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... skin) Eggs, fish and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no pulp Low-fiber cereals Milk, yogurt ...

  8. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Omega-3 Publication Diet and MS Research Review Paper With increasing interest in the possible role of ... for people with MS. A recent research review paper by Pavan Bhargava, MD, provides information and current ...

  9. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...

  10. Gout Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff Gout, a painful form of arthritis, occurs when high ... is eliminated from the body in urine. A gout diet may help decrease uric acid levels in ...

  11. Heart disease and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  12. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  13. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  14. Intravenous and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of a single-daily dose of disodium-fosfomycin in cattle, administered for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Ocampo, C L; Gutierrez, O L

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin in cattle were determined after administration of buffered disodium fosfomycin either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Calculated concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 34.42 and 10.18 mug/mL, respectively. The variables determined, the elimination half-life of the drug remained unchanged during the 3 days ( = 1.33 +/- 0.3 h for the i.v. route and = 2.17 +/- 0.4 h for the i.m. route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest moderated distribution out of the central compartment (V(darea) = 673 mL +/- 27 mL/kg and V(dss) = 483 +/- 11 mL/kg). Bioavailability after i.m. administration was 74.52%. Considering fosfomycin as a time-dependent antibacterial drug, plasma concentration vs. time profiles obtained in this study, suggest that clinically effective plasma concentrations of fosfomycin could be obtained for up to 8 h following i.v. administration and approximately 10 h after i.m. injection of 20 mg/kg, for susceptible bacteria. In addition to residue studies in milk and edible tissues, a series of clinical assessments, using fosfomycin at 20 mg/kg b.i.d. or t.i.d. are warranted before this antibacterial drug should be considered for use in cattle.

  15. Doxycycline supplementation allows for the culture of human ESCs/iPSCs with media changes at 3-day intervals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Oh, Boram; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Culturing human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/iPSCs) is one of the most costly and labor-intensive tissue cultures, as media containing expensive factors/cytokines should be changed every day to maintain and propagate undifferentiated hESCs/iPSCs in vitro. We recently reported that doxycycline, an anti-bacterial agent, had dramatic effects on hESC/iPSC survival and promoted self-renewal. In this study, we extended the effects of doxycycline to a more practical issue to save cost and labor in hESC/iPSC cultures. Regardless of cultured cell conditions, hESCs/iPSCs in doxycycline-supplemented media were viable and proliferating for at least 3 days without media change, while none or few viable cells were detected in the absence of doxycycline in the same conditions. Thus, hESCs/iPSCs supplemented with doxycycline can be cultured for a long period of time with media changes at 3-day intervals without altering their self-renewal and pluripotent properties, indicating that doxycycline supplementation can reduce the frequency of media changes and the amount of media required by 1/3. These findings strongly encourage the use of doxycycline to save cost and labor in culturing hESCs/iPSCs.

  16. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  17. Low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet quality and higher diet costs in French adults.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    Low-energy-density diets are often recommended for weight control. Such diets have a higher nutrient content than do high-energy-density diets. This study tested the hypothesis that energy-dense diets have a relatively low monetary cost, whereas less energy-dense diets are more expensive. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 1,474 French adults (672 men, 802 women), aged 15 to 92 years, were assessed using 7-day diet records. Dietary energy density (kcal/g) was calculated by dividing total dietary energy by the edible weight of foods and caloric beverages consumed. Diet cost ($/7 days or $/2,000 kcal) was estimated using mean national food prices for 895 foods. The relationship between dietary energy density and diet cost was examined in a linear regression model. Within each quintile of energy intakes, the more energy-dense diets were associated with lower diet quality and with lower diet costs (r(2)=0.38 to 0.44). In a regression model, the more energy-dense diets cost less, whereas low-energy-density diets cost substantially more, adjusting for energy intakes, sex, and age. The finding that energy-dense diets cost less per 2,000 kcal may help explain why the highest rates of obesity are observed among groups of limited economic means. The finding that low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet costs suggests that lasting improvements in diet quality may require economic as well as behavioral interventions.

  18. Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. Design A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. Setting British police force employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Results The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI<25 kg/m2, those with BMI>30 kg/m2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). Conclusions A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. PMID:28377391

  19. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy.

  20. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  1. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  2. Cloud Based Surveys to Assess Patient Perceptions of Health Care: 1000 Respondents in 3 days for US $300

    PubMed Central

    Bardos, Jonah; Friedenthal, Jenna; Spiegelman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients’ perspectives of health care. Methods A national online survey posted to Amazon's MTurk consisted of 33 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Continuous attributes were compared using t tests. Results We obtained 1084 responses for a total cost of US $298.10 in less than 3 days with 300 responses in under 6 hours. Of those, 44.74% (485/1084) were male and 54.80% (594/1084) female, representing 49 out of 50 states and aged 18 to 69 years. Conclusions Amazon’s MTurk is a potentially useful survey method for attaining information regarding public opinions and/or knowledge with the distinct advantage of cost, speed, and a wide and relatively good representation of the general population, in a confidential setting for respondents. PMID:27554915

  3. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  4. Early structural and functional signature of 3-day human skeletal muscle disuse using the dry immersion model.

    PubMed

    Demangel, Rémi; Treffel, Loïc; Py, Guillaume; Brioche, Thomas; Pagano, Allan F; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Pessemesse, Laurence; Candau, Robin; Gharib, Claude; Chopard, Angèle; Millet, Catherine

    2017-03-22

    Microgravity and hypoactivity are associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. The decrease of muscle mass is an exponential decay with major changes in the first days. The purpose of the study was to dissect out the effects of a short-term 3-day dry immersion (DI) on human quadriceps muscle function and structure. The DI model, by suppressing all support zones, accurately reproduces the effects of microgravity. Twelve healthy volunteers (32 ± 5 yrs) completed 3 days of DI. Muscle function was investigated through maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests and muscle viscoelasticity. Structural experiments were performed using MRI analysis and invasive experiments on muscle fibres. Our results indicated a significant 9.1% decrease of the normalized MVC constant (P = 0.048). Contraction and relaxation modelization kinetics reported modifications related to the torque generation (kACT  = -29%; P = 0.014) and to the relaxation phase (kREL  = +34%; P = 0.040) after 3 days of DI. Muscle viscoelasticity was also altered. From day one, the rectus femoris stiffness and tone decreased, respectively, by 7.3% (P = 0.002) and 10.2% (P = 0.002). On the other hand, rectus femoris elasticity increased by 31.5% (P = 0.004) after 3 days of DI. At the cellular level, 3 days of DI translated into a significant atrophy of type I muscle fibres (-10.6% ± 12.1, P = 0.027) and an increase proportion of hybrid, type I/IIX fibre co-expression. Finally, we reported an increase (6-fold; P = 0.002) of NCAM+ muscle fibres, showing an early denervation process. This was the first experiment performed in Europe investigating human short-term DI-induced muscle adaptations. This study contributes to deciphering the early changes and biomarkers of skeletal muscle deconditioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Prolactin induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurone differentiation in Snell dwarf mice if administered beginning at 3 days of age.

    PubMed

    Khodr, C E; Hurley, D L; Phelps, C J

    2009-06-01

    The hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones secrete dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion. TIDA neurone numbers are deficient in Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice, which lack prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin therapy initiated before 21 days maintains normal-sized TIDA neurone numbers in df/df mice and, when initiated as early as 7 days, maintains the maximum TIDA neurone numbers observed in dw/dw development, which are decreased compared to those in normal mice. The present study investigated the effect of prolactin dose and species on TIDA neurone development. Snell dwarf and normal mice were treated with saline, 5 microg of ovine prolactin (oPRL), 50 microg of oPRL, or 50 microg of recombinant mouse prolactin (rmPRL) beginning at 3 days of age. Brains were analysed at 45 days using catecholamine histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase or bromodeoxyuridine. Normal mice had greater (P

  6. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  7. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  8. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  9. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  10. Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    USAARL Report No. 2006-08 Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program by... Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air PE 622787 Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program PR 879 TA P WU DA361539 6. AUTHOR(S) Clarence E...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Microvision Spectrum SD2500 HMD, a monocular, full-color scanning laser display, display, was evaluated for optical image

  11. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  12. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  13. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism.

  14. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  15. Changing gull diet in a changing world: a 150-year stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) record from feathers collected in the Pacific Northwest of North America.

    PubMed

    Blight, Louise K; Hobson, Keith A; Kyser, T Kurt; Arcese, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialization. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multidecadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) analysis of feathers from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in a heavily disturbed region of the northeast Pacific to ask whether diets of this generalist forager changed in response to shifts in food availability over 150 years, and whether any detected change might explain long-term trends in gull abundance. Sampled feathers came from birds collected between 1860 and 2009 at nesting colonies in the Salish Sea, a transboundary marine system adjacent to Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. To determine whether temporal trends in stable isotope ratios might simply reflect changes to baseline environmental values, we also analysed muscle tissue from forage fishes collected in the same region over a multidecadal timeframe. Values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N declined since 1860 in both subadult and adult gulls (δ(13)C, ~ 2-6‰; δ(15)N, ~4-5‰), indicating that their diet has become less marine over time, and that birds now feed at a lower trophic level than previously. Conversely, forage fish δ(13)C and δ(15)N values showed no trends, supporting our conclusion that gull feather values were indicative of declines in marine food availability rather than of baseline environmental change. Gradual declines in feather isotope values are consistent with trends predicted had gulls consumed less fish over time, but were equivocal with respect to whether gulls had switched to a more garbage-based diet, or one comprising marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, our results suggest a long-term decrease in diet quality linked to declining fish abundance or other anthropogenic influences, and may help to explain regional

  16. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  17. Diets for constipation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sun Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation.

  18. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Last, Allen R; Wilson, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking. Short-term studies comparing traditional low-fat diets with low-carbohydrate diets found lower triglyceride levels, higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and lower A1C levels in persons on low-carbohydrate diets. These diets induce greater weight loss at three and six months than traditional low-fat diets; however, by one year there is no significant difference in maintained weight loss. Weight loss is directly related to calorie content and the ability to maintain caloric restriction; the proportions of nutrients in the diet are irrelevant. Low-carbohydrate diets had lower dropout rates than low-fat diets in several studies, possibly because of the high protein content and low glycemic index, which can be appetite suppressing. Data indicate that low-carbohydrate diets are a safe, reasonable alternative to low-fat diets for weight loss. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of these and other approaches to weight loss.

  20. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  1. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting ... not — diet this way. Why? Let's find out. Dieting to Lose Weight All foods and many drinks ...

  2. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  3. Quality of diet of working college students.

    PubMed

    Gorgulho, Bartira; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Conceição, Adriana Balian da; Steluti, Josiane; Mussi, Marina Hurga; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Luz, Andréa Aparecida da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of studies with young workers and the role of diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, the objective of the study was to assess the quality of diet of working college students. The present study investigated 43 university students, aged between 18 and 25 years old who had systematically being involved in a working activity in the past 6 months, paid or unpaid, at least 6 hours daily, five days a week. Dietary intake measured by seven dietary records covering every day of the week was used to calculate the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (B-HEIR). It was observed a low B-HEIR score (53.43,±7.81) indicating a risk of a poor quality of diet, with high intake of sodium and sugar and low consumption of fruits and whole grains. This poor quality of diet can result in an inadequate nutritional status that may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases.

  4. The effect of diet manipulations on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Roltsch, Mark H; Flohr, Judith A; Brevard, Patricia B

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic consequences of a moderate variation in dietary fat content of male endurance athletes during submaximal exercise. Six males (age, 29.8 +/- 11 years; weight, 72.3 +/- 10 kg) with an average maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) of 66 +/- 10 ml/kg/min were tested on their normal diet and 3 experimental diets. The energy contributions from protein, carbohydrates, and fats were 16/59/22 (3% alcohol), 14/53/33, 13/72/15, and 16/61/23% for the normal diet (N), fat supplemented diet (F), high carbohydrate diet (C), and adjusted normal diet (AN), respectively. The F diet was designed to significantly increase fat content compared to the normal diet and be easily maintained by the athletes. Caloric content of the F, C, and AN diets were adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The difference between the N and AN diets is that the AN has been adjusted to meet estimated total daily energy expenditure. The diets were randomly assigned after substrate utilization testing on the N diet and were consumed for 7 days prior to testing. Substrate utilization was recorded at steady state (73 +/- 1.4% of VO(2max)) while running on a treadmill for 40 min. There were no significant differences in respiratory exchange ratio between any of the dietary manipulations. No significant differences were observed for lactate, VO2, or HR during submaximal testing on the N, F, C, and AN diets. These data indicate that a fat supplemented diet did not affect substrate utilization during 40 min of steady-state submaximal exercise when compared to a high carbohydrate diet or the participant's normal and adjusted normal diets.

  5. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  6. Medium- and Short-Term Interventions with Ma-Pi 2 Macrobiotic Diet in Type 2 Diabetic Adults of Bauta, Havana

    PubMed Central

    Porrata-Maury, Carmen; Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Rodríguez-Sotero, Eduardo; Vilá-Dacosta-Calheiros, Raúl; Hernández-Hernández, Héctor; Mirabal-Sosa, Mayelín; Campa-Huergo, Concepción; Pianesi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Cuba, the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet has shown positive results in 6-month assays with type 2 diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of this diet at short and medium terms. Methods. Sixty-five type 2 diabetic volunteers were included for dietary intervention, institutionally based for 21 days and followed later at home, until completing 3 months. 54 of them stayed until assay end. Before intervention, and after both assay periods, they were submitted to anthropometric records, body composition analyses and measurements of serum biochemical indicators, glycemic profile in capillary blood, blood pressure, and medication consumption; food intake was evaluated by the 3-day dietary recall. Results. During the intervention, the energy intake was 200 kcal higher at instance of more complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber and despite less fat and protein. Blood pressure and serum biochemical indicators decreased significantly in both periods; the safety nutritional indicators (hemoglobin, serum total proteins, and albumin) showed no variations. The global cardiovascular risk decreased and insulin consumption dropped by 46% and 64%, in both periods, respectively. Conclusions. The Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet was a successful therapy at short term and after 3-month home-based intervention, for type 2 diabetics. PMID:23097695

  7. Intervertebral Disc Swelling Demonstrated by 3D and Water Content Magnetic Resonance Analyses after a 3-Day Dry Immersion Simulating Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Mkhitaryan, Karen; Gellee, Stéphane; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight and simulation studies. Disc herniation is quadrupled after space flight. Purpose: The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results in intervertebral disc (IVD) swelling. Study Design: The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine and their clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI). The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy before and after DI. Methods: All the experiment was financially supported by CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales i.e., French Space Agency). Results: We observed an increase in spine height of 1.5 ± 0.4 cm and a decrease in curvature, particularly for the lumbar region with a decrease of −4 ± 2.5°. We found a significant increase in IVD volume of +8 ± 9% at T12-L1 and +11 ± 9% at L5-S1. This phenomenon is likely associated with the increase in disc intervertebral water content (IWC), 17 ± 27%. During the 3 days in DI, 92% of the subjects developed back pain in the lumbar region below the diaphragmatic muscle. This clinical observation may be linked to the morphological changes of the spine. Conclusions: The morphological changes observed and, specifically, the disc swelling caused by increased IWC may contribute to understanding disc herniation after microgravity exposure. Our results confirmed the efficiency of the 3-day DI model to reproduce quickly the effects of microgravity on spine morphology. Our findings raise the question of the subject selection in spatial studies, especially studies about spine morphology and reconditioning programs after space flight. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disc herniation and may serve as the basis to develop countermeasures for astronauts and to prevent IVD herniation and back pain on Earth. PMID

  8. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Finelli, C; Crispino, P; Gioia, S; La Sala, N; D'amico, L; La Grotta, M; Miro, O; Colarusso, D

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings.

  9. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896

  10. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  11. Comparison of clinical efficacy between 3-day combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation treatment and 10-day amoxicillin treatment in children with pharyngolaryngitis or tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Haruo; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Inoue, Nobue; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Himi, Kyoko; Kurosaki, Tomomichi

    2013-02-01

    The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.

  12. Comparative trial of 3 days of azithromycin versus 10 days of clarithromycin in the treatment of children with acute otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, A; Loaiza, C; Rodriguez, F; Herrera, M L; Mohs, E

    1997-02-01

    The authors compared the efficacy, safety and tolerance of azithromycin and clarithromycin in pediatric patients with acute otitis media. A randomized, open clinical trial was performed comparing azithromycin and clarithromycin in children aged 6 months to 12 years of age with acute otitis media with effusion. Patients were allocated to azithromycin at 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days or to clarithromycin at 15 mg/kg day divided into two equal doses for 10 days. Clinical examinations and tympanometric evaluations were performed at baseline, day 3-5, day 10-14, day 28-30 and day 50-60. Tympanocentesis fluid cultures were collected at enrollment and urine and blood samples were obtained at baseline and day 10-14. Of 100 patients enrolled, 97 were considered evaluable. The most common middle ear pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (60%), Haemophilus influenzae (15%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Fifty patients (100%) treated with azithromycin and 45 (95.7%) patients treated with clarithromycin had a satisfactory clinical response. Rates of persistence of middle ear effusion and possible drug related side effects were comparable. Based on the efficacy and safety results, azithromycin for 3 days and clarithromycin for 10 days are considered to represent an attractive alternative for the treatment of children with acute otitis media.

  13. A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, A P; Bartness, T J; Mielke, J G; Parent, M B

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a substantial increase in the amount of fructose consumed by North Americans. Recent evidence from rodents indicates that hippocampal insulin signaling facilitates memory and excessive fructose consumption produces hippocampal insulin resistance. Based on this evidence, the present study tested the hypothesis that a high fructose diet would impair hippocampal-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 61) were fed either a control (0% fructose) or high fructose diet (60% of calories). Food intake and body mass were measured regularly. After 19 weeks, the rats were given 3 days of training (8 trials/day) in a spatial version of the water maze task, and retention performance was probed 48 h later. The high fructose diet did not affect acquisition of the task, but did impair performance on the retention test. Specifically, rats fed a high fructose diet displayed significantly longer latencies to reach the area where the platform had been located, made significantly fewer approaches to that area, and spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than did control diet rats. There was no difference in swim speed between the two groups. The retention deficits correlated significantly with fructose-induced elevations of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Consequently, the impaired spatial water maze retention performance seen with the high fructose diet may have been attributable, at least in part, to fructose-induced increases in plasma triglycerides.

  14. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  15. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (< 55% carbohydrates, < 40% fats). Plasma glucose levels, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  16. Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Astrid; Prigent, Julie; Lombard, Catherine; Rosseels, Valérie; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Breckpot, Karine; Najimi, Mustapha; Deblandre, Gisèle; Sokal, Etienne M

    2017-02-16

    There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2Rγ-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.

  17. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  18. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... help lower blood pressure. To follow the DASH diet for weight loss, you eat plenty of: Non-starchy vegetables and ... Waugh R, Sherwood A. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in ... loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men ...

  19. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  20. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls.

  1. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    diet . On the other hand, first-termers in AFSC tend to have experience with more types of thera- peutic diets , such as gluten restricted, high...DENTAL SOFT DIET 96 95 95 DIABETIC DIET 96 95 96 k FAT CONTROLLED, CHOLESTEROL RESTRICTED DIET 91 92 92 FAT FREE TEST DIET 60 71 70 FAT RESTRICTED DIET ...ELIMINATION DIET 36 45 46 CARBOHYDRATE TEST DIET , 150GM AND 300GM 40 62 69 - GLUTEN RESTRICTED DIET 30 40 55 . HIGH POTASSIUM DIET

  2. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.

  3. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  4. Spice MyPlate: Nutrition Education Focusing Upon Spices and Herbs Improved Diet Quality and Attitudes Among Urban High School Students.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Chris; McArdle, Patrick; Balick, Lyssa; Peisach, Erin; Ferguson, Tenaj; Diehl, Alica; Bustad, Kendall; Bowden, Brandin; Pierce, Beverly; Berman, Brian

    2015-07-09

    Purpose . To determine whether an experiential nutrition education intervention focusing on spices and herbs ("Spice MyPlate") is feasible and improves diet quality and healthy eating attitudes among an urban and predominantly African-American sample of adolescents more than standard nutrition education alone. Design . A nonrandomized controlled trial compared standard nutrition education in U.S. Department of Agriculture MyPlate guidelines (control group) with standard nutrition education plus adjuvant Spice MyPlate curriculum (intervention group). Data were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, and 10 weeks. Setting . Study setting was two public high schools in Baltimore, Maryland. Subjects . A total of 110 students in grades 9 to 12 participated. Intervention . The 6-week school-based intervention conducted during health class focused on cooking using spices and herbs to eat healthier diets according to MyPlate. Measures . Dietary intake reported on 3-day food records and healthy eating attitudes questionnaires was analyzed. Analysis . Differences in diet quality and healthy eating attitudes between study groups were estimated by t-tests, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and covariate-adjusted regression models. Results . Spice MyPlate was feasible and there were modest but significant improvements (p ≤ .05) in the Spice MyPlate group compared with control in whole grains (31.2 g/wk) and protein foods (13.2 ounces per week) intake, and attitudes toward eating vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy. Conclusions . Although randomized trials are needed, experiential nutrition education focusing on spices and herbs may help urban and predominantly African-American adolescent populations eat healthier diets.

  5. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  6. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  7. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS.

  8. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  9. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  10. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  11. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  12. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menus Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese Sauce Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole ...

