Science.gov

Sample records for 3-day diet records

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Insulin sensitivity is independent of lipid binding protein trafficking at the plasma membrane in human skeletal muscle: effect of a 3-day, high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas B; Serup, Annette K; Karstoft, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette; Kiens, Bente; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced regulation of lipid binding proteins in human skeletal muscle and the impact hereof on insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a 3-day hypercaloric and high-fat diet regime. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the diet intervention, and giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared. The high-fat diet induced decreased insulin sensitivity, but this was not associated with a relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. However, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm mRNA, but not the proteins, were upregulated by increased fatty acid availability. This suggests a time dependency in the upregulation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein during high availability of plasma fatty acids. Furthermore, we did not detect FATP1 and FATP4 protein in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from human skeletal muscle. In conclusion, this study shows that a short-term lipid-load increases mRNA content of key lipid handling proteins in human muscle. However, decreased insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet is not accompanied with relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. Finally, FATP1 and FATP4 protein was located intracellularly but not at the sarcolemma in humans. PMID:25163924

  3. Validity of Electronic Diet Recording Nutrient Estimates Compared to Dietitian Analysis of Diet Records: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. Objective To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Methods Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R 2) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. Results No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively

  4. Validation of four questions on food habits from the Swedish board of health and social welfare by 3-day food records in medical and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Ellinor; Brekke, Hilde K.; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish board for health and social welfare (SoS) has presented four questions on dietary habits as indicators of adherence to dietary recommendations. However, these questions have not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate if four questions on dietary habits correlate with dietary intake assessed by food records. Design A total of 279 medical and nursing students, 170 women and 109 men, completed four questions on usual consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets. Depending on scoring from 0 to 12 points, subjects were classified as having low (0–4 points), average (5–8 points), or high (9–12 points) adherence to dietary recommendations as proposed by SoS. Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records. Mean dietary intake, expressed per 10 MJ of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, sucrose, fish, and fruits and vegetables, was analysed for each group and differences assessed by ANOVA. Results Energy intake was 11.8±3.0 MJ in male and 8.5±2.2 MJ in female students. Most students, 64%, were classified as average adherers to dietary recommendations, whereas only 6% were classified as low and 30% as high. Dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, and folate was significantly higher in the high adherence group compared to both the other groups (p<0.01), but vitamin D significantly so only compared to the average group (p=0.002). Intake of fruits and vegetables was significantly different between all groups (p<0.003), with increasing amounts with increasing adherence. The low adherence group had higher intake of sucrose than the other groups (p<0.005). Median fish intake was nil in the low and average adherence groups, with significant difference between high and average adherence groups (p=0.001). Conclusions Four questions on the consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets correlate well with the dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, fish, sucrose, and fruits and vegetables as

  5. Setting the Record Straight. The Truth About Fad Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat Foods Council, Parker, CO.

    The Setting the Record Straight information packet presents facts to set the record straight about nutrition and debunk fad diets. The kit features materials designed to communicate the importance of balanced eating. Materials include: a time line of fad diets; four reproducible fad diet book review handouts that show the misleading claims rampant…

  6. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  7. Validity of electronic assessment methods compared to RD analysis of diet records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of dietary intake by diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool. However, manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the RD effort spent in diet entry. In order to determine the ...

  8. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  9. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Cerling, Thure E; Harris, John M; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-04-19

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C(4) grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15-10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C(3) to mixed C(3)/C(4) or C(4) diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9-3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C(4) grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C(4) grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C(4)-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C(4)-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C(3)-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C(4) grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C(3) diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change. PMID:21464327

  10. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kevin T.; Cerling, Thure E.; Harris, John M.; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G.; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C4 grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15–10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C3 to mixed C3/C4 or C4 diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9–3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C4 grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C4 grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C4-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C4-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C3-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C4 grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C3 diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change. PMID:21464327

  11. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  12. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  13. Environmental stress and 3-day eventing: effects of altitude.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Waldsmith, J K; Lalum, R B

    1999-07-01

    Three-day event horses are subject to various external environmental stresses including changes in ambient temperature, humidity, altitude, and test severity. Considerable research on the adverse effects of increased heat and humidity preceded the 1996 Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta, Georgia USA, but no research has been done previously on the effects of altitude on 3-day eventing. Physical and venous blood gas data were collected on horses (n = 24) competing in the High Prairie Preliminary (CCN*) and Intermediate (CCN**) 3-day events and Preliminary Horse Trials in Parker, Colorado (1900 m above sea level). Despite the increased altitude, only post exercise rectal temperature and pH were higher (P < 0.05) whereas heart rate (HR), [K+], and ionized calcium (ICa++) were lower (P < 0.05) in 3-day event horses compared to horse trial horses. All other variables (respiratory rate [RR], PCV, [Hb], PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE, and [Na+]) were not different between groups (P > 0.05). When these preliminary horse trial horses in Colorado were compared to those previously studied at preliminary horse trials at sea level in Arizona, post exercise HR and RR were higher (P < 0.05) and pH, PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE and [iCa++] were lower (P < 0.05) at altitude. These data show that increased altitude (1900 m above sea level) was more stressful for 3-day event horses, but did not result in the severe physiological changes and inability to complete prescribed exercise tests seen in previous studies with increased heat and humidity. It is clear from these and previous data that increased heat and humidity are the more important environmental stressors in 3-day eventing. PMID:10659288

  14. Metabolism of ifosfamide during a 3 day infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, J. M.; Hansen, L.; Harland, S. J.; Nicholson, P. W.; Pasini, F.; Souhami, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary drug metabolites were measured in 21 patients receiving ifosfamide by continuous infusion over 3 days. Mean values for the proportion of drug excreted as parent compound, 2-dechloroethylifosfamide (2-DC), 3-dechloroethylifosfamide (3-DC), carboxyifosfamide (CX) and ifosforamide mustard (IPM) were 19, 6, 10, 7 and 8% of dose respectively. The proportion of urinary drug products in the form of ifosfamide fell considerably over the course of the 3 days. This was mirrored by an increase in the proportion of 2-DC, 3-DC and CX. The proportion in the form of IPM, however, remained unchanged. With successive cycles the amount of 2-DC and IPM increased by about 10% per course. A very wide variation in the amount of each metabolite was reproducibly seen between patients, but no evidence for a genetic polymorphism was found. Urinary dechloroethyl metabolites correlated positively with each other and negatively with CX. Although autoinduction increases 'activation' of ifosfamide when given over 3 days, our evidence suggests that competing metabolic pathways prevent an increase in the amount of active metabolite formed. PMID:8180026

  15. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  16. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  17. Comparability of Weighed Dietary Records and a Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Estimating Monetary Cost of Dietary Energy

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have estimated monetary diet cost using various dietary assessment methods, based on databases on retail food prices, for investigating its association with dietary intake and health outcomes. However, information regarding the comparability of monetary diet cost across dietary assessment methods is absolutely lacking. This study compared monetary cost of dietary energy estimated from weighed dietary records (DRs) with that estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The subjects were 92 Japanese women aged 31–69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32–76 years. The DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4-day DRs (one weekend day and three weekdays) were completed in each season over a 1-year period (DHQs1-4 and DRs1-4, respectively). An additional DHQ was completed at one year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was calculated using food intake information derived from each dietary assessment method, based on retail food prices. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and mean of DHQs1-4 was 0.64 for women and 0.69 for men. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and DHQ1 was 0.60 for women and 0.52 for men, while intraclass correlation between DHQ1 and DHQ5 was 0.64 for women and 0.51 for men. These data indicate reasonable comparability of monetary cost of dietary energy across DR and a DHQ as well as usefulness of a single administration of the DHQ for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy. PMID:21572846

  18. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  19. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  20. Overall diet quality is not associated with diet cost among youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise; Lipsky, Leah; Mehta, Sanjeev; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of diet quality with diet cost in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom diet is an important component of medical management. Differences in food group spending by diet quality were also examined to identify potential budgetary reallocation to improve overall diet quality. Families of 252 youth with type 1 diabetes ages 8–18 years completed 3-day youth diet records. Cost of each food reported was calculated based on the average price obtained from two online grocery stores. Diet cost was estimated as average daily cost of foods consumed. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI2005), Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), and Whole Plant Food Density (WPFD) scores were evaluated. Differences in mean daily diet cost across tertiles of HEI2005, NRF9.3, and WPFD were modest, with none reaching statistical significance. Those in the upper tertile of HEI-2005 spent more on whole fruit, whole grains, lean meat, and low-fat dairy, and less on high-fat meat and high-fat dairy compared to those in the lower tertiles. Higher quality diets can be obtained at comparable costs to lesser quality diets, suggesting that cost need not be an insurmountable barrier to more healthful eating. Reallocation of spending may increase overall quality without substantially increasing overall spending. Findings suggest potential strategies for assisting families of youth with type 1 diabetes in identifying cost-effective ways to achieve a more healthful diet. PMID:25266245

  1. Association between Hemoglobin Levels in the First 3 Days of Life and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Kong, Xiangyong; Li, Qiuping; Hua, Shaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Feng, Zhichun; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the first 3 days of life and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Study Design The study population comprises 147 neonates with a gestational age (GA) of less than 32 weeks who were admitted to BaYi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital from January 2014 to May 2015. Hb levels in the first 3 days of life, maternal and infant characteristics, were recorded and then analyzed. Results BPD patients had a lower GA and birth weight than non-BPD patients. Rates of surfactant use, use of early inhalation hormone, days of mechanical ventilation > 2 weeks, and patent ductus arteriosus in BPD patients were higher and have a significant difference. Number of transfusions was higher in BPD patients. Lower Hb levels in the first 3 days of life were also observed in BPD patients. A cutoff value of Hb levels was determined as 155.5 g/L. Hb ≤ 155 g/L in the first 3 days of life was a significant risk factor for BPD. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that lower Hb levels in the first 3 days of life may increase the risk of developing BPD in preterm infants. PMID:27120476

  2. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  3. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  4. Objective Assessment of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease Using a Body-Fixed Sensor Worn for 3 Days

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. Methods and Materials 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. Results The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78±0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71±0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall

  5. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Wise, Richard; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo modulates memory-relevant hippocampal response and fear processing in human models of antidepressant drug action 1 week post-administration, and improves self-reported mood for 3 days immediately following administration. The present study explored the effects of Epo (40 000 IU) vs saline on self-reported mood and on neural and cognitive function in healthy volunteers 3 days post-administration to test the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness and fear. This is similar to behavioral effects observed with acute administration of serotonergic antidepressants. Consistent with our previous finding, Epo improved self-reported mood for all 3 days post-administration. Together, these results suggest that characterization of the effects of Epo in a clinically depressed group is warranted. PMID:17473836

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  7. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  8. Efficacy of essential oil mouthwash with and without alcohol: a 3-Day plaque accumulation model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of a new alcohol free essential oil mouthwash with respect to a control of an essential oil with alcohol mouthwash, using an in vivo plaque regrowth model of 3-days. Methods The study was designed as a double-masked, randomized, crossover clinical trial, involving 30 volunteers to compare two different essential oil containing mouthwashes, during a 3-day plaque accumulation model. After receiving a thorough professional prophylaxis at the baseline, over the next 3-days each volunteer refrained from all oral hygiene measures and had two daily rinses with 20 ml of the test mouthwash (alcohol free essential oil) or the control mouthwash (essential oil with alcohol). At the end of the each experimental period, plaque was assessed and the panelists filled out a questionnaire. Each subject underwent a 14 days washout period and there was a second allocation. Results The essential oil mouthwash with ethanol shows a better inhibitory effect of plaque regrowth in 3-days than the mouthwash test with only essential oil in the whole mouth (plaque index = 2.18 against 2.46, respectively, p < 0.05); for the lower jaw (plaque index = 2.28 against 2.57, respectively, p < 0.05); for the upper jaw (plaque index = 2.08 against 2.35, respectively, p < 0.05); for the incisors (plaque index = 1.93 against 2.27, respectively, p < 0.05); and the canines (plaque index = 1.99 against 2.47, respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The essential oil containing mouthwash without alcohol seems to have a less inhibiting effect on the plaque regrowth than the traditional alcoholic solution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411618 PMID:22171999

  9. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282 mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2 yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  10. Little variation in diet cost across wide ranges of overall dietary quality among youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja; Haynie, Denise; Lipsky, Leah; Mehta, Sanjeev; Laffel, Lori

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association of diet quality with diet cost in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom diet is an important component of medical management. Differences in food group spending by diet quality were also examined to identify potential budgetary reallocation to improve overall diet quality. Families of 252 youth with type 1 diabetes aged 8 to 18 years completed 3-day youth diet records. Cost of each food reported was calculated based on the average price obtained from two online grocery stores. Diet cost was estimated as average daily cost of foods consumed. The Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI2005), Nutrient Rich Foods Index version 9.3, and Whole Plant Food Density scores were evaluated. Differences in mean daily diet cost across tertiles of HEI2005, Nutrient Rich Foods Index version 9.3, and Whole Plant Food Density were modest, with none reaching statistical significance. Those in the upper tertile of HEI2005 spent more on whole fruit, whole grains, lean meat, and low-fat dairy, and less on high-fat meat and high-fat dairy compared with those in the lower tertiles. Higher-quality diets can be obtained at comparable costs to lesser-quality diets, suggesting that cost need not be an insurmountable barrier to more healthful eating. Reallocation of spending may increase overall quality without substantially increasing overall spending. Findings suggest potential strategies for assisting families of youth with type 1 diabetes in identifying cost-effective ways to achieve a more healthful diet. PMID:25266245

  11. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the following ...

  13. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  14. Preflight Adjustment to Eastward Travel: 3 Days of Advancing Sleep with and without Morning Bright Light

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Crowley, Stephanie J.; Gazda, Clifford J.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2005-01-01

    Jet lag is caused by a misalignment between circadian rhythms and local destination time. As humans typically take longer to re-entrain after a phase advance than a phase delay, eastward travel is often more difficult than westward travel. Previous strategies to reduce jet lag have focused on shaping the perceived light-dark cycle after arrival, in order to facilitate a phase shift in the appropriate direction. Here we tested treatments that travelers could use to phase advance their circadian rhythms prior to eastward flight. Thus, travelers would arrive with their circadian rhythms already partially re-entrained to local time. We determined how far the circadian rhythms phase advanced, and the associated side effects related to sleep and mood. Twenty-eight healthy young subjects participated in 1 of 3 different treatments, which all phase advanced each subject’s habitual sleep schedule by 1 h/day for 3 days. The 3 treatments differed in morning light exposure for the 1st 3.5 h after waking on each of the 3 days: continuous bright light (> 3000 lux), intermittent bright light (> 3000 lux, 0.5 h on, 0.5 off, etc.), or ordinary dim indoor light (< 60 lux). Aphase assessment in dim light (< 10 lux) was conducted before and after the treatments to determine the endogenous salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). The mean DLMO phase advances in the dim, intermittent, and continuous light groups were 0.6, 1.5, and 2.1 h, respectively. The intermittent and continuous light groups advanced significantly more than the dim light group (p < 0.01) but were not significantly different from each other. The side effects as assessed with actigraphy and logs were small. A 2-h phase advance may seem small compared to a 6- to 9-h time zone change, as occurs with eastward travel from the USA to Europe. However, a small phase advance will not only reduce the degree of re-entrainment required after arrival, but may also increase postflight exposure to phase-advancing light relative

  15. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection.

    PubMed

    Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2012-04-30

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1 and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were identified and their location was noted. The highest number of larvae was observed in the JX sample as compared to J1 and J2 (P<0.001). Most of them were located in the profound crypt zone of the mucosa (51%) as compared to the other zones (P<0.05). The number of larvae was higher in the lumen (63%) compared to the epithelium (32%) and lamina propria (5%) (P<0.001). A significantly higher number of eosinophils were found in lamina propria of the infected group compared to the control group (P<0.001). This experiment clearly showed that only few larvae had penetrated the epithelium and were positioned in the lamina propria at 3 days post infection. It was far more common that the larvae were localized within the epithelium or in the lumen of the crypts. It is therefore suggested that at least in this early phase "mucosal phase" is a more appropriate term to be used for the A. galli larval localization as compared to the term "histotrophic phase" currently used in many textbooks. PMID:22133491

  16. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance. PMID:24855020

  17. Human muscle signaling responses to 3-day head-out dry immersion.

    PubMed

    Vilchinskaya, N A; Mirzoev, T M; Lomonosova, Y N; Kozlovskaya, I B; Shenkman, B S

    2015-09-01

    To date little is known about catabolic NO-dependent signaling systems in human skeletal muscle during early stages of gravitational unloading. The goal of the study was to analyze signaling pathways that determine the initial development of proteolytic events in human soleus muscle during short-term gravitational unloading (simulated microgravity). Gravitational unloading was simulated by 3-day head-out dry immersion. Before and after the immersion the samples of soleus muscle were taken under local anesthesia, using biopsy technique. The content of desmin, IRS-1, phospho-AMPK, total and phospho-nNOS in soleus of 6 healthy men was determined using Western-blotting before and after the dry-immersion. Three days of the dry immersion resulted in a significant decrease in desmin, phospho-nNOS and phospho-AMPK as compared to the pre-immersion values. The results of the study suggest that proteolytic processes in human soleus at the early stage of gravitational unloading are associated with inactivation of nNOS. Reduction in AMPK phosphorylation could serve as a trigger event for the development of primary atrophic changes in skeletal muscle. PMID:26350948

  18. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  19. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  20. Y-STR profiling in extended interval (> or = 3 days) postcoital cervicovaginal samples.

    PubMed

    Mayntz-Press, Kathleen A; Sims, Lynn M; Hall, Ashley; Ballantyne, Jack

    2008-03-01

    Depending upon specific situations, some victims of sexual assault provide vaginal samples more than 36-48 h after the incident. We have tested the ability of commercial and in-house Y-STR systems to provide DNA profiles from extended interval (> or =3 days) postcoital samples. The commercial Y-STR systems tested included the AmpFlSTR Yfiler (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex Y (Promega) and Y-PLEX 12 (Reliagene) products whereas the in-house systems comprised Multiplex I (MPI) and Multiplex B (MPB). Three donor couples were recruited for the study. Postcoital cervicovaginal swabs (x2) were recovered by each of the three females at specified intervals after sexual intercourse (3-7 days). Each time point sample was collected after a separate act of sexual intercourse and was preceded by a 7-day abstention period. As a negative control, a precoital swab was also recovered prior to coitus for each sampling and only data from postcoital samples that demonstrated a lack of male DNA in the associated precoital sample was used. A number of DNA profile enhancement strategies were employed including sampling by cervical brushing, nondifferential DNA extraction methodology, and post-PCR purification. Full Y-STR profiles from cervicovaginal samples recovered 3-4 days after intercourse were routinely obtained. Profiles were also obtainable 5-6 days postcoitus although by this stage partial profiles rather than full profiles were a more likely outcome. The DNA profiles from the sperm fraction of a differential lysis were superior to that obtained when a nondifferential method was employed in that the allelic signal intensities were generally higher and more balanced and exhibited less baseline noise. The incorporation of a simple post-PCR purification process significantly increased the ability to obtain Y-STR profiles, particularly from 5- to 6-day postcoital samples. Remarkably an 8 locus Y-STR profile was obtained from a 7-day postcoital sample, which is approaching the

  1. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ileostomy - diet; Abdominal pouch - diet; End ileostomy - diet; Ostomy - diet ... odor: Eating parsley, yogurt, and buttermilk Keeping your ostomy devices clean Using special deodorants or adding vanilla ...

  2. Effect of 3-day dry immersion on ventilatory response to hypercapnic hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Dyachenko, Alexander; Shulagin, Yury; Ermolaev, Evgeny

    . This increase was 34% and 23% respectively. Tidal volume sensitivity in tests 2 and 3 increased in comparison with test 1 (P<0.05). Points of apnea in the 2-nd test changed to increased P _{CO2} values compared with 1-st test (P<0.05} and in the tests 2 and 3 compared with the test 4 (P<0.02). Thus, the VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased. Conclusion: Ventilation reaction to hypercapnia combined with hypoxia was changed during 3-day dry immersion. The VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased.

  3. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fruits Whole grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal ... animal proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods ...

  4. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...

  5. IBS Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...

  6. DASH Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Includes whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limits sodium, sweets, sugary beverages, ...

  7. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  8. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  9. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  10. Fatty acids in serum and diet--a canonical correlation analysis among toddlers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Salminen, Irma; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ahonen, Suvi; Niinistö, Sari; Alfthan, Georg; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-07-01

    Fatty acid concentrations in blood are potential biomarkers of dietary fat intake, but methodological studies among children are scarce. The large number of fatty acids and their complex interrelationships pose a special challenge in research on fatty acids. Our target was to assess the interrelationships between the total fatty acid profiles in diet and serum of young children. The study subjects were healthy control children from the birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. A 3-day food record and a frozen serum sample were available from 135 children at the age of 1 year, from 133 at 2 years, and from 92 at 3 years. The relationship between dietary and serum fatty acid profiles was analysed using canonical correlation analysis. The consumption of fatty milk correlated positively with serum fatty acids, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at all ages. Correlations between dietary and serum eicosapentaenoic and/or docosahexaenoic acid were observed at 2 and 3 years of age. Serum linoleic acid was positively associated with the consumption of infant formula at the age of 1 year, and with the consumption of vegetable margarine at 2 and 3 years. The results indicate a high quality of the 3-day food records kept by parents and other caretakers of the children, and suitability of non-fasting, un-fractioned serum samples for total fatty acid analyses. The correlation between intake of milk fat and serum proportion of CLA is a novel finding. PMID:22066932

  11. An open evaluation of a 3-day course of pivmecillinam (ten 200 mg tablets) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Donald, J F; Rimmer, D M

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four women, with acute uncomplicated cystitis, received a 3-day course of pivmecillinam comprising an initial 400 mg (two tablets) dose, followed by 200 mg every 8 hours; a total of ten tablets. A satisfactory clinical response was achieved in 91% of patients. Bacteriological success was observed in 94% of sixty-eight patients with a proven infection. Side-effects were reported in sixteen patients (8.4%). Two patients ceased therapy prematurely. Pivmecillinam did not select out resistant Gram-negative organisms. A trend towards reinfection with Gram-positive cocci was observed. The possible significance of reinfection with different organisms is discussed. PMID:6245977

  12. Validity and reliability of a dish-based, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean diet and cancer research.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Noh, Hwa Young; Song, Na Yeun; Paik, Hee Young; Park, Sohee; Joung, Hyojee; Song, Won O; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of applying a newly developed dish-based, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Korean diet and cancer research. The subjects in the present study were 288 Korean adults over 30 years of age who had completed two FFQs and four 3-day diet records (DRs) from May 2008 to February 2009. Student's t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to estimate and compare intakes from different dietary assessment tools. Agreement in quintiles was calculated to validate agreement between the results of the second FFQ (FFQ-2) conducted in February 2009 and the DRs. Median Spearman's correlation coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-1 and FFQ-2 were 0.59 and 0.57, respectively, and the coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-2 and the DRs were 0.31 and 0.29, respectively. The quintile classifications of same or adjacent quintile for intake of nutrients and foods were 64% and 65%, respectively. Misclassification into opposite quintiles occurred in less than 5% for all dietary factors. Thus this newly-developed, Korean dish-based FFQ demonstrated moderate correspondence with the four 3-day DRs. Its reliability and validity are comparable to those reported in other studies. PMID:22524822

  13. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy. PMID:25069586

  14. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Diets that Work Fact Sheet Diets that Work February 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Susan ... there? It can be hard to know what works and what’s healthy. Everyone wants a diet that ...

  15. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  16. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you out. This is not just a traditional low-salt diet. The DASH diet emphasizes foods high in ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium), check with your doctor. ...

  17. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet helps ...

  18. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination. PMID:16539036

  19. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  20. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism. PMID:21500098

  1. Development and Applicability of an Internet-Based Diet and Lifestyle Questionnaire for College Students in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Feng; Sun, Chang-Hao; Feng, Ren-Nan

    2015-12-01

    Diet contributes to the increasing incidence of chronic diseases. Thus, fast, accurate, and convenient dietary assessment tools are in demand. We designed an internet-based diet and lifestyle questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC). The objective of this study was to validate its applicability and assess the dietary habits of Chinese college students.Six hundred forty-four college students from northern China were recruited and asked to complete the IDQC for the last 4 months (135 food items) and 3-day diet records (3DDRs). Food and nutrient intakes recorded in the IDQC were validated against those in the 3DDRs using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs t test, correlation analysis, and cross-classification. The Student t and χ tests were used in the dietary assessment.There were significantly positive correlations in the dietary intakes of 9 food groups and 23 nutrients between the IDQC and 3DDRs. All participants consumed low levels of fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and certain micronutrients (ie, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, and iodine), and high levels of iron and manganese. Male students consumed higher intakes of the food groups and nutrients than female students.The IDQC represents an accurate and convenient dietary assessment tool that can be used in large populations. Inadequate and excessive nutrition co-existed in college students, and more fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and various vitamins and minerals were needed in this population's daily diet. The IDQC is free of access at www.yyjy365.org/diet. PMID:26656341

  2. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  3. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  4. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and facts; Obesity- diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  5. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Animal proteins are a good source of zinc. Beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The ... use by the body as the zinc from animal proteins. Therefore, low-protein diets and vegetarian diets tend ...