  13. Low-Carb Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your body needs carbohydrates as a source of fuel (energy). If you don’t eat enough carbs, your body will use stored energy from muscle or fat cells to fuel itself. In low-carb diets, only 15% to ...

  14. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoided if you are pregnant or have an eating disorder . Detox diets can be addicting. That's because there's ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can ...

  15. A changing Hausa diet.

    PubMed

    Ross, P J; Etkin, N L; Muazzamu, I

    1996-12-01

    We report results of a longitudinal study of shifting patterns of food consumption in a rural Hausa-Fulani village in northern Nigeria. While the broad outlines of diet did not change over the 12 years between two dietary surveys, important shifts occurred: a decline in the consumption of local cultigens, with a corresponding decrease in total caloric intake, as well as an embellishment of diet through the introduction of new foods. We suggest that this is best understood through the growing participation of this village in the wider economy. We juxtapose these dietary shifts to a model of disease risk that suggests, for the early period, that the coincidence of dietary elaboration and the periodicity of disease risk offered some degree of protection against malaria infection. For the more recent period, diet was no longer marked by conspicuous seasonal changes. To what extent these differences in diet patterns have affected the disease experience of this population is not yet clear.

  16. Selenium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002414.htm Selenium in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Selenium is an essential trace mineral. This means your ...

  17. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxins hang around in our digestive, lymph, and gastrointestinal systems as well as in our skin and hair ... cause dehydration, mineral imbalances, and problems with the digestive system. Detox diets don't help people lose fat. ...

  18. Gastric Bypass Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes you can make to your diet. References Bariatric surgery for severe obesity. National Institute on Diabetes and ... com/home. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Hamad G. Bariatric surgery: Postoperative and long-term management of the uncomplicated ...

  19. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  20. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  1. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  2. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  3. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  5. Optimization of Methodology for Rearing Spodoptera albula on Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, M M; Souza, B H S; Nogueira, L; Ribeiro, Z A; Eduardo, W I; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2017-03-08

    Advances in techniques for rearing insects on artificial diets are fundamental to solving issues of basic and applied entomology. In this study, we evaluated the development of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on three artificial diets used for other species of Lepidoptera, at three larval densities, and two densities of adult couples housed in oviposition cages of two sizes, with the aim of optimizing methodology for rearing S. albula in the laboratory. Biological parameters were recorded from S. albula, and a fitness index was calculated based on the larval survival and duration and weight of pupae. The total and daily oviposition was recorded using 5 or 10 adult couples of S. albula housed in two cage sizes. Concentrations of total nitrogen and protein in the tested diets were determined. Development of S. albula was completed in all artificial diets; however, the diet used for rearing Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) larvae was the most suitable for S. albula, yielding intermediate development time and higher survival relative to the other diets. Individualization of larvae favored S. albula development by producing overall greater weights of larvae and pupae, higher survival rates, and longer adult longevity. Cage size and number of couples per cage did not influence S. albula fecundity in the experiment conditions. Spodoptera albula can be satisfactorily reared on the artificial diet used for A. gemmatalis, using one larva per tube, and either density of adults at any cage size. Additional amendments are needed in the rearing methodology to achieve optimal conditions for larval development to adulthood.

  6. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  7. Conversion efficiency and nutrient digestibility of certain seaweed diets by laboratory reared Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Bindu, M S; Sobha, V

    2004-12-01

    Impact of three different types of seaweed diets on growth, feed utilization and nutrient digestibility of L. rohita was studied for 120 days. The seaweed diet fed fishes, especially Ulva based diet showed comparatively higher growth and weight increment. Good food conversion ratio, food assimilation efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and better nutrient digestibility were recorded for seaweed diet fed fishes. The results suggests the suitability of utilizing seaweeds, Ulva fasciata, Spyridia insignis and Sargassum wightii as partial substitute for fishmeal in formulated diets of L. rohita.

  8. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  9. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  10. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  11. Definition of the Mediterranean Diet: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Courtney; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan; Murphy, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies over several decades suggest that following the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and improve cognitive health. However, there are inconsistencies among methods used for evaluating and defining the MedDiet. Through a review of the literature, we aimed to quantitatively define the MedDiet by food groups and nutrients. Databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier and the University of South Australia Library Catalogue were searched. Articles were included if they defined the MedDiet in at least two of the following ways: (1) general descriptive definitions; (2) diet pyramids/numbers of servings of key foods; (3) grams of key foods/food groups; and (4) nutrient and flavonoid content. Quantity of key foods and nutrient content was recorded and the mean was calculated. The MedDiet contained three to nine serves of vegetables, half to two serves of fruit, one to 13 serves of cereals and up to eight serves of olive oil daily. It contained approximately 9300 kJ, 37% as total fat, 18% as monounsaturated and 9% as saturated, and 33 g of fibre per day. Our results provide a defined nutrient content and range of servings for the MedDiet based on past and current literature. More detailed reporting amongst studies could refine the definition further. PMID:26556369

  12. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal.

  13. High protein diets and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carapetis, Melissa; Phillips, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    Higher protein diets are currently 'hot'. The CSIRO total wellbeing diet book has been on the bestseller list in Australia and internationally. Various other high protein diets have also had, or are getting, media attention. However, high protein diets, particularly for people with diabetes, are controversial. There are questions about effectiveness and safety, especially in the long term. As a general practitioner people will look to you for advice about what to eat. This article summarises the pros and cons of two of the popular higher protein diets--the Atkins diet and the CSIRO total wellbeing.

  14. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  15. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  16. Dieting and Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly. Some ways of treating obesity, such as weight-loss surgery and very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), may increase ... of developing gallstones by promoting rapid weight loss. Weight-loss surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or ...

  17. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Getting an X-ray Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  18. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  19. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  20. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-02-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake, but a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables. Further, the GFCF diet group had a better quality of fat intake, but needed supplementation with vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials are required to explore long-term effects of this diet on anthropometric and nutritional status (the focus of our study), but also behavioral symptoms, in children with ASD.

  1. Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Marjet J; Geraedts, Maartje C; Saris, Wim H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (<40 units) (NDP-LGI) diet; a high (25En%) dairy protein and low GI (HDP-LGI) diet; a normal vegetable protein and low GI (NVP-LGI) diet; or a normal dairy protein and high GI (>60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p < 0.002). No significant differences in 24 h carbohydrate and fat oxidation (day and night) were found between all intervention diets. Net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) of 24 h plasma glucose decreased in the HDP-LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p < 0.01), but no effect was observed on insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity.

  2. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation How can your diet help prevent ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  3. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  5. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  6. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  7. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20–59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI) was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet. PMID:28029128

  8. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  9. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.

  10. Comparison of yogurt, soybean, casein, and amino acid-based diets in children with persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Angela P; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mendes, Patrícia S A; Valois, Sandra S; Mendes, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Hugo C

    2009-07-01

    Although previous studies have shown successful treatment of persistent diarrhea (PD) with the use of yogurt-based diets, some recent ones speculate the need of special formulas for the nutritional management of PD complicated cases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of 3 lactose-free diets, with different degrees of complexity, is associated with lower stool output and shorter duration of diarrhea when compared with the use of a yogurt-based one on the nutritional management of PD. A total of 154 male infants, aged between 1 and 30 months, with PD and with or without dehydration, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Throughout the study, the patients were placed in a metabolic unit; their body weights and intakes of oral rehydration solution, water, and formula diets, in addition to outputs of stool, urine, and vomit, were measured and recorded at 24-hour intervals. Four different diets were used in this study: diet 1, yogurt-based formula; diet 2, soy-based formula; diet 3, hydrolyzed protein-based formula; and diet 4, amino acid-based formula. Throughout the study, only these formula diets were fed to the children. The data showed that children fed the yogurt-based diet (diet 1) or the amino acid-based diet (diet 4) had a significant reduction in stool output and in the duration of diarrhea. The use of an inexpensive and worldwide-available yogurt-based diet is recommended as the first choice for the nutritional management of mild to moderate PD. For the few complicated PD cases, when available, a more complex amino acid-based diet should be reserved for the nutritional management of these unresponsive and severe presentations. Soy-based or casein-based diets do not offer any specific advantage or benefits and do not seem to have a place in the management of PD.

  11. Elemental Diets May Reduce the Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia in Bedridden Gastrostomy-Fed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko; Sakai, Ryosei; Suzuki, Manabu; Kajiyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our clinical experience suggested that elemental diets were associated with a reduction in aspiration pneumonia among bedridden patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We compared the effects of elemental and standard liquid diets on the risk of clinical aspiration pneumonia and gastric emptying in bedridden patients receiving PEG feedings. METHODS: Study 1: consecutive bedridden PEG patients received elemental diets or standard liquid diets in the same fashion. The frequency of defecation, diet aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were prospectively recorded. Study 2: a randomized, crossover trial using elemental or standard liquid diets containing 13C sodium acetate as a tracer given to bedridden PEG patients who had experienced aspiration pneumonia. 13C breath tests were performed to estimate gastric emptying. RESULTS: Study 1: 127 patients were enrolled, 60 with elemental and 67 with standard liquid diets. The diet was aspirated from the trachea in none (0%) with the elemental diet vs. 8 (11.9%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.0057); aspiration pneumonia developed none with the elemental diet vs. 5 (7.5%) with standard liquid diets (P=0.031) (number needed to treat 14, 95% confidence interval 7–85). Study 2: 19 patients were enrolled. The elemental diet was associated with a significant increase in the 10, 30 or 50% emptying (excretion) time (P<0.001) and increased the area under the curve (% dose/h) compared with the standard liquid diet (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Elemental diets were associated with more rapid gastric empting and fewer episodes of aspiration than standard liquid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may be preferred for bedridden PEG patients especially who have experienced aspiration pneumonia. Properly performed randomized-controlled trials are needed to prove this potential benefit. PMID:23399554

  12. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  13. Plants, diet, and health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  14. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  15. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  16. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance.

    PubMed

    Sherman, W M; Costill, D L; Fink, W J; Miller, J M

    1981-05-01

    This study examined the effect of three exercise-diet regimens on muscle glycogen supercompensation and subsequent performance during a 20.9-km run. A diet containing 15% carbohydrate (CHO,L), 50% CHO (M), or 70% (CHO (H) was arranged in three trials as follows: trial A = 3 days L, 3 days H; trial B = 3 days M, 3 days H; trial C = 6 days M. For each trial a 5-day depletion-taper exercise sequence was conducted on the treadmill at 73% VO2 max. The runs were 90, 40, 40, 20, and 20 min, respectively. A day of rest preceded the 20.9-km performance run. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius on days 4 and 7 (both prior to and after the performance run). Trials A, B, and C elevated muscle glycogen to 207, 203, and 159 mmol glucosyl units/kg wet tissue (mmG), respectively. The performance run in both trials A and B utilized significantly more glycogen than in trial C: 5.0 and 5.1 mmG/km vs. 3.1 mmG/km. There were, however, no differences in either performance run times or post-performance run glycogen levels between the trials. These data demonstrate that (1) muscle glycogen can be elevated to high levels with a moderate exercise-diet regimen; (2) initial muscle glycogen levels influence the amount subsequently utilized during exercise; (3) carbohydrate loading is of no benefit to performance for trained runners during a 20.9-km run.

  17. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.

  18. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  19. [Variations of the diet of Galician university students (Ourense Campus) in relation to the pattern of the cardioprotective Mediterranean diet].

    PubMed

    Míguez Bernárdez, Montserrat; Castro Sobrino, Laura; Collins Greene, Ashleigh; de la Montaña Miguélez, Julia

    2013-11-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have observed that adherence to Mediterranean Diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but also evident in literature are the changes in the dietary habits of the Mediterranean countries which show a departure from Mediterranean patterns. The objective of this work was to estimate the variations of the diet of Galician university students (Ourense Campus), between 2011 and 2013, in relation to the pattern of the cardioprotective Mediterranean diet. A total of 726 university students participated (344 at 2011 and 382 at 2013). A short questionnaire of adherence to a cardioprotective Mediterranean diet was used and the height and weight of each participant was recorded and BMI (Body Mass Index) was calculated. The majority of participants were normal weight. In 2013 there was an increase in low weight and obesity in women and a decrease in the prevalence of normal and overweight. In men an increase of a low weight and normal weight was observed and a decrease in the prevalence of overweight/obesity in men. In the two years studied, it was observed that there is low to intermediate adherence of students to the cardioprotective Mediterranean diet, with less adherence observed in 2013 to the Mediterranean diet, for both sexes. The dietary habits observed in 2013 have shown that the population is distancing its diet from the cardioprotective pattern of the Mediterranean diet, a decrease in the consumption of vegetables, fish, wholegrain cereals and olive oil and an increase consumption of meat. 90% of these university students need to modify their eating habits to conform to a heart-healthy diet.

  20. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  1. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process: Some First Steps Adoption Success Story Watch Classroom Recordings Empowered Patient Online Toolkit Tab 1: Very ... Kathy Groebner Education Programs Patients and Caregivers PHA Classroom PHA on the Road: PH Patients and Families ...

  2. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences.

  3. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  4. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147

  5. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.

  6. Diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holycross, A.T.; Painter, C.W.; Prival, D.B.; Swann, D.E.; Schroff, M.J.; Edwards, T.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake) using samples collected in the field and from museum specimens, as well as several records from unpublished reports. Most records (approximately 91%) were from the northern Sierra Madrean Archipelago. Diet consisted of 55.4% lizards, 28.3% scolopendromorph centipedes, 13.8% mammals, 1.9% birds, and 0.6% snakes. Sceloporus spp. comprised 92.4% of lizards. Extrapolation suggests that Sceloporus jarrovii represents 82.3% of lizard records. Diet was independent of geographic distribution (mountain range), sex, source of sample (stomach vs. intestine/feces), and age class. However, predator snout-vent length differed significantly among prey types; snakes that ate birds were longest, followed in turn by those that ate mammals, lizards, and centipedes. Collection date also differed significantly among prey classes; the mean date for centipede records was later than the mean date for squamate, bird, or mammal records. We found no difference in the elevation of collection sites among prey classes.

  7. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range—from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  8. Synaptic plasticity preserved with arachidonic acid diet in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Susumu; Nakazawa, Hiroe; Tokimasa, Takayuki; Akimoto, Kengo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda-Ono, Yoshiko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Okaichi, Hiroshige; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2003-08-01

    We examined whether synaptic plasticity was preserved in aged rats administered an arachidonic acid (AA) containing diet. Young male Fischer-344 rats (2 mo of age), and two groups of aged rats of the same strain (2 y of age) who consumed either a control diet or an AA ethyl ester-containing diet for at least 3 mo were used. In the Morris water maze task, aged rats on the AA diet had tendency to show better performance than aged rats on the control diet. Long-term potentiation induced by tetanic stimulation was recorded from a 300 microm thick hippocampal slice with a 36 multi-electrode-array positioned at the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The degree of potentiation after 1 h in aged rats on the AA diet was comparable as that of young controls. Phospholipid analysis revealed that AA and docosahexaenoic acid were the major fatty acids in the hippocampus in aged rats. There was a correlation between the behavioral measure and the changes in excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and between the physiologic measure and the total amount of AA in hippocampus.

  9. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-06-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range-from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  10. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N; Leakey, Louise N; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Richard E; Brown, Francis H; Grine, Frederick E; Hart, John A; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T; Wood, Bernard A

    2013-06-25

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range--from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  11. Indicators for the evaluation of diet quality.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ángel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Olza, Josune

    2015-02-26

    The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that

  12. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  13. A ketogenic diet reduces long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Koranda, Jessica L; Ruskin, David N; Masino, Susan A; Blaise, J Harry

    2011-08-01

    Ketogenic diets are very low in carbohydrates and can reduce epileptic seizures significantly. This dietary therapy is particularly effective in pediatric and drug-resistant epilepsy. Hypothesized anticonvulsant mechanisms of ketogenic diets focus on increased inhibition and/or decreased excitability/excitation. Either of these consequences might not only reduce seizures, but also could affect normal brain function and synaptic plasticity. Here, we characterized effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal long-term potentiation, a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity. Adult male rats were placed on a control or ketogenic diet for 3 wk before recording. To maintain the most physiological conditions possible, we assessed synaptic transmission and plasticity using chronic in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals. Rats underwent stereotaxic surgery to chronically implant a recording electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and a stimulating electrode in the perforant path; they recovered for 1 wk. After habituation and stable baseline recording, 5-Hz theta-burst stimulation was delivered to induce long-term potentiation. All animals showed successful plasticity, demonstrating that potentiation was not blocked by the ketogenic diet. Compared with rats fed a control diet, rats fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated significantly diminished long-term potentiation. This decreased potentiation lasted for at least 48 h. Reduced potentiation in ketogenic diet-fed rats is consistent with a general increase in neuronal inhibition (or decrease in excitability) and decreased seizure susceptibility. A better understanding of the effects of ketogenic diets on synaptic plasticity and learning is important, as diet-based therapy is often prescribed to children with epilepsy.

  14. Diet, iron biomarkers and oxidative stress in a representative sample of Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption pattern characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish, olive oil and red wine has been associated with improvements in the total antioxidant capacity of individuals and reduced incidence of diseases related to oxidation. Also, high body iron levels may contribute to increase the oxidative stress by the generation of reactive oxygen species. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors obtained from the diet and iron biomarkers on lipoprotein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in a representative sample of the Mediterranean population. Methods Cross-sectional prospective study, carried out with 815 randomly selected subjects (425 women and 390 men). Dietary assessment (3-day food records), iron biomarkers (serum ferritin, serum iron and transferrin saturation), biochemical markers of lipoperoxidation (TBARS), antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and CRP (C-Reactive Protein) were determined. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were applied to analyze the association between diet factors and iron biomarkers on TBARS and ORAC levels. Results We observed that lipoperoxidation measured by TBARS increased by age but no differences were observed by sex. Antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC is independent of age and sex. In general, increasing age, tobacco, heme iron intake from meat and fish and transferrin saturation were independently and positively associated with TBARS, while non-heme iron was negatively associated. Vegetables, vitamin C intake and serum ferritin were positively associated with ORAC, whereas saturated fatty acids and meat intake were negatively associated. Conclusions In our general population, we observed that oxidative stress is related to aging, but antioxidant capacity is not. The highest intake of dietary non-heme iron, vegetables and vitamin C intake exerts a protective effect against oxidation while the highest intake of dietary heme iron from

  15. Dietary Adherence and Satisfaction with a Bean-Based High-Fiber Weight Loss Diet: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tonya F.; Nance, Laura M.; Strickland, William D.; Malcolm, Robert J.; Pechon, Susan; O'Neil, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Dietary fiber can reduce hunger and enhance satiety, but fiber intake during hypocaloric weight loss diets typically falls short of recommended levels. We examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: (a) beans or (b) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Methods. Subjects were 2 men, 18 women, mean age = 46.9, and mean BMI = 30.6. Subjects completed 3-day food diaries in each of the two baseline weeks. Subjects were then randomized to four weeks on one of two 1400-calorie diets including 25–35 g fiber primarily from 1.5 cups beans/day or from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Recommended fiber-rich foods were provided. Subjects kept weekly 3-day food diaries and were assessed weekly. Results. Diet conditions did not differ on outcome measures. Both diets increased fiber intake from 16.6 g/day (SD = 7.1) at baseline to (treatment average) 28.4 g/day (SD = 6.5) (P < 0.001). Fiber intake was consistent over treatment. Caloric intake dropped from 1623.1 kcal/day (SD = 466.9) (baseline) to 1322.2 kcal/day (SD = 275.8) (P = 0.004). Mean weight loss was 1.4 kg (SD = 1.5; P < 0.001). Energy density and self-reported hunger decreased (P's < 0.01) while self-reported fullness increased (P < 0.05). Both diets were rated as potentially acceptable as long as six months. Conclusions. Both diets significantly increased fiber intake by 75%, increased satiation, and reduced hunger. Results support increasing fiber in weight loss diets with a variety of fiber sources. PMID:24555159

  16. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  17. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  18. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  19. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  20. Regulation of α-Transducin and α-Gustducin Expression by a High Protein Diet in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Vallorani, Claudia; Latorre, Rocco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica; Falconi, Mirella; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The expression of taste receptors (TASRs) and their signalling molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells, including enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggests they participate in chemosensing mechanisms influencing GI physiology via the release of endocrine messengers. TASRs mediate gustatory signalling by interacting with different transducers, including α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G protein subunits. This study tested whether Gαtran and Gαgust immunoreactive (-IR) cells are affected by a short-term (3 days) and long-term (30 days) high protein (Hp) diet in the pig GI tract. Result In the stomach, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells contained serotonin (5-HT) and ghrelin (GHR), while in the small and large intestine, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR colocalized with 5-HT-, cholecystokinin (CCK)- and peptide YY (PYY)-IR. There was a significant increase in the density of Gαtran-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa in both short- and long-term Hp diet groups (Hp3 and Hp30) vs. the control group (Ctr) (P<0.05), while the increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa was significant in Hp30 group vs. Ctr and vs. Hp3 (P<0.05); these cells included Gαtran / 5HT-IR and Gαtran / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.001 vs. Ctr, respectively) as well as Gαgust /5-HT-IR or Gαgust / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01 vs. Ctr, respectively). In the small intestine, we recorded a significant increase in Gαtran-IR cells in the duodenal crypts and a significant increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the jejunal crypts in Hp3 group compared to HP30 (P<0.05). With regard to the number of Gαtran-Gαgust IR cells colocalized with CCK or 5-HT, there was only a significant increase of Gαtran / CCK-IR cells in Hp3 group compared to Ctr (P = 0.01). Conclusion This study showed an upregulation of selected subpopulations of Gαgust / Gαtran-IR cells in distinct regions of the pig GI tract by short- and long-term Hp diet lending support to TASR-mediated effects in

  1. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  2. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  3. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  4. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  5. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  6. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments.