  6. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  7. The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

  8. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  9. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  11. Metabolic and behavioral effects of chronic olanzapine treatment and cafeteria diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre P; Tort, Ana H; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Vinadé, Elsa R; Perry, Marcos L; Souza, Diogo O; Lara, Diogo R; Portela, Luis V

    2010-10-01

    Olanzapine and highly palatable diets can alter metabolism and brain function. We investigated the interaction of chronic treatment (4 months) with olanzapine and a cafeteria diet on metabolic parameters, memory tasks (spatial and aversive), the elevated plus maze and locomotor activity induced by d-amphetamine. Male Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: standard diet vehicle, standard diet and olanzapine, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet and olanzapine. Olanzapine was administered in the drinking water (approximately 1.5 mg/kg/day), and after 3 days of treatment, the rats exhibited an expected anxiolytic effect and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. After 4 months of treatment, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet olanzapine rats exhibited an increased body weight and heavier fat pads compared with the standard diet groups. Olanzapine increased only the epididymal and mesenteric fat pads. The cafeteria diet and olanzapine group showed greater glucose intolerance compared with all other groups. The cafeteria diet altered the effects of chronic olanzapine on the performance in the water maze and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic olanzapine treatment failed to affect amphetamine-induced locomotion and to produce anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze task, regardless of the diet. Our results suggest that chronic olanzapine caused an increase in fat pads, which is putatively involved in the etiology of many metabolic diseases. Rats on the cafeteria diet were overweight and exhibited glucose intolerance. We did not observe these effects with olanzapine treatment with the standard diet. Moreover, the chronic treatment regimen caused tolerance to the antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects of olanzapine and seemed to potentiate some of the metabolic effects of the cafeteria diet. The cafeteria diet also modified the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine on cognitive tasks, which may represent an undesirable effect of

  12. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. PMID:26634419

  13. Lifestyle and diet.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  14. A Personalized Diet Evaluation for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Bernard L.; Neill, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A system of scoring food intake that can be used to encourage students to make more intelligent decisions regarding their diets is presented. A sampling of points assigned to a variety of foods, a copy of a typical student diet record, and an example on how to calculate scores are included. (KR)

  15. Medium- and Short-Term Interventions with Ma-Pi 2 Macrobiotic Diet in Type 2 Diabetic Adults of Bauta, Havana

    PubMed Central

    Porrata-Maury, Carmen; Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Rodríguez-Sotero, Eduardo; Vilá-Dacosta-Calheiros, Raúl; Hernández-Hernández, Héctor; Mirabal-Sosa, Mayelín; Campa-Huergo, Concepción; Pianesi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Cuba, the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet has shown positive results in 6-month assays with type 2 diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of this diet at short and medium terms. Methods. Sixty-five type 2 diabetic volunteers were included for dietary intervention, institutionally based for 21 days and followed later at home, until completing 3 months. 54 of them stayed until assay end. Before intervention, and after both assay periods, they were submitted to anthropometric records, body composition analyses and measurements of serum biochemical indicators, glycemic profile in capillary blood, blood pressure, and medication consumption; food intake was evaluated by the 3-day dietary recall. Results. During the intervention, the energy intake was 200 kcal higher at instance of more complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber and despite less fat and protein. Blood pressure and serum biochemical indicators decreased significantly in both periods; the safety nutritional indicators (hemoglobin, serum total proteins, and albumin) showed no variations. The global cardiovascular risk decreased and insulin consumption dropped by 46% and 64%, in both periods, respectively. Conclusions. The Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet was a successful therapy at short term and after 3-month home-based intervention, for type 2 diabetics. PMID:23097695

  16. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production. PMID:24916553

  17. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896

  18. Changing gull diet in a changing world: a 150-year stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) record from feathers collected in the Pacific Northwest of North America.

    PubMed

    Blight, Louise K; Hobson, Keith A; Kyser, T Kurt; Arcese, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialization. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multidecadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) analysis of feathers from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in a heavily disturbed region of the northeast Pacific to ask whether diets of this generalist forager changed in response to shifts in food availability over 150 years, and whether any detected change might explain long-term trends in gull abundance. Sampled feathers came from birds collected between 1860 and 2009 at nesting colonies in the Salish Sea, a transboundary marine system adjacent to Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. To determine whether temporal trends in stable isotope ratios might simply reflect changes to baseline environmental values, we also analysed muscle tissue from forage fishes collected in the same region over a multidecadal timeframe. Values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N declined since 1860 in both subadult and adult gulls (δ(13)C, ~ 2-6‰; δ(15)N, ~4-5‰), indicating that their diet has become less marine over time, and that birds now feed at a lower trophic level than previously. Conversely, forage fish δ(13)C and δ(15)N values showed no trends, supporting our conclusion that gull feather values were indicative of declines in marine food availability rather than of baseline environmental change. Gradual declines in feather isotope values are consistent with trends predicted had gulls consumed less fish over time, but were equivocal with respect to whether gulls had switched to a more garbage-based diet, or one comprising marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, our results suggest a long-term decrease in diet quality linked to declining fish abundance or other anthropogenic influences, and may help to explain regional

  19. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. PMID:20338665

  20. A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, A P; Bartness, T J; Mielke, J G; Parent, M B

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a substantial increase in the amount of fructose consumed by North Americans. Recent evidence from rodents indicates that hippocampal insulin signaling facilitates memory and excessive fructose consumption produces hippocampal insulin resistance. Based on this evidence, the present study tested the hypothesis that a high fructose diet would impair hippocampal-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 61) were fed either a control (0% fructose) or high fructose diet (60% of calories). Food intake and body mass were measured regularly. After 19 weeks, the rats were given 3 days of training (8 trials/day) in a spatial version of the water maze task, and retention performance was probed 48 h later. The high fructose diet did not affect acquisition of the task, but did impair performance on the retention test. Specifically, rats fed a high fructose diet displayed significantly longer latencies to reach the area where the platform had been located, made significantly fewer approaches to that area, and spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than did control diet rats. There was no difference in swim speed between the two groups. The retention deficits correlated significantly with fructose-induced elevations of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Consequently, the impaired spatial water maze retention performance seen with the high fructose diet may have been attributable, at least in part, to fructose-induced increases in plasma triglycerides. PMID:19500683

  1. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Myers, Todd M; Langston, Jeffrey L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the role of diet composition on nerve agent toxicity, rats were fed four distinct diets ad libitum for 28 d prior to challenge with 110 μg/kg (1.0 LD(50), sc) soman. The four diets used were a standard rodent diet, a choline-enriched diet, a glucose-enriched diet, and a ketogenic diet. Body weight was recorded throughout the study. Toxic signs and survival were evaluated at key times for up to 72 h following soman exposure. Additionally, acquisition of discriminated shuttlebox avoidance performance was characterized beginning 24h after soman challenge and across the next 8 d (six behavioral sessions). Prior to exposure, body weight was highest in the standard diet group and lowest in the ketogenic diet group. Upon exposure, differences in soman toxicity as a function of diet became apparent within the first hour, with mortality in the glucose-enriched diet group reaching 80% and exceeding all other groups (in which mortality ranged from 0 to 6%). At 72 h after exposure, mortality was 100% in the glucose-enriched diet group, and survival approximated 50% in the standard and choline-enriched diet groups, but equaled 87% in the ketogenic diet group. Body weight loss was significantly reduced in the ketogenic and choline-enriched diet groups, relative to the standard diet group. At 1 and 4h after exposure, rats in the ketogenic diet group had significantly lower toxic sign scores than all other groups. The ketogenic diet group performed significantly better than the standard diet group on two measures of active avoidance performance. The exacerbated soman toxicity observed in the glucose-enriched diet group coupled with the attenuated soman toxicity observed in the ketogenic diet group implicates glucose availability in the toxic effects of soman. This increased glucose availability may enhance acetylcholine synthesis and/or utilization, thereby exacerbating peripheral and central soman toxicity. PMID:21396400

  2. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  3. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  4. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  5. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  6. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  7. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... list of resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Very Low-calorie Diets Page Content What is a VLCD? Should ... weight? Research ​ Clinical Trials Resources​ A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is not just any diet that ...

  8. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  9. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  10. Urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion on a Western diet: relation to soy, vegetable, and fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Lampe, J W; Gustafson, D R; Hutchins, A M; Martini, M C; Li, S; Wähälä, K; Grandits, G A; Potter, J D; Slavin, J L

    1999-08-01

    Dietary isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens are potential chemopreventive agents. This has led to a need to monitor exposure to these compounds in human populations and to determine which components of a mixed diet contribute to the exposure. Typically, urinary isoflavonoid excretion is associated with soy consumption and that of lignans is associated with whole grains. However, other plant foods are known to contain phytoestrogen precursors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion and intakes of vegetables and fruits (V&F). Isoflavonoids (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and equol) and lignans (enterolactone, enterodiol, and matairesinol) were measured in urine collected for 3 days from 49 male and 49 female volunteers (age, 18-37 years) reporting a wide range of habitual V&F intakes. Dietary intakes were assessed using 5-day diet records and a food frequency questionnaire. V&F groupings (total V&F, total V, total F, soyfoods, and V&F grouped by botanical families) were used to assess the relationship between V&F intake and urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion. Pearson correlations were performed. Intake of soyfoods was correlated significantly with urinary genistein (r = 0.40; P = 0.0001), O-desmethylangolensin (r = 0.37; P = 0.0002), daidzein (r = 034; P = 0.0007), and the sum of isoflavonoids (r = 0.39; P = 0.0001). There was no association between equol excretion and soy intake or between the isoflavonoids and any other V&F groupings. In addition, isoflavonoid excretion was correlated positively with intake of high-fat and processed meats, particularly among men who did not consume soy. This suggests that, even in the United States, on a Western diet, soyfoods are the primary contributors to isoflavone intake; however, additional "hidden sources" of soy may also contribute to exposure. In contrast, a variety of fiber-containing foods contributed to lignan excretion; the sum of

  11. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women. PMID:19942023

  12. Comparative efficacy and safety of 3-day azithromycin and 10-day penicillin V treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, L; Scopetti, F; Ranucci, A; Pataracchia, M; Savignoni, F; Chiesa, C

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a 3-day course of azithromycin oral suspension (10 mg/kg of body weight once daily) were compared with those of penicillin V (50,000 U/kg/day in two divided doses) in children aged 3 to 12 years for the treatment of symptomatic pharyngitis caused by the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). For the 154 evaluable patients, the original infecting strain of GABHS was eliminated at the end of follow-up (34 to 36 days after treatment started) from 67 (85.8%) of 78 penicillin-treated patients and 41 (53.9%) of 76 azithromycin-treated patients (P < 0.0001). Overall clinical success was achieved in 71 (91.0%) of 78 penicillin V-treated patients and 57 (75.0%) of 76 azithromycin-treated patients (P < 0.05). Potential drug-related adverse events were reported for 5.5 and 8.6% of the penicillin V- and azithromycin-treated patients, respectively (P = 0.6). In the present study, a once-daily (10 mg/kg), 3-day oral regimen of azithromycin was as safe as a 10-day course of penicillin but did not represent an effective alternative to penicillin for the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis, even for those children with azithromycin-susceptible strains. PMID:8849215

  13. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  14. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  15. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d. PMID:25757395

  16. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  17. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  18. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  19. Diet for Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  20. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  1. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  2. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "bad" stuff. But the truth is, the human body is designed to purify itself. Detox diets vary. ... fat or fat-free milk or yogurt). The human body is designed to purify itself. You can help ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation ... Dr. Shorter completed the first validated, systematic food sensitivity questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April ...

  4. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... It includes things such as: Clear broth Tea Cranberry juice Jell-O Popsicles This diet is easier ... such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or consommé) Clear sodas, ...

  5. Iron in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  6. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  7. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  8. Diet and health.

    PubMed

    Gotto, A M; Scott, L W; Foreyt, J P

    1984-12-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  9. Appetoff: another diet fad.

    PubMed

    Beckerich, M J

    1989-12-01

    Appetoff diet patches were diet aids introduced to the public in 1987 and removed from the market in 1988 by the FDA for reasons of fraud. The ingredients were supposedly homeopathic concentrations of plant and mineral products. Although 91.6% of persons in this study who used the product for at least 1 week reported weight loss and mild side effects, no active ingredients could be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PMID:2617837

  10. Diet and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, D.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the statistical establishment of elevated blood lipids as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease, most of the attempts to regulate blood lipids by diet are centered on the fat in the diet. The levels of blood lipids and the course of experimental atherosclerosis can be affected by other dietary components such as type and amount of protein, carbohydrate, and nonnutritive fiber. Interaction among the dietary components further affects serum lipids and atherosclerosis. PMID:786036

  11. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  12. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  13. An evaluation of the lower coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder after 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    Twelve healthy male subjects were initially deconditioned by 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt bed rest followed by donning the reentry anti-G suit and being centrifuged using a simulated Shuttle reentry profile. For 6 of the 12 subjects, anti-G suit pressure was increased in 0.5 psig increments if eye level blood pressure dropped below 70 mmHg. The second half of the subjects had their G-suits inflated in 0.5 psig increments if they reported 50 percent peripheral light dimming. Results show that the maximum allowable pressure for either exposure was 2.5 psig, which is the operational limit of the Shuttle anti-G suit controller.

  14. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  15. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  16. Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial proliferation, and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bjornvad, Charlotte R; Thymann, Thomas; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Burrin, Douglas G; Jensen, Søren K; Jensen, Bent B; Mølbak, Lars; Boye, Mette; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Schmidt, Mette; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sangild, Per T

    2008-11-01

    Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food is introduced. Conversely, delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions were first recorded in preterm pigs fed enterally (porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum, or formula for 20-40 h), with or without a preceding 2- to 3-day TPN period (n = 435). Mucosal mass increased during TPN and further after enteral feeding to reach an intestinal mass similar to that in enterally fed pigs without TPN (+60-80% relative to birth). NEC developed only after enteral feeding but more often after a preceding TPN period for both sow's colostrum (26 vs. 5%) and formula (62 vs. 39%, both P < 0.001, n = 43-170). Further studies in 3-day-old TPN pigs fed enterally showed that formula feeding decreased villus height and nutrient digestive capacity and increased luminal lactic acid and NEC lesions, compared with colostrum (bovine or porcine, P < 0.05). Mucosal microbial diversity increased with enteral feeding, and Clostridium perfringens density was related to NEC severity. Formula feeding decreased plasma arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and tissue antioxidants, whereas tissue nitric oxide synthetase and gut permeability increased, relative to colostrum (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, enteral feeding is associated with gut dysfunction, microbial imbalance, and NEC in preterm pigs, especially in pigs fed formula after TPN. Conversely, colostrum milk diets improve gut maturation and NEC resistance in preterm pigs subjected to a few days of TPN after birth. PMID:18818317

  17. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal. PMID:17370834

  18. A comprehensive survey of atmospheric quasi 3 day planetary-scale waves and their impacts on the day-to-day variations of the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.; Frey, Harald U.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2015-04-01

    This study reports a comprehensive survey of quasi 3 day (2.5-4.5 day period) planetary-scale waves in the low-latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere using the temperature observations from Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Electric Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry throughout 2002-2012. Occurrences and properties of the waves, including the eastward propagating zonal wave numbers of 1-3 (E1-E3) and vertical wavelengths, are determined for each case. The impacts of these waves on the equatorial ionosphere are investigated by searching for the corresponding variations with the same periods and wave numbers in total electron content (TEC) from the concurrent observations of the ground-based GPS network. For a threshold amplitude of 4 K in temperature, a total of 300 waves are identified, of which there are 186 E1, 63 E2, and 51 E3 events. The mean amplitudes and vertical wavelengths of these waves are calculated to be about 7.9 K and 34 km for the E1, 5.7 K and 29 km for the E2, and 5.1 K and 27 km for the E3, having the standard deviations of 1.5 K and 6.5 km, 0.6 K and 5.6 km, and 0.5 K and 6.7 km. Occurrences of the E1 cases are not observed to depend on season, but the large-amplitude (>8 K) cases occur more often during solstices than at equinoxes. Similarly, the E2 and E3 cases are observed to occur most often in January-February and May-August. Among these waves, 199 cases (66%) are found to have the corresponding variations in the equatorial ionosphere with amplitudes ≥4.2% relative to the mean TEC values (corresponding to 90th percentile). Most of these waves have long vertical wavelengths and large amplitudes (˜3 times more than short vertical wavelength and small-amplitude waves). Because no seasonal or solar cycle dependence on the frequency at which these waves have corresponding variations in the ionosphere at this TEC perturbation threshold is observed, we conclude that there is no seasonal and solar

  19. Definition of the Mediterranean Diet; a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Courtney; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan; Murphy, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies over several decades suggest that following the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and improve cognitive health. However, there are inconsistencies among methods used for evaluating and defining the MedDiet. Through a review of the literature, we aimed to quantitatively define the MedDiet by food groups and nutrients. Databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier and the University of South Australia Library Catalogue were searched. Articles were included if they defined the MedDiet in at least two of the following ways: (1) general descriptive definitions; (2) diet pyramids/numbers of servings of key foods; (3) grams of key foods/food groups; and (4) nutrient and flavonoid content. Quantity of key foods and nutrient content was recorded and the mean was calculated. The MedDiet contained three to nine serves of vegetables, half to two serves of fruit, one to 13 serves of cereals and up to eight serves of olive oil daily. It contained approximately 9300 kJ, 37% as total fat, 18% as monounsaturated and 9% as saturated, and 33 g of fibre per day. Our results provide a defined nutrient content and range of servings for the MedDiet based on past and current literature. More detailed reporting amongst studies could refine the definition further. PMID:26556369

  20. The temporal scale of diet and dietary proxies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matt; Pineda Munoz, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Diets estimated from different proxies such as stable isotopes, stomach contents, and dental microwear often disagree, leading to nominally well-supported but greatly differing estimates of diet for both extinct and extant species that complicate our understanding of ecology. We show that these perceived incongruences can be caused by proxies recording diet over vastly different timescales. Field observations reveal a diet averaged over minutes or hours, whereas dental morphology may reflect the diet of a lineage over millions of years of evolution. Failing to explicitly consider the scale of proxies and the potentially large temporal variability in diet can cause erroneous predictions in any downstream analyses such as conservation planning or paleohabitat reconstructions. We propose a cross-scale framework for conceptualizing diet suitable for both modern ecologists and paleontologists and provide recommendations for any studies involving dietary data. Treating diet in this temporally explicit framework and matching the scale of our questions with the scale of our data will lead to a much richer and clearer understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes. PMID:27087936

  1. Definition of the Mediterranean Diet: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Courtney; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan; Murphy, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies over several decades suggest that following the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and improve cognitive health. However, there are inconsistencies among methods used for evaluating and defining the MedDiet. Through a review of the literature, we aimed to quantitatively define the MedDiet by food groups and nutrients. Databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier and the University of South Australia Library Catalogue were searched. Articles were included if they defined the MedDiet in at least two of the following ways: (1) general descriptive definitions; (2) diet pyramids/numbers of servings of key foods; (3) grams of key foods/food groups; and (4) nutrient and flavonoid content. Quantity of key foods and nutrient content was recorded and the mean was calculated. The MedDiet contained three to nine serves of vegetables, half to two serves of fruit, one to 13 serves of cereals and up to eight serves of olive oil daily. It contained approximately 9300 kJ, 37% as total fat, 18% as monounsaturated and 9% as saturated, and 33 g of fibre per day. Our results provide a defined nutrient content and range of servings for the MedDiet based on past and current literature. More detailed reporting amongst studies could refine the definition further. PMID:26556369

  2. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  3. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohui; Dinan, Tara; Barwood, Joanne M.; De Luca, Simone N.; Soch, Alita; Ziko, Ilvana; Chan, Stanley M. H.; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Li, Songpei; Molero, Juan; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat) and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day) high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects. PMID:25628527

  4. Parental Encouragement of Dieting Promotes Daughters' Early Dieting

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Marini, Michele E.; Birch, Leann L.

    2014-01-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported “early dieting” (prior to age 11y) and adolescent dieting (between 11y and 15y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughter BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were age 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11y and by 15y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared to girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9y to 15y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. PMID:24858835

  5. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  6. Use of a nationwide call center for Ebola response and monitoring during a 3-day house-to-house campaign - Sierra Leone, September 2014.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Stanger, Emily; Senesi, Reynold Gb; DeLuca, Nick; Dietz, Patricia; Hausman, Leslie; Kilmarx, Peter H; Mermin, Jonathan

    2015-01-16

    During May 23, 2014-January 10, 2015, Sierra Leone reported 7,777 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). In response to the epidemic, on August 5, Sierra Leone's Emergency Operations Center established a toll-free, nationwide Ebola call center. The purpose of the call center is to encourage public reporting of possible Ebola cases and deaths to public health officials and to provide health education about Ebola to callers. This information also functions as an "alert" system for public health officials and supports surveillance efforts for the response. National call center dispatchers call district-level response teams composed of surveillance officers and burial teams to inform them of reported deaths and possible Ebola cases. Members of these response teams investigate cases and conduct follow-up actions such as transporting ill persons to Ebola treatment units or providing safe, dignified medical burials as resources permit. The call center continues to operate. This report describes calls received during a 3-day national campaign and reports the results of an assessment of the call center operation during the campaign. PMID:25590683

  7. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  8. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-02-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic acid, calcium, phosphorus and sodium intake, but a higher intake of fiber, legumes, and vegetables. Further, the GFCF diet group had a better quality of fat intake, but needed supplementation with vitamin D. Randomized controlled trials are required to explore long-term effects of this diet on anthropometric and nutritional status (the focus of our study), but also behavioral symptoms, in children with ASD. PMID:26428353

  9. Phosphorus in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002424.htm Phosphorus in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... the body make ATP, a molecule the body uses to store energy. Phosphorus works with the B vitamins. It also helps ...

  10. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish. PMID:23529682

  11. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women.

  12. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  13. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This ... White House Lunch Recipes Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  14. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  16. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  17. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  18. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  19. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  20. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  1. Feline pansteatitis revisited: hazards of unbalanced home-made diets.