    PubMed

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G x E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G x E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use.

  7. Ketogenic diet in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebhaber, Gisela Maria; Riemann, Edith; Baumeister, Friedrich Albert Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of Rett syndrome with the ketogenic diet has been reported only once and showed positive effects on seizure frequency and behavior. We report a patient with Rett syndrome who was treated with the ketogenic diet for 4 years. The diet was initiated at the age of 8 years owing to the patient's refractory epilepsy and led to a 70% reduction in seizures. Treatment with the ketogenic diet was also associated with improvements in contact and behavior. Diagnosis of Rett syndrome was confirmed by molecular detection of the Ser134Cys mutation in the MECP2 gene, which has previously been described only in classic Rett syndrome. This observation demonstrates that the ketogenic diet has a positive effect on Rett syndrome.

  8. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  9. Effect of Diet upon Intestinal Disaccharidases and Disaccharide Absorption*

    PubMed Central

    Deren, J. J.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1967-01-01

    The administration of a carbohydrate-containing diet for 24 hours to rats previously fasted for 3 days led to a twofold increase in total intestinal sucrase and sucrase specific activity. The specific activity of maltase was similarly increased, but lactase activity was unaffected. The sucrose-containing diet led to a greater increase in sucrase than maltase activity, whereas the converse was true of the maltose-containing diet. A carbohydrate-free isocaloric diet led to a slight increase in the total intestinal sucrase, but sucrase specific activity was unchanged. Assay of sucrase activity of mixed homogenates from casein-fed and sucrose-fed rats or fasted and sucrose-fed animals yielded activities that were additive. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the enzyme hydrolyzing sucrose was similar in the fasted, casein-fed, and sucrose-fed rats. The maximal velocity (Vmax) was twice greater in sucrose-fed as compared to casein-fed or fasted rats, suggesting an increased quantity of enzyme subsequent to sucrose feeding. Adrenalectomized rats maintained on 1.0% salt intake had sucrase and maltase levels comparable to those of controls. Steroid administration did not significantly increase their activities. The response to sucrose feeding was similar in both control and adrenalectomized rats, indicative of the absence of steroidal control on sucrase and maltase activity in the adult animal. Studies using intestinal ring preparations indicated that sucrose hydrolysis by the intact cells proceeded more rapidly when animals were fed sucrose. Additional corroboration of the physiologic significance of the increased enzyme levels in homogenates was afforded by intestinal perfusion studies. Sucrose hydrolysis increased twofold and fructose absorption fourfold in animals fed sucrose when compared to either fasted or casein-fed rats. PMID:6018758

  10. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  11. [Nutritional value and acceptibility of soy proteins in human diet].

    PubMed

    Derby, G; Poullain, B; Bleyer, R E

    1975-01-01

    These studies on textured soya protein (TSP) were directed towards the evaluation of its acceptability and nutritional value in man. ACCEPTABILITY. In the beginning, the reaction of adults to the incorporation of 40 g TSP in their daily diet was studied. After a three-week period, no intolerance or fatigue with the regim was shown. In a following study, observations made on young children's attitudes along with quantitative measurements of their food intake were noted during four one-wekk periods: -- period of "imposed diet", without TSP; -- period of imposed diet", with TSP; -- period of "free diet", without TSP; -- period of "free diet", with STP; During the periods of "imposed diets", children could eat only the proposed quantities of foodstuffs. During periods of "free diets", children were able to choose the quantity and sort of food they preferred from the proposed menu. Total protein ingested (differentiating between that of animal and vegetable origin) was calculated for each child from his daily food record. Results show that only one of the twenty-four children systematically refuse soya-containing preparations. Average consumption of soya protein during "free diet" periods was close to the desired level and not significantly different to levels achieved in the "imposed diet" period. The acceptance of TSP by the children was therefore evident. NUTRITIONAL VALUE. The following studies were designed to determine the effects of the replacement of animal protein by TSP (at the maximal levels of its tolerability) in a normal diet. In the first nitrogen balance study, with 10 convalescent subjects, the following protocol was developed: -- the habitual caloric and protein intakes of the subjects was established; -- following a four-day adaptation period, the subjects entered consecutively: a control period at established levels of calories and protein, and a test period in which 20 g of soya protein replaced an equivalent quantity of animal protein. The average

  12. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  13. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  14. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning.

  15. Modulation of adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients by -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Sagrado, M G; Conde, R

    2008-03-01

    Decreased expression or function of UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) could reduce energy expenditure and increase the storage of energy as fat. Some studies have pointed to a role of UCP3 in the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis, diet induced obesity, and regulation of lipids as metabolic substrates. The C/C genotype of a polymorphism in the UCP3 promoter (-55C-->T) is associated with an increased expression of UCP3 mRNA in muscle. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on adipocytokines response and weight loss secondary to a hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A population of 107 obese (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after three months of a hypocaloric diet, an indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3-day written food records, and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% of carbohydrates, 25% of lipids and 23% of proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least 3 times per week (60 minutes each). The mean age was 49.5+/-34.5 years and the mean BMI 34.5+/-4.8, with 27 males (25.3%) and 80 females (74.7%). Ninety patients (25 males/65 females) (83.6%) had the genotype 55CC (wild group) and 17 patients (2 male/15 females) (16.4%) 55CT (mutant group). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (wild group: 84.7% vs. mutant group: 81.8%). BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio decreased in the wild group and RMR and VO (2) were increased. In the mutant group, BMI and weight decreased. Leptin and IL-6 levels have a significant decrease in the wild group (9.6%: p<0.05) and (30.5%: p<0.05), respectively. Patients with -55CC genotype have a significant decrease in leptin

  16. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy eating — plus a splash of flavorful olive oil and perhaps a glass of red wine — ... eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts may have a reduced ...

  17. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-06-15

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD.

  18. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  19. Effects of High Protein and Balanced Diets on Lipid Profiles and Inflammation Biomarkers in Obese and Overweight Women at Aerobic Clubs: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Pegah; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied the effects of high protein (HP) and balanced diets (BDs) on lipid profiles, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and overweight women. Methods: In a parallel designed randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 healthy women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, aged 20–46 years, enrolled in an 8-week investigation at aerobic clubs. They were categorized into two groups (HP and BDs), randomly. Fasting lipid profile and hs-CRP levels were evaluated at the beginning and end of the trial. We assessed dietary intake by 3-day records and also used SPSS (version 18; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for data analyzing. Results: Fifty-six participants completed the intervention. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.023 in HP group) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.002 in HP group) increased significantly in both groups. Circulating triglycerides levels increased in both intervention grows, but the change in the HP group was not significant compared with the other group (P = 0.007 in BD group vs. P =0.099 in HP group). Whereas total cholesterol concentration decreased but not significantly so (P = 0.53 in BD group vs. P =0.73 in HP group). There were marginally significant decreases in the hs-CRP levels due to both diets (P = 0.057 in BD group vs. P =0.086 in HP group); however, there were no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Administration of HP and BD in overweight and obese women with regular aerobic exercise showed improvement in lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels within the groups, but there were no significant differences between groups. PMID:27833724

  20. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.

  1. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... and increase inflammation. If you plan to add herbs, dietary supplements, or vitamins to your diet, you ... lupus doctor first. This is especially important as herbs or supplements may interact with medicines used to ...

  2. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Their Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the results of a nutrition questionnaire administered to students in grades eight, nine, and 10 (N=490). Results suggest a need for nutrition education, particularly concerning the relationships between diet and health. (DS)

  3. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  4. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdomen is called "ascites" (pronounced "ah-si-teez"). Sodium (salt) Too much sodium (or salt) in the diet can make the situation worse, because sodium encourages the body to retain water. Your doctor ...

  5. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... too, like Gatorade or Sprite. Avoid colas, coffee, tea, and cocoa. These may contain caffeine and can ... Nausea Try the BRATT Diet (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Tea, and Toast). Try some ginger--in tea, ginger ...

  6. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Treatment and Care Overview Nutrition Post-Surgery Diet ...

  7. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting ...

  8. Diet and good health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. A healthy diet is especially important for children since a variety of food is needed for proper development. Other elements of good health include exercise, rest and avoidance of stimulants such as sugar and caffeine.

  9. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  10. Genetic toxicology of the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, I. )

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During the Smoking and Grilling of Food; Fecal Mutagens as a Function of Diet; Dietary Desmutagens; and Coffee and Cancer.

  11. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  12. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... by diet because the chemical pathway in the liver that makes heme from porphyrins and other precursor substances registers changes between the fed and fasting states. The normal fast that occurs between meals and ...

  13. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  14. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma.

  15. Religion, body satisfaction and dieting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen Hye-Cheon

    2006-05-01

    Western societal pressures of thinness have assigned worth to the ideal body, contributing to body dissatisfaction and increased dieting. A social factor that may serve as an alternative avenue of worth than the body is religion. Survey data from a community sample (n=546) was collected to examine religion's relationships with body satisfaction and dieting. Religion was significantly related to greater body satisfaction and less dieting, and specifically negative aspects of religion were related to lower body satisfaction and greater dieting. Those utilizing more negative religious coping had lower body satisfaction (women: r=-0.47; men: r=-0.58). Self-esteem was a mediator in these relationships. In women, those reporting higher negative congregational social support were more likely to diet than those reporting lower levels (CI: 2.0; 1.2, 3.5). Overall, religion was related to body satisfaction and dieting, with specifically negative aspects of religion having more consistent and stronger relationships than other components of religion.

  16. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  17. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  18. Mice lacking C1q are protected from high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and impaired glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hillian, Antoinette D; McMullen, Megan R; Sebastian, Becky M; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Rowchowdhury, Sanjoy; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Schauer, Philip R; Kirwan, John P; Feldstein, Ariel E; Nagy, Laura E

    2013-08-02

    Complement activation is implicated in the development of obesity and insulin resistance, and loss of signaling by the anaphylatoxin C3a prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice. Here we have identified C1q in the classical pathway as required for activation of complement in response to high fat diets. After 8 weeks of high fat diet, wild-type mice became obese and developed glucose intolerance. This was associated with increased apoptotic cell death and accumulation of complement activation products (C3b/iC3b/C3c) in liver and adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that high fat diet-induced apoptosis is dependent on Bid; here we report that Bid-mediated apoptosis was required for complement activation in adipose and liver. Although C1qa deficiency had no effect on high fat diet-induced apoptosis, accumulation of complement activation products and the metabolic complications of high fat diet-induced obesity were dependent on C1q. When wild-type mice were fed a high fat diet for only 3 days, hepatic insulin resistance was associated with the accumulation of C3b/iC3b/C3c in the liver. Mice deficient in C3a receptor were protected against this early high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance, whereas mice deficient in the negative complement regulator CD55/DAF were more sensitive to the high fat diet. C1qa(-/-) mice were also protected from high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and complement activation. Evidence of complement activation was also detected in adipose tissue of obese women compared with lean women. Together, these studies reveal an important role for C1q in the classical pathway of complement activation in the development of high fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

  19. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  20. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  1. Effect of a High-Fiber Diet Compared With a Moderate-Fiber Diet on Calcium and Other Mineral Balances in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Meena; Chandalia, Manisha; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Brinkley, Linda J.; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Grundy, Scott M.; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High levels of dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, are recommended to lower serum cholesterol levels and improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, how high levels of fiber affect mineral balance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a randomized crossover study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were fed a high-fiber (50 g total and 25 g soluble fiber) and a moderate-fiber (24 g total and 8 g soluble fiber) diet of the same energy, macronutrient, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content for 6 weeks each. Intestinal calcium absorption was determined by fecal recovery of 47Ca. Stool weight and mineral content were assessed during 3 days, and 24-h urinary mineral content and serum chemistry were assessed over 5 days at the end of each phase. The results were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS Compared with the moderate-fiber diet, the high-fiber diet increased stool weight (165 ± 53 vs. 216 ± 63 g/day, P = 0.02) and reduced 24-h urinary calcium (3.3 ± 1.7 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2 mmol/day, P = 0.003) and phosphorus (29.2 ± 5.5 vs. 26.0 ± 3.2 mmol/day, P = 0.003) excretion and serum calcium concentration (2.33 ± 0.06 vs. 2.29 ± 0.07 mmol/l, P = 0.04). Calcium absorption, stool calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content and serum phosphorus concentration were not significantly different with the two diets. CONCLUSIONS A high-fiber diet rich in soluble fiber has a small impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in subjects with type 2 diabetes. It may be prudent to ensure adequate intake of calcium and other minerals in individuals consuming a high-fiber diet. PMID:19279300

  2. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes, but many health care providers now keep electronic records. You might hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for ...

  3. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy.

  4. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  5. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  6. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  7. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Rana Gopal; Alok, Kumar; Singh, Shivendra

    2014-07-01

    Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL) and at 12 months (TM) for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutritional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record) and clinical characteristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC) and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05) and e-GFR (P <0.01) while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05). The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001). There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005). During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  8. Assessing the three types of dieting in the Three-Factor Model of dieting. The Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The construct of attempted eating restriction has been measured in a number of ways in recent years. The Three-Factor Model of Dieting suggests that dieting can be subdivided into three types: (1) frequency of past dieting and overeating (i.e., history of dieting), (2) current dieting to lose weight, and (3) weight suppression, or the difference between an individual's current weight and his or her highest previous weight. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire (DWHQ), a measure that we have used for many years to assess these three dimensions of dieting; (2) provide some recent examples of published research on each type of dieting; (3) discuss some of the nuances of assessing these dieting types; and (4) suggest directions for future research.

  9. A Diet Mimicking Fasting Promotes Regeneration and Reduces Autoimmunity and Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H; Morgan, Todd E; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-07

    Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we show that periodic 3-day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that an FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible, and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355).

  10. Diet mimicking fasting promotes regeneration and reduces autoimmunity and multiple sclerosis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H.; Morgan, Todd E.; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that periodic 3 day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice, and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of the animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and Treg cell number, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in response to both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that a FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355). PMID:27239035

  11. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis.

  12. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  13. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  14. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  15. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Your Medical Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Your Medical Records A ... Records? en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  16. Spoken Records. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Helen

    Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…

  17. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  18. Landscape effects on diets of two canids in Northwestern Texas: A multinomial modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Gipson, P.S.; Gilliland, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of feces, stomach contents, and regurgitated pellets are common techniques for assessing diets of vertebrates and typically contain more than 1 food item per sampling unit. When analyzed, these individual food items have traditionally been treated as independent, which represents pseudoreplication. When food types are recorded as present or absent, these samples can be treated as multinomial vectors of food items, with each vector representing 1 realization of a possible diet. We suggest such data have a similar structure to capture histories for closed-capture, capturemarkrecapture data. To assess the effects of landscapes and presence of a potential competitor, we used closed-capture models implemented in program MARK into analyze diet data generated from feces of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in northwestern Texas. The best models of diet contained season and location for both swift foxes and coyotes, but year accounted for less variation, suggesting that landscape type is an important predictor of diets of both species. Models containing the effect of coyote reduction were not competitive (??QAICc 53.6685), consistent with the hypothesis that presence of coyotes did not influence diet of swift foxes. Our findings suggest that landscape type may have important influences on diets of both species. We believe that multinomial models represent an effective approach to assess hypotheses when diet studies have a data structure similar to ours. ?? 2010 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  20. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets.

  1. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  2. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  3. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  4. Diet in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mazen; Saeian, Kia

    2011-04-01

    The past few years have seen a great expansion of our understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Much of the progress has been on the genetic basis of disease as well as the role of microbiota. These findings have magnified the role of the environmental component of this rather complex process. Recent advances have emanated from more in-depth, comprehensive, and at times nontraditional inquiry into the potential role of diet through its anti-inflammatory properties and modulation of microbiota. This concise review focuses on the novel aspects of research related to the potential role of diet in IBD.

  5. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  6. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet.

  7. Divergence in Popular Diets Relative to Diets Consumed by Americans, and Implications for Diet Selection

    PubMed Central

    Shikany, James M.; Barash, Jennifer; Redden, David T.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Henson, C. Suzanne; Allison, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Context Given the seemingly disparate nature of popular weight-loss diets (WLDs), consumers may have a difficult time choosing one. We hypothesized that because most of these diets differ greatly from the way most Americans spontaneously eat, the choice of a WLD may be less critical than the decision to adopt any WLD. Objective To assess the degree of similarity among several popular WLDs and that between average diets of Americans and the WLDs as a whole. Design One-day menus were randomly selected or constructed from 16 popular diet books (resulting in 17 distinct diets). Usual dietary intakes of individuals were derived from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994–96, 1998. Main Outcome Measures Euclidean distances, based on 12 dietary variables, were calculated among the popular WLDs, as well as between the WLDs and intakes from the CSFII. Results Euclidean distances among the WLDs ranged from 1.99 to 15.24, with a mean of 6.12 ± 2.83. Mean distance between individuals' intakes from the CSFII and the closest WLD was 3.63 ± 1.24, while the mean distance between individuals' intakes and the farthest WLD was 10.58 ± 1.10. Mean distance between individuals' intakes and the WLDs considered together was 6.04 ± 1.10. Conclusions While the mean Euclidean distances between individuals' intakes and popular WLDs demonstrated meaningful differences, the differences among the WLDs were slightly greater and, in multivariate space, surrounded the diets consumed by Americans. This may have implications for the selection of a WLD in persons seeking to lose weight. PMID:18092015

  8. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  9. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  10. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  11. Substance use recovery and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and an imbalance of electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, and chloride). Eating balanced meals may make these symptoms less severe (however, eating can be difficult, due to nausea). A high-fiber diet with plenty of complex carbohydrates (such as whole ...

  12. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  13. Diet and Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abnet, Christian C.; Corley, Douglas A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Diet is believed to modulate cancer risk and this relationship has been widely studied in the gastrointestinal tract. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided most of the evidence for the effects of diet on cancer risk, because clinical trials to determine nutritional exposures are often impossible, impractical, or unaffordable. Although a few foods or nutrients are thought to protect against specific types of cancer, it seems clear that the strength and even direction of dietary associations (increasing or decreasing risk) is organ site- and even histology-specific, along the gastrointestinal tract. Although some hypotheses are supported by a substantial body of observational data (drinking hot maté contributes to esophageal cancer), there is not much data to support others. We discuss some highly touted hypotheses and draw interim conclusions about what is known, and what could be done to improve the level of evidence. The complex nature of diet and its associations can be productively investigated with disease-specific studies. However, public health recommendations for normal-risk individuals regarding diet and gastrointestinal cancer should probably emphasize the importance of eating for overall health, rather than eating specific foods to reduce risk for specific cancers. PMID:25680671

  14. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets.

  15. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  16. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    PubMed

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  17. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  18. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  19. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  20. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  1. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  2. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications.

  3. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  4. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  5. Diabetic Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Create Your Plate (American Diabetes Association) Also in Spanish Diabetes and Diet (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) ... Nutrition (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-Eating Plan (Mayo ...

  6. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... thing they slim down is your wallet. Some diet pills contain laxatives or diuretics that force a person's body to eliminate more water. Just like restricted-calorie diets, the weight lost with these supplements is mostly ...

  7. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet (Endocrine Society, Hormone Health Network) Very Low-Calorie Diets (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... calories a day (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ...

  8. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  9. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Marvyn, Phillip M.; Bradley, Ryan M.; Mardian, Emily B.; Marks, Kristin A.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2) in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27014733

  10. A practical guide to fad diets.

    PubMed

    Porcello, L A

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Personal Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... chart there, too. These charts are your medical records. They may be on paper or electronic. To ... good idea to keep your own personal health record. What kind of information would you put in ...

  12. Best Children's Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    This annotated discography lists 45 recordings for children from birth to 14 years, including recordings of stories, songs, ballet, and foreign language songs. Distributors' addresses and phone numbers are provided. (EA)

  13. Efficacy of phytases on egg production and nutrient digestibility in layers fed reduced phosphorus diets.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Liu, G H; Li, F D; Sands, J S; Zhang, S; Zheng, A J; Ru, Y J

    2007-11-01

    The effects of phytases on the performance of layers and the ileal nutrient digestibility of corn-, soybean-, and by-product meal-based diets were assessed with 320 Hy-Line brown layers from 23 to 28 wk of age. Layers were grouped randomly into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 8 layers per replicate. The 5 diets consisted of a positive control diet with adequate Ca (3.30%), total P (0.50%), and nonphytate P (NPP; 0.28%), and a negative control diet with Ca reduced by 0.12%, total P reduced by 0.14%, NPP reduced by 0.13%, and 3 phytases (phytase A derived from Aspergillus niger, and phytases B and C derived from Escherichia coli) supplemented at 300 phytase units/kg of feed, respectively. Egg production and feed intake were recorded daily, and eggshell quality and ileal nutrient digestibility were measured at the end of a 6-wk feeding period. The results revealed that the reduction of Ca and P from the positive control diet significantly depressed feed intake, egg mass, eggshell hardness, and the digestibility of N, Ca, P, and amino acids (P < 0.05). Phytase supplementation in the negative control diet improved the digestibility of P and Ca by 11.08 and 9.81% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas it improved the digestibility of amino acids by 2 to 8% (P < 0.05). However, the digestibility of most amino acids was not restored to the levels of the positive control diet by the application of phytases. Supplementing phytases in the negative control diet improved the rate of lay, egg mass, and egshell quality to the levels of birds fed the positive control diet. These results suggest that supplementing phytases can improve the digestibility not only of Ca and P, but also of amino acids in layers fed a corn-, soybean-, and by-product-based diet.

  14. Special Diet May Be Boon for Kids with Crohn's, Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet. The diet is known as the specific carbohydrate diet. No other measures were used to treat ... sugars, except for honey. Those on the specific carbohydrate diet can eat nutrient-rich foods such as ...

  15. Public Records 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  16. Recorder Resources, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Herbert D.; VanHaaren, Peg

    2006-01-01

    This article provides teaching tips and materials related to recorder lesson. Teaching Recorder in the Music Classroom, by Fred Kersten, compiles more current recorder information than any other resource. In planning instruction, the major determining factor seems to be Rote or Note. This allows instructors to take familiar repertoire that…

  17. Your Child's Immunization Record

    MedlinePlus

    Your Child’s Immunization Record It’s important to keep up-to-date records of all your child’s immunizations, beginning at birth and continuing through ... receives a vaccination by filling in the date. Record of Immunizations Date Given: Where Given: Reaction: Hepatitis ...

  18. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  19. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  20. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  1. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir; Øverland, Margareth; Kjos, Nils Petter

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p < 0.02). A significant positive correlation between duodenal villi height and average daily gain during the first 11 d postweaning was detected. Only small differences in intestinal microbiota community and no differences in growth performance were detected between the experimental diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets.

  2. 24 h electrocardiographic monitoring in morbidly obese patients during short-term zero calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, E; Yeshurun, D; Goldhammer, E; Shiran, A

    1993-06-01

    The medical literature of the previous decades has reported sudden unexpected death among cases of very low calorie dieters. Cardiac arrhythmias, possibly produced by a prolonged QT interval, were suspected to be the main cause of death in a considerable number of these cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of significant cardiac arrhythmias and prolongation of the QT interval, during short-term zero calorie diet, in morbidly obese patients. A group of 11 such patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) were treated with a short-term zero calorie diet, as in-patients for ten days, followed by an out-patient regime on an 800 kcal diet. Their ages ranged from 19-58 years (mean 43.6). None had diabetes mellitus, cardiac, liver or renal disease, or thyroid or pituitary abnormalities, and none took any medication except Allupurinol 300 mg/day. We used a 24h holter monitoring system to detect cardiac arrhythmias or prolonged QT interval. Recordings were performed on the day before starting the fast, while the patients were on their regular diet, and compared with similar recordings of the same patients taken on the 10th day of the fast. No significant cardiac arrhythmias or prolongation of the QT interval were recorded during the fasting period. Short-term zero calorie dieting provided the patients with physical and psychological encouragement and is a safe method for reducing weight if it is carried out under strict medical supervision.

  3. Is the link between depressed mood and heart rate variability explained by disinhibited eating and diet?

    PubMed

    Young, Hayley A; Cousins, Alecia L; Watkins, Heather T; Benton, David

    2017-02-01

    Consistently it has been reported that a depressed mood and low heart rate variability (HRV) are linked. However, studies have not considered that the association might be explained by dietary behaviour. The resting inter-beat interval data of 266 adults (Study 1: 156 (51M), Study 2: 112 (38M)) were recorded for six minutes and quantified using linear (HF power: 0.15-0.4Hz) and nonlinear indices (Sample entropy). Participants also completed the Profile of Mood States and the Three Factor Eating questionnaires. The Alternative Healthy Eating Index was used to quantify diet quality. In study 1 mood was associated with HRV; an effect partially mediated by diet. Study 2 replicated the finding: disinhibited eating (the tendency to lose control over one's eating) and diet sequentially mediated the association between mood and HRV. Diet plays a role in the link between mood and HRV and studies should consider the influence of this factor.

  4. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    PubMed

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.

  5. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  6. [Diet therapy in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Vilming, S T

    1995-04-20

    The significance of restrictions on protein for patients with Parkinson's disease is reviewed. Large neutral amino acids and levodopa share the same saturated carrier system through the blood-brain-barrier. Fluctuating patients are sensitive to a decreased supply of levodopa from the blood, and clinical studies show that an increased concentration of large neutral amino acids in the blood decreases mobility and reduces "on-time". A reduction of protein intake to 0.75-0.8 g/kg body weight/day has been recommended. A protein redistribution diet implying that less than 10% of the daily protein is taken in daytime and the rest in the evening, gives best results. However, in the elderly, protein restrictions may lead to a lasting negative nitrogen balance, and even in younger patients the supply of certain minerals and vitamins may become too low or marginally adequate. The diet must therefore be used with caution.

  7. Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition.

  8. Serum metabolites, ghrelin and leptin are modified by age and/or diet in weanling kittens fed either a high- or moderate-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Vester, Brittany M; Belsito, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in utero and postnatal exposure of a high-protein (HP; n=9) or moderate-protein (MP; n=16) diet on growth, and serum metabolite, ghrelin and leptin concentrations during the first 4 months of life in kittens. It was hypothesized that blood indices would be modified due to diet. Blood samples were collected from kittens at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Kittens were weaned at 8 weeks of age onto the same diet as the dam. Body weight was measured weekly from birth and daily food intake for each litter was recorded post-weaning. Serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, total protein and triglycerides were greater (P<0.05) in kittens fed the HP diet. Serum cholesterol concentrations were greater (P <0.05) in MP-fed kittens at 4 weeks of age. Moderate-protein fed kittens tended to have greater (P < 0.10) serum ghrelin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were not affected by diet, but changed over time (P<0.05). Our data indicate that diet and age of kittens affect circulating concentrations of peptides important in appetite regulation. Further research testing the effects of in utero and early postnatal nutrient exposure on feline obesity risk in adulthood is needed.

  9. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  10. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients.

  11. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  12. Functional bowel symptoms and diet.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2013-10-01

    It is well recognised that ingestion of food is a trigger for functional bowel symptoms, particularly those associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients often use manipulation of diet as a means of controlling symptoms. Despite description of multiple dietary methods, few have scientific backing or quality evidence of efficacy. One approach is to define how specific food components influence the pathophysiology of IBS and then rationally design dietary approaches. For example, short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP)) cause luminal distension, which is a major stimulus for the development of symptoms in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. By determining food content of FODMAP, a diet in which foods low in FODMAP are favoured over those high in FODMAP can be designed. Observational, comparative and randomised controlled treatment and rechallenge studies have shown that such an approach is efficacious in the majority of patients with IBS. The low FODMAP diet is now the primary dietary therapy for such patients. Similar approaches can be applied to other food components, including proteins (such as gluten), fats and natural bioactive food chemicals. Such approaches have suggestions of efficacy, but the evidence base remains underdeveloped. An additional and important consideration for any dietary therapy is its nutritional adequacy and potential adverse health effects. Dietary manipulation is now a key management strategy in patients with functional bowel symptoms. Future well-designed interventional studies will lead to refinement of dietary approaches taken and to a better understanding of their long-term safety.

  13. Diet effects on bumblebee health.

    PubMed

    Roger, Nathalie; Michez, Denis; Wattiez, Ruddy; Sheridan, Christopher; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees.

  14. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome.

  15. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  16. Influence of diets rich in Maillard reaction products on calcium bioavailability. Assays in male adolescents and in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, María Pilar

    2009-10-28

    The effects of the high intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP) on calcium availability in adolescents and across Caco-2 cell monolayers were examined. In a 2 week randomized two-period crossover trial, 18 male adolescents consumed two diets, named white diet (WD) and brown diet (BD), which were poor and rich in MRP, respectively. A 3 day balance was performed at the end of each period, and fasting blood samples were collected. Calcium solubility and absorption across Caco-2 cells were studied after the in vitro digestion of the diets. The in vitro assay showed similar solubility after the in vitro digestion and similar transport across Caco-2 cells. In accordance, calcium bioavailability in adolescents did not vary between the diets (%WD = 40.4 +/- 5.1, %BD = 38.2 +/- 3.6). Serum and urine biochemical parameters related to calcium status and bone metabolism remained unaltered. Only deoxypyridinoline values were significantly lower after consumption of the BD (13.0 +/- 1.1 compared to 18.3 +/- 2.1 nM/Mm Cr in the WD), possibly indicative of less efficient bone turnover during this period. As calcium acquired during adolescence is essential to maximize peak bone mass and to prevent osteoporosis, possible long-term effects of excessive MRP intake during this period warrant attention.

  17. Five-year-old girls’ ideas about dieting are predicted by their mothers’ dieting

    PubMed Central

    ABRAMOVITZ, BETH A.; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore 5-year-old girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Design Girls were asked to define dieting, to describe the behaviors dieting comprised, and were queried about links between dieting, weight control, and body shape. Parents completed questionnaires addressing family health history, demographics, and issues related to food, dieting, and weight control. Subjects/setting Participants were 197 girls aged 5 years and their parents. All girls lived with both biological parents, and were without food allergies or chronic medical problems. Statistical analyses performed For 5 open-ended questions related to dieting, girls were categorized as either having or not having ideas about dieting. These ideas, concepts, and beliefs were categorized, and logistic regression examined predictors of girls’ ideas about dieting. Results Depending on the question, from 34% to 65% of girls aged 5 years had ideas about dieting. Compared to girls whose mothers did not diet, girls whose mothers reported current or recent dieting were more than twice as likely to have ideas about dieting, suggesting that mothers’ dieting behavior is a source of young girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Among mothers, more than 90% reported recent dieting, and most reported use of both health-promoting and health-compromising dieting behaviors. Applications Women should be informed that weight control attempts may influence their young daughters’ emerging ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Mothers should be encouraged to use health-promoting rather than health-compromising weight control strategies, not only for their own well being, but to reduce the likelihood that daughters will incorporate health-compromising dieting behaviors into their concepts, ideas, and beliefs about dieting. PMID:11043700

  18. Day to day variability in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess day to day variability in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.05). No difference was found in FatOx between fat-rich diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.01) after the CHO-rich diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results.

  19. K+ transport by rat colon: adaptation to a low potassium diet

    SciTech Connect

    Tannen, R.L.; Marino, R.; Dawson, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    Recent studies with the isolated perfused rat kidney have demonstrated the existence of an intrinsic renal adaptation to conserve K+ in response to ingestion of a low K+ diet for 3 days. To determine whether the colon alters its K+ transport properties in a similar fashion, we measured transmural 86Rb fluxes across sheets of distal colonic epithelium under short-circuit conditions. Preliminary studies using a double-isotope technique demonstrated that 86Rb and 42K fluxes were similar; therefore 86Rb flux was considered equivalent to K+ flux. The distal half of the colon from each rat was divided into two segments, referred to as early and late distal colon. Experiments were carried out using rats fed a K+ -free, control (0.15 mmol/g), and high K+ (1.13 mmol/g) powdered diet of otherwise identical electrolyte content. Net K+ secretion (Jnet) by the early distal colon was reduced from 0.45 in the controls to -0.02 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 by a low K+ diet as a result of a decrease in serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm), with no change in mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms). Conductance (GT) and short-circuit current (Isc) were unchanged. Jnet by the late distal colon averaged 0.17 in the controls and 0.01 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 with a low K+ diet, but this difference was not significant statistically. In comparison with the controls, a high K+ diet had no effect on Jnet by the early distal colon (0.48 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) but increased Jnet by the late distal colon substantially (0.77 mueq X cm-2 X h-1).

  20. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Jackson, Kevin E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-06-07

    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure.

  1. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Polissar, Pratigya J.; Jackson, Kevin E.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus. This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure. PMID:27274042

  2. Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... or misfiled or somehow damaged. For example, paper medical records for thousands of patients were destroyed by ... A federal law called the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ( ...

  3. A High Soy Diet Enhances Neurotropin Receptor and Bcl-XL Gene Expression in the Brains of Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lovekamp-Swan, Tara; Glendenning, Michele L.; Schreihofer, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen is a powerful neuroprotective agent with the ability to induce trophic and antiapoptotic genes. However, concerns about negative overall health consequences of estrogen replacement after menopause have led to the adoption of other strategies to obtain estrogen’s benefits in the brain, including the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators, high soy diets, or isoflavone supplements. This study sought to determine the ability of a high soy diet to induce neuroprotective gene expression in the female rat brain and compare the actions of soy with estrogen. Adult ovariectomized female rats were treated with 3 days of high dose estrogen or two weeks of a soy-free diet, a high soy diet, or chronic low dose estrogen. Different brain regions were microdissected and subjected to real time RT-PCR for neuroprotective genes previously shown to be estrogen-regulated. The principle findings are that a high soy diet led to the widespread increase in the mRNA for neurotropin receptors TrkA and p75-NTR, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bcl-XL. Immunohistochemistry confirmed increases in both TrkA and Bcl-XL. Chronic low dose estrogen mimicked some of these effects, but acute high dose estrogen did not. The effects of a high soy diet were particularly evident in the parietal cortex and hippocampus, two regions protected by estrogen in animal models of neurological disease and injury. These results suggest that a high soy diet may provide beneficial effects to the brain similar to low dose chronic estrogen treatment such as that used for postmenopausal hormone replacement. PMID:17582385

  4. A high soy diet enhances neurotropin receptor and Bcl-XL gene expression in the brains of ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Lovekamp-Swan, Tara; Glendenning, Michele L; Schreihofer, Derek A

    2007-07-23

    Estrogen is a powerful neuroprotective agent with the ability to induce trophic and antiapoptotic genes. However, concerns about negative overall health consequences of estrogen replacement after menopause have led to the adoption of other strategies to obtain estrogen's benefits in the brain, including the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators, high soy diets, or isoflavone supplements. This study sought to determine the ability of a high soy diet to induce neuroprotective gene expression in the female rat brain and compare the actions of soy with estrogen. Adult ovariectomized female rats were treated with 3 days of high dose estrogen or 2 weeks of a soy-free diet, a high soy diet, or chronic low dose estrogen. Different brain regions were microdissected and subjected to real time RT-PCR for neuroprotective genes previously shown to be estrogen-regulated. The principle findings are that a high soy diet led to the widespread increase in the mRNA for neurotropin receptors TrkA and p75-NTR, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bcl-X(L). Immunohistochemistry confirmed increases in both TrkA and Bcl-X(L). Chronic low dose estrogen mimicked some of these effects, but acute high dose estrogen did not. The effects of a high soy diet were particularly evident in the parietal cortex and hippocampus, two regions protected by estrogen in animal models of neurological disease and injury. These results suggest that a high soy diet may provide beneficial effects to the brain similar to low dose chronic estrogen treatment such as that used for postmenopausal hormone replacement.

  5. Does garbage in diet improve Glaucous Gull reproductive output?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Weiser, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern.

  6. Epigenetics: a tool to understand diet-related cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Zaina, Silvio; Lund, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality and is projected to hold its grim record as developing countries increase their wealth. Since specific nutritional habits are important risk factors for CVD, it is imperative to understand how ingredients of risk-associated diets convert a healthy cellular transcriptional program into a pathological one. Epigenetics has enriched our view of the genome by showing that DNA-associated regulatory proteins and RNAs, together with chemical modifications of the DNA itself, determine which parts of the DNA chain are transcribed or silent in a given phase of a cell's life. This complex biological entity--the epigenome--accounts for the enormous phenotypic diversity within a multicellular organism despite its unicellular origin. Crucially, the epigenome can be modified by diet and other exogenous factors, thus suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms might underlie pathological responses to CVD risk factors. Here, we will review the current knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms in diet-gene interactions and propose ways in which epigenetics might clarify the impact of genetic variants on CVD risk.

  7. Diet of mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales Mesoplondon bidens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. N.; Neves, V. C.; Prieto, R.; Silva, M. A.; Cascão, I.; Oliveira, C.; Cruz, M. J.; Medeiros, J. V.; Barreiros, J. P.; Porteiro, F. M.; Clarke, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first mid-Atlantic diet of Mesoplodon beaked whales is presented, from ten Sowerby's Mesoplodon bidens stranded in the Azores region between 2002 and 2009. This doubles the worldwide number of stomachs sampled, and reveals new feeding habits for this species. The mean number of prey items per stomach was 85±89 (range: 12-238), with fish accounting for 99.3% and cephalopods contributing less than 1% of total prey. Fish otoliths from 15 families and cephalopod lower mandibles from three families were identified, representing 22 taxa. The diet consisted mainly of small mid-water fish, the most numerous being Diaphus sp., Lampanyctus sp. and Melamphaidae species. Myctophids were present in all stranded individuals, followed by Diretmidae, Melamphaidae and Opisthoproctus soleatus, while the remaining fish species were scarce or single occurrences. Consistency of diet in four different years reveals a divergence from all previous records in continental areas, where mainly neritic and shelf-break benthopelagic fish species have been reported. Mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales' showed dietary plasticity, feeding on the most abundant mid-water groups occurring between 0 and750 m. Trophic level from prey numerical frequency was estimated at 4.4±0.46.

  8. Cortical orofacial motor representation: effect of diet consistency.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, L; Lee, J C; Sessle, B J

    2010-10-01

    Jaw and tongue motor alterations may occur following changes in food consistency, but whether such changes are associated with re-organization of motor representations within the facial sensorimotor cortex is unclear. We used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked electromyographic responses to determine jaw (anterior digastric) and tongue (genioglossus) motor representations within the histologically defined face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent somatosensory cortex (face-S1) of rats fed hard (N = 6) or soft (N = 6) diet for 2 to 3 weeks. ICMS evoked jaw and tongue responses from an extensive area within the face-M1 and a smaller area within the face-S1. A significant contralateral predominance was reflected in the number and latency of ICMS-evoked jaw responses (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the hard- and soft-diet groups in jaw and tongue motor representations, suggesting that the rat's ability to adapt to changes in diet consistency may not be associated with significant neuroplasticity of sensorimotor cortex motor outputs.

  9. DIET IN DERMATOLOGY: PRESENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, K H; Seemanthini, C; Rashmi, R

    2010-01-01

    Many nutrients are essential for life, and an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet is necessary for providing energy, building and maintaining body organs, and for various metabolic processes. The role of food in the induction of various skin disorders and skin diseases leading to nutritional deficiencies is well known. The photo-protective potential of antioxidants, the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the skin immune system, and the modulating effects of fatty acids on skin disorders are well documented. Skin diseases due to nutritional deficiencies, the dietary role in skin immunity and various skin diseases, and the role of antioxidants and other supplements in skin health have been reviewed. PMID:21063507

  10. Changes in tissue free amino acid pools in growing chickens fed thermally treated vetch diets.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Lachica, M

    2014-04-01

    A three-day assay was developed to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on protein quality of vetch as an alternative to classical growth methods. Male chickens (n = 10/diet) were given approximately isonitrogenous diets based on raw or autoclaved vetch for 3 days. Samples of plasma, muscle and liver were obtained for free amino acid analysis. Heating vetch depressed growth (11.9 vs. 23.2 g/d; p < 0.05). Plasma methionine and histidine increased (0.05 < p < 0.06), while gluconeogenic amino acids tended to decrease (p < 0.10) after heating. Muscle free amino acids did not change except for a trend to increased methionine (p = 0.06) in birds fed autoclaved vetch. In liver, most essential amino acids, glycine, proline and tyrosine increased markedly with heated vetch diet. Correlations between plasma and muscle free amino acids were poor compared with those between plasma and liver free amino acids. Liver free amino acid pool was more sensitive than muscle or plasma pool to amino acid inflow modifications after vetch heating.

  11. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span.

  12. The Evolving Scholarly Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Brian; Childress, Eric; Erway, Ricky; Faniel, Ixchel; Malpas, Constance; Schaffner, Jennifer; van der Werf, Titia

    2014-01-01

    The ways and means of scholarly inquiry are experiencing fundamental change, with consequences for scholarly communication and ultimately, the scholarly record. The boundaries of the scholarly record are both expanding and blurring, driven by changes in research practices, as well as changing perceptions of the long-term value of certain forms of…

  13. Privacy and Library Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  14. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  15. Children's Books and Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books and audiotape recordings for children from infancy through the early elementary grades. The bibliography includes recordings of music and storytelling; books that tell fairy tales and old favorite stories; and books about such topics as mother-child relationships and pets. (BB)

  16. Record Keeping Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  17. Lightning-Transient Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grumm, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Battery-powered system operates for more than one year. Recorder digitizes and records up to 146 current samples at selected intervals during lightning stroke. System continues to store time tags of lightning strokes even if transient current memory is full.

  18. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  19. Clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Vining, E P

    1999-12-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective alternative therapy used to control intractable seizures. It was originally described in 1921 as a way to duplicate and prolong the beneficial effects that fasting appeared to have on seizure control. It involves consuming a calorie-restricted diet in which the fat:carbohydrate + protein ratio ranges from 2:1 to 5:1. Recent prospective studies in children demonstrate that about 50% of children will continue on the diet for at least a year, with 40-50% of those starting the diet having a >50% reduction in seizures after 12 months. When the diet is discontinued it is usually due to lack of efficacy. The diet is a radical medical therapy and nutritional well-being is a constant concern. Renal stones have occurred in 5-8% of children on the diet; lipids are elevated, but the significance of this is not known. The mechanism of action of the diet remains unknown, and it is difficult to assess which biochemical parameters should be monitored as adjustments are made to the diet.

  20. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Adeva, María M; Souto, Gema

    2011-08-01

    The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting. Low urine pH predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria are risk factors for calcium stone disease. Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance to the insulin action and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure. High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH.