    PubMed

    Niza, M M R E; Vilela, C L; Ferreira, L M A

    2003-10-01

    Pansteatitis is caused by the consumption of high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and/or the insufficient intake of vitamin E, leading to inflammation of adipose tissue. This disease has been related to fish-based diets. However, non-conventional diets must also be considered. The authors present case records of two cats with pansteatitis, for which diet consisted mostly of pig's brain, comparing them with eight cases of disease in cats eating mainly oily fish. Cats fed pig's brain did not show clinical signs, while cats eating oily fish presented inappetence, depression, reluctance to move and subcutaneous nodules painful on palpation. Cats eating pig's brain did not show any change in blood parameters, while cats fed oily fish presented leukocytosis and anaemia. Histological examination confirmed pansteatitis in all cats, independently of the diet. All animals except one of the cats eating oily fish recovered after medical treatment and change of the feeding regime. PMID:12948502

  2. Diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Panush, R S; Carter, R L; Katz, P; Kowsari, B; Longley, S; Finnie, S

    1983-04-01

    Although diet therapy for arthritis has received considerable publicity, there is little objective information about its efficacy. We undertook a 10-week, controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-six patients completed the study; 11 were on an experimental diet (a specific popular diet free of additives, preservatives, fruit, red meat, herbs, and dairy products) and 15 were on a "placebo" diet. Of 183 variables analyzed, there were no clinically important differences among rheumatologic, laboratory, immunologic, radiologic, or nutritional findings between patients on experimental and placebo diets. Six RA patients on the placebo and 5 on the experimental diet improved by objective criteria. Improvement averaged 29% for patients on placebo and 32% for patients on experimental diets. Two patients on the experimental diet improved notably, elected to remain on the experimental diet following the study period, have continued to improve, and noted exacerbations of disease upon consuming nonexperimental diet foods. Our study failed to provide evidence of objective overall clinical benefit of this diet as followed by a group of patients with longstanding, progressive, active RA. However, our data are not inconsistent with the possibility that individualized dietary manipulations might be beneficial for selected patients with rheumatic disease. PMID:6838671

  3. Diet and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  4. Platyrrhine incisors and diet.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Despite the relatively large size of anthropoid incisors in relation to the remainder of the dental arcade, and their prominent role in the preprocessing of food prior to ingestion, comparatively little is known about the functional morphology of anthropoid incisor shape and crown curvature. The relationship between incisor allometry and diet is well documented for both platyrrhines and catarrhines; however, similar relationships between incisor shape and crown curvature have to date only been reported for living and fossil members of the superfamily Hominoidea. Given the limited taxonomic diversity among the extant members of that group, it is difficult to firmly establish the relative influence of phylogeny and dietary function in the governance of incisor crown curvature. Unlike hominoids, which are represented by only five living genera, extant platyrrhines are a more varied group that includes 16 ecologically diverse genera. In an effort to clarify the functional relationship between maxillary and mandibular incisor crown curvature and diet, this study uses high resolution polynomial curve fitting to quantify mesiodistal and cervicoincisal curvature for a taxonomically diverse platyrrhine sample (n = 133 individuals representing 18 taxa) with well documented dietary behavior. Results were consistent with prior analyses of hominoid incisor curvature and identify a significant and positive correlation between incisor crown curvature and diet such that increasing curvature is associated with a proportionate increase in frugivory. These results are independent confirmation of the results reported from a previous analysis of hominoid incisor curvature and provide new evidence to suggest that diet is the primary governing factor influencing anthropoid incisor curvature. PMID:22610900

  5. Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Tommaso, Sergio; Salvemini, Salvatore; Garramone, Margherita; Crisci, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer. PMID:17172193

  6. [Diet and migraine].

    PubMed

    Leira, R; Rodríguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine. PMID:8681169

  7. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3) PMID:15556724

  8. Hyperhydration prior to a simulated second day of the 3-day moderate intensity equestrian competition does not cause arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Tennent-Brown, B S; Goetz, T E; Manohar, M; Hassan, A S; Freeman, D E; Bundy, J S; Evans, M R

    2006-07-01

    Dehydration and the associated impairment of cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function comprise major veterinary problems in horses performing prolonged exercise, particularly under hot and humid conditions. For these reasons, there is considerable interest in using pre-exercise hyperhydration to help maintain blood volume in the face of the excessive fluid loss associated with sweat production during prolonged exertion. However, recently it was reported that pre-exercise hyperhydration causes arterial hypoxemia in horses performing moderate intensity exercise simulating the second day of an equestrian 3-day event competition (E3DEC) which may adversely affect performance (Sosa Leon et al. in Equine Vet J Suppl 34:425-429, 2002). These findings are contrary to data from horses performing short-term maximal exertion, wherein hyperhydration did not affect arterial O2 tension/saturation. Thus, our objective in the present study was to examine the impact of pre-exercise hyperhydration on arterial oxygenation of Thoroughbred horses performing an exercise test simulating the second day of an E3DEC. Control and hyperhydration studies were carried out on seven healthy Thoroughbred horses in random order, 7 days apart. In the control study, horses received no medications. In the hyperhydration experiments, nasogastric administration of NaCl (0.425 g/kg) 5 h pre-exercise induced a plasma volume expansion of 10.9% at the initiation of exercise. This methodology for inducing hypervolemia was different from that of Sosa Leon et al. (2002). Blood-gas tensions/pH as well as plasma protein, hemoglobin and blood lactate concentrations were measured pre-exercise and during the exercise test. Our data revealed that pre-exercise hyperhydration neither adversely affected arterial O2 tension nor hemoglobin-O2 saturation at any time during the exercise test simulating the second day of an E3DEC. Further, it was observed that arterial blood CO2 tension, pH, and blood lactate

  9. Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every 3 days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral intravenous device (IVD) complications were traditionally thought to be reduced by limiting dwell time. Current recommendations are to resite IVDs by 96 hours with the exception of children and patients with poor veins. Recent evidence suggests routine resite is unnecessary, at least if devices are inserted by a specialised IV team. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of peripheral IVD 'routine resite' with 'removal on clinical indication' on IVD complications in a general hospital without an IV team. Methods A randomised, controlled trial was conducted in a regional teaching hospital. After ethics approval, 362 patients (603 IVDs) were randomised to have IVDs replaced on clinical indication (185 patients) or routine change every 3 days (177 patients). IVDs were inserted and managed by the general hospital medical and nursing staff; there was no IV team. The primary endpoint was a composite of IVD complications: phlebitis, infiltration, occlusion, accidental removal, local infection, and device-related bloodstream infection. Results IVD complication rates were 68 per 1,000 IVD days (clinically indicated) and 66 per 1,000 IVD days (routine replacement) (P = 0.86; HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). Time to first complication per patient did not differ between groups (KM with log rank, P = 0.53). There were no local infections or IVD-related bloodstream infections in either group. IV therapy duration did not differ between groups (P = 0.22), but more (P = 0.004) IVDs were placed per patient in the routine replacement (mean, 1.8) than the clinical indication group (mean, 1.5), with significantly higher hospital costs per patient (P < 0.001). Conclusions Resite on clinical indication would allow one in two patients to have a single cannula per course of IV treatment, as opposed to one in five patients managed with routine resite; overall complication rates appear similar. Clinically indicated resite would achieve savings in equipment, staff

  10. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  11. Helical recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. T.; Studer, P. A.; Tyler, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Tape recorder, using metallic tape, has a minimum of moving parts and no belts. It permits long-term bulk storage in extreme environments, and has less weight and bulk than present recording equipment.

  12. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  13. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  14. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Horakova, Olga; Voigt, Anja; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, Catalina; Caimari, Antoni; Kopecky, Jan; Klaus, Susanne; Keijer, Jaap

    2012-07-01

    Experimental replication is fundamental for practicing science. To reduce variability, it is essential to control sources of variation as much as possible. Diet is an important factor that can influence many processes and functional outcomes in studies performed with rodent models. This is especially true for, but not limited to, nutritional studies. To compare functional effects of different nutrients, it is important to use standardized, semi-purified diets. Here, we propose and describe a standard reference diet, the BIOCLAIMS standard diet. The diet is AIN-93 based, but further defined with dietary and experimental requirements taken into account that allow for experiments with bioactive food components and natural (non-expensive) labeling. This diet will be implemented by two European research consortia, Mitofood and BIOCLAIMS, to ensure inter-laboratory comparability. PMID:22228221

  15. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance.

    PubMed

    Sherman, W M; Costill, D L; Fink, W J; Miller, J M

    1981-05-01

    This study examined the effect of three exercise-diet regimens on muscle glycogen supercompensation and subsequent performance during a 20.9-km run. A diet containing 15% carbohydrate (CHO,L), 50% CHO (M), or 70% (CHO (H) was arranged in three trials as follows: trial A = 3 days L, 3 days H; trial B = 3 days M, 3 days H; trial C = 6 days M. For each trial a 5-day depletion-taper exercise sequence was conducted on the treadmill at 73% VO2 max. The runs were 90, 40, 40, 20, and 20 min, respectively. A day of rest preceded the 20.9-km performance run. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius on days 4 and 7 (both prior to and after the performance run). Trials A, B, and C elevated muscle glycogen to 207, 203, and 159 mmol glucosyl units/kg wet tissue (mmG), respectively. The performance run in both trials A and B utilized significantly more glycogen than in trial C: 5.0 and 5.1 mmG/km vs. 3.1 mmG/km. There were, however, no differences in either performance run times or post-performance run glycogen levels between the trials. These data demonstrate that (1) muscle glycogen can be elevated to high levels with a moderate exercise-diet regimen; (2) initial muscle glycogen levels influence the amount subsequently utilized during exercise; (3) carbohydrate loading is of no benefit to performance for trained runners during a 20.9-km run. PMID:7333741

  16. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  17. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  18. Changes in Serum Cholesterol and Diet in North Karelia and All Finland.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tapanainen, Heli; Puska, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Finland in the 1960s, and especially North Karelia in the eastern part of the country, had the highest cardiovascular mortality in the world. The classical cardiovascular risk factors were all common, but serum cholesterol level was extremely high because of the very high intake of saturated fats, mainly from dairy products. The North Karelia Project was started as a comprehensive preventive program to reduce serum cholesterol levels by reducing the intake of saturated fats and increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats in the whole population. Cross-sectional population surveys were done in North Karelia and nearby Kuopio province every 5 years starting in 1972. After 1982, surveys were started in 2 other areas. Blood cholesterol was measured from serum samples, and diet was assessed by a questionnaire in all surveys-since 1982 by 3-day food record, since 1997 by 24-hour recall, and since 2002 by 48-hour recall. Between 1972 and 2012, the population in North Karelia reduced serum cholesterol from 6.92 mmol/l to 5.46 mmol/l (21%) in men and from 6.81 mmol/l to 5.37 mmol/l (21%) in women. In men, serum cholesterol level reduced more in North Karelia than in the reference province of Kuopio during the first 5 years from 1972 to 1977. Since that time, changes in serum cholesterol level have been very similar in different parts of the country. Saturated fats were reduced from 20% of energy intake to 12% in 2007 but increased from 2007 to 2012 to 14%. In conclusion, serum cholesterol reduction by dietary changes is feasible on the population level but requires active work and large-scale cooperation between all the meaningful sectors in the society. PMID:27242084

  19. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. PMID:22306437

  20. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  1. High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R.; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society. PMID:24740321

  2. Diet in dermatology: revisited.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Sowmya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum's disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria), nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia) and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy. PMID:20228538

  3. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  4. Diet and dementia.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-09-01

    The ageing brain adapts to the accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Adaptive processes include neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. Individual differences in susceptibility to dementia arise when these mechanisms are impaired or are overwhelmed by the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroprotection relies upon extrinsic and intrinsic defences. An adequate intake of antioxidant micronutrients (eg, vitamin C and vitamin E) and anti-inflammatory macronutrients (eg, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) forms an essential component of extrinsic defences against brain ageing. There are many epidemiological data to support an association between an inadequate intake of antioxidants and/or fish oils (an important source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and a greater than expected incidence of late onset dementia. These associations are confounded by established links between poverty, poor diet and failing health, especially in old age. Such links may be sufficient to explain some of the effects of an inadequate diet on the retention of cognitive function and increased risk of dementia in old age. More compelling is the association between increased plasma homocysteine concentration and later increased risk of dementia. This association is possibly caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin B(12)/folate. PMID:15494103

  5. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N; Leakey, Louise N; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Richard E; Brown, Francis H; Grine, Frederick E; Hart, John A; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T; Wood, Bernard A

    2013-06-25

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range--from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  6. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-06-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range-from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  7. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range—from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  8. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  9. Diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holycross, A.T.; Painter, C.W.; Prival, D.B.; Swann, D.E.; Schroff, M.J.; Edwards, T.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake) using samples collected in the field and from museum specimens, as well as several records from unpublished reports. Most records (approximately 91%) were from the northern Sierra Madrean Archipelago. Diet consisted of 55.4% lizards, 28.3% scolopendromorph centipedes, 13.8% mammals, 1.9% birds, and 0.6% snakes. Sceloporus spp. comprised 92.4% of lizards. Extrapolation suggests that Sceloporus jarrovii represents 82.3% of lizard records. Diet was independent of geographic distribution (mountain range), sex, source of sample (stomach vs. intestine/feces), and age class. However, predator snout-vent length differed significantly among prey types; snakes that ate birds were longest, followed in turn by those that ate mammals, lizards, and centipedes. Collection date also differed significantly among prey classes; the mean date for centipede records was later than the mean date for squamate, bird, or mammal records. We found no difference in the elevation of collection sites among prey classes.

  10. Indicators for the evaluation of diet quality.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ángel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Olza, Josune

    2015-01-01

    The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that

  11. Dietary adherence and satisfaction with a bean-based high-fiber weight loss diet: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Tonya F; Nance, Laura M; Strickland, William D; Malcolm, Robert J; Pechon, Susan; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Dietary fiber can reduce hunger and enhance satiety, but fiber intake during hypocaloric weight loss diets typically falls short of recommended levels. We examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: (a) beans or (b) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Methods. Subjects were 2 men, 18 women, mean age = 46.9, and mean BMI = 30.6. Subjects completed 3-day food diaries in each of the two baseline weeks. Subjects were then randomized to four weeks on one of two 1400-calorie diets including 25-35 g fiber primarily from 1.5 cups beans/day or from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Recommended fiber-rich foods were provided. Subjects kept weekly 3-day food diaries and were assessed weekly. Results. Diet conditions did not differ on outcome measures. Both diets increased fiber intake from 16.6 g/day (SD = 7.1) at baseline to (treatment average) 28.4 g/day (SD = 6.5) (P < 0.001). Fiber intake was consistent over treatment. Caloric intake dropped from 1623.1 kcal/day (SD = 466.9) (baseline) to 1322.2 kcal/day (SD = 275.8) (P = 0.004). Mean weight loss was 1.4 kg (SD = 1.5; P < 0.001). Energy density and self-reported hunger decreased (P's < 0.01) while self-reported fullness increased (P < 0.05). Both diets were rated as potentially acceptable as long as six months. Conclusions. Both diets significantly increased fiber intake by 75%, increased satiation, and reduced hunger. Results support increasing fiber in weight loss diets with a variety of fiber sources. PMID:24555159

  12. Dietary Adherence and Satisfaction with a Bean-Based High-Fiber Weight Loss Diet: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tonya F.; Nance, Laura M.; Strickland, William D.; Malcolm, Robert J.; Pechon, Susan; O'Neil, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Dietary fiber can reduce hunger and enhance satiety, but fiber intake during hypocaloric weight loss diets typically falls short of recommended levels. We examined the nutritional effects and acceptability of two high-fiber hypocaloric diets differing in sources of fiber: (a) beans or (b) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Methods. Subjects were 2 men, 18 women, mean age = 46.9, and mean BMI = 30.6. Subjects completed 3-day food diaries in each of the two baseline weeks. Subjects were then randomized to four weeks on one of two 1400-calorie diets including 25–35 g fiber primarily from 1.5 cups beans/day or from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Recommended fiber-rich foods were provided. Subjects kept weekly 3-day food diaries and were assessed weekly. Results. Diet conditions did not differ on outcome measures. Both diets increased fiber intake from 16.6 g/day (SD = 7.1) at baseline to (treatment average) 28.4 g/day (SD = 6.5) (P < 0.001). Fiber intake was consistent over treatment. Caloric intake dropped from 1623.1 kcal/day (SD = 466.9) (baseline) to 1322.2 kcal/day (SD = 275.8) (P = 0.004). Mean weight loss was 1.4 kg (SD = 1.5; P < 0.001). Energy density and self-reported hunger decreased (P's < 0.01) while self-reported fullness increased (P < 0.05). Both diets were rated as potentially acceptable as long as six months. Conclusions. Both diets significantly increased fiber intake by 75%, increased satiation, and reduced hunger. Results support increasing fiber in weight loss diets with a variety of fiber sources. PMID:24555159

  13. Probable free radical effects on rat liver nuclei during early hepatocarcinogenesis with a choline-devoid low methionine diet.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, T H; Ghazarian, D M; Subrahmanyan, V; Farber, E; Ghoshal, A K

    1987-12-15

    Fischer-344 rats fed a choline-devoid diet show lipid peroxidation in the liver nuclei, beginning at 1 day, reaching a peak at 3 days, and subsequently declining by 35 days. Lipid peroxidation in the mitochondria was seen first at 3 days, increased to a maximum at 28 days, and decreased after 35 days to undetectable values at 49 days. Lipid peroxidation was found in both nuclear and mitochondrial fractions both before and after stripping of their outer membranes. No microsomal lipid peroxidation could be detected at any time up to 63 days. The animals fed the same diet supplemented with choline showed no lipid peroxidation in any liver fraction. Animals given CCl4 showed the expected lipid peroxidation in the microsomes but not in the nuclear fraction. The administration of the free radical trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone, prevented completely or almost so, microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4 and nuclear lipid peroxidation in the animals fed the choline-devoid, low methionine diet. The genesis of free radicals in the livers of rats fed a choline-devoid diet is considered as a likely hypothesis for the observed lipid peroxidation. The lipid peroxidation in turn is considered to be closely related to the induction of liver cell death and to the production of alterations in DNA. The DNA alterations coupled with regenerative liver cell proliferation suggest an attractive hypothesis for the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed a choline-devoid diet. PMID:3677103

  14. The relationship between space sickness and preflight diet.

    PubMed

    Simanonok, K E; Kohl, R L; Charles, J B

    1993-01-01

    The nine astronauts who flew three Skylab missions during 1973 and 1974 were on carefully planned diets. Each astronaut selected his preferences from a list of approximately 70 food items, from which dietitians developed a rotating sequence of six daily menus. In addition to strict control of the inflight diet, each crewman consumed his planned diet for 21 days preflight and for 18 days postflight. While the amount consumed at each particular meal was largely discretionary, all deviations from the planned meals (which were few) were fully documented. Diets were controlled to provide adequate calcium, phosphorus, and protein because of bone and muscle losses observed on previous flights. Each day's menu had a similar elemental composition; if any particular item was not consumed, supplements in the form of capsules or tablets were prescribed the next day to make up for the shortfall. However, the dieticians did not so carefully control the relative proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein (though meticulous records were kept), which were instead selected somewhat incidentally as menus were constructed around each astronaut's food preferences. There are several possible physiologic determinants for food preferences and the regulation of dietary macro-nutrients. Monozygotic twins chose more similar intakes of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate than did dizygotic twins, suggesting a genetic component of dietary regulation. The biosynthesis of neurotransmitters is directly influenced by the availability of their precursor nutrients, such as tryptophan for serotonin and choline for acetylcholine. Diet affects behavior, and it has been suggested that dietary self-selection by rats is regulated by effects of the diet on brain neurotransmitters. Some preflight variables relating to fluid, electrolyte and cardiovascular status, and to environmental exposures, have previously been found to have significant relationships to space sickness. The purpose of this

  15. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  16. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use. PMID:17612482

  17. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  18. HEALTH AND DIET SURVEY (HDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA conducts this periodic omnibus survey of American consumers to track consumer attitudes, knowledge, and reported behaviors related to diet and health issues including cholesterol awareness of diet-disease risk factors, food label use, dietary supplement use, and awarenes...

  19. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  20. Regulation of α-Transducin and α-Gustducin Expression by a High Protein Diet in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Vallorani, Claudia; Latorre, Rocco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica; Falconi, Mirella; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The expression of taste receptors (TASRs) and their signalling molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells, including enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggests they participate in chemosensing mechanisms influencing GI physiology via the release of endocrine messengers. TASRs mediate gustatory signalling by interacting with different transducers, including α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G protein subunits. This study tested whether Gαtran and Gαgust immunoreactive (-IR) cells are affected by a short-term (3 days) and long-term (30 days) high protein (Hp) diet in the pig GI tract. Result In the stomach, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells contained serotonin (5-HT) and ghrelin (GHR), while in the small and large intestine, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR colocalized with 5-HT-, cholecystokinin (CCK)- and peptide YY (PYY)-IR. There was a significant increase in the density of Gαtran-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa in both short- and long-term Hp diet groups (Hp3 and Hp30) vs. the control group (Ctr) (P<0.05), while the increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa was significant in Hp30 group vs. Ctr and vs. Hp3 (P<0.05); these cells included Gαtran / 5HT-IR and Gαtran / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.001 vs. Ctr, respectively) as well as Gαgust /5-HT-IR or Gαgust / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01 vs. Ctr, respectively). In the small intestine, we recorded a significant increase in Gαtran-IR cells in the duodenal crypts and a significant increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the jejunal crypts in Hp3 group compared to HP30 (P<0.05). With regard to the number of Gαtran-Gαgust IR cells colocalized with CCK or 5-HT, there was only a significant increase of Gαtran / CCK-IR cells in Hp3 group compared to Ctr (P = 0.01). Conclusion This study showed an upregulation of selected subpopulations of Gαgust / Gαtran-IR cells in distinct regions of the pig GI tract by short- and long-term Hp diet lending support to TASR-mediated effects in

  1. [Sense and nonsense of diets].

    PubMed

    Ballmer, P E

    1990-03-17

    Strict vegetarian diets and liquid formulations of "protein-sparing modified fast diets" can be harmful and represent potential "nonsense" in diets. "Sense" with respect to diets is demonstrated by a short summary of the physiological effects of dietary fibre. Fibre incorporates water, increases fecal bulk and reduces transit time of the bowel. Fermentation of fibres in the large bowel produces short-chain fatty acids, e.g. acetate, propionate and butyrate with desirable effects. Butyrate, for example, modifies colonic cell proliferation and may reduce the incidence of colorectal neoplasms. The beneficial effects of a diet, high in fibre, on blood lipids, overweight, colorectal disease and diabetes mellitus are briefly discussed. PMID:2157278

  2. Diets could prevent many diseases.

    PubMed

    Lands, William E M

    2003-04-01

    The 2002 ISSFAL Meeting arranged a special evening discussion with professional dietitians about diet-tissue-disease relationships involving essential fatty acids and eicosanoids. The balance of eicosanoid precursors in human tissues differs widely, reflecting voluntary dietary choices among different groups worldwide. An empirical quantitative diet-tissue relationship fits these diverse values as well as other research reports on essential fatty acid metabolism. Information for dietitians and nutritionists about essential fatty acids and eicosanoids is also given in two distance learning web sites, http://ods.od.nih.gov/eicosanoids/ and http:// efaeducation.nih.gov/, which facilitate dietitian education and diet counseling. These sites also have an innovative, interactive diet planning software program with the empirical equation embedded in it to help evaluate personal food choices in the context of the diet-tissue-disease relationship and other widely recommended dietary advice. PMID:12848276

  3. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  4. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  5. Learn about gluten-free diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... gluten-free diet is the main treatment for celiac disease . Some people believe a gluten-free diet can ... gluten-free diet for a number of reasons: Celiac disease. People with this condition cannot eat gluten because ...