  1. Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Diet is key to understanding the paleoecology of early hominins. We know little about the diets of these fossil taxa, however, in part because of a limited fossil record, and in part because of limitations in methods available to infer their feeding adaptations. This paper applies a new method, dental topographic analysis, to the inference of diet from fossil hominin teeth. This approach uses laser scanning to generate digital 3D models of teeth and geographic information systems software to measure surface attributes, such as slope and occlusal relief. Because it does not rely on specific landmarks that change with wear, dental topographic analysis allows measurement and comparison of variably worn teeth, greatly increasing sample sizes compared with techniques that require unworn teeth. This study involved comparison of occlusal slope and relief of the lower second molars of Australopithecus afarensis (n=15) and early Homo (n=8) with those of Gorilla gorilla gorilla (n=47) and Pan troglodytes troglodytes (n=54). Results indicate that while all groups show reduced slope and relief in progressively more worn specimens, there are consistent differences at given wear stages among the taxa. Early Homo shows steeper slopes and more relief than chimpanzees, whereas A. afarensis shows less slope and relief than any of the other groups. The differences between the two hominin taxa are on the same order as those between the extant apes, suggesting similar degrees of difference in diet. Because these chimpanzees and gorillas differ mostly in fallback foods where they are sympatric, results suggest that the early hominins may likewise have differed mostly in fallback foods, with A. afarensis emphasizing harder, more brittle foods, and early Homo relying on tougher, more elastic foods.

  2. A comparison of three methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, S.B.; Fuller, Mark R.; Titus, K.

    2004-01-01

    Video recording of prey deliveries to nests is a new technique for collecting data on raptor diet, but no thorough comparison of results from traditional methods based on collections of prey remains and pellets has been undertaken. We compared data from these 3 methods to determine relative merits of different methods for assessing raptor diet as part of a study of the breeding-season diet of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Southeast Alaska. We applied these methods to 5 nests during each of the northern goshawk breeding seasons of 1998 and 1999 and identified 1,540 prey from deliveries, 209 prey from remains, and 209 prey from pellets. The proportions of birds and mammals varied among techniques, as did relative proportions of prey groups and age groups. Prey remains and pellets gave the least-similar diet descriptions. Over 2-day intervals during which data were collected using all 3 methods, prey-delivery data gave more individual prey and prey categories than the 2 other sources of information. We found that prey were not directly tracked in either prey remains or pellets compared with prey delivery videography. Analysis of prey-delivery videography provided the most complete description of diet, and we recommend that studies attempting to describe diet use this technique, at least as part of their methodology.

  3. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Precipitation Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. R.; Prat, O.; Vasquez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Five precipitation CDRs are now or soon will be transitioned to NOAA's CDR program. These include the PERSIANN data set, which is a 30-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation based on retrievals from satellite microwave data using artificial neural networks. The AMSU-A/B/Hydrobundle is an 11-year record of precipitable water, cloud water, ice water, and other variables. CMORPH (the NOAA Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation measured from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. GPCP (the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and a 17-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The NEXRAD Reanalysis is a 10-year record of high resolution NEXRAD radar based adjusted CONUS-wide hourly and daily precipitation. This study provides an assessment of the existing and transitioned long term precipitation CDRs and includes the verification of the five precipitation CDRs using various methods including comparison with in-situ data sets and trend analysis. As all of the precipitation related CDRs are transitioned, long term analyses can be performed. Comparisons at varying scales (hourly, daily and longer) of the precipitation CDRs with in-situ data sets are provided as well as a first look at what could be an ensemble long term precipitation data record.

  5. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  6. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  7. Why were "starvation diets" promoted for diabetes in the pre-insulin period?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the decade before the discovery of insulin, the prominent American physicians Frederick Allen and Elliott Joslin advocated severe fasting and undernutrition to prolong the lives of diabetic patients. Detractors called this "starvation dieting," and some patients did indeed starve to death. Allen and Joslin promoted the therapy as a desperate application of animal experimentation to clinical treatment, and texts still describe it that way. This justification was exaggerated. The public record contains only the briefest account of relevant animal experiments, and clinical experience at the time provided little indication that severe undernutrition had better outcomes than low carbohydrate diets then in use. PMID:21396115

  8. Analysis Extract. AFSC 4D0X1 Diet Therapy (Active Duty)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    87* 22* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet Active Active Active Active AD...98 % 94 % Total in group: 23* 29* 52* 41* 119* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet...13* 8* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet AETC ACC AMC AFMC PACAF USAFE

  9. Prolonged High Fat Diet Reduces Dopamine Reuptake without Altering DAT Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Jackson J.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Potter, David N.; Ebner, Stephanie R.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development of DIO. PMID:23516454

  10. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  11. Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does your doc scribble notes onto sheets of paper and then slide them into an ever-expanding ... for errors. Security. There's always the chance that paper records can get lost or misfiled or somehow ...

  12. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    PubMed

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  13. Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate; Zeuschner, Carol; Saunders, Angela; Reid, Michelle

    2009-08-01

    A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.

  14. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network .  The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...

  15. Intelligence and Phenylketonuria: Effects of Diet Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Trends in intellectual functioning before and after diet termination were examined in 30 children (5-11 years old) with PKU (Phenylketonuria, a metabolic disorder) treated before 6 weeks of age and on a liberal diet for a mean of 3 years since the mean age of 59 months. Journal availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.…

  16. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice. PMID:8382094

  17. Safety of low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Crowe, T C

    2005-08-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have re-emerged into the public spotlight and are enjoying a high degree of popularity as people search for a solution to the population's ever-expanding waistline. The current evidence though indicates that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted diets on long-term weight loss and maintenance. Furthermore, a higher rate of adverse side-effects can be attributed to low-carbohydrate dieting approaches. Short-term efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets has been demonstrated for some lipid parameters of cardiovascular risk and measures of glucose control and insulin sensitivity, but no studies have ascertained if these effects represent a change in primary outcome measures. Low-carbohydrate diets are likely effective and not harmful in the short term and may have therapeutic benefits for weight-related chronic diseases although weight loss on such a program should be undertaken under medical supervision. While new commercial incarnations of the low-carbohydrate diet are now addressing overall dietary adequacy by encouraging plenty of high-fibre vegetables, fruit, low-glycaemic-index carbohydrates and healthier fat sources, this is not the message that reaches the entire public nor is it the type of diet adopted by many people outside of the world of a well-designed clinical trial. Health effects of long-term ad hoc restriction of inherently beneficial food groups without a concomitant reduction in body weight remains unanswered.

  18. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  19. Reconnaissance Data Recording Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-15

    capabilities than the general types of imaging sensors. There is one salvation for this continuous demand for greater data recording capacity and...20 bs 1.132 Non Volatle at least 6months 1.14. Warm uptime: tesstianS minutes 1.15 General Operating Environment: standard runway operations 20...technology. Specifically these requirements generally describe a high speed tape recording system, and all seven subcategories of requirements can be

  20. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The views expressed are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board. Abstract: This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  1. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27713775

  2. LOW CHROMATE DIET IN DERMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav Deb

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element found in soil, water, air, and in the biosphere. It is the fourth most common element in the earth's crust, mostly used to manufacture stainless steel and other alloys. Chromate allergy is not uncommon and its prevalence rate is reported to be 6%. Once developed, it tends to persist for a long time. Chromate is present in most of the dietary items. Chromate content in food often varies considerably from place to place. However, certain foods are routinely high in chromate content. Chromate in the diet of a chromate-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low chromate concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of chromate per day. This can influence outcome of the disease, especially chronic vesicular hand eczema due to chromate sensitivity, and can benefit a chromate-sensitive patient. PMID:20161868

  3. Genetic effects of methylation diets.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2002-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines in CpG dinucleotides can lead to changes in gene expression and function without altering the primary sequence of the DNA. Methylation can be affected by dietary levels of methyl-donor components, such as folic acid. This may be an important mechanism for environmentally induced changes in gene expression. Recent literature supports a role for DNA-methylation changes in a number of adult-onset disorders and during development. These changes may be significant for better understanding certain birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects) and the long-term consequences of early environmental influences on gene expression (metabolic programming). Optimal "methylation diets" should be investigated as part of the prevention and treatment of all these conditions, as well as in disorders such as Rett syndrome, whose primary defects may lie in DNA methylation-dependent gene regulation.

  4. Optical sedimentation recorder

    DOEpatents

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  5. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  6. Development of a meridic diet for Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the role of carbohydrates in feeding, growth, and survival of larvae.

    PubMed

    Tomic-Carruthers, Nada

    2007-08-01

    The root-feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is used for biological control of the invasive plant purple loosestrife, Luthrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). A simple rearing system for this weevil was developed with the goals of improving production techniques and increasing the availability of insects for field introduction. Additionally, the dietary effects of digestible and indigestible carbohydrates were explored. A meridic diet for rearing H. transversovittatus was formulated through nutritional alterations of a boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diet. Diet attractiveness was evaluated on two levels: first, by recording the incidence of initial tunneling, and second, by estimating the larval establishment rate. The performance of test diet formulations was further assessed by measuring developmental and survival rates of H. transversovittatus. Sucrose, starch, and three types of indigestible carbohydrates were tested as components to improve diet performance. Physical properties of the diet, modified by fillers in test formulations, produced major effects on the initial tunneling of hatchlings. The establishment of hatchlings was affected by chemical properties of the diet. Increases in sucrose concentration decreased larval establishment, decreased the rate of larval development, and decreased larval survival. However, omitting sucrose from the diet, or replacing it with starch, increased mortality of first instars. In advanced stages of larval development, omitting sucrose from the diet did not significantly affect larval survival. The developmental rate of larvae was increased when the amount of digestible carbohydrate was reduced. To date, seven generations of the univoltine H. transversovittatus have been successfully produced on this new meridic diet.

  7. [Oat products in gluten free diet].

    PubMed

    Lange, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease in patent in different age is increased, but gluten free diet is only way to treat this disease. Diet without gluten cereals: wheat, rye, barley and oats is often low in many minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber, but rich in fat and sugar. Gluten free diet witch is supplemented with oats products may contains more dietary fiber, minerals, thiamine, biotin, tokopherols, tokotrienos, and unsaturated fatty acids. The majority of researches show that inclusion 20-50g/d of oat products to gluten free diet is safe for children and adults with new diagnosed and also in remission state. Simultaneously, some patients with celiac disease may intolerance to avenin. The control and assessment of gluten (wheat, rye, barley) contamination in oat products and also long term introduction of oat products to gluten free diet for patient at different age.

  8. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  9. High-protein diets and renal health.

    PubMed

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N; Jespersen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority of such diets on human health has been provided.

  10. A High-Fat High-Sucrose Diet Rapidly Alters Muscle Integrity, Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kelsey H.; Paul, Heather A.; Hart, David A.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Smith, Ian C.; Rios, Jaqueline L.; Seerattan, Ruth A.; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The chronic low-level inflammation associated with obesity is known to deleteriously affect muscle composition. However, the manner in which obesity leads to muscle loss has not been explored in detail or in an integrated manner following a short-term metabolic challenge. In this paper, we evaluated the relationships between compromised muscle integrity, diet, systemic inflammatory mediators, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and the number of pro-inflammatory cells increased by 3-days and was sustained across 28-days of high-fat high-sugar feeding compared to control-diet animals. To understand systemic contributors to muscle damage, dynamic changes in gut microbiota and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Data from this study links metabolic challenge to persistent compromise in muscle integrity after just 3-days, a finding associated with altered gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory changes. These data contribute to our understanding of early consequences of metabolic challenge on multiple host systems, which are important to understand as obesity treatment options are developed. Therefore, intervention within this early period of metabolic challenge may be critical to mitigate these sustained alterations in muscle integrity. PMID:27853291

  11. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  12. High-phosphorus diet maximizes and low-dose calcitriol attenuates skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Luz M; López, Ignacio; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Pineda, Carmen; Chamizo, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2016-05-01

    Although disorders of mineral metabolism and skeletal muscle are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), their potential relationship remains unexplored. Elevations in plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblastic growth factor 23 together with decreased calcitriol levels are common features of CKD. High-phosphate intake is a major contributor to progression of CKD. This study was primarily aimed to determine the influence of high-phosphate intake on muscle and to investigate whether calcitriol supplementation counteracts negative skeletal muscle changes associated with long-term uremia. Proportions and metabolic and morphological features of myosin-based muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of uremic rats (5/6 nephrectomy, Nx) and compared with sham-operated (So) controls. Three groups of Nx rats received either a standard diet (0.6% phosphorus, Nx-Sd), or a high-phosphorus diet (0.9% phosphorus, Nx-Pho), or a high-phosphorus diet plus calcitriol (10 ng/kg 3 day/wk ip, Nx-Pho + Cal) for 12 wk. Two groups of So rats received either a standard diet or a high-phosphorus diet (So-Pho) over the same period. A multivariate analysis encompassing all fiber-type characteristics indicated that Nx-Pho + Cal rats displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes intermediate between Nx-Pho and So-Pho rats and that uremia-induced skeletal muscle changes were of greater magnitude in Nx-Pho than in Nx-Sd rats. In uremic rats, treatment with calcitriol preserved fiber-type composition, cross-sectional size, myonuclear domain size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity of muscle fibers. These data demonstrate that a high-phosphorus diet potentiates and low-dose calcitriol attenuates adverse skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

  13. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  14. Vegetarian Diet: Will It Help Me Lose Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...

  15. Vegetarian Diet: How to Get the Best Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... about a diet that doesn't include meat, poultry or fish. But vegetarian diets vary in what ... and exclude: Lacto-vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish, poultry and eggs, as well as foods that contain ...

  16. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  17. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  18. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; P<0.001). Additionally, HighCHO GE was significantly greater after 25 min (P=0.015) and 85 min (P=0.021) than in the LowCHO condition. Heart rate responses in the HighCHO condition were significantly lower than during the LowCHO tests (P=0.005). Diet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  19. Statistics of superior records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  20. Diet, inflammation and prediabetes-impact of quality of diet.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-10-01

    Low grade inflammation has been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Obesity and, in particular, abdominal obesity increase the risk of diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. One of the mechanisms could be low grade inflammation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. Permanent weight reduction is the first line of treatment both for obese individuals at increased risk of diabetes and for newly onset type 2 diabetes. Weight reduction lowers the level of several inflammatory factors in the body while increasing the level of adiponectin. Besides weight reduction the quality of diet and physical activity also modifies low grade inflammation. Based on the literature survey and our own studies in humans, it is possible to have dietary patterns that reduce inflammatory stress in the body and improves vascular endothelial dysfunction. There is strong evidence to suggest that IL-1 Ra is a very sensitive marker of low grade inflammation in obesity and related phenotypes; however, its level is markedly lowered by weight reduction and by choosing foods that have been shown to reduce inflammatory stress in the body.

  1. Diet drives convergence in gut microbiome functions across mammalian phylogeny and within humans.

    PubMed

    Muegge, Brian D; Kuczynski, Justin; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; González, Antonio; Fontana, Luigi; Henrissat, Bernard; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2011-05-20

    Coevolution of mammals and their gut microbiota has profoundly affected their radiation into myriad habitats. We used shotgun sequencing of microbial community DNA and targeted sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes to gain an understanding of how microbial communities adapt to extremes of diet. We sampled fecal DNA from 33 mammalian species and 18 humans who kept detailed diet records, and we found that the adaptation of the microbiota to diet is similar across different mammalian lineages. Functional repertoires of microbiome genes, such as those encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes and proteases, can be predicted from bacterial species assemblages. These results illustrate the value of characterizing vertebrate gut microbiomes to understand host evolutionary histories at a supraorganismal level.

  2. Diet macronutrient composition reported before treatment predicts BMI change in obese children: the role of lipids.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, C; Maschio, M; Costanzi, S; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Morandi, A

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that diet composition reported by children before the beginning of an obesity treatment program could be a predicting factor of the clinical outcome. A sample of 138 obese 6-16-year-old children and adolescents were recruited. Anthropometry and dietary habits were recorded. Each patient participated in a multidimensional treatment program in an outpatient obesity public service clinic. Therapy was based on a 6-month educational program on nutrition, lifestyle and physical activity. Children with a lipid intake above 34.7% of total energy had a 2.5 times higher chance of reducing at least 1.5 units of BMI with treatment than children with lower lipid intake. These results suggest that the assessment of habitual diet, in particular diet composition before starting treatment, may help to identify obese children who are more sensitive to intervention and those who need more specific nutritional assistance.

  3. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  4. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    from 2.65 to 3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  5. 34 CFR 5.17 - Records in record centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records in record centers. 5.17 Section 5.17 Education... PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) What Records Are Available § 5.17 Records in record centers. When a request is made for identifiable records of the Department which have been stored in the National...

  6. Epigenetic consequences of a changing human diet.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Paul

    2013-11-01

    The human diet has undergone profound changes over recent generations and this trend is likely to accelerate in the 21st century. Innovations in food technology, new ways of producing and processing foods and the increasing use of artificial vitamins and novel ingredients are changing the human diet in ways that our dietary monitoring systems struggle to keep pace with. There is a growing awareness of the importance of diet, but little understanding of how these changes may affect the health of current and future generations. Epigenetic programming, and specifically the persistence of functional epigenetic states following nutritional exposure, is particularly relevant to the issue of dietary change. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which diet and nutrition can directly influence the genome and there is now considerable evidence for nutritional epigenetic programming of health and the response to diet itself. A number of nutrients and food components that are changing in the human diet have been shown to produce epigenetic states that are stable across different timescales. We need to better understand the nutritional programming of epigenetic states, the persistence of these marks in time and their effect on biological function and the response to diet.

  7. Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to 3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7–6.1 kg CO2eq./day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO2eq./yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  8. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050.

  9. Osmoregulation in an avian nectarivore, the whitebellied sunbird Nectarinia talatala: response to extremes of diet concentration.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P A; Nicolson, S W

    2003-06-01

    Water intake of nectarivores is intrinsically linked to nectar concentration. Osmoregulation in whitebellied sunbirds Nectarinia talatala (body mass 9.3+/-0.1 g, mean +/- S.D., N=7), was examined by feeding them sucrose solutions, equivalent to extreme diet concentrations (0.07-2.5 mol l(-1) sucrose; 2-65% w/w), with and without supplementary drinking water. Total water gain was 33-515% of body mass daily. Cloacal fluid (CF) volume increased with diet dilution from 0.4% to 309% of body mass while increases in evaporative water loss (obtained by difference) were also recorded. Osmolality of CF demonstrated the largest scope yet recorded for a bird and was significantly correlated with water flux: mean values were 6-460 mosm kg(-1) H(2)O (minimum 3, maximum 1900 mosm kg(-1)). When supplementary water was provided, its consumption by birds fed concentrated diets (2.5 mol l(-1) sucrose) led to a dramatic reduction in CF osmolality, from 461+/-253 to 80+/-119 mosm kg(-1) fluid. Sunbirds maintained energy balance on sucrose diets varying tenfold in concentration, from 0.25 to 2.5 mol l(-1); however, on extremely dilute diets (0.07 and 0.1 mol l(-1) sucrose, lower than natural nectar concentrations) their inability to maintain energy balance was probably due to excess preformed water. Total osmotic excretion and concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) increased with high water fluxes, and are a possible physiological constraint for nectarivorous birds on artificial dilute diets devoid of electrolytes. Even low electrolyte levels in nectars may be adequate to replace these losses, but other physiological limitations to the intake of dilute nectars are increased energetic costs of solute recovery, increased heat loss and interference with digestive processes. Sunbirds therefore deal with sugar solutions spanning the range of nectar concentrations by shutting down water excretion on concentrated diets, or, on dilute diets, by producing extremely dilute CF with some of the lowest

  10. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  11. Keeping electronic records secure.

    PubMed

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  12. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

  13. Role of Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruemmele, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily in the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. An interesting hypothesis is that environmental (food-) triggered changes of the intestinal microbiome might cause a proinflammatory state preceding the development of IBD. Indeed, an intact intestinal epithelial barrier assuring a normal bacterial clearance of the intestinal surface is crucial to guarantee intestinal homeostasis. Any factors affecting the epithelial barrier function directly or indirectly may impact on this homeostasis, as well as any changes of the intestinal microbial composition. It is intriguing to learn that some frequently used food components impact on the quality of the intestinal barrier, as well as on the composition of the intestinal microbiome. This highlights the close interaction between living conditions, hygiene, food habits and food quality with the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiome and the activation status of the intestinal immune system. There is clear evidence that nutritional therapy is highly successful in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is well established as induction therapy of CD. New diets, such as a CD exclusion diet or defined diets (specific carbohydrate diets, FODMAP diet, Paleolithic diet) are being discussed as treatment options for IBD. Well-designed clinical trials in IBD are urgently required to define the precise role of each of these diets in the prevention or management of IBD. Up to now, the role of diet in IBD is highly undermined by lay and anecdotal reports without sufficient scientific proof.

  14. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  15. Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour?

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Kaklamanou, Daphne; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Armitage, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs) - beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by healthy behaviour - are hypothesised to be activated automatically to help people resolve conflicts between their desires (e.g. eat chocolate) and their long-term goals (e.g. dieting). The aim of the present research was to investigate diet-specific CHBs within the context of a theoretical framework, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), to examine the extent to which diet-specific CHBs contribute to dieting intentions and dietary intake. Seventy-five dieting women were recruited in Switzerland and England and were asked to complete measures of diet-specific CHBs, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and behaviour. Path modelling showed that, overall, diet-specific CHBs were not related to dieting intentions (β=.10) or behaviour (β=.06) over and above variables specified in the HAPA. However, risk perception moderated the relationship between diet-specific CHBs and intention (β=.26). Diet-specific CHBs positively predicted intention in women with high risk perception, but not in women with low risk perception. This positive relationship might be explained by the assumption that CHBs play different roles at different stages of the health-behaviour change process. Future studies should further examine moderators and stage-specific differences of the associations between CHBs, intention and health-behaviour change.

  16. A scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale: the DIET-SE.

    PubMed

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-03-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of the 11-item DIET-SE. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 392) and confirmatory factors analysis (N = 124) revealed three internally consistent and reliable factors representing challenges to adhere to a diet (high-caloric food temptations [HCF], social and internal factors [SIF], negative emotional events [NEE]). Convergent validity is established with other measures of dieting self-efficacy, as well as measures of eating disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and weight loss competency. Criterion-related validity is provided through the assessment of goal adherence, and predictive validity is established for dieters' actual food intake (N = 68). The DIET-SE represents a short, reliable, and valid scenario-based measure of dieting self-efficacy.

  17. Cashew reject meal in diets of laying chickens: nutritional and economic suitability.

    PubMed

    Akande, Taiwo O; Akinwumi, Akinyinka O; Abegunde, Taye O

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nutritional and economic suitability of cashew reject meal (full fat and defatted) as replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) in the diets of laying chickens. A total of eighty four brown shavers at 25 weeks of age were randomly allotted into seven dietary treatments each containing 6 replicates of 2 birds each. The seven diets prepared included diet 1, a control with GNC at 220gkg(-1) as main protein source in the diet. Diets 2, 3 and 4 consist of gradual replacement of GNC with defatted cashew reject meal (DCRM) at 50%, 75% and 100% on weight for weight basis respectively while diets 5, 6 and 7 consist of gradual inclusion of full fat cashew reject meal (FCRM) to replace 25%, 35% and 50% of GNC protein respectively. Each group was allotted a diet in a completely randomized design in a study that lasted eight weeks during which records of the chemical constituent of the test ingredients, performance characteristics, egg quality traits and economic indicators were measured. Results showed that the crude protein were 22.10 and 35.4% for FCRM and DCRM respectively. Gross energy of DCRM was 5035 kcal/kg compared to GNC, 4752 kcal/kg. Result of aflatoxin B1 revealed moderate level between 10 and 17 μg/Kg in DCRM and GNC samples respectively. Birds on control gained 10 g, while those on DCRM and FCRM gained about 35 g and 120 g respectively. Feed intake declined (P < 0.05) with increased level of FCRM. Hen day production was highest in birds fed DCRM, followed by control and lowest value (P < 0.05) was recorded for FCRM. No significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for egg weight and shell thickness. Fat deposition and cholesterol content increased (P > 0.05) with increasing level of FCRM. The cost of feed per kilogram decreased gradually with increased inclusion level of CRM. The prediction equation showed the relative worth of DCRM compared to GNC was 92.3% whereas the actual market price of GNC triples that of

  18. Impact of Diet Containing Grape Pomace on Growth Performance and Blood Lipid Profile of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ivy; Yu, Jianmei; Hurley, Steven L; Hanner, Tracy

    2017-04-06

    Grape pomace (GP), the residue of grapes after wine making, is rich in dietary polyphenols and fiber, and it has potential to serve as a functional food ingredient to improve health. However, high polyphenol diets have also been reported to inhibit the growth of young animals and cause liver necrosis. This study investigated the effect of diets containing different amounts of GP on the growth performance and blood lipid profile by using a young rat model. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats of age 7 weeks were randomly divided into four groups that were fed AIN-93G diets that were modified by substituting 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of carbohydrate with GP for 10 weeks (the diets, thus, obtained contained 0%, 6.9%, 13.8%, and 20.7% of GP). The group fed original AIN-93G (0% GP) was used as control. Feed consumption, body weight, length, and height were recorded weekly. Blood samples were taken biweekly to analyze plasma lipid profile. At the end of the feeding period, the rats were fasted overnight and euthanized by exsanguination under anesthesia. Livers, hearts, and kidneys were collected, and their weights were recorded. Results show that the diet containing a maximum of 20.7% of GP did not influence the body weights, lengths, and heights of rats. As the GP content increased, the blood triglyceride and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) decreased, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased slightly but were statistically significant, and total cholesterol remained constant. In conclusion, GP in the AIN-93G diet did not influence the growth performance of young rats, but it exhibited both positive and negative effects on the blood lipid profile.

  19. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, George

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions prior to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.

  20. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  1. Corals as climate recorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies (CREST) Project is analyzing corals from various sites in the Caribbean region, Dry Tortugas National Park, Biscayne National Park, other areas of the Florida Keys, and the Virgin Islands. The objective of this project is to develop records of past environmental change to better our understanding of climate variability. The records are being used to document changes over the last few centuries and to determine how corals and coral reefs have responded to any changes.

  2. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  3. Diet counseling in a multicultural society.

    PubMed

    Kittler, P G; Sucher, K P

    1990-01-01

    Successful diet counseling is dependent on culturally sensitive communication strategies. Health care practitioners can improve cross-cultured counseling through a four-step process. First, they must become familiar with their own cultural heritages. Second, they must become acquainted with the cultural background of each client. Third, through an in-depth cross-cultural interview, they must establish the client's cultural background, food habit adaptations made in the United States, and personal preferences. Fourth, they must modify diets based on unbiased analysis of the dietary data. The best chance for compliance occurs when diets are modified with consideration for client's cultural and personal preferences.

  4. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  5. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.

  6. Gut microbes, diet, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hullar, Meredith A J; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Lampe, Johanna W

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. The diet of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Ungar, Peter S; Passey, Benjamin H; Sponheimer, Matt; Rossouw, Lloyd; Bamford, Marion; Sandberg, Paul; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee

    2012-07-05

    Specimens of Australopithecus sediba from the site of Malapa, South Africa (dating from approximately 2 million years (Myr) ago) present a mix of primitive and derived traits that align the taxon with other Australopithecus species and with early Homo. Although much of the available cranial and postcranial material of Au. sediba has been described, its feeding ecology has not been investigated. Here we present results from the first extraction of plant phytoliths from dental calculus of an early hominin. We also consider stable carbon isotope and dental microwear texture data for Au. sediba in light of new palaeoenvironmental evidence. The two individuals examined consumed an almost exclusive C(3) diet that probably included harder foods, and both dicotyledons (for example, tree leaves, fruits, wood and bark) and monocotyledons (for example, grasses and sedges). Like Ardipithecus ramidus (approximately 4.4 Myr ago) and modern savanna chimpanzees, Au. sediba consumed C(3) foods in preference to widely available C(4) resources. The inferred consumption of C(3) monocotyledons, and wood or bark, increases the known variety of early hominin foods. The overall dietary pattern of these two individuals contrasts with available data for other hominins in the region and elsewhere.

  8. Gut Microbes, Diet, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  9. Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic diet.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Zeynep; Dincer, Yildiz

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Many efforts have been directed to prevent AD due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective curative treatment. Various epigenetic mechanisms are linked to pathogenesis of AD. Epigenetic alterations may occur through external factors and are known for their reversibility. Dietary factors can influence epigenetic mechanisms. Several neuroprotective nutrients have been shown to enhance cognition, memory and other impaired functions seen in AD. Within recent years neuroprotective nutrients have gained more attention in the field of epigenetic. A growing body of evidence suggest that epigenetic changes triggered by dietary nutrients have an important role in health and in prevention of some diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, zinc, selenium, dietary polyphenols are capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms and ultimately gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms resulting in neuronal dysfunction may be modified by diet. Therefore manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms via dietary nutrients may affect influence the vulnerability of neurons to degeneration which is seen in AD. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview about the recent findings related to epigenetic alterations that are linked to AD pathogenesis, and to discuss the bioactive nutrients which can affect these epigenetic mechanisms.

  10. Why a shared care record is an official medical record.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yulong; Orr, Martin; Warren, Jim; Humphrey, Gayl; Day, Karen; Tibby, Sarah; Fitzpatrick, Jo

    2013-10-18

    The literature describes three categories of health records: the Official Medical Records held by healthcare providers, Personal Health Records owned by patients, and--a possible in between case--the Shared Care Record. New complications and challenges arise with electronic storage of this latter class of record; for instance, an electronic shared care record may have multiple authors, which presents challenges regarding the roles and responsibilities for record-keeping. This article discusses the definitions and implementations of official medical records, personal health records and shared care records. We also consider the case of a New Zealand pilot of developing and implementing a shared care record in the National Shared Care Planning Programme. The nature and purpose of an official medical record remains the same whether in paper or electronic form. We maintain that a shared care record is an official medical record; it is not a personal health record that is owned and controlled by patients, although it is able to be viewed and interacted with by patients. A shared care record needs to meet the same criteria for medico-legal and ethical duties in the delivery of shared care as pertain to any official medical record.

  11. Records as Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schryer, Catherine F.

    1993-01-01

    Reworks the concept of genre from rhetorical, dialectical, and dialogic perspectives. Redefines genre as a stabilized-for-now site of social and ideological action. Applies this definition (in a six-month ethnographic study) to a specific literary practice--medical record keeping--evolving in a specific context--a veterinary college. (SR)

  12. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOEpatents

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  13. A Misleading Safety Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Comparing the safety record of school buses to that of automobiles does not account for the nonschool time when automobiles are used. Experiences where seat belts are installed in school buses show that students use them, insurance is not a problem, and cost is slight. (MLF)

  14. Governors Cite Education Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The three current presidential hopefuls with experience as state governors have records on education that offer voters an unusually detailed preview of what the nation's schools might expect if any of the three should win the White House next year. Those candidates--New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, on the Democratic side, and former Governors…

  15. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  16. The Exquisite Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Geoffrey A.; Gottschalk, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article provides general music teachers with resources they can use in their class to: (1) introduce the instrument to their students; (2) energize and reshape their students' attitudes toward the instrument; (3) show older students who are very musical recorder and low flute players who share their love of the instruments through podcasts…

  17. Access to Medical Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy

    Although confidentiality with regard to medical records is supposedly protected by the American Medical Associaton's principles of Ethics and the physician-patient privilege, there are a number of laws that require a physician to release patient information to public authorities without the patient's consent. These exceptions include birth and…

  18. Cine recording ophthalmoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Camera system provides accurate photographic recording during acceleration of centrifuge and permits immediate observation of dynamic changes in retinal circulation by a closed-circuit television loop. System consists of main camera, remote control unit, and strobe power supply unit, and is used for fluorescein studies and dynamometry sequences.

  19. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia – does it still exist?

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10 001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. Results The median MDSS score was 11 out of 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). Conclusion This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. PMID:27815932

  20. Diet and alcohol as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.

  1. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    PubMed

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  2. Formulation of the Total Western Diet (TWD) as a basal diet for rodent cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E

    2012-07-11

    Rodent cancer studies typically use defined diets with nutrient profiles optimized for rodent health. However, a defined rodent diet that represents typical American nutrition in all aspects, including calorie sources and macro- and micronutrient composition, is not yet available. Thus, a nutrient density approach was used to formulate the new Total Western Diet (TWD) based on NHANES data for macro- and micronutrient intakes. The TWD has fewer calories from protein and carbohydrate sources and twice that from fat as compared to the AIN-93 diet. The new diet contains more saturated and monounsaturated fats, less polyunsaturated fat, fewer complex carbohydrates, and twice the level of simple sugars. The TWD includes less calcium, copper, folate, thiamin, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E, but much more sodium. This newly devised diet that better represents typical American nutrition will be highly useful for studies employing animal models of human disease, including cancer.

  3. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats.

  4. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  5. What does Islam say about dieting?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir

    2014-08-01

    Dieting is very important to maintain a healthy and peaceful life. Today, most of the health problems are related with dieting. Thus, the modern health science recommends a number of suggestions regarding dieting for better health such as learning the five basic food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat); eating three times a day; decreasing the amount of fat; increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains; including an adequate amount of iron; and avoiding excessive rich food, salt, sugar, and fat. Religion can also play a vital role for our good health and lifestyle. The main concern of this paper was to present an analytical justification regarding what Islam as a religion advocates about dieting along with the modern food and nutrition sciences.

  6. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... you on a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free food labeling requirements The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney ...

  7. The ketogenic diet in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laux, Linda; Blackford, Robyn

    2013-08-01

    Dravet syndrome is an infantile epilepsy syndrome with intractable pleomorphic seizures, cognitive impairment, and a number of comorbidities including ataxia/gait abnormalities and behavioral issues. Antiseizure medications are only partially effective in controlling seizures. Secondary to the intractable epilepsy, patients are often on multiple antiseizure medications with significant accumulative neurotoxic side effects. Specifically for Dravet syndrome, the medical literature includes both laboratory and clinical research that supports the use of the ketogenic diet. In addition, a review of the children with Dravet syndrome who were treated with the ketogenic diet at our center was undertaken. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with Dravet syndrome treated with the ketogenic diet experienced a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency. The ketogenic diet is a good alternative to medication for seizure management in children with Dravet syndrome.

  8. BRAT Diet: Recovering from an Upset Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... to vomiting and diarrhea. Bananas, for example, are high in the vitamin potassium.Bland foods don’t irritate your stomach. After you have diarrhea or vomiting, follow the BRAT diet to help your body ease back into normal ...

  9. The DASH diet and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Craddick, Shirley R; Elmer, Patricia J; Obarzanek, Eva; Vollmer, William M; Svetkey, Laura P; Swain, Martha C

    2003-11-01

    High blood pressure (also called hypertension) is one of the most important and common risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases. National guidelines recommend that all individuals with blood pressure readings of 120/80 mm Hg or higher adopt healthy lifestyle habits, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, to manage their blood pressure. The DASH diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in fat, has been shown in large, randomized, controlled trials to reduce blood pressure significantly. The DASH diet also has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol and homocysteine levels and to enhance the benefits of antihypertensive drug therapy. The DASH diet should be promoted, along with maintaining healthy weight, reducing sodium intake, increasing regular physical activity, and limiting alcohol intake, for lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of CVD.

  10. Understanding Exercise, Diet and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the system for breathing. This is the respiratory system. The respiratory system serves to provide oxygen to the blood, which ... quality of life through education, exercise and diet. respiratory system Referring to the mouth and nose, trachea, lungs ...

  11. What Is the Diet for PKU?

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content. PKU Clinic - University of Washington, Seattle Home | Contact Us | Site Map PKU Management For Health Care Providers RECIPES about pku UW PKU Clinic News & Events What is PKU? What is the diet ...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Reviewed by Taylor ... April 11, 2017 Print Email nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorders, or ASD, is a complex developmental ...

  13. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, ... 26, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/high-protein- ...

  14. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  15. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Ernesto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review. PMID:25101284

  16. Intestinal hydrogen and methane of men fed space diet.

    PubMed

    Calloway, D H; Murphy, E L

    1969-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria form two gases, hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4), that could constitute a fire hazard in a closed chamber. So H2 and CH4 pass from the anus but these gases are also transported by the blood to the lungs and removed to the atmosphere. Several factors affect gas formation: 1) amount and kind of fermentable substrate; 2) abundance, types, and location of microflora; and 3) psychic and somatic conditions that affect the gut. We evaluated the first factor by studying men fed different diets and have also recorded influences of uncontrollable factors. One group of 6 men ate Gemini-type diet (S) and another received a bland formula (F), for 42 days. Breath and rectal gases were analyzed during the first and final weeks. Flatus gases varied widely within dietary groups but much more gas was generated with diet S than with F. In the first 12-hour collection, subjects fed S passed 3 to 209 ml (ATAP) of rectal H2 (avg 52) and 24 to 156 ml (avg 69) from the lungs (assuming normal pulmonary ventilation). With F, these values were 0 to 3 ml (avg 1) and 6 to 36 ml (avg 20). Subjects were calmer during the second test. Gas production was lower with S than initially; F values were unchanged. Methane differed idiosyncratically, presumably due to differences in flora. Computed from 12-hour values, maximum potential daily H2 and CH4 are per man: for S, 730 ml and 382 ml; for F, 80 and 222 ml. Volumes would be larger at reduced spacecraft and suit pressures.

  17. Predator Diet and Trophic Position Modified with Altered Habitat Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tewfik, Alexander; Bell, Susan S.; McCann, Kevin S.; Morrow, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Empirical patterns that emerge from an examination of food webs over gradients of environmental variation can help to predict the implications of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. This “dynamic food web approach” is rarely applied at the coastal margin where aquatic and terrestrial systems are coupled and human development activities are often concentrated. We propose a simple model of ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) feeding that predicts changing dominant prey (Emerita talpoida, Talorchestia sp., Donax variablis) along a gradient of beach morphology and test this model using a suite of 16 beaches along the Florida, USA coast. Assessment of beaches included quantification of morphological features (width, sediments, slope), macrophyte wrack, macro-invertebrate prey and active ghost crab burrows. Stable isotope analysis of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) and the SIAR mixing model were used to determine dietary composition of ghost crabs at each beach. The variation in habitat conditions displayed with increasing beach width was accompanied by quantifiable shifts in ghost crab diet and trophic position. Patterns of ghost crab diet were consistent with differences recorded across the beach width gradient with respect to the availability of preferred micro-habitats of principal macro-invertebrate prey. Values obtained for trophic position also suggests that the generalist ghost crab assembles and augments its diet in fundamentally different ways as habitat morphology varies across a highly dynamic ecosystem. Our results offer support for a functional response in the trophic architecture of a common food web compartment (ghost crabs, macro-invertebrate prey) across well-known beach morphologies. More importantly, our “dynamic food web approach” serves as a basis for evaluating how globally wide-spread sandy beach ecosystems should respond to a variety of anthropogenic impacts including beach grooming, beach re-nourishment, introduction of non

  18. Predator Diet and Trophic Position Modified with Altered Habitat Morphology.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Alexander; Bell, Susan S; McCann, Kevin S; Morrow, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Empirical patterns that emerge from an examination of food webs over gradients of environmental variation can help to predict the implications of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. This "dynamic food web approach" is rarely applied at the coastal margin where aquatic and terrestrial systems are coupled and human development activities are often concentrated. We propose a simple model of ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) feeding that predicts changing dominant prey (Emerita talpoida, Talorchestia sp., Donax variablis) along a gradient of beach morphology and test this model using a suite of 16 beaches along the Florida, USA coast. Assessment of beaches included quantification of morphological features (width, sediments, slope), macrophyte wrack, macro-invertebrate prey and active ghost crab burrows. Stable isotope analysis of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) and the SIAR mixing model were used to determine dietary composition of ghost crabs at each beach. The variation in habitat conditions displayed with increasing beach width was accompanied by quantifiable shifts in ghost crab diet and trophic position. Patterns of ghost crab diet were consistent with differences recorded across the beach width gradient with respect to the availability of preferred micro-habitats of principal macro-invertebrate prey. Values obtained for trophic position also suggests that the generalist ghost crab assembles and augments its diet in fundamentally different ways as habitat morphology varies across a highly dynamic ecosystem. Our results offer support for a functional response in the trophic architecture of a common food web compartment (ghost crabs, macro-invertebrate prey) across well-known beach morphologies. More importantly, our "dynamic food web approach" serves as a basis for evaluating how globally wide-spread sandy beach ecosystems should respond to a variety of anthropogenic impacts including beach grooming, beach re-nourishment, introduction of non

  19. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019). High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010). Conclusion Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  20. 77 FR 43821 - Records Governing Off-the-Record Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Records Governing Off-the-Record Communications Public Notice This...-record communications. Order No. 607 (64 FR 51222, September 22, 1999) requires Commission decisional employees, who make or receive a prohibited or exempt off- the-record communication relevant to the...

  1. 77 FR 55469 - Records Governing Off-the-Record Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Records Governing Off-the-Record Communications Public Notice This...-record communications. Order No. 607 (64 FR 51222, September 22, 1999) requires Commission decisional employees, who make or receive a prohibited or exempt off- the-record communication relevant to the...

  2. 76 FR 57733 - Records Governing Off-the Record Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Records Governing Off-the Record Communications Public Notice This...-record communications. Order No. 607 (64 FR 51222, September 22, 1999) requires Commission decisional employees, who make or receive a prohibited or exempt off- the-record communication relevant to the...

  3. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function...Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy 5d. PROJECT...regulates neuronal excitability by influencing potassium channel activity via the auxiliary potassium channel subunit Kvβ2. To test this hypothesis we

  4. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  5. Role of diet in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Micheletti, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Millions of people suffer from rheumatic diseases such as gout, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. These can be incapacitating and detrimental to quality of life. Diet, nutrition, and weight loss have shown promise in alleviating some of this disease burden. These lifestyle changes may give patients a feeling of control and ownership over their disease as well as a nonpharmacologic means of treatment. This article reviews the available research on the effects of diet and nutrition on rheumatoid disease.

  6. Effects of a vegetarian diet vs. a vegetarian diet enriched with avocado in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Madrigal, J; Herrera-Abarca, J E; Alvizouri-Muñoz, M; Alvarado-Jimenez, M R; Chavez-Carbajal, F

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effects of a vegetarian diet with avocado as a source of monounsaturated fat on serum lipids, thirteen patients with phenotype II (twelve with IIa and one with IIb) dyslipidemia were included in a prospective, transversal and comparative study in which three four-week diets randomly assigned were assessed. One vegetarian diet (ALVD) was composed of 70% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 20% lipids. Another was composed of 60% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 30% lipids, 75% of which was supplied by avocado (AVD). A third diet was an avocado-added free diet (FDWA). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were evaluated. AVD produced a significant decrease in LDL. ALVD did not change TC and LDL, while FDWA increased them slightly. The three diets reduced TG levels, but only ALVD did so significantly. All three diets reduced HDL levels, particularly ALVD, which produced the greatest reduction. Low-fat, carbohydrate-rich vegetarian diets may be harmful to hypercholesterolemic patients. The avocado addition to a vegetarian diet does not correct these undesirable effects. To obtain beneficial effects on lipid profile with avocado, lower amounts of carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids are probably needed.