  6. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  7. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  8. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Surender K; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-01-01

    basis. Whereas it is traditional to say that more work needs to be done, the same is true of the assumed standard low fat diets which have an ambiguous record at best. We see current trends in the national dietary recommendations as a positive sign and an appropriate move in the right direction. PMID:16018812

  9. Putting the diet back into diet-induced obesity: diet-induced hypothalamic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Julian G; Archer, Zoë A

    2008-05-01

    A wealth of detailed mechanistic information relating to obesity and body weight regulation has emerged from study of single gene mutation models, and continues to be generated by engineered rodent models targeting specific genes. However, as an early step in translational research, many researchers are turning to models of diet-induced obesity. Interpretation of data generated from such models is not aided by the variety of diets and rodent strains employed in these studies and a strong case could be made for rationalisation. Differences in experimental protocol, which may deploy a single obligatory solid diet, a choice of solid diets, or liquid/solid combinations, and which may or may not allow a preferred macronutrient composition to be selected, mean that different models of diet-induced obesity achieve that obesity by different routes. The priority should be to mimic the palatability- and choice-driven over-consumption that probably underlies the majority of human obesity. Some of the hypothalamic energy balance genes apparently 'recognise' developing diet-induced obesity as indicated by counter-regulatory changes in expression levels. However, substantial changes in gene expression on long-term exposure to obesogenic diets are not able to prevent weight gain. Forebrain reward systems are widely assumed to be overriding hypothalamic homeostatic energy balance systems under these circumstances. More mechanism-based research at the homeostatic/reward/diet interface may enable diets to be manipulated with therapeutic benefit, or define the contribution of these interactions to susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. PMID:18342851

  10. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  11. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  12. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve. PMID:22311194

  13. Biological and psychological correlates of intermittent dieting behavior in young women. A model for bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Laessle, R G; Platte, P; Schweiger, U; Pirke, K M

    1996-07-01

    The eating disorder bulimia nervosa is characterized by alternating periods of strict dieting and overeating. Patients also report mood fluctuations, frequent eating related thoughts, fear of loss of control over eating, impairment of cognitive abilities such as concentration, and somatic complaints. The present study attempted to clarify to what extent these symptoms are consequences of the dieting behavior. Nine healthy young women, classified as unrestrained eaters, were set on a intermittent dieting schedule over 4 weeks. Four days each week (Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri) they had to reduce their intake below 600 kcal/day, the other 3 days they could eat without restrictions. Psychological variables were assessed by means of a standardized diary. Biological indices of starvation were also measured repeatedly. There was no substantial weight loss after the 4 weeks, although subjects had significantly increased levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid during the dieting periods, and decreased levels of t3 after 2 weeks. The reported tendency to overeat and the actual calorie intake during the days of unlimited access to food showed a significant increase over the 4-week period. Eating-related thoughts, feelings of hunger, and fear of loss of control were significantly more frequent during periods of dieting, compared to days of normal eating. Subjects also reported worse mood, heightened irritability, difficulties concentrating, and increased fatigue. These results suggest that a substantial part of symptoms of bulimic patients might be associated with the frequent periods of an extremely restrained eating behavior. PMID:8804634

  14. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J T

    1988-09-01

    Recent studies of vegetarian diets and their effects on morbidity and mortality are reviewed. Vegetarian diets are heterogeneous as are their effects on nutritional status, health, and longevity. Mortality rates are similar or lower for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians. Risks of dietary deficiency disease are increased on vegan but not on all vegetarian diets. Evidence for decreased risks for certain chronic degenerative diseases varies. Both vegetarian dietary and lifestyle practices are involved. Data are strong that vegetarians are at lesser risk for obesity, atonic constipation, lung cancer, and alcoholism. Evidence is good that risks for hypertension, coronary artery disease, type II diabetes, and gallstones are lower. Data are only fair to poor that risks of breast cancer, diverticular disease of the colon, colonic cancer, calcium kidney stones, osteoporosis, dental erosion, and dental caries are lower among vegetarians. Reduced risks for chronic degenerative diseases can also be achieved by manipulations of omnivorous diets and lifestyles. PMID:3046302

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  16. The diets of early hominins.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Peter S; Sponheimer, Matt

    2011-10-14

    Diet changes are considered key events in human evolution. Most studies of early hominin diets focused on tooth size, shape, and craniomandibular morphology, as well as stone tools and butchered animal bones. However, in recent years, dental microwear and stable isotope analyses have hinted at unexpected diversity and complexity in early hominin diets. Some traditional ideas have held; others, such as an increasing reliance on hard-object feeding and a dichotomy between Australopithecus and Paranthropus, have been challenged. The first known evidence of C(4) plant (tropical grasses and sedges) and hard-object (e.g., seeds and nuts) consumption dates to millions of years after the appearance of the earliest probable hominins, and there are no consistent trends in diet change among these species through time. PMID:21998380

  17. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000294.htm Diet and eating after esophagectomy To use the sharing features on ... a feeding tube, or even when you start eating regular foods again. If specific foods are causing ...

  18. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17397638

  19. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet plan should a person follow to prevent future kidney stones? A dietitian can help a person ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  20. Substance use recovery and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nausea). A high-fiber diet with plenty of complex carbohydrates (such as whole grains, vegetables, peas, and ... that are low in fat Get more protein, complex carbohydrates , and dietary fiber Vitamin and mineral supplements ...

  1. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  2. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  3. [Diet and coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Medina Contreras, F; Zamora Navarro, S

    1995-01-01

    The build up of cholesterol in the atheromas is caused by, among other things, a disequilibrium of certain plasmatic lipoproteins. Food components which modify the levels of these lipoproteins can be considered as "atherogenic". Other components influence platelet activity and can be considered "thrombogenic". The saturated fatty acids, C-12, C14 and C-16, are atherogenic because they increase LDL plasmatic levels when consumed in large quantities. Estearic acid would not be included in this group because it is easily transformed into oleic acid in the organism. However, all the above acids are considered thrombogenic insofar that they alter the permeability of the platelet membrane. The most common monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) in our diet is oleic. When this is replaced by saturated fat, the plasmatic levels of LDL fall while those of HDL remain constant or even increase. In addition oleic acid is less thrombogenic than saturated fatty acids. The substitution of saturated fat by PUFA, n-6, lowers LDL levels and also HDL levels if these fatty acids are consumed in quantity. Their richness in double bound chains means that they are not very thrombogenic, although the resultant LDL are easily oxidized and therefore very atherogenic. When saturated fat is replaced by n-3 fatty acids the effect on LDL and HDL are variable, and there is a substantial decrease in VLDL. These fatty acids are strongly antithrombotic and antiatherogenic and also reduce the inflammatory reaction due to the decreased formation of eicosanoides derived from arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosapentenoic acid derivatives.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612710

  4. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  5. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshavitz, Helen

    1974-01-01

    Pupil files are accumulating increasing amounts of sensitive data. Yet parents have been barred from seeing their children's files while law enforcement officials and other public agencies have been given virtually free access. However, a national law in regard to student records is a real possibility. (Author/WM)

  6. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  7. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  8. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. PMID:24627806

  9. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  10. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  11. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  12. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  13. A Therapeutic Trial of a Raw Vegetable Diet in Chronic Rheumatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hare, D. C.

    1936-01-01

    Twelve cases of chronic rheumatism have been treated on a raw vegetable diet for periods of two weeks, followed by a modified diet for further periods. No other method of treatment has been used during the period of observation. Pain has been relieved in ten cases and those cases in which there were muscular pain and stiffness with simple effusions into the joints have benefited most. Cinematograph records of the progress have been made. The immediate results obtained appear to be due to the low sodium content of the diet; other factors have not been excluded. PMID:19990906

  14. Diet mimicking fasting promotes regeneration and reduces autoimmunity and multiple sclerosis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H.; Morgan, Todd E.; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that periodic 3 day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice, and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of the animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and Treg cell number, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in response to both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that a FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355). PMID:27239035

  15. A Diet Mimicking Fasting Promotes Regeneration and Reduces Autoimmunity and Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H; Morgan, Todd E; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we show that periodic 3-day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that an FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible, and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355). PMID:27239035

  16. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  18. [Various types of reducing diets].

    PubMed

    Giorgino, R; Scardapane, R; Lattanzi, V; Cignarelli, M

    1979-11-17

    It must be readily understood that the only possibility of fighting obesity is by bringing about a reversal in the energy balance so that inputs are smaller than outputs. At least theoretically, then, obesity's special quality is that it does not present any therapeutic problem. Restriction in food intake is currently the treatment of choice; to be effective, food intake must be cut so that the energy provided is below the obese person's daily consumption, on average below 1200 calories per day, while at the same time holding a comparatively high intake of indispensable elements (proteins, vitamins, certain minerals and oligo-elements). The physician has a choice of various possibilities represented by fasting, a variety of free or controlled diets, protein diets or diets with low carbohydrate content and with a variable fat content; dissociated, zig-zag, one food diets etc. Substantially all these tend to limit the total quantity of glycides and boost the feeling of satiety by increasing the total volume of good while keeping total calories unvaried. It is clear that each of them has specific indications and clear-cut contraindications. The aim is to produce a calory shortfall, not cause denutrition. The diet must therefore be suited to the individual directed during subsequent stages of weight loss in relation to the patient's specific requirements (number of meals, etc.). PMID:392336

  19. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:27022771

  20. The Nordic diet and cognition--The DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Reija; Komulainen, Pirjo; Schwab, Ursula; Heikkilä, Harri M; Savonen, Kai; Hassinen, Maija; Hänninen, Tuomo; Kivipelto, Miia; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (β 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P = 0.039) and Word List Learning (β 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P = 0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (β 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P = 0.042) and MMSE (β 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P = 0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition. PMID:26104270

  1. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  2. Landscape effects on diets of two canids in Northwestern Texas: A multinomial modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Gipson, P.S.; Gilliland, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of feces, stomach contents, and regurgitated pellets are common techniques for assessing diets of vertebrates and typically contain more than 1 food item per sampling unit. When analyzed, these individual food items have traditionally been treated as independent, which represents pseudoreplication. When food types are recorded as present or absent, these samples can be treated as multinomial vectors of food items, with each vector representing 1 realization of a possible diet. We suggest such data have a similar structure to capture histories for closed-capture, capturemarkrecapture data. To assess the effects of landscapes and presence of a potential competitor, we used closed-capture models implemented in program MARK into analyze diet data generated from feces of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in northwestern Texas. The best models of diet contained season and location for both swift foxes and coyotes, but year accounted for less variation, suggesting that landscape type is an important predictor of diets of both species. Models containing the effect of coyote reduction were not competitive (??QAICc 53.6685), consistent with the hypothesis that presence of coyotes did not influence diet of swift foxes. Our findings suggest that landscape type may have important influences on diets of both species. We believe that multinomial models represent an effective approach to assess hypotheses when diet studies have a data structure similar to ours. ?? 2010 American Society of Mammalogists.

  3. Growth and Survival of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Fed Different Commercial and Laboratory Diets

    PubMed Central

    Garris, Heath W.; Jones, Warren T.; Moseley, Dorothy B.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietary treatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length were recorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantly higher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than those fed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics (length/weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio were observed for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices (K=[weight×100]/length3). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundation for establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does not generate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries. PMID:19566408

  4. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  5. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets. PMID:22898616

  6. Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Rimm, E B; Ellison, R C

    1995-06-01

    Alcohol consumption clearly reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations throughout the world and may contribute to lower rates of CVD among residents of Mediterranean countries. In addition, overall mortality rates are generally slightly lower among moderate drinkers than among abstainers. However, several studies have linked alcohol consumption (even amounts equivalent to two drinks daily) to increased rates for certain cancers, especially breast cancer in women. A Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and grains, also typically includes one to two drinks per day. Whether one to two drinks adversely affect cancer incidence in the presence of a Mediterranean diet has not been fully explored. With the evidence currently available, we conclude that alcohol, when consumed responsibly in most populations, is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and a component of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:7754991

  7. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  8. [The mediocre results of dieting].

    PubMed

    Langeveld, Mirjam; de Vries, J H Hans

    2013-01-01

    Diets involving a reduction in caloric intake are frequently prescribed for the treatment of obesity, but their long-term efficacy is questionable. We considered a calorie restricted diet successful if the weight loss was ≥ 5% after at least 3 years follow up. From published data, calculating a definitive percentage of successful cases is difficult because of the way data are presented and because loss to follow-up is not corrected for in many studies. Judging by the best data available, the success rate is very low. Most individuals will regain weight and sometimes even more than they lost in the first place. The mechanisms driving this weight increase are a decrease in energy expenditure and an increased appetite which is mediated by factors such as leptin. If the first attempt to lose weight fails, the advice to go on a diet should not be endlessly repeated; stabilizing the individual's weight would probably be a more realistic goal. PMID:23859104

  9. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved. PMID:17500397

  10. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  11. Quantifying diet breadth through ordination of host association.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, J A; Nice, C C; Hamm, C A; Forister, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Many areas of research in ecology and evolutionary biology depend on the quantification of dietary niche width. For herbivorous insects, diet breadth has most often been measured as simply the number and type of host plant taxa attacked. We propose an index of host range (which we refer to as "ordinated diet breadth") based on observed associations between plants and insects, and the calculation of multivariate distances among plants in ordination space. Similarities and distances are calculated based on host association and, in this context, potentially encompass multiple properties of plants, including phytochemistry, phenology, and other plant traits. This approach can distinguish between herbivores that utilize suites of hosts that are commonly used together and herbivores that attack unusual host combinations, and thus have a relatively broad diet breadth. For illustration, we use a data set of nymphalid butterfly host records, and compare taxonomic and ordinated host range. For a large number of butterfly taxa, we find that host use is clustered in multivariate space with respect to associations observed across all of the butterfly taxa. Applications are discussed, including a hypothesis test of nonrandom host association, and prediction of shifts and expansions of diet breadth. PMID:27220201

  12. Diet composition modifies the toxicity of repeated soman exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Langston, Jeffrey L; Myers, Todd M

    2011-12-01

    It was previously demonstrated that diet potently modulates the toxic effects of an acute lethal dose of the nerve agent soman. The current investigation was undertaken to examine the influence of diet on the cumulative toxicity of repeated soman administration. Rats were fed one of four distinct diets (standard, choline-enriched, glucose-enriched, or ketogenic) for four weeks prior to and throughout a repeated soman dosing and recovery regimen. Each diet group included animals exposed to an equivalent volume of saline that served as negative controls. In exposure Week 1, animals received three consecutive daily doses of 0.4 LD(50) soman. In exposure Week 2, animals received four consecutive daily doses of 0.5 LD(50) soman. In exposure Week 3, animals received five consecutive daily doses of 0.5 LD(50) soman. Week 4 constituted a post-exposure recovery evaluation. Throughout the experiment, behavioral function was assessed by a discriminated avoidance test that required intact sensory and motor function. Survival and body weight changes were recorded daily. Differences in toxicity as a function of diet composition became apparent during the first week. Specifically, rats fed the glucose-enriched diet showed pronounced intoxication during Week 1, resulting in imperfect survival, weight loss, and deteriorated avoidance performance relative to all other groups. All rats fed the glucose-enriched diet died by the end of exposure Week 2. In contrast, only 10% of animals fed the standard diet died by the end of Week 2. Also in Week 2, weight loss and disrupted avoidance performance were apparent for all groups except for those fed the ketogenic diet. This differential effect of diet composition became even more striking in Week 3 when survival in the standard and choline diet groups approximated 50%, whereas survival equaled 90% in the ketogenic diet group. Avoidance performance and weight loss measures corroborated the differential toxicity observed across diet groups

  13. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Marks, Kristin A; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-06-01

    Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2) in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27014733

  14. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:26265791

  15. Ethanol Coproducts for Livestock Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid growth of the ethanol industry in the United States has generated large quantities of ethanol coproducts, primarily distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), available as a feedstuff for livestock. These coproducts are often added to livestock diets as a source of protein and energy. The...

  16. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  17. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  18. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  19. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  20. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26610570

  1. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Stephen D

    2004-01-01

    Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis. PMID:15507148

  2. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  3. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  4. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  5. Diet and Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abnet, Christian C.; Corley, Douglas A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Diet is believed to modulate cancer risk and this relationship has been widely studied in the gastrointestinal tract. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided most of the evidence for the effects of diet on cancer risk, because clinical trials to determine nutritional exposures are often impossible, impractical, or unaffordable. Although a few foods or nutrients are thought to protect against specific types of cancer, it seems clear that the strength and even direction of dietary associations (increasing or decreasing risk) is organ site- and even histology-specific, along the gastrointestinal tract. Although some hypotheses are supported by a substantial body of observational data (drinking hot maté contributes to esophageal cancer), there is not much data to support others. We discuss some highly touted hypotheses and draw interim conclusions about what is known, and what could be done to improve the level of evidence. The complex nature of diet and its associations can be productively investigated with disease-specific studies. However, public health recommendations for normal-risk individuals regarding diet and gastrointestinal cancer should probably emphasize the importance of eating for overall health, rather than eating specific foods to reduce risk for specific cancers. PMID:25680671

  6. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  7. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. PMID:24898237

  8. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior and diet selection of grazing ruminants can be influenced by a lot of factors. Firstly, they learn from their dams. Secondly, they learn from peers. Thirdly, they learn by trial and error. Work at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ‘ruminal fill’, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect gr...

  9. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics DASH Diet Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  10. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  11. Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157636.html Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet Sugar, salt and overall ... March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plain old tap water might be the best diet drink around, scientists ...

  12. Now Pasta Is Good for Your Diet?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pasta may have gotten a bad rap. New research suggests pasta -- specifically noodles in ... News on: Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diets About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  13. Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Willett, W C

    1995-01-01

    In a 1981 review, Doll and Peto estimated that approximately 35% of cancer deaths in the United States were potentially avoidable by the modification of diet but that this percentage might be as low as 10% or as high as 70%. Since that time, the epidemiologic literature on diet and cancer has grown greatly, as has understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In general, this expanded literature has not provided reason to alter the Doll and Peto estimate substantially. For colon cancer, evidence has accumulated that some of the international differences that were attributed to diet are probably due to physical activity. For breast cancer, the concept that fat intake per se is the primary reason for differences in rates among countries has not been supported by prospective studies. Although several lines of evidence suggest that caloric restriction and slow growth rates may contribute importantly to the low rates of breast cancer found outside Western countries, this may not translate directly to practical means of prevention. In contrast to breast cancer, more recent data have supported a causative role for red meat in the development of colon and prostate cancers, although perhaps not entirely due to its fat content. Whereas earlier thinking about nutrition and cancer emphasized the adverse effects of fat and other components in the diet, the most compelling evidence of the last decade has indicated the importance of protective factors, largely unidentified, in fruits and vegetables. Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% of cancer deaths would be avoidable by dietary change. PMID:8741778

  14. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  15. The Content of Diet and Physical Activity Consultations with Older Adults in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bardach, Shoshana H.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite numerous benefits of consuming a healthy diet and receiving regular physical activity, engagement in these behaviors is suboptimal. Since primary care visits are influential in promoting healthy behaviors, we sought to describe whether and how diet and physical activity are discussed during older adults’ primary care visits. Methods 115 adults ages 65 and older consented to have their routine primary care visits recorded. Audio-recorded visits were transcribed and diet and physical activity content was coded and analyzed. Results Diet and physical activity were discussed in the majority of visits. When these discussions occurred, they lasted an average of a minute and a half. Encouragement and broad discussion of benefits of improved diet and physical activity levels were the common type of exchange. Discussions rarely involved patient behavioral self-assessments, patient questions, or providers’ recommendations. Conclusions The majority of patient visits include discussion of diet and physical activity, but these discussions are often brief and rarely include recommendations. Practice Implications Providers may want to consider ways to expand their lifestyle behavior discussions to increase patient involvement and provide more detailed, actionable recommendations for behavior change. Additionally, given time constraints, a wider array of approaches to lifestyle counseling may be necessary. PMID:24736190

  16. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD. PMID:16987404

  17. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  18. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    PubMed

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties. PMID:25669112

  19. Precision diet formulation to improve performance and profitability across various climates: Modeling the implications of increasing the formulation frequency of dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition. PMID:24393175

  20. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  1. Recording Lifetime Behavior and Movement in an Invertebrate Model

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Cruz-Enriquez, Janeth; Morice, Amy; Ingram, Donald K.; Kaub, Kevin; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Carey, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of lifetime behavioral changes is essential for understanding aging and aging-related diseases. However, such studies are scarce partly due to the lack of efficient tools. Here we describe and provide proof of concept for a stereo vision system that classifies and sequentially records at an extremely fine scale six different behaviors (resting, micro-movement, walking, flying, feeding and drinking) and the within-cage (3D) location of individual tephritid fruit flies by time-of-day throughout their lives. Using flies fed on two different diets, full sugar-yeast and sugar-only diets, we report for the first time their behavioral changes throughout their lives at a high resolution. We have found that the daily activity peaks at the age of 15–20 days and then gradually declines with age for flies on both diets. However, the overall daily activity is higher for flies on sugar-only diet than those on the full diet. Flies on sugar-only diet show a stronger diurnal localization pattern with higher preference to staying on the top of the cage during the period of light-off when compared to flies on the full diet. Clustering analyses of age-specific behavior patterns reveal three distinct young, middle-aged and old clusters for flies on each of the two diets. The middle-aged groups for flies on sugar-only diet consist of much younger age groups when compared to flies on full diet. This technology provides research opportunities for using a behavioral informatics approach for understanding different ways in which behavior, movement, and aging in model organisms are mutually affecting. PMID:21559058

  2. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients. PMID:25880820

  3. Keratomalacia on a 'healthy diet'.

    PubMed Central

    Olver, J

    1986-01-01

    The case is described of a 39-year-old man with previously undiagnosed chronic schizophrenia and with bilateral keratomalacia secondary to his bizarre diet. He presented with a perforation of the right cornea which required an emergency penetrating keratoplasty. The difficulties of clinical management of a patient with an overt psychosis and the use of serum retinol levels to monitor treatment are described. Causes of vitamin A deficiency seen in Great Britain are discussed. PMID:3516209

  4. Five-year-old girls’ ideas about dieting are predicted by their mothers’ dieting

    PubMed Central

    ABRAMOVITZ, BETH A.; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore 5-year-old girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Design Girls were asked to define dieting, to describe the behaviors dieting comprised, and were queried about links between dieting, weight control, and body shape. Parents completed questionnaires addressing family health history, demographics, and issues related to food, dieting, and weight control. Subjects/setting Participants were 197 girls aged 5 years and their parents. All girls lived with both biological parents, and were without food allergies or chronic medical problems. Statistical analyses performed For 5 open-ended questions related to dieting, girls were categorized as either having or not having ideas about dieting. These ideas, concepts, and beliefs were categorized, and logistic regression examined predictors of girls’ ideas about dieting. Results Depending on the question, from 34% to 65% of girls aged 5 years had ideas about dieting. Compared to girls whose mothers did not diet, girls whose mothers reported current or recent dieting were more than twice as likely to have ideas about dieting, suggesting that mothers’ dieting behavior is a source of young girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Among mothers, more than 90% reported recent dieting, and most reported use of both health-promoting and health-compromising dieting behaviors. Applications Women should be informed that weight control attempts may influence their young daughters’ emerging ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Mothers should be encouraged to use health-promoting rather than health-compromising weight control strategies, not only for their own well being, but to reduce the likelihood that daughters will incorporate health-compromising dieting behaviors into their concepts, ideas, and beliefs about dieting. PMID:11043700

  5. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:24763536

  6. [Minerals in Latin American diets].

    PubMed

    Carrazza, F R

    1988-09-01

    Body minerals (macro and microminerals) are distributed in extra- and intracellular compartments as inorganic salts or organic compounds. A characteristics of mineral compounds is that when they are metabolized, the corresponding ions are liberated and reutilized by the organism, thus reducing dietary needs. This chapter includes a brief discussion of the functions, dietary sources and clinical consequences of deficiencies (or excess) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, zinc, selenium and iodine. Based on metabolic balance studies, body composition, and dietary population surveys, their daily needs are analyzed and dietary recommendations are suggested based on regional diets. Factors that must be taken into account are emphasized, such as bioavailability, intestinal absorption and interrelations with other nutrients that interfere with absorption. Many Latin American populations have a high content of dietary fiber due to the intake of vegetables, fruits, cereals and grains. Dietary fiber may have a negative influence on the intestinal absorption of minerals. However, this effect is not clearly defined. Some population groups who eat diets with a high concentration of fiber do not show clinical signs of mineral deficits. In relation to fluorine, its supplementation is discussed, placing emphasis on its beneficial effects for the prevention of dental caries. Diet fortification with the addition of iodine, iron and fluorine are discussed elsewhere. PMID:2856371

  7. Infant diet differentially affects human electroencephalographic activities in the first year of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of infant diet (milk-based formula [MF], soy-based formula [SF], and breast milk [BF]) on brain EEG activities was studied in infants (20 males and 20 females per group) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Power spectra were calculated in five frequency bands for scalp EEG signals record...

  8. EFFECTS OF EARLY INFANT DIET ON DEVELOPMENT OF EEG DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if diet influences development of brain electrical activity (resting EEG) during the first year of life, high density EEG recordings (128 channels) were made during at 3, 6, and 12 months of age in the same 113 full-term healthy infants [42 breast-fed (20 males), 45 milk-formula-fed (27...

  9. Assessment of usual dietary intake in population studies of gene-diet interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake is a critical exposure when examining genetic factors on disease risk. Weighed diet records can provide the most accurate assessment of intake, but are usually not realistic in large population studies. Multiple 24 hour dietary recalls provide detail, allowing for diverse dietary prac...

  10. Day to day variability in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess day to day variability in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.05). No difference was found in FatOx between fat-rich diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.01) after the CHO-rich diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results. PMID:26960444

  11. Subminiature micropower digital recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. M.; Pitman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    High-density digital data, collected periodically or randomly from multiplicity of sensors, are recorded by subminiature recorder. Magnetic recording head is energized with suitable pulsatile signals to reverse polarization on magnetically-sensitive tape while tape is immobilized at recording head. Prior to next recording, set tape so new area of tape is at recording head.

  12. K+ transport by rat colon: adaptation to a low potassium diet

    SciTech Connect

    Tannen, R.L.; Marino, R.; Dawson, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    Recent studies with the isolated perfused rat kidney have demonstrated the existence of an intrinsic renal adaptation to conserve K+ in response to ingestion of a low K+ diet for 3 days. To determine whether the colon alters its K+ transport properties in a similar fashion, we measured transmural 86Rb fluxes across sheets of distal colonic epithelium under short-circuit conditions. Preliminary studies using a double-isotope technique demonstrated that 86Rb and 42K fluxes were similar; therefore 86Rb flux was considered equivalent to K+ flux. The distal half of the colon from each rat was divided into two segments, referred to as early and late distal colon. Experiments were carried out using rats fed a K+ -free, control (0.15 mmol/g), and high K+ (1.13 mmol/g) powdered diet of otherwise identical electrolyte content. Net K+ secretion (Jnet) by the early distal colon was reduced from 0.45 in the controls to -0.02 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 by a low K+ diet as a result of a decrease in serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm), with no change in mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms). Conductance (GT) and short-circuit current (Isc) were unchanged. Jnet by the late distal colon averaged 0.17 in the controls and 0.01 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 with a low K+ diet, but this difference was not significant statistically. In comparison with the controls, a high K+ diet had no effect on Jnet by the early distal colon (0.48 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) but increased Jnet by the late distal colon substantially (0.77 mueq X cm-2 X h-1).

  13. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  14. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (P<0·05), but no significant alteration in BW was found in obese rats. The average content of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (P<0·01), and bacteria from phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were both increased largely (P<0·01); however, the bacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet. PMID:26316354

  15. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  16. Expanding the Diet for DIET: Electron Donors Supporting Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer (DIET) in Defined Co-Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ying; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Mu, Bo-Zhong; Lovley, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has been recognized as an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for syntrophic growth, but previous studies on DIET with defined co-cultures have only documented DIET with ethanol as the electron donor in the absence of conductive materials. Co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens metabolized propanol, butanol, propionate, and butyrate with the reduction of fumarate to succinate. G. metallireducens utilized each of these substrates whereas only electrons available from DIET supported G. sulfurreducens respiration. A co-culture of G. metallireducens and a strain of G. sulfurreducens that could not metabolize acetate oxidized acetate with fumarate as the electron acceptor, demonstrating that acetate can also be syntrophically metabolized via DIET. A co-culture of G. metallireducens and Methanosaeta harundinacea previously shown to syntrophically convert ethanol to methane via DIET metabolized propanol or butanol as the sole electron donor, but not propionate or butyrate. The stoichiometric accumulation of propionate or butyrate in the propanol- or butanol-fed cultures demonstrated that M. harundinaceae could conserve energy to support growth solely from electrons derived from DIET. Co-cultures of G. metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri could also incompletely metabolize propanol and butanol and did not metabolize propionate or butyrate as sole electron donors. These results expand the range of substrates that are known to be syntrophically metabolized through DIET, but suggest that claims of propionate and butyrate metabolism via DIET in mixed microbial communities warrant further validation. PMID:26973614

  17. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts Goes easy on saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, ...

  18. Does garbage in diet improve Glaucous Gull reproductive output?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Weiser, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern.

  19. Diet of mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales Mesoplondon bidens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. N.; Neves, V. C.; Prieto, R.; Silva, M. A.; Cascão, I.; Oliveira, C.; Cruz, M. J.; Medeiros, J. V.; Barreiros, J. P.; Porteiro, F. M.; Clarke, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first mid-Atlantic diet of Mesoplodon beaked whales is presented, from ten Sowerby's Mesoplodon bidens stranded in the Azores region between 2002 and 2009. This doubles the worldwide number of stomachs sampled, and reveals new feeding habits for this species. The mean number of prey items per stomach was 85±89 (range: 12-238), with fish accounting for 99.3% and cephalopods contributing less than 1% of total prey. Fish otoliths from 15 families and cephalopod lower mandibles from three families were identified, representing 22 taxa. The diet consisted mainly of small mid-water fish, the most numerous being Diaphus sp., Lampanyctus sp. and Melamphaidae species. Myctophids were present in all stranded individuals, followed by Diretmidae, Melamphaidae and Opisthoproctus soleatus, while the remaining fish species were scarce or single occurrences. Consistency of diet in four different years reveals a divergence from all previous records in continental areas, where mainly neritic and shelf-break benthopelagic fish species have been reported. Mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales' showed dietary plasticity, feeding on the most abundant mid-water groups occurring between 0 and750 m. Trophic level from prey numerical frequency was estimated at 4.4±0.46.

  20. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  1. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    PubMed

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  2. DIET IN DERMATOLOGY: PRESENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, K H; Seemanthini, C; Rashmi, R

    2010-01-01

    Many nutrients are essential for life, and an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet is necessary for providing energy, building and maintaining body organs, and for various metabolic processes. The role of food in the induction of various skin disorders and skin diseases leading to nutritional deficiencies is well known. The photo-protective potential of antioxidants, the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the skin immune system, and the modulating effects of fatty acids on skin disorders are well documented. Skin diseases due to nutritional deficiencies, the dietary role in skin immunity and various skin diseases, and the role of antioxidants and other supplements in skin health have been reviewed. PMID:21063507

  3. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  4. Four therapeutic diets: adherence and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Susan E; Barnard, Neal; Eckart, Jill; Katcher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Many health conditions are treated, at least in part, by therapeutic diets. Although the success of any intervention depends on its acceptability to the patient, the acceptability of therapeutic diets and factors that influence it have been largely neglected in nutrition research. A working definition of acceptability is proposed and an examination and summary are provided of available data on the acceptability of common diet regimens used for medical conditions. The goal is to suggest ways to improve the success of therapeutic diets. The proposed working definition of "acceptability" refers to the user's judgment of the advantages and disadvantages of a therapeutic diet-in relation to palatability, costs, and effects on eating behaviour and health-that influence the likelihood of adherence. Very low-calorie, reduced-fat omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan, and low-carbohydrate diets all achieve acceptability among the majority of users in studies of up to one year, in terms of attrition and adherence rates and results of questionnaires assessing eating behaviours. Longer studies are fewer, but they suggest that vegetarian, vegan, and reduced-fat diets are acceptable, as indicated by sustained changes in nutrient intake. Few studies of this length have been published for very low-calorie or low-carbohydrate diets. Long-term studies of adherence and acceptability of these and other therapeutic diets are warranted. PMID:21144137

  5. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Methods This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (p<0.05). In addition, the fasting insulin was significantly greater in metformin group and flutamide group in comparison to metformin+flutamide and placebo groups after treatment (p<0.05). Within groups, insulin level showed significant changes (before and after treatment) in metformin+flutamide group and LDL reduction was significant in flutamide group before and after treatment. Post hoc tukey and two-tailed with p≤0.05 were used to define statistical significance. Conclusion Using combination of metformin and flutamide improves anthropometric indices and laboratory tests in obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. PMID:25473629

  6. A 3-day regimen with azithromycin 1.5% eyedrops for the treatment of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis in children: efficacy on clinical signs and impact on the burden of illness

    PubMed Central

    Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Messaoud, Riadh; Lazreg, Sihem; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Renault, Didier; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of azithromycin 1.5% versus tobramycin 0.3% eyedrops on clinical ocular signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis in children and to assess the parents’ satisfaction regarding the dosing regimen. Patients and methods An international, multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted in children (1 day to 18 years old) with bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and purulent discharge. Azithromycin 1.5% was administered as 1 drop twice daily for 3 days, and tobramycin 0.3% as 1 drop every 2 hours for 2 days, then 4 times daily for 5 days. Results A total of 286 patients (mean age: 3.2 years) were enrolled. In children with bacteriologically positive cultures (N=203), azithromycin produced a significantly greater improvement in conjunctival discharge (P<0.01) and a trend (P=0.054) toward improvement in conjunctival hyperemia at day 7 than did tobramycin. Complete resolution of conjunctival discharge was significantly more frequent at day 3 on azithromycin than tobramycin (P=0.005). More parents found azithromycin easier to use (in terms of treatment duration, total number of instillations, instilling drops during the day, and difficulty in performing daily activities) than tobramycin. Conclusion The azithromycin 1.5% regimen produced a rapid resolution of cardinal signs of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis with a more convenient dosage regimen. Such improved convenience is likely to improve compliance and lessen the burden of illness for patients and carers. PMID:25945033

  7. The effects of serum, lithium, ethacrynic acid, and a low external concentration of potassium on specific [3H]-ouabain binding to human lymphocytes after incubation for 3 days.

    PubMed Central

    Rapeport, W G; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G; Harper, C

    1986-01-01

    We have quantified specific [3H]-ouabain binding sites in normal human lymphocytes, and have measured the changes in the numbers of those sites which occur in response to various stimuli. We have confirmed previous findings that incubation for 72 h in the presence of fetal calf serum causes an increase in [3H]-ouabain binding, and that this does not occur if the cells are incubated in fetal calf serum which has first been dialysed. During incubation of the lymphocytes for 3 days in the presence of dialysed fetal calf serum each of the following stimuli caused an increase in specific [3H]-ouabain binding: addition of ethacrynic acid (1 mumol l-1), addition of lithium (1 mmol l-1), and reduction of the external potassium concentration (to 0.75 mmol l-1). By analogy with the similar results in HeLa cells reported by others, we suggest that the increase in [3H]-ouabain binding may, in the case of ethacrynic acid and the reduction of the external potassium concentration, be initiated by an increase in the intracellular sodium concentration. The mechanisms whereby fetal calf serum and lithium cause an increase in [3H]-ouabain binding are not clear. PMID:3768239

  8. Diet and asthma: an update

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Holguin, Fernando; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Our objective is to provide an overview and discussion of recent experimental studies, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials of diet and asthma. We focus on dietary sources and vitamins with antioxidant properties (vitamins (A, C, and E), folate, and omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 PUFAs). Recent findings Current evidence does not support the use of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E or PUFAs for the prevention or treatment of asthma or allergies. Current guidelines for prenatal use of folate to prevent neural tube defects should be followed, as there is no evidence of major effects of this practice on asthma or allergies. Consumption of a balanced diet that is rich in sources of antioxidants (e.g. fruits and vegetables) may be beneficial in the primary prevention of asthma. Summary None of the vitamins or nutrients examined is consistently associated with asthma or allergies. In some cases, further studies of the effects of a vitamin or nutrient on specific asthma phenotypes (e.g. vitamin C to prevent viral-induced exacerbations) are warranted. Clinical trials of “whole diet” interventions to prevent asthma are advisable on the basis of existing evidence. PMID:26110689

  9. Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients.

    PubMed

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pokawinpudisnun, Piman; Polbhakdee, Yaowalak

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea commonly occurs in surgical critically ill patients, especially septic patients and fiber formulas have been reported to improve diarrhea. Most reports have used soluble or insoluble fiber exclusively, while the effects of a mixed fiber diet remain unclear. This study compares diarrhea scores between mixed-fiber and non-fiber diets in surgical septic patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics. We conducted a prospective randomized control double blind study in a general surgical ICU. Patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics and no contraindication to enteral feeding were randomly allocated to a fiber or non-fiber diet for up to 14 days. Nutritional delivery and diarrhea scores were recorded daily. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study, 17 in the fiber group and 17 in non-fiber group. These two patients groups were similar in demographics, disease severity, nutritional status, cause of sepsis and total feeding per day. The proportion of patients with diarrhea score ≥12 was higher in the non-fiber group than in the fiber group, but the difference was not statistically significant [8/17 (47.06%) vs. 4/17(23.53%); p=0.15]. However, the fiber group had a lower mean diarrhea score (fiber vs. non-fiber = 3.6 ± 2.3 vs. 6.3 ± 3.6; p=0.005), as well as a lower global diarrhea score from the generalized estimation equation model for repeated measurement [Coefficient -3.03 (95%CI= -5.03 to -0.92); p=0.005]. In summary, a mixed fiber diet formula can reduce the diarrhea score in surgical critically ill septic patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics. PMID:21147705

  10. Growth Performance of Rabbits Fed Palm-Press Fibres-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Houndonougbo, M. Frederic; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Attakpa, S. E.; Sezan, A.; Dehou, H. B.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to define the optimal rate of palm-press fibres in growing rabbits' diet. In total, 64 weaned rabbits (35 days old) of Beninese breed were divided in 16 groups of 4 rabbits (2 males and 2 females) each. During six weeks, rabbits were fed with 4 complete diets containing 0% (F0, control), 5% (F5), 10% (F10), and 15% (F15) of fibres from a palm oil industry. Results demonstrated that up to 15 of palm-press fibres can be included efficiently in growing rabbits' diet. The daily feed intake was not significantly affected by the diet (P > 0.05). At 13 weeks old, the average live weights of rabbits were 1788.5 g, 1805.0 g, 1718.5 g, and 1801.3 g in respectively, F0, F5, F10 and F15 groups. No mortality of rabbits was recorded. Compared to F0, the feed conversion ratio and feeding cost decreased in the group of rabbits fed F15 diet. The carcass yield was similar between diets. PMID:23738133

  11. A comparison of three methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, S.B.; Fuller, Mark R.; Titus, K.

    2004-01-01

    Video recording of prey deliveries to nests is a new technique for collecting data on raptor diet, but no thorough comparison of results from traditional methods based on collections of prey remains and pellets has been undertaken. We compared data from these 3 methods to determine relative merits of different methods for assessing raptor diet as part of a study of the breeding-season diet of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Southeast Alaska. We applied these methods to 5 nests during each of the northern goshawk breeding seasons of 1998 and 1999 and identified 1,540 prey from deliveries, 209 prey from remains, and 209 prey from pellets. The proportions of birds and mammals varied among techniques, as did relative proportions of prey groups and age groups. Prey remains and pellets gave the least-similar diet descriptions. Over 2-day intervals during which data were collected using all 3 methods, prey-delivery data gave more individual prey and prey categories than the 2 other sources of information. We found that prey were not directly tracked in either prey remains or pellets compared with prey delivery videography. Analysis of prey-delivery videography provided the most complete description of diet, and we recommend that studies attempting to describe diet use this technique, at least as part of their methodology.

  12. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  13. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged $74 years. Design: Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regres...

  14. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  15. Medical records and record-keeping standards.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Iain; Ram, Mala Bridgelal; Croft, Giles P; Williams, John G

    2007-08-01

    The structure of medical records becomes ever more critical with the advent of electronic records. The Health Informatics Unit (HIU) of the Royal College of Physicians has two work streams in this area. The Records Standards programme is developing generic standards for all entries into medical notes and standards for the content of admission, handover and discharge records. The Information Laboratory (iLab) focuses on hospital episode statistics and their use for monitoring clinician performance. Clinician endorsement of the work is achieved through extensive consultations. Generic medical record-keeping standards are now available. PMID:17882846

  16. Isotopic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in african elephants.

    PubMed

    Koch, P L; Heisinger, J; Moss, C; Carlson, R W; Fogel, M L; Behrensmeyer, A K

    1995-03-01

    The carbon, nitrogen, and strontium isotope compositions of elephants in Amboseli Park, Kenya, were measured to examine changes in diet and habitat use since the 1960s. Carbon isotope ratios, which reflect the photosynthetic pathway of food plants, record a shift in diet from trees and shrubs to grass. Strontium isotope ratios, which reflect the geologic age of bedrock, document the concentration of elephants within the park. The high isotopic variability produced by behavioral and ecological shifts, if it is representative of other East African elephant populations, may complicate the use of isotopes as indicators of the source region of ivory. PMID:17812610

  17. Prolonged high fat diet reduces dopamine reuptake without altering DAT gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jackson J; Chartoff, Elena H; Potter, David N; Ebner, Stephanie R; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2013-01-01

    The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development of DIO. PMID:23516454

  18. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice. PMID:8382094

  19. The Feingold Diet: A Current Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattes, Jeffrey A.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews published completed studies on the Feingold diet, which advocates elimination of artificial colorings, artificial flavorings, and salicylates to remediate hyperactivity. The review indicates that the diet is probably not effective, except perhaps in a small percentage of children. (Author/CL)

  20. Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate; Zeuschner, Carol; Saunders, Angela; Reid, Michelle

    2009-08-01

    A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating. PMID:19893782

  1. Intelligence and Phenylketonuria: Effects of Diet Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Trends in intellectual functioning before and after diet termination were examined in 30 children (5-11 years old) with PKU (Phenylketonuria, a metabolic disorder) treated before 6 weeks of age and on a liberal diet for a mean of 3 years since the mean age of 59 months. Journal availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.…

  2. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  3. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  4. Optimizing the plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Mann, J I

    2000-09-01

    Any attempt to optimize a plant-based diet necessitates an identification of the features of the diet which confer benefit as well as any which may be associated with detrimental effects. The former task is more difficult than might be assumed as there is no doubt that some of the apparent health benefits observed amongst vegetarians are a consequence of environmental determinants of health which characterize groups of people who choose vegetarian diets, rather than dietary practices. This review will consider the major health benefits of plant-based diets, the specific foods or nutrients which confer the benefits as far as can be ascertained from present knowledge, potential nutrient deficiencies associated with a plant-based diet and nutritional strategies that can be employed to prevent any such deficiencies. PMID:24398280

  5. [Oat products in gluten free diet].

    PubMed

    Lange, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease in patent in different age is increased, but gluten free diet is only way to treat this disease. Diet without gluten cereals: wheat, rye, barley and oats is often low in many minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber, but rich in fat and sugar. Gluten free diet witch is supplemented with oats products may contains more dietary fiber, minerals, thiamine, biotin, tokopherols, tokotrienos, and unsaturated fatty acids. The majority of researches show that inclusion 20-50g/d of oat products to gluten free diet is safe for children and adults with new diagnosed and also in remission state. Simultaneously, some patients with celiac disease may intolerance to avenin. The control and assessment of gluten (wheat, rye, barley) contamination in oat products and also long term introduction of oat products to gluten free diet for patient at different age. PMID:17711098

  6. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  7. Diet: from food to stone.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  8. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The views expressed are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board. Abstract: This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  9. Low Nickel Diet in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav D

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and the commonest cause of metal allergy among the people. Nickel allergy is a chronic, recurring problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient. PMID:23723488

  10. High-phosphorus diet maximizes and low-dose calcitriol attenuates skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Luz M; López, Ignacio; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Pineda, Carmen; Chamizo, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2016-05-01

    Although disorders of mineral metabolism and skeletal muscle are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), their potential relationship remains unexplored. Elevations in plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblastic growth factor 23 together with decreased calcitriol levels are common features of CKD. High-phosphate intake is a major contributor to progression of CKD. This study was primarily aimed to determine the influence of high-phosphate intake on muscle and to investigate whether calcitriol supplementation counteracts negative skeletal muscle changes associated with long-term uremia. Proportions and metabolic and morphological features of myosin-based muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of uremic rats (5/6 nephrectomy, Nx) and compared with sham-operated (So) controls. Three groups of Nx rats received either a standard diet (0.6% phosphorus, Nx-Sd), or a high-phosphorus diet (0.9% phosphorus, Nx-Pho), or a high-phosphorus diet plus calcitriol (10 ng/kg 3 day/wk ip, Nx-Pho + Cal) for 12 wk. Two groups of So rats received either a standard diet or a high-phosphorus diet (So-Pho) over the same period. A multivariate analysis encompassing all fiber-type characteristics indicated that Nx-Pho + Cal rats displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes intermediate between Nx-Pho and So-Pho rats and that uremia-induced skeletal muscle changes were of greater magnitude in Nx-Pho than in Nx-Sd rats. In uremic rats, treatment with calcitriol preserved fiber-type composition, cross-sectional size, myonuclear domain size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity of muscle fibers. These data demonstrate that a high-phosphorus diet potentiates and low-dose calcitriol attenuates adverse skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats. PMID:26869708

  11. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. PMID:23796063

  12. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  13. Effects of diet switching on growth and immunity in Nile tilapia fed a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with ß-glucan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed either a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß -glucan for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, half the fish were continued on the same diet or switched to the other diet for 2 weeks. Tilapia were then challenged with Streptococcus iniae by intraperi...

  14. Effect of diets on growth, digestibility, carcass and meat quality characteristics of four rabbit breeds

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dobaib, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    from 2.65 to 3.80, 2.45 to 3.90, 2.46 to 3.79 and 2.63 to 3.65, respectively. Pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and offal weight were in favour of Saudi-2 rabbits compared to the other groups. Both Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 rabbits were slightly higher than Saudi-3 in weights and percentages of head, fur, viscera and legs + tail. Lean and bone weights and percentages and meat to bone ratio in Saudi-2 carcasses were slightly higher than those recorded in the other groups, while moisture, DM, CP, EE and ash contents in the lean have shown little differences between groups. Rabbits of Saudi-1 were ranked the first in digestibility coefficients of OM, CP, NDF, ADF, HC, C and cell count compared to other groups. Rabbits of Saudi-2 fed diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the heaviest body weights and gains since this class showed considerable deviations in body weights of 345, 341, 269, 307, 321, 345 and 347 g at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, in comparison with the lightest class. Both Saudi-2 and Saudi-3 rabbits fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS had favourable estimates of feed conversions ranging from 2.1 to 3.4, while rabbits of Saudi-1 fed the diet containing 87.5% IFS recorded the best digestibility coefficients. PMID:23961062

  15. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  16. Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour?

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Kaklamanou, Daphne; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Armitage, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs) - beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by healthy behaviour - are hypothesised to be activated automatically to help people resolve conflicts between their desires (e.g. eat chocolate) and their long-term goals (e.g. dieting). The aim of the present research was to investigate diet-specific CHBs within the context of a theoretical framework, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), to examine the extent to which diet-specific CHBs contribute to dieting intentions and dietary intake. Seventy-five dieting women were recruited in Switzerland and England and were asked to complete measures of diet-specific CHBs, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and behaviour. Path modelling showed that, overall, diet-specific CHBs were not related to dieting intentions (β=.10) or behaviour (β=.06) over and above variables specified in the HAPA. However, risk perception moderated the relationship between diet-specific CHBs and intention (β=.26). Diet-specific CHBs positively predicted intention in women with high risk perception, but not in women with low risk perception. This positive relationship might be explained by the assumption that CHBs play different roles at different stages of the health-behaviour change process. Future studies should further examine moderators and stage-specific differences of the associations between CHBs, intention and health-behaviour change. PMID:24472827

  17. Cashew reject meal in diets of laying chickens: nutritional and economic suitability.

    PubMed

    Akande, Taiwo O; Akinwumi, Akinyinka O; Abegunde, Taye O

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nutritional and economic suitability of cashew reject meal (full fat and defatted) as replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) in the diets of laying chickens. A total of eighty four brown shavers at 25 weeks of age were randomly allotted into seven dietary treatments each containing 6 replicates of 2 birds each. The seven diets prepared included diet 1, a control with GNC at 220gkg(-1) as main protein source in the diet. Diets 2, 3 and 4 consist of gradual replacement of GNC with defatted cashew reject meal (DCRM) at 50%, 75% and 100% on weight for weight basis respectively while diets 5, 6 and 7 consist of gradual inclusion of full fat cashew reject meal (FCRM) to replace 25%, 35% and 50% of GNC protein respectively. Each group was allotted a diet in a completely randomized design in a study that lasted eight weeks during which records of the chemical constituent of the test ingredients, performance characteristics, egg quality traits and economic indicators were measured. Results showed that the crude protein were 22.10 and 35.4% for FCRM and DCRM respectively. Gross energy of DCRM was 5035 kcal/kg compared to GNC, 4752 kcal/kg. Result of aflatoxin B1 revealed moderate level between 10 and 17 μg/Kg in DCRM and GNC samples respectively. Birds on control gained 10 g, while those on DCRM and FCRM gained about 35 g and 120 g respectively. Feed intake declined (P < 0.05) with increased level of FCRM. Hen day production was highest in birds fed DCRM, followed by control and lowest value (P < 0.05) was recorded for FCRM. No significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for egg weight and shell thickness. Fat deposition and cholesterol content increased (P > 0.05) with increasing level of FCRM. The cost of feed per kilogram decreased gradually with increased inclusion level of CRM. The prediction equation showed the relative worth of DCRM compared to GNC was 92.3% whereas the actual market price of GNC triples that of

  18. Role of Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruemmele, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily in the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. An interesting hypothesis is that environmental (food-) triggered changes of the intestinal microbiome might cause a proinflammatory state preceding the development of IBD. Indeed, an intact intestinal epithelial barrier assuring a normal bacterial clearance of the intestinal surface is crucial to guarantee intestinal homeostasis. Any factors affecting the epithelial barrier function directly or indirectly may impact on this homeostasis, as well as any changes of the intestinal microbial composition. It is intriguing to learn that some frequently used food components impact on the quality of the intestinal barrier, as well as on the composition of the intestinal microbiome. This highlights the close interaction between living conditions, hygiene, food habits and food quality with the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiome and the activation status of the intestinal immune system. There is clear evidence that nutritional therapy is highly successful in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is well established as induction therapy of CD. New diets, such as a CD exclusion diet or defined diets (specific carbohydrate diets, FODMAP diet, Paleolithic diet) are being discussed as treatment options for IBD. Well-designed clinical trials in IBD are urgently required to define the precise role of each of these diets in the prevention or management of IBD. Up to now, the role of diet in IBD is highly undermined by lay and anecdotal reports without sufficient scientific proof. PMID:27355913

  19. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release. PMID:27454856

  20. Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amit, M

    2010-01-01

    A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders. PMID:21532796

  1. New research with diets and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cross, J Helen

    2013-08-01

    The ketogenic diet is not a new treatment for the treatment of epilepsy, but the degree of literature now available seems to have given it a new lease of life. Over the past 12 years, there has been more scientific data on both benefits and effect of the ketogenic diet. Data demonstrate a clear benefit in efficacy. We also have a clearer idea in utilization, type of diet to use, and in whom. Questions however remain and further work is required, not least in recognizing likely candidates and in simplifying administration. PMID:23680944

  2. Mediterranean diet: the past and the present.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-08-01

    Mortality statistics from the World Health Organization have provided early evidence that diet in the Mediterranean countries has been affecting the health of the respective populations and, in particular, their coronary health. Keys (1) has taken the lead arguing that the traditional Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on health. Recent studies, capturing the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, have documented that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. An attempt to conceptualize the proper diet and to make it able to function has been reported and a score has been developed and evaluated. Studies among the elderly in Greece, Denmark, Australia, Spain and China have shown that the overall Mediterranean dietary pattern was more important for longevity than single nutrients. These findings suggest, therefore, that a Mediterranean diet is associated with longer survival. Two additional questions should be addressed at this time: Is the Mediterranean diet an integral entity, or the sum of identifiable components that can and should be separately considered in the development of guidelines? Is the Mediterranean diet or its major components transferable to populations living far from the Mediterranean area? Answers to these questions would be important for scientific and policy reasons. The dietary patterns that prevail in the Mediterranean area have many common characteristics, most of which stem from the fact that olive oil plays an important role in all of them. Thus, although different regions in the Mediterranean basin have their own diets, it is legitimate to consider them as variants of a single entity, the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet can be described as the dietary pattern found in the olive growing areas of the Mediterranean region, in the late '50s and early '60s, when the consequences of World War II were overcome, but the fast-food culture had not reached the area yet (2

  3. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  4. Ketogenic diet for adults in super-refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran T.; Probasco, John C.; Hocker, Sara E.; Roehl, Kelly; Henry, Bobbie; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kaplan, Peter W.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.; Hartman, Adam L.; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case series of adult patients in the intensive care unit in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE; refractory status lasting 24 hours or more despite appropriate anesthetic treatment) who received treatment with the ketogenic diet (KD). Methods: We performed a retrospective case review at 4 medical centers of adult patients with SRSE treated with the KD. Data collected included demographic features, clinical presentation, diagnosis, EEG data, anticonvulsant treatment, and timing and duration of the KD. Primary outcome measures were resolution of status epilepticus (SE) after initiation of KD and ability to wean from anesthetic agents. Results: Ten adult patients at 4 medical centers were started on the KD for SRSE. The median age was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21), 4 patients (40%) were male, and 7 (70%) had encephalitis. The median duration of SE before initiation of KD was 21.5 days (IQR 28) and the median number of antiepileptic medications used before initiation of KD was 7 (IQR 7). Ninety percent of patients achieved ketosis, and SE ceased in all patients achieving ketosis in a median of 3 days (IQR 8). Three patients had minor complications of the KD including transient acidosis and hypertriglyceridemia and 2 patients ultimately died of causes unrelated to the KD. Conclusion: We describe treatment of critically ill adult patients with SRSE with the KD, with 90% of patients achieving resolution of SE. Prospective trials are warranted to examine the efficacy of the KD in adults with refractory SE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for intensive care unit patients with refractory SE, a KD leads to resolution of the SE. PMID:24453083

  5. [The histamine-free diet].