  7. Recording performance and system integration of perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoichiro

    2005-02-01

    Perpendicular recording has been actively developed for future high-density recording system. We studied the integration of the perpendicular recording system to the hard disk drive (HDD). Double layer perpendicular media and single-pole type perpendicular head with GMR reader were employed in 2.5″ HDD. As a result of the integration test, it was confirmed that perpendicular recording 2.5″ test HDDs functioned well at the capacity of 50 GB/platter. Through the drive integration, the features of the perpendicular recording were thoroughly studied. The complementary features between perpendicular recording and longitudinal recording are also discussed.

  8. [Wheat, bread and pasta in Mediterranean diets].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Ruiz Vadillo, Virginia

    2004-06-01

    Cereals in diets have varied along evolution trends in food patterns. Cereals are starchy foods and are the main source of polysacharides in the diet. In Mediterranean countries, cereals have been used in different ways, though they are mainly used as refined cereals. Wheat bread is one of the most commonly used. In the average Spanish diet, considerable changes have taken place since 1961 leading to a significant decrease in percent energy from carbohydrate. At the same time, percent energy from fat has increased as web as protein intake. These changes in the nutritional pattern reflect a continuous decrease in consumption of grains and cereals, pulses and potatoes. In the last decades, consumption of pasta however has increased as web as consumption of processed bakery products and biscuits. Scientific and epidemiological evidence show that cereals should be the main source of energy in the diet, in line with the so-called Mediterranean Diet. Polysacharides should provide 50-55% energy. In order to reach that goal, cereal, legumes and potatoes should be included in the daily diet as 4-6 portions. Whole grain cereales should be preferred or food preparations combining pasta, potatoes or rice with vegetables in order to reduce the glycemic index. Processed bakery products and biscuits should be consumed in moderation.

  9. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  10. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  11. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Augustin, Livia S A; Ludwig, David S; Barnard, Neal D; Anderson, James W

    2003-09-01

    Based on what is known of the components of plant-based diets and their effects from cohort studies, there is reason to believe that vegetarian diets would have advantages in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At present there are few data on vegetarian diets in diabetes that do not in addition have weight loss or exercise components. Nevertheless, the use of whole-grain or traditionally processed cereals and legumes has been associated with improved glycemic control in both diabetic and insulin-resistant individuals. Long-term cohort studies have indicated that whole-grain consumption reduces the risk of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, nuts (eg, almonds), viscous fibers (eg, fibers from oats and barley), soy proteins, and plant sterols, which may be part of the vegetarian diet, reduce serum lipids. In combination, these plant food components may have a very significant impact on cardiovascular disease, one of the major complications of diabetes. Furthermore, substituting soy or other vegetable proteins for animal protein may also decrease renal hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and renal acid load and in the long term reduce the risk of developing renal disease in type 2 diabetes. The vegetarian diet, therefore, contains a portfolio of natural products and food forms of benefit for both the carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities in diabetes. It is anticipated that their combined use in vegetarian diets will produce very significant metabolic advantages for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  12. [The ketogenic diet: an underappreciated therapeutic option?].

    PubMed

    Paoli, A; Canato, M; Toniolo, L; Bargossi, A M; Neri, M; Mediati, M; Alesso, D; Sanna, G; Grimaldi, K A; Fazzari, A L; Bianco, A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in Western countries and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Although there is a common agreement about the concept that exercise and diet are two key factors for the control of body weight, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet for weight control are still under debate. A widely accepted nutritional regime is the Mediterranean diet that has evident health benefits although less attention has been paid to see if the effects are due to other lifestyle factors which may contribute to the health benefits perhaps as much as specific food choices. There are several other options available to the physician that may produce good weight loss results in the short/medium term and also for maintenance of the goal achieved. One of these strategies is the ketogenic diet or VLCKD (very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) that has been widely studied in recent years. Most studies show that this diet has a solid physiological and biochemical basis which is able to induce effective weight loss and improvement of several parameters of cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the physiological basis of VLCKD and the main applications together with its strengths and weaknesses compared to common dietary recommendations.

  13. [Plant-based diets: a review].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Attila; Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Andrea; Ungár, Tamás; Lászlóné Polyák, Éva; Szekeresné Szabó, Szilvia; Kovács, Réka Erika; Raposa, László Bence; Figler, Mária

    2016-11-01

    Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation. We discuss positive physiological effects of plant-based diet and its possible role in diseases risk reduction. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases developing due to obesity could be prevented by a properly compiled plant-based diet. For patients with cancer minimizing the intake of foods of animal origin - as opposed to plant-based ones - has proved to have positive effects. Our review suggests this diet can be used in a number of diseases and it also provides long-term sustainable solutions for the health care challenges of the newest era. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(47), 1859-1865.

  14. Biologically available iodine in goitrogenic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1985-01-01

    Eight different sources of low-iodine diet (LID) were tested in mice over 14 years. The available iodine in each diet was measured by isotopic equilibration. Commercially prepared Remington diets contained 6.8 to 69.3 ng available iodine/g, and the results were usually different from shipment to shipment. Some samples produced greatly enlarged thyroids. The Remington diets from two sources were occasionally low in iodine but produced little thyroid enlargement. Between 1977 and 1980 only one shipment of Remington diet was found to contain less than 10 ng available I/g, and it resulted in large goiters. Since 1980 other compositions of LID have been used, but they caused additional abnormalities during breeding or chronic feeding. A low-iodine wheat diet produced goiter in mice more readily than in rats. In the course of testing for unavailable forms of dietary iodine, it was found that only 34.2% of thyroxine iodine was available to the thyroid iodine pool of mice. It is concluded that unidentified nutritional deficiency or dietary contaminants can alter the goitrogenic response to restricted iodine intake. Furthermore, at least one natural form of potential dietary iodine is incompletely available to mice.

  15. Resting heart rate in infants and toddlers: variations associated with early infant diet and the omega 3 fatty acid DHA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although early postnatal nutrition can have long-term effects on developmental processes, the influence of infant diet on the maturation of cardiac development has not been documented. To study this relationship we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) in awake, healthy infants and toddlers exclusively b...

  16. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana O.; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution. PMID:28280593

  17. Observations on distribution, diet, and breeding of the Hawaiian thrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, C.; Scott, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Distribution, breeding habits, and diet of the Hawaiian Thrush were recorded over seven years on the island of Hawaii. The range has been much reduced, with the result that today the species occupies approximately 30% of its former range, no longer being found in the Kohala Mountains or in the Kona area....Data on food preferences indicate the species subsists chiefly on fruits of native trees, when in season, and various insects. Comparison of present feeding habits with observations of earlier workers indicates that the diet has changed. This probably has been a consequence of the loss of suitable habitat at lower elevations....One of the earliest and latest daily singers in Hawaii, the Omao has a repertoire of at least three songs and a number of calls. The species exhibits courtship feeding. Five nests averaged 6.4 m from the ground; nesting materials include small twigs, leaves, grasses mosses, and fern pieces. For the first time the species was found to nest either in cavities or on protected platforms. One or two eggs, each marked with large lavender splotches, compose the clutch. Nestlings have flesh-colored skin, black down, and a bright yellow gape pattern. Time from building of the nest to fledging of the young is about 30 days, and the overall breeding season of the species extends at least from February to October.

  18. Kirtland's warbler diet as determined through fecal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deloria-Sheffield, C.M.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Bocetti, C.I.; Sykes, P.W.; Kepler, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    The endangered Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) nests primarily in large (>32 ha) stands of young (5- to 25-yr-old) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) which grow on Grayling sand soil. These specific habitat requirements restrict the Kirtland's Warbler breeding range to only 13-16 counties in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan. Although the nature of the species' affinity for this habitat is poorly understood, one theory suggests that higher prey abundance in young jack pine may play a role. To explore further the hypothesis that Kirtland's Warblers choose nesting habitat due to prey abundance, a more thorough knowledge of the warblers' diet is needed. To better understand the diet, we identified arthropod and plant fragments found in 202 Kirtland's Warbler fecal samples, collected from June to September, 1995-1997. The major food items recorded were spittlebugs and aphids (Homoptera; found in 61% of all samples), ants and wasps (Hymenoptera; 45%), blueberry (Vaccinium augustifolium; 42%), beetles (Coleoptera; 25%), and moth larvae (Lepidoptera; 22%).

  19. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health.

  20. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (p<0.05). Also significant increases in unsaturated iron-binding capacity, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05) were found. It can be concluded that the 2-week climbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications.

  1. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception.

  2. High Fiber Diets: Their Role in Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jane; Pirhonen, Diane; Rangam, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    High fiber diets may help prevent colon cancer and be used to treat constipation, diverticular disease, irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease. Some research indicates that cholelithiasis, duodenal ulcers, hemorrhoids and hiatal hernias may be prevented or treated with dietary fiber. However, many claims about fiber's usefulness lack scientific validation. Physicians can help patients establish goals for the amount of fiber they eat and advise them to record their daily intake of fiber. Doctors can also help patients select high fiber foods which fit their lifestyles, warn of possible side effects such as gas, abdominal pain and malabsorption of some nutrients, and advise them to exercise and drink adequate amounts of fluid. Children can be encouraged to eat whole grain breads, high-fiber snacks and natural bran hidden in cooked cereals, cookies and ground meat recipes. The physician or dietician should follow up patients to ensure their continued compliance. PMID:21283397

  3. Data mining for correlations between diet and Crohn's disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason G; Purcell, Gretchen P

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating condition that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and often requires aggressive and invasive therapies. Several studies have suggested dietary triggers for disease activity. We have created a web-based tool to allow participants to record both daily food intake and wellness (i.e., disease-specific quality of life). We seek to determine if measurable correlations exist between these events in patients with Crohn's disease. Advanced data mining techniques are employed to find such correlations and the efficacies of chosen techniques are assessed. We tested our web-based system in a pilot study involving 7 participants, and we found that traditional statistical techniques identified diet and disease activity correlations in short-term data sets.

  4. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  5. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  6. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  7. Magnetic record support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, M.; Morita, H.; Tokuoka, Y.; Izumi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Kubota, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic layer of a magnetic record support is coated with a thin film of a polymer with a siloxane bond. The magnetic layer consists of a thin film obtained by vacuum metallization, cathode sputtering or dispersion of a ferromagnetic metal powder in a binder. The polymer with a siloxane bond is produced by the polymerization of an organic silicon compound which inherently contains or is able to form this bond. Polymerization is preferably performed by plasma polymerization.

  8. ERTS wideband tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS video bandwith tape recorder uses a rotary head to run the tape in transverse mode; the head wheel gives a head-to-tape surface speed of nearly 5080 centimeter per second. The electronics unit handles 15 megabit per second rate with a bit-error rate of 0.00001. An operational unit onboard ERTS A returned images from the 85 to 90 percent of the earth that are not available in real time.

  9. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  10. Heterogeneous recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, Vitaly I.

    1991-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of investigations performed to obtain deep 3-D holograms with 102 i0 mkm physical thickness allowing the postexposure amplification and the a posteriori changing of the grating parameters. This aim has been achieved by developing heterogeneous systems on the basis of porous glass with light-sensitive compositions introduced into it. 1. INTRODUCTION. LIGHT-SENSITIVE MEDIA FOR 3-D HOLOGRAMS RECORDING. The 3-D holograms have many useful properties: very high diffraction efficiency angular and spectral selectivity but low level of noise. It shoud be noted that in this case deep 3-D holograms are dealt with whose physical thickness is as high as 102 -i mkm. Such hologram recording is usually done using homogeneous light-sensitive media for example dyed acid-halide and electrooptical crystals photochrome glass photostructurized polimer compositions and so on. The nature of photophisical and photochemical processes responsible for the light sensitivity of these materials exclude the possibility of post-exposure treatment. This does not allow to enhance the recorded holograms and considerably hampers their fixing or makes it practically impossible. The object of our work is to create the media which are quite suitable for two-stage processes of the deep hologram formation with post-exposure processing. Such material must satisfy the following requirements: a)they must have high permeability for the developing substances in order to make the development duration suitable for practical applications b)they must be shrinkproof to prevent deformation of the

  11. Optimization by record dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record dynamics optimization, or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popular and highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT), is applied to the same problem as a benchmark. RDO and PT turn out to produce solutions of similar quality for similar numerical effort, but RDO is simpler to program and additionally yields geometrical information on the system’s configuration space which is of interest in many applications. In particular, the effectiveness of RDO strongly indicates the presence of the above mentioned hierarchically organized configuration space, with metastable regions indexed by the cost (or energy) of the transition states connecting them.

  12. [Is the Atkins diet safe in respect to health?].

    PubMed

    Förster, H

    1978-09-14

    The "Atkins dietary revolution" is a ketogenic diet consisting almost exclusively of food from animal origin. A similar diet was introduced as the "Banting diet" more than a century ago by the English physician Harvey. This carbohydrate-free diet is high in fat, cholesterol and purines. The measurable ketosis is a precondition for the effect of this kind of diet. However, the predictable hyperlipacidemia and ketosis are recognized health risks. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia is to be expected in a greater part of the adherents to such a diet. Even children under ketogenic diet develop hypercholesterolemia within a short time. A similar high-fat diet, known as the Sippy diet for ulcer therapy, was found earlier to cause an increased incidence in coronary heart disease. On the basis of the known facts the Atkins diet seems to be potentially hazardous to health, unless a controlled study is performed. However, considering the risks it seems very problematic to perform such a study.

  13. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  14. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  15. The biochemical changes in hippocampal formation occurring in normal and seizure experiencing rats as a result of a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Kutorasinska, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Figiel, Henryk; Dumas, Paul; Sandt, Christophe; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-04-07

    In this study, ketogenic diet-induced biochemical changes occurring in normal and epileptic hippocampal formations were compared. Four groups of rats were analyzed, namely seizure experiencing animals and normal rats previously fed with ketogenic (KSE and K groups respectively) or standard laboratory diet (NSE and N groups respectively). Synchrotron radiation based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy was used for the analysis of distributions of the main organic components (proteins, lipids, compounds containing phosphate group(s)) and their structural modifications as well as anomalies in creatine accumulation with micrometer spatial resolution. Infrared spectra recorded in the molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (DG) areas of normal rats on a ketogenic diet (K) presented increased intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) absorption band. This originates from the stretching vibrations of carbonyl groups and probably reflects increased accumulation of ketone bodies occurring in animals on a high fat diet compared to those fed with a standard laboratory diet (N). The comparison of K and N groups showed, moreover, elevated ratios of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) for DG internal layers and increased accumulation of creatine deposits in sector 3 of the Ammon's horn (CA3) hippocampal area of ketogenic diet fed rats. In multiform and internal layers of CA3, seizure experiencing animals on ketogenic diet (KSE) presented a lower ratio of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) compared to rats on standard laboratory diet (NSE). Moreover, in some of the examined cellular layers, the increased intensity of the 2924 cm(-1) lipid band as well as the massifs of 2800-3000 cm(-1) and 1360-1480 cm(-1), was found in KSE compared to NSE animals. The intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) band was diminished in DG molecular layers of KSE rats. The ketogenic diet did not modify the seizure induced anomalies in the unsaturation level of lipids or the number of creatine deposits.

  16. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  17. Individualized diabetes nutrition education improves compliance with diet prescription.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hae-Mi; Park, Ji-Eun; Choi, Young-Ju; Huh, Kap-Bum; Kim, Wha-Young

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of individualized diabetes nutrition education. The nutrition education program was open to all type 2 diabetes patients visiting the clinic center and finally 67 patients agreed to join the program. To compare with 67 education group subjects, 34 subjects were selected by medical record review. The education program consisted of one class session for 1-2 hours long in a small group of 4~5 patients. A meal planning using the food exchange system was provided according to the diet prescription and food habits of each subject. Measurements of clinical outcomes and dietary intakes were performed at baseline and 3 months after the education session. After 3 months, subjects in education group showed improvement in dietary behavior and food exchange knowledge. In education group, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin B(2), and folate per 1,000 kcal/day were significantly increased and cholesterol intake was significantly decreased. They also showed significant reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and fasting blood concentrations of glucose (FBS), HbA1c, total cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, no such improvements were observed in control group. To evaluate telephone consultation effect, after the nutrition education session, 34 subjects of the 67 education group received telephone follow-up consultation once a month for 3 months. The others (33 subjects) had no further contact after the nutrition education session. Subjects in the telephone follow-up group showed a decrease in BMI, FBS, and HbA1c. Moreover, the subjects who did not receive telephone follow-up also showed significant decreases in BMI and FBS. These results indicated that our individually planned education program for one session was effective in rectifying dietary behavior problems and improving food exchange knowledge, and quality of diet, leading to an improvement in the clinical outcomes. In conclusion, our individualized

  18. Diets with no or low amounts of dietary fiber can reduce small intestinal ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Kondo, R; Shinoda, T; Idaka, S; Ishigami, K; Shiotani, S

    2016-08-01

    Recent progress in endoscopic techniques has revealed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers in the small intestine in humans, but effective therapy is not available at present. In the present study, we investigated the effects of feeding condition and the amount of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet on the formation of gastrointestinal ulcers induced by NSAIDs in dogs. Several types of diets containing various percentages of DF were given to dogs. Indomethacin (1 or 3 mg/kg, p.o.), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg, s.c.), or fulnixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered once daily at 10 a.m. after a morning meal or without a morning meal (fasted condition) for 3 - 7 days. Gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after the final dose of the drugs. When indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was administered after a morning meal (fed condition) for 7 days, it produced many lesions in the small intestine. However, when it was given in the fasted condition without the morning meal, the lesions were markedly decreased. All the NSAIDs given after feeding of regular dry food containing 6% DF once a day for 3 days produced many lesions in the small intestine. The lesions were decreased or increased in dogs given prescription diets containing low DF (1.1%) and high DF (15.4%), respectively. Furthermore, lesions were not observed in dogs given canned diet containing very low DF (< 0.1%), whereas lesions appeared again in dogs given canned diet supplemented with cellulose (3 or 10%) but not with pectin (10%). These results suggested that both feeding condition and insoluble DF, such as cellulose in the diet, play an important role in the formation of NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions, and that a diet with no or low amounts of DF may decrease gastrointestinal side-effects associated with the use of NSAIDs.

  19. Diet and asthma: looking back, moving forward

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June-Ho; Ellwood, Philippa E; Asher, M Innes

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potential factors. With rapid changes in diet being one of the hallmarks of westernization, nutrition may play a key role in affecting the complex genetics and developmental pathophysiology of asthma. The present review investigates hypotheses about hygiene, antioxidants, lipids and other nutrients, food types and dietary patterns, breastfeeding, probiotics and intestinal microbiota, vitamin D, maternal diet, and genetics. Early hypotheses analyzed population level trends and focused on major dietary factors such as antioxidants and lipids. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as obesity, fast foods, and the Mediterranean diet. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns past early childhood on asthma prevalence. However, diet has been linked to the development of the fetus and child. Breastfeeding provides immunological protection when the infant's immune system is immature and a modest protective effect against wheeze in early childhood. Moreover, maternal diet may be a significant factor in the development of the fetal airway and immune system. As asthma is a complex disease of gene-environment interactions, maternal diet may play an epigenetic role in sensitizing fetal airways to respond abnormally to environmental insults. Recent hypotheses show promise in a biological approach in which the effects of dietary factors on individual physiology and immunology are analyzed before expansion into larger population studies. Thus, collaboration is required by various groups in studying this enigma from epidemiologists to geneticists to immunologists. It is now apparent that this multidisciplinary

  20. Maternal diet programs embryonic kidney gene expression.

    PubMed

    Welham, Simon J M; Riley, Paul R; Wade, Angie; Hubank, Mike; Woolf, Adrian S

    2005-06-16

    Human epidemiological data associating birth weight with adult disease suggest that organogenesis is "programmed" by maternal diet. In rats, protein restriction in pregnancy produces offspring with fewer renal glomeruli and higher systemic blood pressures than controls. We tested the hypothesis that maternal diet alters gene expression in the metanephros, the precursor of the definitive mammalian kidney. We demonstrated that maternal low-protein diet initiated when pregnancy starts and maintained to embryonic day 13, when the metanephros consists of mesenchyme surrounding a once-branched ureteric bud, is sufficient to significantly reduce glomerular numbers in offspring by about 20%. As assessed by representational difference analyses and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions, low-protein diet modulated gene expression in embryonic day 13 metanephroi. In particular, levels of prox-1, the ortholog of Drosophila transcription factor prospero, and cofilin-1, a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, were reduced. During normal metanephrogenesis, prox-1 protein was first detected in mesenchymal cells around the ureteric tree and thereafter in nascent nephron epithelia, whereas cofilin-1 immunolocalized to bud derivatives and condensing mesenchyme. Previously, we reported that low-protein diets increased mesenchymal apoptosis cells when metanephrogenesis began and thereafter reduced numbers of precursor cells. Collectively, these studies prove that the maternal diet programs the embryonic kidney, altering cell turnover and gene expression at a time when nephrons and glomeruli have yet to form. The human implication is that the maternal diet ingested between conception and 5- 6-wk gestation contributes to the variation in glomerular numbers that are known to occur between healthy and hypertensive populations.