    PubMed

    Wantke, F; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1993-08-01

    Food intolerance is not IgE-mediated but caused by histamine. A diminished histamine degradation based on a deficiency of diaminoxidase is suspected to be the reason. The therapeutic efficacy of a histamine-free diet was evaluated in 100 patients with food intolerance and allergic diseases, who were required to avoid fish, cheese, hardcured sausage, pickled cabbage, wine and beer for 4 weeks. Considerable improvement was observed in 57 patients, 15 of whom had total remission. The most striking treatment results were obtained in food or wine intolerance (80% P < 0.05; treatment of choice), bronchial asthma (80%), headache (64%) and urticaria (58%). After ingestion of food rich in histamine clearcut recurrence of atopic eczema was seen in 50% of the patients affected. Histamine plays a major part in food and wine intolerance. Histamine in food causes worsening of symptoms in atopics and patients suffering from headache. The results obtained indicate a deficiency of diaminoxidase in patients with intolerance to food or wine. Histamine levels in alcoholic beverages should be displayed on the labels. PMID:8376104

  6. Gut Microbes, Diet, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  7. Diabetes and diet in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kehkeshan; Zehra, Tabassum

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan, the month of fasting, is observed by Muslims all over the world. Fasting is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims which amounts to refraining from eating and drinking from predawn to sunset. The dietary patterns therefore totally change. For people with diabetes, instead of taking 5-6 meals, it is reduced to 2 or 3 meals in 24 hours. Good glycaemic control can be accomplished by people with diabetes, maintaining appropriate diets. It is suggested that during Ramadan similar general dietary guidelines should be followed as those throughout the year. The pre dawn meal should be taken as late as possible, before the start of the fast and should have a high proportion of carbohydrates with fibre. The traditional sugar drinks and foods rich in fat taken at iftar should be avoided. The evening meal or dinner should be consumed as early as possible at iftar and contain whole wheat flour chapattis, vegetables and a meat dish. Salads increase the fiber intake. A glass of milk or fruit at bedtime will maintain normoglycaemia till suhur. PMID:26013795

  8. Gut microbes, diet, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hullar, Meredith A J; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Lampe, Johanna W

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  9. Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic diet.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Zeynep; Dincer, Yildiz

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Many efforts have been directed to prevent AD due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective curative treatment. Various epigenetic mechanisms are linked to pathogenesis of AD. Epigenetic alterations may occur through external factors and are known for their reversibility. Dietary factors can influence epigenetic mechanisms. Several neuroprotective nutrients have been shown to enhance cognition, memory and other impaired functions seen in AD. Within recent years neuroprotective nutrients have gained more attention in the field of epigenetic. A growing body of evidence suggest that epigenetic changes triggered by dietary nutrients have an important role in health and in prevention of some diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, zinc, selenium, dietary polyphenols are capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms and ultimately gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms resulting in neuronal dysfunction may be modified by diet. Therefore manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms via dietary nutrients may affect influence the vulnerability of neurons to degeneration which is seen in AD. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview about the recent findings related to epigenetic alterations that are linked to AD pathogenesis, and to discuss the bioactive nutrients which can affect these epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:25290336

  10. The diet of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Ungar, Peter S; Passey, Benjamin H; Sponheimer, Matt; Rossouw, Lloyd; Bamford, Marion; Sandberg, Paul; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee

    2012-07-01

    Specimens of Australopithecus sediba from the site of Malapa, South Africa (dating from approximately 2 million years (Myr) ago) present a mix of primitive and derived traits that align the taxon with other Australopithecus species and with early Homo. Although much of the available cranial and postcranial material of Au. sediba has been described, its feeding ecology has not been investigated. Here we present results from the first extraction of plant phytoliths from dental calculus of an early hominin. We also consider stable carbon isotope and dental microwear texture data for Au. sediba in light of new palaeoenvironmental evidence. The two individuals examined consumed an almost exclusive C(3) diet that probably included harder foods, and both dicotyledons (for example, tree leaves, fruits, wood and bark) and monocotyledons (for example, grasses and sedges). Like Ardipithecus ramidus (approximately 4.4 Myr ago) and modern savanna chimpanzees, Au. sediba consumed C(3) foods in preference to widely available C(4) resources. The inferred consumption of C(3) monocotyledons, and wood or bark, increases the known variety of early hominin foods. The overall dietary pattern of these two individuals contrasts with available data for other hominins in the region and elsewhere. PMID:22763449

  11. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of catastrophic epileptic encephalopathies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto; Ammendola, Edoardo; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Corte, Rita Della; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Pascotto, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epileptic encephalopathies has been suggested as an early treatment option in very young children. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet in children younger than 5 years, all affected by different types of catastrophic childhood encephalopathies. The study group is composed of 38 children (22 males and 16 females), aged between 3 months and 5 years, affected by symptomatic partial epilepsy (6) and cryptogenic-symptomatic epileptic encephalopathies (32). Psychomotor delay-mental retardation was present in all of the patients: mild to moderate (9), severe (7), and profound (22). Cerebral palsy was present in 74% of the cases. Children were started on a 4:1 ketogenic diet as ketocal formula alone or supporting about the 80% of the daily caloric amount. Children poorly complying with ketocal milk were shifted to a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet. The average time (months +/- S.D.) on the diet was 10.3 +/- 7.4. All the children initiating the diet remained on it at 1 month and 35 of them (92%) at 3 months, 28 (73.7%) remained on it at 6 months, and 20 (52.7%) at 1 year. At 12-month follow-up, 11 children (28.9%) had a greater than 50% reduction of seizures and the other 9 (23.7%) were seizure-free. Adverse side effects were recorded in 25 of 38 patients (65.8%), including drowsiness, constipation, weight loss, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, fever, and hyperlipidemia. This report confirms that severe epileptic encephalopathies are much suitable for the ketogenic diet. PMID:19632870

  12. Incorporation of magnesium into fish otoliths: Determining contribution from water and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, S. H.; Munro, A. R.; Crook, D. A.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnesium is a commonly measured element in otolith chemistry analysis and is often included in the suite of elements used to discriminate fish from different environments. Poor relations between Mg in water and otolith chemistry are, however, often found. We examined the uptake of Mg into the otoliths of a freshwater fish (silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus), to determine the extent to which this element can be used to record previous environmental conditions. Silver perch fingerlings were reared for 30 days in water with four concentrations of Mg (14.5, 36.6, 52.1 and 69.6 mg L-1) and fed on a diet supplemented with a combination of natural Mg and enriched 26Mg at five concentrations (1496, 1626, 1902, 2005 and 2036 μg g-1). Enriched 26Mg was added to the diet to achieve a 26Mg/25Mg ratio that was different from the natural ratio, such that the relative contribution of water and diet to Mg incorporated into otoliths could be determined. Enriching the diet with 26Mg resulted in an isotope shift in the otolith of silver perch from the natural 26Mg/25Mg ratio of 1.10-1.42; however, this was not as high as the ratio in the diet (> 3.7) suggesting that the fish did not fully incorporate Mg from the diet. Water was the primary source of otolith Mg, contributing on average > 80% to otolith Mg (range 74-95%). The fact that Mg concentrations in the otolith did not change in response to Mg concentrations in the water or diet, indicates that Mg is likely physiologically regulated and therefore is not a reliable environmental indicator.

  13. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    PubMed

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries. PMID:23520903

  14. Impairment of cognitive performance associated with dieting and high levels of dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Rogers, P J; Elliman, N A; Gatenby, S J

    1994-03-01

    Seventy women students were tested on a short battery of tasks assessing cognitive performance. They also completed self-report ratings of mood, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) to which was appended several additional items concerning their recent dieting behaviour, and a 24-h dietary recall. Heart rate was measured before and after testing. Compared with nondieting subjects with low to moderate scores on the restraint factor of the DEBQ, subjects (n = 15) who reported that they were currently dieting to lose weight displayed impaired performance on a vigilance task and also tended to show poorer immediate memory and longer reaction times. Highly restrained eaters who were not dieting at the time of testing, on the whole, performed at an intermediate level on these tests. In contrast, the dieters tended to show the best performance on an undemanding finger tapping task, indicating that they were not slowed in their fine motor responses or lacking in motivation to carry out the tasks. Poorer cognitive functioning during dieting could arise as a direct consequence of the effects of food restriction on energy metabolism or other physiological mechanisms--the dietary records indicated that the current dieters were eating at about 70% of maintenance energy requirement. However, it is also possible that cognitive performance is impaired during dieting due to anxiety resulting from stressful effects of imposing and maintaining dietary restraint. PMID:8190760

  15. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals. PMID:25982443

  16. Disparities within traditional Mediterranean food patterns: an historical approach of the Greek diet.

    PubMed

    Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this study was to address the historical features underpinning the Greek variant of the Mediterranean diet and to examine whether relevant differences exist among dietary patterns followed in Greece prior to World War II and those recorded in the 1960s within the Seven Countries Study framework. For this purpose, archival data on family budgets were used to extract information on food availability and composition of the diets followed by two rural Greek populations prior to World War II. Results indicate that diets followed by rural Greeks in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century were characterized by a low availability of fat sources, olive oil included. Lipids represented 22-27% of the total available energy, saturated fatty acids accounted for less than 10% of the total energy, while monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 8-9% of the energy. Our results suggest that although the dietary patterns of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century are in line with the Cretan diet of the 1960s with regards to saturated fat intake, important differences can be traced with regards to total and monounsaturated fat intake. These findings suggest that the model of the Mediterranean diet represents a dietary pattern that has not persisted over a long time period in the region. PMID:17162331

  17. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  18. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7-11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  19. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Polissar, Pratigya J.; Jackson, Kevin E.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus. This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure. PMID:27274042

  20. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Jackson, Kevin E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of C4 grassland ecosystems in eastern Africa has been intensely studied because of the potential influence of vegetation on mammalian evolution, including that of our own lineage, hominins. Although a handful of sparse vegetation records exists from middle and early Miocene terrestrial fossil sites, there is no comprehensive record of vegetation through the Neogene. Here we present a vegetation record spanning the Neogene and Quaternary Periods that documents the appearance and subsequent expansion of C4 grasslands in eastern Africa. Carbon isotope ratios from terrestrial plant wax biomarkers deposited in marine sediments indicate constant C3 vegetation from ∼24 Ma to 10 Ma, when C4 grasses first appeared. From this time forward, C4 vegetation increases monotonically to present, with a coherent signal between marine core sites located in the Somali Basin and the Red Sea. The response of mammalian herbivores to the appearance of C4 grasses at 10 Ma is immediate, as evidenced from existing records of mammalian diets from isotopic analyses of tooth enamel. The expansion of C4 vegetation in eastern Africa is broadly mirrored by increasing proportions of C4-based foods in hominin diets, beginning at 3.8 Ma in Australopithecus and, slightly later, Kenyanthropus This continues into the late Pleistocene in Paranthropus, whereas Homo maintains a flexible diet. The biomarker vegetation record suggests the increase in open, C4 grassland ecosystems over the last 10 Ma may have operated as a selection pressure for traits and behaviors in Homo such as bipedalism, flexible diets, and complex social structure. PMID:27274042

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Workplace Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Korre, Maria; Tsoukas, Michael A; Frantzeskou, Elpida; Yang, Justin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies confirm relationships between the consumption of certain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Mediterranean diet patterns have long been associated with a reduced risk of major diseases and many favorable health outcomes. Data from observational, longitudinal, and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Mediterranean-style diets can improve body mass index and body weight, reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome risk factors, decrease cardiovascular morbidity and coronary heart disease mortality, as well as decrease all-cause mortality. Recently, efforts have attempted to improve dietary habits in the workplace, by modifying food selection, eating patterns, meal frequency, and the sourcing of meals taken during work. Evidence supporting the Mediterranean diet and the potential cardioprotective role of healthier diets in the workplace are reviewed here, and promising strategies to improve metabolic and cardiovascular health outcomes are also provided. PMID:25328563

  2. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  3. BRAT Diet: Recovering from an Upset Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommended for adults and children. BRAT stands for Bananas, Rice, Applesauce and Toast. The BRAT diet can ... can help make your stools firmer. It includes bananas, which are high in potassium and help replace ...

  4. How a Healthy Diet Helps You Breastfeed

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps breastfeeding mothers (and everyone else) maintain their energy level, so be sure to get enough of this important mineral in your diet. Lean meats and dark leafy green vegetables are good sources of iron. ...

  5. 5 Diet Drugs: Which Ones Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159359.html 5 Diet Drugs: Which Ones Work? Side effects are one consideration, study says To use the sharing features ... been known about how they stack up against one another, said Dr. Siddharth Singh, the lead researcher ...

  6. Diet and cancer: future etiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, A; Dorgan, J; Swanson, C; Potischman, N

    1995-01-01

    In light of several credible diet and cancer hypotheses, we suggest strategies for advancing our understanding in this area. Two conceptual approaches can be taken in defining dietary exposure: the decompositional approach focuses on specific nutrients and other chemical constituents of food, whereas the integrative approach emphasizes the action of whole foods or food patterns (cuisines). Diet-cancer hypotheses can be organized according to this conceptual framework. We review four types of scientific investigation available to us for advancing the diet and cancer field: metabolic (clinical nutrition) studies; animal studies; observational epidemiologic investigations; and clinical trials. Each of these designs has its strengths and limitations. Observational epidemiologic studies and trials have the particular advantage of examining explicit cancer end points in humans. Results from metabolic and animal research, however, can complement the findings from epidemiologic studies and trials. Finally, we briefly review strategies for evaluating promising hypotheses linking diet to cancers of the large bowel, lung, breast, and prostate. PMID:8741779

  7. Ischemic heart disease and the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle modification is primary in cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention. A major contribution is the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), defined by two of seven components. Italian investigators determined a significant decrease in peripheral arterial disease of 56 % for a high score. Multiple specific CV risk factors are also favorably modified by the MedDiet. This includes beneficial effect on inflammation, vascular endothelium, and insulin resistance. There is also evidence that coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome are decreased. Benefit appears to extend to new migrants in France. The economics of dietary adherence are favorable with decreased total lifetime health costs. Although mixed nuts appear to be a major factor in the MedDiet, special emphasis goes to extra virgin olive oil. Benefit also extends to other noncommunicable diseases with a decrease in cancer, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Further quantitation of benefit and understanding of mechanisms involved in dietary benefit is essential. PMID:24743900

  8. Controversies in Headache Medicine: Migraine Prevention Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention diet is one that is as wholesome, fresh and unprocessed as possible—thereby eliminating many of ... foods again. OR you can simply eat wholesome, fresh foods as unprocessed as possible in small amounts ...

  9. Experience with an elemental diet (Vivonex).

    PubMed

    Villaveces, J W; Heiner, D C

    1985-12-01

    Six patients with intractable atopic dermatitis completed this study which consisted of a baseline week, 1 to 2 weeks on an elemental diet, then sequential specific food additions. Symptom/sign scores, total eosinophil counts, and IgE and IgG4 radioimmunoassays for wheat alpha-gliadin, bovine serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and egg white were carried out as part of the protocol. Symptom/sign scores improved in five of six patients, some dramatically. Total eosinophil counts generally dropped after a week on the elemental diet and then increased as foods were added to the diet. The elemental diet used (Vivonex) appears to be beneficial in the management of at least some adult patients who have severe atopic dermatitis. PMID:3840962

  10. Predator Diet and Trophic Position Modified with Altered Habitat Morphology.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Alexander; Bell, Susan S; McCann, Kevin S; Morrow, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Empirical patterns that emerge from an examination of food webs over gradients of environmental variation can help to predict the implications of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. This "dynamic food web approach" is rarely applied at the coastal margin where aquatic and terrestrial systems are coupled and human development activities are often concentrated. We propose a simple model of ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) feeding that predicts changing dominant prey (Emerita talpoida, Talorchestia sp., Donax variablis) along a gradient of beach morphology and test this model using a suite of 16 beaches along the Florida, USA coast. Assessment of beaches included quantification of morphological features (width, sediments, slope), macrophyte wrack, macro-invertebrate prey and active ghost crab burrows. Stable isotope analysis of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) and the SIAR mixing model were used to determine dietary composition of ghost crabs at each beach. The variation in habitat conditions displayed with increasing beach width was accompanied by quantifiable shifts in ghost crab diet and trophic position. Patterns of ghost crab diet were consistent with differences recorded across the beach width gradient with respect to the availability of preferred micro-habitats of principal macro-invertebrate prey. Values obtained for trophic position also suggests that the generalist ghost crab assembles and augments its diet in fundamentally different ways as habitat morphology varies across a highly dynamic ecosystem. Our results offer support for a functional response in the trophic architecture of a common food web compartment (ghost crabs, macro-invertebrate prey) across well-known beach morphologies. More importantly, our "dynamic food web approach" serves as a basis for evaluating how globally wide-spread sandy beach ecosystems should respond to a variety of anthropogenic impacts including beach grooming, beach re-nourishment, introduction of non

  11. Predator Diet and Trophic Position Modified with Altered Habitat Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tewfik, Alexander; Bell, Susan S.; McCann, Kevin S.; Morrow, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Empirical patterns that emerge from an examination of food webs over gradients of environmental variation can help to predict the implications of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. This “dynamic food web approach” is rarely applied at the coastal margin where aquatic and terrestrial systems are coupled and human development activities are often concentrated. We propose a simple model of ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) feeding that predicts changing dominant prey (Emerita talpoida, Talorchestia sp., Donax variablis) along a gradient of beach morphology and test this model using a suite of 16 beaches along the Florida, USA coast. Assessment of beaches included quantification of morphological features (width, sediments, slope), macrophyte wrack, macro-invertebrate prey and active ghost crab burrows. Stable isotope analysis of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) and the SIAR mixing model were used to determine dietary composition of ghost crabs at each beach. The variation in habitat conditions displayed with increasing beach width was accompanied by quantifiable shifts in ghost crab diet and trophic position. Patterns of ghost crab diet were consistent with differences recorded across the beach width gradient with respect to the availability of preferred micro-habitats of principal macro-invertebrate prey. Values obtained for trophic position also suggests that the generalist ghost crab assembles and augments its diet in fundamentally different ways as habitat morphology varies across a highly dynamic ecosystem. Our results offer support for a functional response in the trophic architecture of a common food web compartment (ghost crabs, macro-invertebrate prey) across well-known beach morphologies. More importantly, our “dynamic food web approach” serves as a basis for evaluating how globally wide-spread sandy beach ecosystems should respond to a variety of anthropogenic impacts including beach grooming, beach re-nourishment, introduction of non

  12. Diet and feeding behaviour of longnosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus.

    PubMed

    Mulas, A; Bellodi, A; Cannas, R; Cau, Al; Cuccu, D; Marongiu, M F; Porcu, C; Follesa, M C

    2015-01-01

    A total of 255 longnosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus caught in Sardinian waters (central-western Mediterranean Sea), was analysed with respect to fish total length (LT ), season and depth, in order to provide information on diet and feeding behaviour. Specimens ranging from 93 to 1153 mm LT , were collected at depths between 121 and 671 m, during experimental trawl surveys carried out from 2005 to 2010. The diet comprised crustaceans [prey specific index of relative importance (%IPSRI ) = 72·69], teleosts (%IPSRI  = 10·28) and molluscs (%IPSRI  = 10·94). Levins' index (Bi ) showed a narrow niche breadth (Bi  = 0·35). The mean ± s.e. trophic level (TL ) was 3·63 ± 0·50. The analysis showed major ontogenetic changes in the feeding behaviour. Early life stages were characterized by a benthic diet, which changed to benthopelagic during growth. Mysids, particularly Lophogaster typicus (%IPSRI  = 34·51), were the main prey items of immature individuals, replaced by euphausiids, mainly Meganyctiphanes norvegica (%IPSRI  = 13·19), in maturing fish. Crustaceans became less important in mature specimens, being replaced by molluscs (%IPSRI  = 28·99) and teleosts (%IPSRI  = 24·56). A concomitant increase of the TL was recorded (mean ± s.e. = 3·41 ± 0·44, 3·75 ± 0·54 and 4·28 ± 0·61 for immature, maturing and mature individuals). These feeding patterns ensured low levels of intraspecific competition. This study provides new information about the role that the D. oxyrinchus plays in the marine food chain and data now essential to formulate new and effective management plans for this species. PMID:25557426

  13. Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets.

    PubMed

    Daumas, Caroline; Paragon, Bernard-Marie; Thorin, Chantal; Martin, Lucile; Dumon, Henri; Ninet, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of the quality of commercial diets is a topic of interest for the majority of dog owners. Recently, in a French consumer association magazine, an evaluation of eight dog commercial dry diets (from super-premium, basic-nutrition, private-label and economy brands) according to several nutritional criteria was published. The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate the apparent digestibility of these diets; (2) to score these diets according to digestibility results; and (3) to compare these data with the scoring of the magazine. Six adult Beagle dogs were enrolled for the digestibility trials. Diets were scored according to energy, crude protein and crude fat (CF) apparent digestibility coefficients, digestible protein-to-energy ratios and ash content. Each of the five criteria was scored from 4 to 20 points. The ranges of crude protein, CF, crude fibre and ash content were 20·9-30·6 %, 6·8-19·7 %, 2·2-3·3 % and 4·6-9·7 % on a DM basis, respectively. The ranges of energy, crude protein and CF apparent digestibility coefficients were 72·6-87·7 %, 70·4-82·5 % and 76·1-95·4 %, respectively. The range of the protein-to-energy ratio was 10-14 digestible crude protein per MJ metabolisable energy. Little overlap in the scoring systems was found, but the private-label brand and economy brand diets presented the lowest scores in the two systems. These results showed that the evaluation of commercial diets should take into account multiple nutritional aspects. In particular, analytical and biological (digestibility) criteria should be considered as complementary in the evaluation of dry dog commercial diets. PMID:26101631

  14. The ketogenic diet in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Winesett, Steven Parrish; Bessone, Stacey Kordecki; Kossoff, Eric H W

    2015-06-01

    Available pharmacologic treatments for seizures are limited in their efficacy. For a patient with seizures, pharmacologic treatment with available anticonvulsant medications leads to seizure control in <70% of patients. Surgical resection can lead to control in a select subset of patients but still leaves a significant number of patients with uncontrolled seizures. The ketogenic diet and related diets have proven to be useful in pharmacoresistant childhood epilepsy. PMID:25994046

  15. [Oral balanced synthetic diet (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hartig, W

    1976-01-01

    Oral balanced synthetic diet is a ballast-free, complete nutrition and is composed of chemical pure substances. It contains amino acids, mono- and oligosaccharids, essentiell fat acids, minerals, vitamines and tracer elements and is absorbed in jejunum. Oral balanced diet will be used with success to prepare diagnostic procedures and operations, for treatment of bowel-diseases, for patients with short-bowel-syndrom, with chronic hepatic diseases, metabolic diseases, maldigestion and malabsorption. PMID:827146

  16. Artificial diets for life tables bioassays of TPB in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two artificial diets for mass rearing and bioassay of the tarnished plant bug, (TPB), Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois, (Hemiptera: Miridae) were modified and developed, respectively. The first diet is a modification of a semisolid artificial diet (NI diet), which permits large scale rearing of ...

  17. Ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S R

    1994-08-01

    This study assesses ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates. Associations between body weight growth, adult size, and diet are evaluated for a sample of 42 primate species, of which 8 are classifiable as "folivores." The hypothesis that folivores show a pattern of growth that differs from "nonfolivores" is tested. Ontogenetic variation is summarized through use of parametric and nonparametric regression analysis. Several analytical techniques, including broad interspecific and detailed comparisons among species of similar adult size, are applied. This investigation indicates a clear association between body weight ontogeny and diet: folivorous species grow more rapidly over a shorter duration than comprably sized nonfolivorus species. A positive correlation between adult size and diet is not unambiguously established in this sample. A threshold (at around 1 kg) below which insectivory is very common may adequately characterize the association between adult size and diet in anthropoid primates. Above this threshold, adult size does not appear to covary predictably with diet. Evolutionary correlates of the ontogenetic pattern seen in folivores may include a variety of factors. The distinctive pattern of development in folivores may relate to the profile of ecological and social risks that these species face. Morphophysiological advantages to rapid growth may relate to a need for accelerated alimentary (dental and gut) development. The implications of ontogenetic variation in folivores are discussed. PMID:7977677

  18. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet. PMID:18386151

  19. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status. PMID:24210636

  20. [The ketogenic diet: an underappreciated therapeutic option?].

    PubMed

    Paoli, A; Canato, M; Toniolo, L; Bargossi, A M; Neri, M; Mediati, M; Alesso, D; Sanna, G; Grimaldi, K A; Fazzari, A L; Bianco, A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in Western countries and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Although there is a common agreement about the concept that exercise and diet are two key factors for the control of body weight, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet for weight control are still under debate. A widely accepted nutritional regime is the Mediterranean diet that has evident health benefits although less attention has been paid to see if the effects are due to other lifestyle factors which may contribute to the health benefits perhaps as much as specific food choices. There are several other options available to the physician that may produce good weight loss results in the short/medium term and also for maintenance of the goal achieved. One of these strategies is the ketogenic diet or VLCKD (very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) that has been widely studied in recent years. Most studies show that this diet has a solid physiological and biochemical basis which is able to induce effective weight loss and improvement of several parameters of cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the physiological basis of VLCKD and the main applications together with its strengths and weaknesses compared to common dietary recommendations. PMID:22041813

  1. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Augustin, Livia S A; Ludwig, David S; Barnard, Neal D; Anderson, James W

    2003-09-01

    Based on what is known of the components of plant-based diets and their effects from cohort studies, there is reason to believe that vegetarian diets would have advantages in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At present there are few data on vegetarian diets in diabetes that do not in addition have weight loss or exercise components. Nevertheless, the use of whole-grain or traditionally processed cereals and legumes has been associated with improved glycemic control in both diabetic and insulin-resistant individuals. Long-term cohort studies have indicated that whole-grain consumption reduces the risk of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, nuts (eg, almonds), viscous fibers (eg, fibers from oats and barley), soy proteins, and plant sterols, which may be part of the vegetarian diet, reduce serum lipids. In combination, these plant food components may have a very significant impact on cardiovascular disease, one of the major complications of diabetes. Furthermore, substituting soy or other vegetable proteins for animal protein may also decrease renal hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and renal acid load and in the long term reduce the risk of developing renal disease in type 2 diabetes. The vegetarian diet, therefore, contains a portfolio of natural products and food forms of benefit for both the carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities in diabetes. It is anticipated that their combined use in vegetarian diets will produce very significant metabolic advantages for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. PMID:12936955

  2. The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Gasior, Maciej; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapeutic approach for epilepsy, one in which most clinical experience has been with children. Although the mechanism by which the diet protects against seizures is unknown, there is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. The pattern of protection of the ketogenic diet in animal models of seizures is distinct from that of other anticonvulsants, suggesting that it has a unique mechanism of action. During consumption of the ketogenic diet, marked alterations in brain energy metabolism occur, with ketone bodies partly replacing glucose as fuel. Whether these metabolic changes contribute to acute seizure protection is unclear; however, the ketone body acetone has anticonvulsant activity and could play a role in the seizure protection afforded by the diet. In addition to acute seizure protection, the ketogenic diet provides protection against the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures in models of chronic epilepsy, and it has neuroprotective properties in diverse models of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:17509459

  3. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (p<0.05). Also significant increases in unsaturated iron-binding capacity, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05) were found. It can be concluded that the 2-week climbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications. PMID:26125641

  4. Glycogen synthase activation in human skeletal muscle: effects of diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kochan, R G; Lamb, D R; Lutz, S A; Perrill, C V; Reimann, E M; Schlender, K K

    1979-06-01

    We investigated the role of glycogen synthase in supranormal resynthesis (supercompensation) of skeletal muscle glycogen after exhaustive exercise. Six healthy men exercised 60 min by cycling with one leg at 75% VO2max, recovered 3 days on a low-carbohydrate diet, exercised again, and recovered 4 days on high-carbohydrate diet. Glycogen and glycogen synthase activities at several glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) concentrations were measured in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis. Dietary alterations alone did not affect glycogen, whereas exercise depleted glycogen stores. After the second exercise bout, glycogen returned to normal within 24 h and reached supercompensated levels by 48 h of recovery. Glycogen synthase activation state strikingly increased after exercise in exercised muscle and remained somewhat elevated for the first 48 h of recovery in both muscles. We suggest that 1) forms of glycogen synthase intermediate to I (G6P-independent) and D (G6P-dependent) forms are present in vivo, and 2) glycogen supercompensation can in part be explained by the formation of intermediate forms of glycogen synthase that exhibit relatively low activity ratios, but an increased sensitivity to activation by G6P. PMID:109015

  5. Resting heart rate in infants and toddlers: variations associated with early infant diet and the omega 3 fatty acid DHA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although early postnatal nutrition can have long-term effects on developmental processes, the influence of infant diet on the maturation of cardiac development has not been documented. To study this relationship we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) in awake, healthy infants and toddlers exclusively b...

  6. Efficacy of an essential fatty acid-enriched diet in managing canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Emmanuel; Morgan, David M; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-quality diets enriched with essential fatty acids (EFA) and other nutrients can ameliorate canine atopic dermatitis (AD). This study compared such a diet (Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP) with a home-cooked equivalent (fish and potato) in a randomised, single-blinded, cross-over trial. Twenty dogs with perennial AD were randomly assigned to receive either the test (group A) or the control diet (group B) for 1 month, followed by the contrasting diet for a further month. Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI version 2) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) scores were recorded at days 0, 30 and 60. Eight dogs in each group completed the study. CADESI scores significantly declined when dogs were fed the test diet (group A P < 0.01; group B P < 0.001), and increased (group A P < 0.05) or remained steady (group B) on the control diet. CADESI scores decreased in 15 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was less than 50% in all cases. Pruritus scores also declined when dogs were fed the test diet compared to the control diet, but this was only significant for group A (P = 0.027). Pruritus was reduced in 11 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was 50% or more in only two dogs. This trial provides evidence for the efficacy of Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP in canine AD, although it is likely that most cases will require adjunct therapy. The mechanism is unclear, but may involve increased and balanced EFA levels. PMID:18477332

  7. Nutritive activity of soluble rice brain arabinoxylans in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Annison, G; Moughan, P J; Thomas, D V

    1995-07-01

    1. A soluble material (703 g/kg non-starch polysaccharide, 141 g/kg starch and 166 g/kg protein) of low viscosity (termed RB-NSP), was isolated in large quantities from defatted Australian rice bran using a mild alkaline extraction and ethanol precipitation. 2. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction of RB-NSP comprised arabinose (0.40 mol%), xylose (0.32 mol%) galactose (0.17 mol%), glucose (0.08 mol%) and mannose (0.03 mol%). 3. RB-NSP was included at graded concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg) in a sorghum/casein basal diet and the diet fed to male broilers in a classical balance trial to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME). The AME values recorded were 13.26, 13.85, 14.26 and 14.00 MJ/kg DM with a significant correlation (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) between dietary RB-NSP inclusion rate and dietary AME. 4. Feeding RB-NSP had no effect on growth, food conversion ratio or the digestibilities of starch and protein which were both high (0.98-0.99 and 0.88-0.89, respectively). 5. It was concluded that the RB-NSP may have been a substrate for hindgut fermentation in the broiler but that it possessed no anti-nutritive activity. PMID:7583378

  8. Kirtland's warbler diet as determined through fecal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deloria-Sheffield, C.M.; Millenbah, Kelly F.; Bocetti, C.I.; Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Kepler, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    The endangered Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) nests primarily in large (>32 ha) stands of young (5- to 25-yr-old) jack pine (Pinus banksiana) which grow on Grayling sand soil. These specific habitat requirements restrict the Kirtland's Warbler breeding range to only 13-16 counties in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan. Although the nature of the species' affinity for this habitat is poorly understood, one theory suggests that higher prey abundance in young jack pine may play a role. To explore further the hypothesis that Kirtland's Warblers choose nesting habitat due to prey abundance, a more thorough knowledge of the warblers' diet is needed. To better understand the diet, we identified arthropod and plant fragments found in 202 Kirtland's Warbler fecal samples, collected from June to September, 1995-1997. The major food items recorded were spittlebugs and aphids (Homoptera; found in 61% of all samples), ants and wasps (Hymenoptera; 45%), blueberry (Vaccinium augustifolium; 42%), beetles (Coleoptera; 25%), and moth larvae (Lepidoptera; 22%).

  9. [Telemedicine assisted diet and diagnosis management in food hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Rösch, Norbert; Arens-Volland, Andreas; Harpes, Patrick; Herbst, Ralf; Plumer, Pierre; Feidert, Frank; Schmalz, Petra; Mösges, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the current prevalence of food allergy in Western Europe is about 4% and will further increase. Because of missing therapeutic alternatives, food allergy patients are required to identify individual allergens in the daily food by carefully reading the product's ingredient lists. Experiences with other chronic diseases show that a combination of telemedicine and Disease Management (DM) could have a positive impact on medical outcome and health related costs. A new concept of telemedicine support for allergy patients and allergists has been elaborated within the Luxembourgian MENSSANA project. Instead of measuring physiological parameters, a Smartphone based Personal Allergy Assistant (PAA) allows patients to keep an electronic patient diary by scanning the barcode of the consumed food products. For diagnostic purpose, the diary is regularly transmitted to the allergist's electronic patient record. To further support the individual diet management, the PAA gives a warning before consumption of allergenic food. Computer readable food ingredient lists are required for the PAA diet management. To collect this kind of information, a dedicated web-based "virtual community" of food consumers and producers (www.wikifood.eu) has been established. This volunteer network complements an independent product database. Up to now, more than 13.000 food descriptions are public available within wikifood.eu. PMID:19999626

  10. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health. PMID:23931069

  11. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  12. Best Children's Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    This annotated discography lists 45 recordings for children from birth to 14 years, including recordings of stories, songs, ballet, and foreign language songs. Distributors' addresses and phone numbers are provided. (EA)

  13. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  14. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  15. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception. PMID:8804636

  16. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  17. Significance of diet type and diet quality for ecological diversity of African ungulates.

    PubMed

    Codron, Daryl; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Sponheimer, Matt; Codron, Jacqui; DE Ruiter, Darryl; Brink, James S

    2007-05-01

    1. We test two nutritional hypotheses for the ecological diversity of ungulates, the browser/grazer (diet type) and diet quality models, among free-ranging herbivores in a South African savanna, the Kruger National Park. Tests are based on assessment of relationships between diet type and diet quality with body mass and hypsodonty, two morphological features that have been associated with both elements. 2. We use stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces to reconstruct diet in terms of proportions of C(3) plants (browse) and C(4) plants (grass) consumed by different species in different seasons. These data are combined with proxies for diet quality (per cent nitrogen, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin) from faeces to track changes in diet quality. 3. Two statistical approaches are used in model selection, i.e. tests of significant correlations based on linear regression analyses, and an information-theory approach (Akaike's Information Criterion) providing insight into strength of evidence for models. 4. Results of both methods show that, contrary to many predictions, body mass and diet type are not related, but these data confirm predictions that diet quality decreases with increasing body size, especially during the dry season. Hypsodonty, as expected, varies with diet type, increasing with increased grass intake. 5. These findings support both a diet type and diet quality model, implying some degree of exclusivity. We propose that congruence between models may be achieved through addition of diet quality proxies not included here, because hypsodonty is more likely a reflection of the abrasive properties of consumed foods, i.e. related to food quality, rather than food type. This implies that adaptation to diets of varying quality, through changes in body size and dental features, has been the primary mechanism for diversification in ungulates. 6. Our interpretation contrasts with several recent studies advocating diet type as

  18. Public Records 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  19. Teaching with Historical Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Kathleen

    This manual is intended to help elementary and secondary teachers locate and use historical records in social studies and local history courses. There are four major sections to the manual. The first section discusses educational objectives which can be met by using historical records. How to locate and use historical records is the topic of the…

  20. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  1. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

  2. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI) intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32) underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC), zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient intake, increased demand

  3. Diet and asthma: looking back, moving forward.

    PubMed

    Kim, June-Ho; Ellwood, Philippa E; Asher, M Innes

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potential factors. With rapid changes in diet being one of the hallmarks of westernization, nutrition may play a key role in affecting the complex genetics and developmental pathophysiology of asthma. The present review investigates hypotheses about hygiene, antioxidants, lipids and other nutrients, food types and dietary patterns, breastfeeding, probiotics and intestinal microbiota, vitamin D, maternal diet, and genetics. Early hypotheses analyzed population level trends and focused on major dietary factors such as antioxidants and lipids. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as obesity, fast foods, and the Mediterranean diet. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns past early childhood on asthma prevalence. However, diet has been linked to the development of the fetus and child. Breastfeeding provides immunological protection when the infant's immune system is immature and a modest protective effect against wheeze in early childhood. Moreover, maternal diet may be a significant factor in the development of the fetal airway and immune system. As asthma is a complex disease of gene-environment interactions, maternal diet may play an epigenetic role in sensitizing fetal airways to respond abnormally to environmental insults. Recent hypotheses show promise in a biological approach in which the effects of dietary factors on individual physiology and immunology are analyzed before expansion into larger population studies. Thus, collaboration is required by various groups in studying this enigma from epidemiologists to geneticists to immunologists. It is now apparent that this multidisciplinary

  4. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides. PMID:22125684

  5. Evaluation of yeast products in fruit fly adult diet and liquid larval diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several yeasts and yeast products were tested as components of adult diet for Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae and larval liquid diet for Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis in mass rearing process. Three hydrolyzed yeasts ...

  6. Alternating Diet as a Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention for High Fat Diet-induced Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the alternating diet as a new strategy in combating obesity and metabolic diseases. Lean or obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for five days and switched to a regular diet for one (5 + 1), two (5 + 2), or five (5 + 5) days before switching back to HFD to start the second cycle, for a total of eight weeks (for prevention) or five weeks (for treatment) without limiting animals’ access to food. Our results showed that animals with 5 + 2 and 5 + 5 diet alternations significantly inhibited body weight and fat mass gain compared to animals fed an HFD continuously. The dietary switch changed the pattern of daily caloric intake and suppressed HFD-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and alleviated fatty liver. Alternating diet inhibited HFD-induced hepatic Pparγ-mediated lipid accumulation and activated the expression of Pparα and its target genes. Alternating diet in the 5 + 5 schedule induced weight loss in obese mice and reversed the progression of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. The results provide direct evidence to support that alternating diet represents a new intervention in dealing with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity. PMID:27189661

  7. Alternating Diet as a Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention for High Fat Diet-induced Metabolic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the alternating diet as a new strategy in combating obesity and metabolic diseases. Lean or obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for five days and switched to a regular diet for one (5 + 1), two (5 + 2), or five (5 + 5) days before switching back to HFD to start the second cycle, for a total of eight weeks (for prevention) or five weeks (for treatment) without limiting animals' access to food. Our results showed that animals with 5 + 2 and 5 + 5 diet alternations significantly inhibited body weight and fat mass gain compared to animals fed an HFD continuously. The dietary switch changed the pattern of daily caloric intake and suppressed HFD-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and alleviated fatty liver. Alternating diet inhibited HFD-induced hepatic Pparγ-mediated lipid accumulation and activated the expression of Pparα and its target genes. Alternating diet in the 5 + 5 schedule induced weight loss in obese mice and reversed the progression of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. The results provide direct evidence to support that alternating diet represents a new intervention in dealing with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity. PMID:27189661

  8. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  9. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  10. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  11. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. PMID:26164391

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  13. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  14. Diet, sex, and death in field crickets

    PubMed Central

    Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Dessmann, Josephine; Brooks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Senescence is shaped by age-dependent trade-offs between fitness components. Because males and females invest different resources in reproduction, the trade-offs behind age-dependent reproductive effort should be resolved differently in the sexes. In this study, we assess the effects of diet (high carbohydrate and low protein vs. equal carbohydrate and protein) and mating (once mated vs. virgin) on lifespan and age-dependent mortality in male and female field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus), and on male calling effort. Females always had higher actuarial ageing rates than males, and we found a clear lifespan cost of mating in females. Mated males, however, lived longer than virgin males, possibly because virgins call more than mated males. The fastest age-dependent increases in mortality were among mated males on the high-carbohydrate diet. Males on a high-carbohydrate diet showed a faster increase in calling effort earlier in life, and a more pronounced pattern of senescence once they reached this peak than did males on a diet with equal amounts of protein and carbohydrates. Our results provide evidence that the cost of mating in this cricket species is both diet and sex-dependent, and that the underlying causes of sex differences in life-history traits such as lifespan and senescence can be complex. PMID:22957167

  15. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research.

    PubMed

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J

    2009-10-01

    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients. PMID:19793510

  16. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = -0.33) and triglycerides (r = -0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional interventions

  17. Effects of boron supplements on bones from rats fed calcium and magnesium deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.; Irwin, A.; Kenney, M.A.; Williams, L. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty female, weanling rats were fed, for 6 wks, diets providing: casein, 20; CHO, 40; fat, 40. Vitamins and minerals, except Ca and Mg, were fed according to AIN'76 recommendations. Gp A (control) was fed 100% AIN Ca, Mg and P with no boron (B) added. Gps CD and CD+B were fed 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN Mg and P; Gps MD and MD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg and 100% AIN Ca and P; Gps CMD and CMD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg, 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN P. The +B groups were supplemented with B at 12 mcg/g diet. Femurs (F) and 2 vertebrae (V) were scraped clean, weighed, sealed in saline-wet gauze, and refrigerated overnight. Bones were equilibrated at {sup {approximately}}25C. F lengths and diameters at the breakpoint were measured before a 3-point flexure test. V were subjected to a compression test. Maximum force (kg) at breakpoint was recorded. Data for right and left F and for 2 V were pooled. Although DIET' (CD, MD, CMD) affected numerous characteristics of F and V, B supplementation of diets affected only % moisture in F, Ca concentration in dry F and in F ash for CD and CMD diets. Interactions between B and diet affected F Mg concentrations in bone and in ash. Group CMD+B had higher Mg/g F than CMD. B increased Mg/g ash for CMD, decreased it for CD and did not affect it for MD.

  18. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  19. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  20. A Review of the Fundamentals of Diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary recommendations should be individualized for each patient, but certain basic principles apply to most people. A healthful diet should include a wide variety of whole, unprocessed foods that are free of additives and, if possible, grown without the use of pesticides, herbicides, and other potentially toxic agricultural chemicals. For people who do not have specific food intolerances, such a diet generally includes liberal amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes. For most people, animal foods such as eggs, fish, chicken, beef, and dairy products can be healthfully consumed in moderation. It is not necessary to consume animal foods to maintain good health. In fact, compared with omnivores, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. However, vegetarians must carefully plan their diet so as not to develop nutritional deficiencies. PMID:24381826

  1. Acne and diet: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder characterized by follicular hyperkeratinization and obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, androgen stimulated sebum production, colonization of the follicles by Propionibacterium acne, and inflammation. A large number of epidemiological studies have shown a low incidence of acne in non-Western societies, suggesting that diet might be an important factor in acne pathogenesis, particularly in mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and androgen stimulation in the acne process. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that diet might have a preventive or therapeutic effect in this skin disorder. Since the majority of recent data have not been consistent, the aim of this article is to present current knowledge and scientific assumptions on the relationship between diet and acne. PMID:23069302

  2. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Ayelet; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed. PMID:23908829

  3. Festival foods in the immigrant diet.

    PubMed

    Azar, Kristen M J; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2013-10-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the "Westernization" of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e., fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the US. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western "junk" food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  4. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1995-06-01

    Dietary recommendations made to promote health seldom, if ever, take account of environmental implications of producing recommended foods. This paper considers several aspects of the traditional Mediterranean diet in relation to global sustainability. Plant-centered diets, such as those consumed around the Mediterranean Sea during the 1950s and 1960s, would be environmentally beneficial because they imply need for a much smaller population of domestic animals and, consequently, lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources. Although fish consumption is high in some Mediterranean diets, fish should not be used to replace animal flesh because all of the world's major fisheries are currently overexploited. As for the appropriateness of Mediterranean fresh fruit and vegetables (which would need to be imported into non-Mediterranean regions), locally producible substitutes should be used wherever possible to reduce the environmental costs of transporting food great distances. Research is needed to examine the environmental consequences of certain exports such as olive oil. PMID:7754992

  5. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians. PMID:16441942

  6. Landsat electron beam recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, P. F.; Whitley, J. P.

    A minicomputer-controlled electron beam recorder (EBR) presently in use at the Brazilian Government's Institute De Pesquisas Espaclais (INPE) satellite ground station is described. This 5-in.-film-size EBR is used to record both Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery in South America. A brief electron beam recorder technology review is presented. The EBR is capable of recording both vector and text data from computer-aided design, publishing, and line art systems and raster data from image scanners, raster image processors (RIPS), halftone/screen generators, and remote image sensors. A variety of image formats may be recorded on numerous film sizes (16 mm, 35 mm, 70 mm, 105 mm, 5-in, 5.5-in., and 9.5-in.). These recordings are used directly or optically enlarged depending on the final product.

  7. Changes of the hindgut microbiota due to high-starch diet can be associated with behavioral stress response in horses.