  1. 39 CFR 262.4 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.4 Records. Recorded information, regardless of media, format, or physical characteristics...) Corporate records. Those records series that are designated by the Records Office as containing...

  2. 39 CFR 262.4 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.4 Records. Recorded information, regardless of media, format, or physical characteristics...) Corporate records. Those records series that are designated by the Records Office as containing...

  3. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    PubMed

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  4. Alternating Diet as a Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention for High Fat Diet-induced Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the alternating diet as a new strategy in combating obesity and metabolic diseases. Lean or obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for five days and switched to a regular diet for one (5 + 1), two (5 + 2), or five (5 + 5) days before switching back to HFD to start the second cycle, for a total of eight weeks (for prevention) or five weeks (for treatment) without limiting animals’ access to food. Our results showed that animals with 5 + 2 and 5 + 5 diet alternations significantly inhibited body weight and fat mass gain compared to animals fed an HFD continuously. The dietary switch changed the pattern of daily caloric intake and suppressed HFD-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and alleviated fatty liver. Alternating diet inhibited HFD-induced hepatic Pparγ-mediated lipid accumulation and activated the expression of Pparα and its target genes. Alternating diet in the 5 + 5 schedule induced weight loss in obese mice and reversed the progression of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. The results provide direct evidence to support that alternating diet represents a new intervention in dealing with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity. PMID:27189661

  5. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: La Encuesta de Consumo de Alimentos, realizada durante 20 años por el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (MAGRAMA), es la fuente más fiable de datos para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y patrones dietéticos en España. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar las tendencias dietéticas en España y su evolución. Se describe la evaluación de la disponibilidad de alimentos per cápita y día, que permite el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes y su comparación con el Consumo Recomendado de Nutrientes para la población española. Además, se han evaluado diferentes marcadores de la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: La muestra consistió en los datos de consumo y distribución, obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos para el período 2000-2012. Se aplicó un método de muestreo en dos etapas en el que, en la primera etapa, las unidades que se muestreaban fueron ciudades y entidades locales y, en la segunda, se seleccionaron los hogares que conformaron la muestra final a partir de las entidades locales. Las unidades consistieron en ciudades o entidades locales del territorio nacional. Los datos permitieron el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes utilizando las tablas de Consumo de Alimentos (Moreiras et al., 2013). También se evaluó la calidad de la dieta: la adecuación de la dieta para alcanzar los consumos de energía y nutrientes recomendados; perfil de energía; calidad de la grasa de la dieta; calidad de la proteína de la dieta; densidad de nutrientes; índices de adecuación de la dieta mediterránea. Los datos actuales se compararon con los datos previos obtenidos por nuestro grupo de investigación en 1964, 1981 y 1991. Resultados: Utilizando los datos más recientes, el consumo promedio comprendía: leche y derivados (356 g/persona/día), frutas (323 g/persona/día), verduras y hortalizas (339 g/persona/día), cereales y derivados (197 g/persona/día), carne y productos c

  6. Effect of age and food intake on dietary carbon turnover recorded in sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, Antoine; Moloney, Aidan P; Monahan, Frank J; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Schmidt, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of a series of controlled feeding experiments with sheep, designed to investigate the effects of age and level of food intake on the kinetics of incorporation of the dietary carbon signal into wool. Four different groups of three sheep each, ranging in age from 6 to 78 months, were fed a C(3) diet and switched to a C(4) diet for up to 250 days. Different quantities of the same C(4) diet were provided to each group, in order to achieve different growth rates (high, low, and no growth). Wool was repeatedly shorn from each animal and processed for delta(13)C analyses. Results show that newly grown wool does not start recording the isotope composition of the new diet immediately after the diet-switch. The time-lag varies according to the age of the animal, from 6 +/- 1 days in lambs to up to 15 +/- 4 days in the older ewes. Wool from fast-growing lambs approached equilibrium faster than that from slow-growing lambs and young ewes, with old ewes being the slowest. However, 3 weeks after the diet-switch, the differences in wool delta(13)C values between the four different groups of animals were relatively small and represented less than 15% of the isotopic difference between the two diets. These results suggest that a single equation can be used to reconstruct previous diets for animals of different age, provided that the diet is similar and all individuals are in positive protein balance.

  7. CRT image recording evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Performance capabilities and limitations of a fiber optic coupled line scan CRT image recording system were investigated. The test program evaluated the following components: (1). P31 phosphor CRT with EMA faceplate; (2). P31 phosphor CRT with clear clad faceplate; (3). Type 7743 semi-gloss dry process positive print paper; (4). Type 777 flat finish dry process positive print paper; (5). Type 7842 dry process positive film; and (6). Type 1971 semi-gloss wet process positive print paper. Detailed test procedures used in each test are provided along with a description of each test, the test data, and an analysis of the results.

  8. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  9. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, M R; Valtorta, S E; Leva, P E; Gaggiotti, M C; Conti, G A; Gregoret, R F

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  10. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  11. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  12. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  13. Diet in the management of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and characterize successful strategies in maintaining significant weight loss over a 5-year period. Very-low-calorie diets produce a more rapid weight loss but should only be used for fewer than 16 weeks because of clinical adverse effects. Diets that are severely restricted in carbohydrates (3%–10% of total energy intake) and do not emphasize a reduction of energy intake may be effective in reducing weight in the short term, but there is no evidence that they are sustainable or innocuous in the long term because their high saturated-fat content may be atherogenic. Fat restriction in a weight-loss regimen is beneficial, but the optimal percentage has yet to be determined. Longitudinal trials are needed to resolve these issues. In this article I discuss the evidence for and pitfalls of various types of weight-loss diets and identify issues that physicians need to address in weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. PMID:16389240

  14. Tooth wear: diet analysis and advice.

    PubMed

    Young, William George

    2005-04-01

    Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at risk need to be analysed for sources of acid and reasons for lost salivary protection. Medical conditions which put patients at risk of tooth wear are principally: asthma, bulimia nervosa, caffeine addiction, diabetes mellitus, exercise dehydration, functional depression, gastroesophageal reflux in alcoholism, hypertension and syndromes with salivary hypofunction. The sources of acid are various, but loss of salivary protection is the common theme. In healthy young Australians, soft drinks are the main source of acid, and exercise dehydration the main reason for loss of salivary protection. In the medically compromised, diet acids and gastroesophageal reflux are the sources, but medications are the main reasons for lost salivary protection. Diet advice for patients with tooth wear must: promote a healthy lifestyle and diet strategy that conserves the teeth by natural means of salivary stimulation; and address the specific needs of the patients' oral and medical conditions. Individualised, patient-empowering erosion WATCH strategies; on Water, Acid, Taste, Calcium and Health, are urgently required to combat the emerging epidemic of tooth wear currently being experienced in westernised societies.

  15. Early life events in asthma--diet.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham

    2007-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the recent increase in the prevalence of asthma may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. There is now increasing interest in the possibility that childhood asthma may be influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and/or diet during early childhood. A number of observational studies and a childhood fish oil supplementation study provide little support for the notion that early childhood intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the development of childhood asthma. Recent work however, suggests that supplementation of maternal diet with fish oil is associated with altered neonatal immune responses to allergens. Further work is required to establish whether this immunological observation is translated into clinical outcomes. Two birth cohorts have now reported reduced maternal intake of vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D during pregnancy to be associated with increased asthma and wheezing outcomes in children up to the age of 5 years. Early life diet could modulate the likelihood of childhood asthma by affecting fetal airway development and/or influencing the initial early life interactions between allergens and the immune system. In animal models, vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D have been shown to modify fetal lung development and vitamin E, zinc, vitamin D and PUFA can modulate T-cell responses. Further research, particularly, early life intervention studies need to be carried out to establish whether early life dietary intervention can be used as a public health measure to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma.

  16. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  17. Mediterranean diet pyramids: towards the Italian model.

    PubMed

    del Balzo, V; Diolordi, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Vitiello, V; Cannella, C; Dernini, S; Donini, L M; Berry, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history to the representation of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid which may be seen as a form of cultural--culinary evolution as each country applies the foods best suited to its national diet. Different Mediterranean Diet pyramids have been designed for the population of Greece, Spain and Italy, tailored for their different food habits. These refer variously to portion sizes and frequency of consumption--daily, weekly and monthly and are not standardized. The 3rd CIISCAM Conference held in Parma, Italy was devoted to highlight the overall biodiversity and nutritional well being values and the sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, recognised as one of the healthiest dietary pattern, and to reduce the rapid erosion of "lifestyle and food habits. It is necessary, therefore, to refer more to a Mediterranean Lifestyle of which diet is only a part. It should include physical and social activity, recreation and rest. It may be possible to construct a Mediterranean food lifestyle index both to assess such a holistic aspect and to correlate with improved morbidity & mortality.

  18. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen’s κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = −0.33) and triglycerides (r = −0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional

  19. AE Recorder Characteristics and Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, Michael E.; Curtis, Shane Keawe; McGrogan, David Paul

    2016-11-01

    The Anomalous Environment Recorder (AE Recorder) provides a robust data recording capability for multiple high-shock applications including earth penetrators. The AE Recorder, packaged as a 2.4" di ameter cylinder 3" tall, acquires 12 accelerometer, 2 auxiliary, and 6 discrete signal channels at 250k samples / second. Recording depth is 213 seconds plus 75ms of pre-trigger data. The mechanical, electrical, and firmware are described as well as support electro nics designed for the first use of the recorder.

  20. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology.

  1. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  2. Effects of boron supplements on bones from rats fed calcium and magnesium deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.; Irwin, A.; Kenney, M.A.; Williams, L. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty female, weanling rats were fed, for 6 wks, diets providing: casein, 20; CHO, 40; fat, 40. Vitamins and minerals, except Ca and Mg, were fed according to AIN'76 recommendations. Gp A (control) was fed 100% AIN Ca, Mg and P with no boron (B) added. Gps CD and CD+B were fed 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN Mg and P; Gps MD and MD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg and 100% AIN Ca and P; Gps CMD and CMD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg, 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN P. The +B groups were supplemented with B at 12 mcg/g diet. Femurs (F) and 2 vertebrae (V) were scraped clean, weighed, sealed in saline-wet gauze, and refrigerated overnight. Bones were equilibrated at {sup {approximately}}25C. F lengths and diameters at the breakpoint were measured before a 3-point flexure test. V were subjected to a compression test. Maximum force (kg) at breakpoint was recorded. Data for right and left F and for 2 V were pooled. Although DIET' (CD, MD, CMD) affected numerous characteristics of F and V, B supplementation of diets affected only % moisture in F, Ca concentration in dry F and in F ash for CD and CMD diets. Interactions between B and diet affected F Mg concentrations in bone and in ash. Group CMD+B had higher Mg/g F than CMD. B increased Mg/g ash for CMD, decreased it for CD and did not affect it for MD.

  3. Rational use of elemental and nonelemental diets in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fairfull-Smith, R; Abunassar, R; Freeman, J B; Maroun, J A

    1980-01-01

    Study A included 30 patients who received immediate postoperative enteral feeding with a nonelemental diet. The nonelemental diet was well tolerated. Study patients rapidly achieved nitrogen equilibrium and had a cumulative nitrogen balance of -11.1 g verus -46.7 g for the control group. In part B, 16 patients with varying degrees of bowel dysfunction received elemental and nonelemental diets in a crossover design. Patients with moderate small bowel impairment tolerated nonelemental better than the elemental diets. In those patients with more severe bowel impairment, the elemental diet was better tolerated. Nitrogen balance for both types of diet was similar in both groups of patients. It is concluded that nonelemental diets are better tolerated in most patients with moderate degrees of small bowel abnormality. In patients with severe bowel abnormality, elemental diets may be better tolerated, but nonelemental diets should still be the initial formula. PMID:7436590

  4. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  5. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Ayelet; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed. PMID:23908829

  6. Feeding ecology and ontogenic diet shifts of juvenile fish species in an inverse estuary: The Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Vidy, Guy; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2008-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile fish of four species - Eucinostomus melanopterus (Gerreidae), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Clupeidae), Monodactylus sebae (Monodactylidae), and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) - between their appearance on the nursery ground and the end of the recruitment season, when they began to shift to deeper parts of the estuary. Fish were collected from the Sine-Saloum, an inverse estuary in Senegal, West Africa. Sampling was conducted at six sites located along the salinity gradient. The study was conducted in the context of an inverse estuary where increasing salinity leads to the disappearance of mangroves. Stomach contents were sorted and the preferred prey determined to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ontogenic changes in diet were characterized and results expressed as the frequency of occurrence of the prey. The results showed that almost all juveniles began with a "classical" zooplanktonic diet. Following that first stage, they then preyed on items belonging to the periphytic community in the vicinity of mangroves (when present). Juvenile Ethmalosa fimbriata, a phytoplankton feeder as an adult, displayed that kind of transitory diet, a finding not previously recorded. Plant material (algae and leaves) occurred frequently in the stomach contents. All four species began the ontogenic shift toward their adult diet at a length of 50 mm. The periphytic community supported on mangrove prop roots contributes to the diet of juvenile fish living in proximity to mangroves; this may not be verified for those fish living in open waters.

  7. Elevated sup 22 Na uptake in aortae of Dahl salt-sensitive rats with high salt diet

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and vascular {sup 22}Na uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. At 6 weeks of age, one group of 6 DS rats was placed on a low (0.4%) salt diet and the second group of 6 DS rats was placed on a high (8.0%) salt diet for a period of 4 weeks. Blood pressure recordings were made weekly. At 10 weeks of age, the animals were sacrificed and aortic {sup 22}Na uptake was measured. Total and amiloride sensitive (Na(+)-H+ antiport) components of {sup 22}Na uptake were measured from which was calculated the amiloride insensitive component. Na+, K(+)-pumps were inhibited for these vascular {sup 22}Na uptake experiments with ouabain to prevent Na+ efflux. DS rats on the high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.01) higher blood pressure when compared to DS rats on a low salt diet. Similarly, DS rats on a high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total, amiloride sensitive and amiloride insensitive vascular {sup 22}Na uptake as compared to DS rats on low salt diet. The parallel increase in vascular {sup 22}Na uptake and blood pressure suggests a possible, key role of Na+ influx in the mechanism of salt induced hypertension of DS rats.

  8. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... records. 850.301 Section 850.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Repository, the eIRR records storage database, or other OPM database. (2) Electronic Official Personnel... continue to be acceptable records for processing by the retirement and insurance processing system....

  9. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  10. Protein:carbohydrate ratios explain life span patterns found in Queensland fruit fly on diets varying in yeast:sugar ratios.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2012-12-01

    Dietary restriction extends life span across a vast diversity of taxa, but significant challenges remain in elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Distinguishing between caloric and nutrient effects is an essential step. Recent studies with Drosophila and tephritid fruit flies have reported increased life span as dietary yeast-to-sugar ratios decreased and these effects have been attributed to changes in protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratios of the diets rather than calories. However, yeast is a complex mix of macronutrients and micronutrients, and hence changes in yeast content of the diet necessarily alters other nutrients in lockstep. To explicitly test whether studies using yeast are justified in attributing results to diet protein content rather than correlated nutrients, we developed a chemically defined diet allowing manipulation of just the ratio of protein (free amino acids) to carbohydrate (sucrose) levels of diets while holding other nutrients constant. Mated, female Queensland fruit flies (Q-flies) were fed 1 of 18 diets varying in P:C ratios and diet concentration. Diet consumption, egg production, and life span were recorded for each fly. In close concordance with recent studies using yeast diets, flies had increased life span as P:C ratios decreased, and caloric restriction did not extend life span. Similarly, egg production was maximized on high P:C ratios, but lifetime egg production was maximized on intermediate P:C ratios, indicating a life history trade-off between life span and egg production rate. Finally, Q-flies adjusted their diet intake in response to P:C ratios and diet concentration. Our results substantiate recent claims that P:C ratios significantly modulate life span in flies.

  11. [Cultural diversity in diet and obesity].

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Mary; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J C

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, excess body weight and obesity occur more commonly in certain ethnic minority groups. Diet plays an undeniable role in the development of obesity. Insight into the roles of diet and eating behaviour in the development of obesity among ethnic minorities is, however, limited. The migration histories, socio-economic statuses and socio-cultural environments of ethnic minorities are important determinants for eating patterns. It is important to take these determinants into account when treating overweight patients who are ethnic minorities.

  12. Changes of the hindgut microbiota due to high-starch diet can be associated with behavioral stress response in horses.

    PubMed

    Destrez, Alexandra; Grimm, Pauline; Cézilly, Frank; Julliand, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    The digestive system of horses is adapted to a high-fiber diet consumed in small amounts over a long time. However, during training, high-starch and low-fiber diets are usually fed which may induce hindgut microbial disturbances and intestinal pain. These diets can be described as alimentary stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior are associated with alimentary stress and microbial composition changes of the cecal or colonic ecosystem. Six fistulated horses were used. The alimentary stress was a modification of diet from a high-fiber diet (100% hay) to a progressive low-fiber and high-starch diet (from 90% hay and 10% barley to 57% hay and 43% barley in 5 days). Cecal and colonic total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria were enumerated three times (twice on high-fiber diet and once on 57% hay and 43% barley diet). The behavior of horses was assessed from continuous video recording over an 18-h time period. In addition two personality traits were measured: neophobia (assessed from the reaction to the presence of a novel object placed near a feeder in a test arena) and sociability (assessed from the reaction to an unfamiliar horse in a stall). Video recordings were analyzed by scan sampling every 10 min using the following behavioral categories: lying, resting, feeding and being vigilant. In addition, we recorded time spent feeding and time spent in vigilance during the neophobia test, and time spent in vigilance and time spent in interactions with the unfamiliar horse during the sociability test. The alimentary stress induced significant increases of colonic total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria and amylolytic bacteria concentrations. When horses were fed the 57% hay–43% barley diet, time spent in vigilance tended to be positively correlated with cecal and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the sociability test and with cecal lactate-utilizing and

  13. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  14. Standards in medical record keeping.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robin; Williams, John

    2003-01-01

    Medical records serve many functions but their primary purpose is to support patient care. The RCP Health Informatics Unit (HIU) has found variability in the quality of records and discharge summaries in England and Wales. There is currently a major drive to computerise medical records across the NHS, but without improvement in the quality of paper records the full benefits of computerisation are unlikely to be realised. The onus for improving records lies with individual health professionals. Structuring the record can bring direct benefits to patients by improving patient outcomes and doctors' performance. The HIU has reviewed the literature and is developing evidence-based standards for record keeping including the structure of the record. The first draft of these standards has been released for consultation purposes. This article is the first of a series that will describe the standards, and the evidence behind them.

  15. Maternal diet and larval diet influence survival skills of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Perez, K O; Fuiman, L A

    2015-04-01

    Larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus survival, turning rate, routine swimming speed, escape response latency and escape response distance were significantly correlated with essential fatty-acid (EFA) concentrations in eggs. Of the five traits that varied with egg EFA content, two (escape response latency and routine swimming speed) were significantly different when larvae were fed enriched diets compared with the low fatty-acid diet, indicating that the larval diet can compensate for some imbalances in egg composition. Turning rate during routine swimming and escape response distance, however, did not change when larvae predicted to have low performance (based on egg composition) were fed an enriched diet, indicating that these effects of egg composition may be irreversible. Escape response distances and survival rates of larvae predicted to perform well (based on egg composition) and fed highly enriched diets were lower than expected, suggesting that high levels of EFA intake can be detrimental. Altogether, these results suggest that both maternal diet, which is responsible for egg EFA composition, and larval diet may play a role in larval survivorship and recruitment.

  16. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  17. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  18. Stagnation Temperature Recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wimmer, W

    1941-01-01

    The present report deals with the development of a thermometer for recording stagnation temperature in compressible mediums in turbulent flow within 1 to 2 percent error of the adiabatic temperature in the stagnation point, depending upon the speed. This was achieved by placing the junction of a thermocouple near the stagnation point of an aerodynamically beneficial body, special care being taken to assure an uninterrupted supply of fresh compressed air on the junction together with the use of metals of low thermal conductivity, thus keeping heat-transfer and heat-dissipation losses to a minimum. In other experiments the use of the plate thermometer was proved unsuitable for practical measurements by reason of its profound influence in the reading by the Reynolds number and by the direction of flow.

  19. Streamflows at record highs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streamflow was reported well above average in more than half the country during May, with flows at or near record levels for the month in 22 states, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior.USGS hydrologists said that above average flow was reported at 98 of the 173 USGS key index gauging stations used in their monthly check on surface- and ground-water conditions. High flows were most prevalent in the Mississippi River basin states and in the east, with the exception of Maine, South Carolina, and Georgia. Below-average streamflow occurred in the Pacific northwest and in small scattered areas in Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Minnesota.

  20. Steganalysis of recorded speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah K.; Lyu, Siwei; Farid, Hany

    2005-03-01

    Digital audio provides a suitable cover for high-throughput steganography. At 16 bits per sample and sampled at a rate of 44,100 Hz, digital audio has the bit-rate to support large messages. In addition, audio is often transient and unpredictable, facilitating the hiding of messages. Using an approach similar to our universal image steganalysis, we show that hidden messages alter the underlying statistics of audio signals. Our statistical model begins by building a linear basis that captures certain statistical properties of audio signals. A low-dimensional statistical feature vector is extracted from this basis representation and used by a non-linear support vector machine for classification. We show the efficacy of this approach on LSB embedding and Hide4PGP. While no explicit assumptions about the content of the audio are made, our technique has been developed and tested on high-quality recorded speech.