    PubMed

    Destrez, Alexandra; Grimm, Pauline; Cézilly, Frank; Julliand, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    The digestive system of horses is adapted to a high-fiber diet consumed in small amounts over a long time. However, during training, high-starch and low-fiber diets are usually fed which may induce hindgut microbial disturbances and intestinal pain. These diets can be described as alimentary stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior are associated with alimentary stress and microbial composition changes of the cecal or colonic ecosystem. Six fistulated horses were used. The alimentary stress was a modification of diet from a high-fiber diet (100% hay) to a progressive low-fiber and high-starch diet (from 90% hay and 10% barley to 57% hay and 43% barley in 5 days). Cecal and colonic total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria were enumerated three times (twice on high-fiber diet and once on 57% hay and 43% barley diet). The behavior of horses was assessed from continuous video recording over an 18-h time period. In addition two personality traits were measured: neophobia (assessed from the reaction to the presence of a novel object placed near a feeder in a test arena) and sociability (assessed from the reaction to an unfamiliar horse in a stall). Video recordings were analyzed by scan sampling every 10 min using the following behavioral categories: lying, resting, feeding and being vigilant. In addition, we recorded time spent feeding and time spent in vigilance during the neophobia test, and time spent in vigilance and time spent in interactions with the unfamiliar horse during the sociability test. The alimentary stress induced significant increases of colonic total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria and amylolytic bacteria concentrations. When horses were fed the 57% hay–43% barley diet, time spent in vigilance tended to be positively correlated with cecal and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the sociability test and with cecal lactate-utilizing and

  8. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  9. Diet and body composition. Effect of very low calorie diets and exercise.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Jakicic, J; Gunderson, S

    1991-10-01

    Obesity is the presence of excess body fat and is associated with a variety of medical conditions which increase morbidity and mortality. Millions of individuals participate in weight-reduction programmes which include reduced calorie diets and may also include exercise. Very low calorie diets (VLCD) of 400 to 800 kcal/day appear attractive as they generally show an increase in weight loss from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/week found with the traditional diet to 1.5 to 2.0 kg/week. Early use of very low calorie diets with poor quality protein and loose medical supervision resulted in about 60 deaths, many of which were attributed to loss of lean body mass and in particular, cardiac muscle atrophy. Although current very low calorie diets are presumed safe, concern regarding preservation of lean body mass (LBM) remains. Investigators have used exercise to slow the depletion of lean body mass during very low calorie diets; however, the results are not conclusive. A host of different methodologies and questionable documentation and design of exercise protocols precludes a definitive statement for the benefits of exercise during very low calorie diets for the purpose of LBM retention. PMID:1784876

  10. Maternal diet and larval diet influence survival skills of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Perez, K O; Fuiman, L A

    2015-04-01

    Larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus survival, turning rate, routine swimming speed, escape response latency and escape response distance were significantly correlated with essential fatty-acid (EFA) concentrations in eggs. Of the five traits that varied with egg EFA content, two (escape response latency and routine swimming speed) were significantly different when larvae were fed enriched diets compared with the low fatty-acid diet, indicating that the larval diet can compensate for some imbalances in egg composition. Turning rate during routine swimming and escape response distance, however, did not change when larvae predicted to have low performance (based on egg composition) were fed an enriched diet, indicating that these effects of egg composition may be irreversible. Escape response distances and survival rates of larvae predicted to perform well (based on egg composition) and fed highly enriched diets were lower than expected, suggesting that high levels of EFA intake can be detrimental. Altogether, these results suggest that both maternal diet, which is responsible for egg EFA composition, and larval diet may play a role in larval survivorship and recruitment. PMID:25740661

  11. The Mediterranean diets: What is so special about the diet of Greece? The scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2001-11-01

    The term "Mediterranean diet," implying that all Mediterranean people have the same diet, is a misnomer. The countries around the Mediterranean basin have different diets, religions and cultures. Their diets differ in the amount of total fat, olive oil, type of meat and wine intake; milk vs. cheese; fruits and vegetables; and the rates of coronary heart disease and cancer, with the lower death rates and longer life expectancy occurring in Greece. Extensive studies on the traditional diet of Greece (the diet before 1960) indicate that the dietary pattern of Greeks consists of a high intake of fruits, vegetables (particularly wild plants), nuts and cereals mostly in the form of sourdough bread rather than pasta; more olive oil and olives; less milk but more cheese; more fish; less meat; and moderate amounts of wine, more so than other Mediterranean countries. Analyses of the dietary pattern of the diet of Crete shows a number of protective substances, such as selenium, glutathione, a balanced ratio of (n-6):(n-3) essential fatty acids (EFA), high amounts of fiber, antioxidants (especially resveratrol from wine and polyphenols from olive oil), vitamins E and C, some of which have been shown to be associated with lower risk of cancer, including cancer of the breast. These findings should serve as a strong incentive for the initiation of intervention trials that will test the effect of specific dietary patterns in the prevention and management of patients with cancer. PMID:11694649

  12. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation. PMID:26987378

  13. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  14. Photonic Data Recording Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, J.; Chang, J.; Davis, P.; Holmgren, D.; Bruns, D.; Watson, D.; Lechner, M.; Graham, R.; Kemme, S.

    1989-02-01

    Steady advancement has been made in bringing photonic recorder technologies from a pure research and development stage to the practical laboratory and fielding environment. Streak camera-based systems have been incorporated into large data recording systems and have shown significant improvement in channel density and single-shot bandwidth. In particular, remote photonic sensing using fiber optic cables to transmit the information to the recorder has shown advantages over conventional coax cable methods. One streak camera-based recorder system has been designed into the underground test (UGT) data acquisition system. The design allowed for video rate readout, redundant digitized image storage, UGT system compatibility, and full real time system diagnostics. Another stand-alone streak camera-based recorder has been designed that incorporates an IEEE-488 interface and a unique software package. Operation of this photonic recorder system (PRS-1000), as either a streak imaging recorder or as a high-speed multi-channel data recorder (HSMCDR), has been greatly simplified through use of the icon-driven, window-based custom software. An overview of photonic recording methods will be presented along with the details of the PRS-1000 and the associated system software.

  15. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  16. 34 CFR 5.17 - Records in record centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records in record centers. 5.17 Section 5.17 Education... PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) What Records Are Available § 5.17 Records in record centers. When a... or other record centers of the General Services Administration, but would otherwise be...

  17. Disentangling adaptive evolutionary radiations and the role of diet in promoting diversification on islands.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil data, rigorous attempts to identify this phenomenon in the fossil record are largely uncommon. Here I focus on direct evidence of the diet (through tooth-wear patterns) and ecologically-relevant traits of one of the most renowned fossil vertebrates-the Miocene ruminant Hoplitomeryx from the island of Gargano-to deepen our understanding of the most likely causal forces under which adaptive radiations emerge on islands. Results show how accelerated accumulation of species and early-bursts of ecological diversification occur after invading an island, and provide insights on the interplay between diet and demographic (population-density), ecological (competition/food requirements) and abiotic (climate-instability) factors, identified as drivers of adaptive diversification. A pronounced event of overpopulation and a phase of aridity determined most of the rate and magnitude of radiation, and pushed species to expand diets from soft-leafy foods to tougher-harder items. Unexpectedly, results show that herbivorous mammals are restricted to browsing habits on small-islands, even if bursts of ecological diversification and dietary divergence occur. This study deepens our understanding of the mechanisms promoting adaptive radiations, and forces us to reevaluate the role of diet in the origins and evolution of islands mammals. PMID:27405690

  18. Disentangling adaptive evolutionary radiations and the role of diet in promoting diversification on islands

    PubMed Central

    DeMiguel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil data, rigorous attempts to identify this phenomenon in the fossil record are largely uncommon. Here I focus on direct evidence of the diet (through tooth-wear patterns) and ecologically-relevant traits of one of the most renowned fossil vertebrates-the Miocene ruminant Hoplitomeryx from the island of Gargano-to deepen our understanding of the most likely causal forces under which adaptive radiations emerge on islands. Results show how accelerated accumulation of species and early-bursts of ecological diversification occur after invading an island, and provide insights on the interplay between diet and demographic (population-density), ecological (competition/food requirements) and abiotic (climate-instability) factors, identified as drivers of adaptive diversification. A pronounced event of overpopulation and a phase of aridity determined most of the rate and magnitude of radiation, and pushed species to expand diets from soft-leafy foods to tougher-harder items. Unexpectedly, results show that herbivorous mammals are restricted to browsing habits on small-islands, even if bursts of ecological diversification and dietary divergence occur. This study deepens our understanding of the mechanisms promoting adaptive radiations, and forces us to reevaluate the role of diet in the origins and evolution of islands mammals. PMID:27405690

  19. Chickpea supplementation in an Australian diet affects food choice, satiety and bowel health.

    PubMed

    Murty, Catherine M; Pittaway, Jane K; Ball, Madeleine J

    2010-04-01

    The study aimed to examine both changes in food consumption, satiation and perceived bowel health while consuming a diet rich in chickpeas, and participants, feelings about the dietary change. Forty-two participants completed an ordered crossover study, consuming their habitual diet for 4 weeks, a chickpea supplemented (average 104 g/day) diet for 12 weeks, and their habitual diet for another 4 weeks. Weighed dietary records were quantitatively analysed for changes in consumption of foods from within eight food groups. Perceived changes to bowel function and satiation were semi-quantitatively assessed using anchored visual analogue scales. Focus groups were used to qualitatively explore the acceptability of chickpea consumption and the benefits of, and barriers to, legume consumption for 15 participants. Intake of foods from all food groups was lower during the chickpea supplemented phase, particularly foods of the Cereal food group (P=0.01). Participants tended to eat more processed snack foods (high energy, low fiber) after ceasing chickpea consumption (P=0.09), a trend supported by focus group discussion. Perceived satiation increased while participants consumed chickpeas and perceived bowel function improved. Health benefits, increases in dietary variety and satiation with legume consumption were the main perceived benefits, while inconvenience and gastrointestinal upset discouraged legume consumption. PMID:19945492

  20. Study of uptake of zinc into blood from a Nigerian diet using INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, J. O.; Osoniyi, R. O.; Aboderin, A. O.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes our on-going investigations on the study of uptake of zinc from dietary intakes, into blood. The aim is to evaluate the possibility of successful application of dietary zinc therapy in the management of Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Seven adult subjects were involved in the current study. After the ingestion of an experimental diet, blood samples were withdrawn from the subjects at various time intervals. The blood samples were further separated into erythrocytes and plasma. Both blood components and the ingested diet were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for zinc. Significant increases in the levels of plasma zinc were recorded in the subjects within 2 hours after the ingestion of the diet and were sustained till about the fourth hour. We were not able to detect significant uptake of zinc in the erythrocytes. Either the levels of ingested zinc were too low or there were inhibitions of the absorption by the diet. Better response is expected in SCA patients since they are known to be frequently zinc-deficient.

  1. Immune-enhancing diet and cytokine expression during chronic sepsis: an immune-enhancing diet containing L-arginine, fish oil, and RNA fragments promotes intestinal cytokine expression during chronic sepsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Matheson, Paul J; Mays, Michael P; Garrison, R Neal

    2006-01-01

    Chronic feeding with enteral immune-enhancing diets (IEDs) provides benefits based on composition of the diet, route of feeding, and timing of feeding in relation to timing of trauma or surgery. Our prior studies of acute feeding in naïve rats demonstrated that IED promotes blood flow and proinflammatory cytokines in the ileum. We hypothesized that chronic feeding with IED would shift gut immune status to an anti-inflammatory state during chronic sepsis, resulting in an altered state of cytokine expression in the gut. Five days prior to feeding, gauze was implanted subcutaneously in the backs of male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were fed for 3 days with either control diet (CD, Boost; Mead-Johnson, Evansville, IL) or IED (Impact; Novartis) and randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control (NS) + control diet (CD), sepsis (EC) + CD, NS + IED, or EC + IED. EC rats were inoculated with 10(9) CFU Escherichia coli and 10(9) CFU Bacteroides fragilis in 2 ml normal saline into the back sponge while NS rats received 2 mL normal saline alone. After 3 days, animals were anesthetized and gut tissue samples were harvested and frozen at -80 degrees C. Tissue protein was extracted and ELISA was performed for interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In saline controls, IED feeding decreased IL-1beta, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma and increased IL-10 compared with CD-fed animals. In septic animals, IED feeding increased IL-5 and IL-6, while decreasing IFN-gamma and IL-10 in the distal third of the small intestine compared with CD-fed septic rats, whereas IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels were unchanged. Chronic IED feeding produced a anti-inflammatory state via decreased IFN-gamma and increased IL-5 and IL-6, which both promote gut IgA class switching, suggesting that the gut is shifted toward humoral immunity during chronic IED feeding in septic rats. PMID:16368490

  2. Distinct Time Course of the Decrease in Hepatic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Akt Phosphorylation in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Okubo, Hirofumi; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Monzen, Yuko; Kishimoto, Rui; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Asano, Tomoichiro; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in insulin resistance, which is characterized by the impairment of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway. However, the time course of the decrease in AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the liver during the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by feeding a high fat diet (HFD) remains controversial. Moreover, it is unclear whether the impairment of AMPK and Akt signaling pathways is reversible when changing from a HFD to a standard diet (SD). Male ddY mice were fed the SD or HFD for 3 to 28 days, or fed the HFD for 14 days, followed by the SD for 14 days. We examined the time course of the expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPK and Akt in the liver by immunoblotting. After 3 days of feeding on the HFD, mice gained body weight, resulting in an increased oil red O staining, indicative of hepatic lipid accumulation, and significantly decreased AMPK phosphorylation, in comparison with mice fed the SD. After 14 days on the HFD, systemic insulin resistance occurred and Akt phosphorylation significantly decreased. Subsequently, a change from the HFD to SD for 3 days, after 14 days on the HFD, ameliorated the impairment of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation and systemic insulin resistance. Our findings indicate that AMPK phosphorylation decreases early upon feeding a HFD and emphasizes the importance of prompt lifestyle modification for decreasing the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:26266809

  3. Ketogenic diet for obesity: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients. PMID:24557522

  4. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  5. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  6. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  7. The Western Diet and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. PMID:25754321

  8. Nutrition and diet-related problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, E C; Maropis, C G

    1998-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of remarkable change. Nutrient requirements increase to promote physical growth and development and adolescents begin to make lifelong diet choices. These choices are often influenced by family, peers, and individual nutrition beliefs. This article addresses typical problems and recommendations for normal adolescent nutrition as well as nutrient needs for special conditions such as obesity, athletics, and vegetarianism. PMID:9469923

  9. Does a low FODMAP diet help IBS?

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. The cause of IBS is unknown but several mechanisms have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, central sensitisation, abnormal gut motility and altered gut microbiota. IBS is challenging to manage and many patients report insufficient symptomatic relief from treatment. Approximately 60% of patients identify food as a trigger for their symptoms, and there has been interest in exclusion diets for managing IBS. Dietary adaptation is a common self-management strategy for patients with IBS, with many self-diagnosing intolerance to specific foods. This may lead to patients adopting over-restrictive or inappropriate diets. In recent years, a diet low in poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates, known collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols), has been advocated for the treatment of IBS. Here, we discuss the background to the FODMAP diet and review the evidence supporting its use for people with IBS. PMID:26251411

  10. Persons with Diet-Related Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, Kristen W.; Steinberg, Louis H.

    1980-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational approach to dealing with people with diet related diseases, their prevention, detection, and treatment. Issues include content and goals of education, identification of factors affecting food choices, professional education improvement, coordination of nutrition education systems, and nutrition concerns. (SA)

  11. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  12. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... nutsbeans and seeds Millet Montina™ Potato starch Potato flour Quinoa Rice rice bran Sago Sorghum Soy (soya) Tapioca Teff ... weight gain. Constipation/diarrhea If only processed white rice is used in replacement of wheat flour, the low fiber diet may lead to constipation. ...

  13. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  14. What Is the Diet for PKU?

    MedlinePlus

    ... range helps to prevent problems with thinking and problem solving. In the past, people with PKU were advised to stop their low phe diet when they were children. Most young people with PKU ... with paying attention, concentrating, and remembering. Recently, many ...

  15. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Gano, Lindsey B; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M

    2014-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate "classic KD", as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  16. Dieting and Depression: A Methodological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined effects of frequency, time, and method of assessment on reports of psychological functioning in 28 obese women who lost an average of 19.2 kilograms in 6 months. Results showed that method of mood assessment may determine the answer to the question of whether dieting is associated with adverse psychological consequences. (NB)

  17. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Karanja N, Lin PH; DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med . 2001 Jan 4;344( ...

  18. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not fat — it's just water. And the body sucks this lost water back up like a sponge once a person ... contain laxatives or diuretics that force a person's body to eliminate more water. Just like restricted-calorie diets, the weight lost ...

  19. ADAPTATION IN ZINC ABSORPTION FROM WHOLE DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited evidence suggests that humans increase zinc (Zn) absorption in response to low Zn intake. Aim: To assess human Zn absorption from whole diets varying in Zn content, and short-term adaptation to meet apparent Zn requirements. Method: Using 65Zn and whole body counting, Zn absorption by 83 hea...

  20. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Ranjita

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  1. The Mediterranean diet: a view from history.

    PubMed

    Haber, B

    1997-10-01

    Although the virtues of the Mediterranean diet have been advocated since the Renaissance, adoption of the diet outside the Mediterranean region has proved difficult but not impossible. Efforts at promoting dietary change have been explored in the writings of Europeans and Americans since 1614 when Giacomo Castelvetro, an exile from Modena, Italy, published a book in England on Italian fruit, herbs, and vegetables. The historical causes of resistance by groups and individuals-culture, class, sex, and human psychology-are revealed by asking the question, What does food mean to people? Particularly instructive are failed efforts by well-meaning late-19th-century American reformers to hasten the assimilation of newly arrived immigrants by interfering with their eating habits. The establishment of the New England Kitchen, which provided inexpensive Yankee cooking intended to Americanize poor immigrants, served only to expedite food distribution networks between California farms and urban centers, allowing mainly Mediterranean groups to eat their customary foods. Successful efforts at change are also explored, leading to the conclusion that the satisfying flavors of the Mediterranean diet provide the best chance of influencing people to abandon unhealthy foods in favor of fresh vegetables, fruit, grains, and olive oil. The diet must be promoted, however, not only by medical and nutritional authorities, but also by people who have the power to persuade: authorities on cooking and experts in advertising and marketing. PMID:9322586

  2. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy. PMID:16923240

  3. Moderating diets to feed the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Population growth, dietary changes, and increasing biofuel use are placing unprecedented pressure on the global food system. While this demand likely cannot be met by expanding agricultural lands, much of the world's cropland can attain higher crop yields. Therefore, it is important to examine whether increasing crop productivity to the maximum attainable yield (i.e., yield gap closure) alone can substantially improve food security at global and national scales. Here we show that closing yield gaps through conventional technological development (i.e., fertilizers and irrigation) can potentially meet future global demand if diets are moderated and crop-based biofuel production is limited. In particular, we find that increases in dietary demand will be largely to blame should crop production fall short of demand. In converting projected diets to a globally adequate diet (3000 kcal/cap/d; 20% animal kcal) under current agrofuel use, we find that 1.8-2.6 billion additional people can be fed in 2030 and 2.1-3.1 billion additional people in 2050, depending on the extent to which yields can improve in those periods. Therefore, the simple combination of yield gap closure and moderating diets offers promise for feeding the world's population but only if long-term sustainability is the focus.

  4. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients. PMID:24557522

  5. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  6. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Cancer.gov

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  7. New Approaches to Planning Diabetic Diets Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Georgia

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to educate patients and food service staff regarding diabetic diets, incorporating current therapeutic recommendations and allowing variation and flexibility. Representative topics are facts about diabetes mellitus, high risk groups, symptoms, treatment and goals of diet…

  8. Privacy and Library Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  9. The Evolving Scholarly Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Brian; Childress, Eric; Erway, Ricky; Faniel, Ixchel; Malpas, Constance; Schaffner, Jennifer; van der Werf, Titia

    2014-01-01

    The ways and means of scholarly inquiry are experiencing fundamental change, with consequences for scholarly communication and ultimately, the scholarly record. The boundaries of the scholarly record are both expanding and blurring, driven by changes in research practices, as well as changing perceptions of the long-term value of certain forms of…

  10. OPAC Missing Record Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    When the Higher Education Library Information Network of Rhode Island transferred members' bibliographic data into a shared online public access catalog (OPAC), 10% of the University of Rhode Island's monograph records were missing. This article describes the consortium's attempts to retrieve records from the database and the effectiveness of…

  11. Record Keeping Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  12. Diet, lipoproteins and cholesteryl ester transfer activity in hyperlipidaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Groener, J E; Jacobs, D M; van Rozen, A J; Erkelens, D W

    1985-02-01

    In order to study the response of cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) to alteration in diet in humans we carried out a longitudinal study in hyperlipidaemic patients. Five subjects, all hyperlipidaemic, were first given a low fat diet for 7 to 15 days and then a diet high in fat for 7 to 21 days. In four out of five patients both diets were low in energy. The plasma lipoprotein levels and CETA were measured daily. All patients responded on the low fat diet by a decrease in total cholesterol and total triglycerides. No response on the high fat diet was noticed except in the patient for whom the high fat diet was also high in energy. In all patients the changes in CETA ran parallel to changes in (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol. It is concluded that diet induced changes in (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol are accompanied by similar changes in CETA in hyperlipidaemic subjects. PMID:16831701

  13. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Version​ (PDF, 785 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation in Children Page Content How can a child's diet help prevent or relieve constipation? A child should ...

  14. Suggested Citations for the DHQ II & Diet*Calc

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  15. Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Katcher, Heather I; Jenkins, David J A; Cohen, Joshua; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle

    2009-05-01

    Vegetarian and vegan diets offer significant benefits for diabetes management. In observational studies, individuals following vegetarian diets are about half as likely to develop diabetes, compared with non-vegetarians. In clinical trials in individuals with type 2 diabetes, low-fat vegan diets improve glycemic control to a greater extent than conventional diabetes diets. Although this effect is primarily attributable to greater weight loss, evidence also suggests that reduced intake of saturated fats and high-glycemic-index foods, increased intake of dietary fiber and vegetable protein, reduced intramyocellular lipid concentrations, and decreased iron stores mediate the influence of plant-based diets on glycemia. Vegetarian and vegan diets also improve plasma lipid concentrations and have been shown to reverse atherosclerosis progression. In clinical studies, the reported acceptability of vegetarian and vegan diets is comparable to other therapeutic regimens. The presently available literature indicates that vegetarian and vegan diets present potential advantages for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19386029

  16. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  17. A qualitative study of the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches in overweight/obese Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dieting has historically been the main behavioural treatment paradigm for overweight/obesity, although a non-dieting paradigm has more recently emerged based on the criticisms of the original dieting approach. There is a dearth of research contrasting why these approaches are adopted. To address this, we conducted a qualitative investigation into the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese Australian adults. Methods Grounded theory was used inductively to generate a model of themes contrasting the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives of 21 overweight/obese adults. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Results Several categories emerged which distinguished between the adoption of a dieting or non-dieting approach. These categories included the focus of each approach (weight/image or lifestyle/health behaviours); internal or external attributions about dieting failure; attitudes towards established diets, and personal autonomy. Personal autonomy was also influenced by another category; the perceived knowledge and self-efficacy about each approach, with adults more likely to choose an approach they knew more about and were confident in implementing. The time perspective of change (short or long-term) and the perceived identity of the person (fat/dieter or healthy person) also emerged as determinants of dieting or non-dieting approaches respectively. Conclusions The model of determinants elicited from this study assists in understanding why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted, from the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese adults. Understanding this decision-making process can assist clinicians and public health researchers to design and tailor dieting and non-dieting interventions to population subgroups that have preferences and characteristics

  18. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in body weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The

  19. Diabetes, Diet-Health Behavior, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    High-quality diets play an important role in diabetes prevention. Appropriate dietary adherence can improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, and thus contribute to lifestyle improvement. However, previous research suggests that dietary adherence is arguably among the most difficult cornerstones of diabetes management. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate whether and to what extent individuals diagnosed with diabetes show significant differences in diet quality [healthy eating index (HEI)] compared to healthy individuals, (2) to quantify whether and to what extent diabetics experience significantly higher outcomes of body mass index (BMI), and (3) to estimate whether and to what extent dietary supplementation impacts diabetes patient’s diet quality and/or BMI outcomes. We use data from the 2007–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The NHANES is the primary, randomized, and nationally representative survey used to assess the health and nutritional status in the U.S. We apply propensity score matching (PSM) to account for selection bias and endogeneity between self-reported diet and health behavir (treatment) and BMI outcomes. We control for an individual’s BMI as to capture the impact of past dietary behavior in its impact on HEI. Matching results suggest that regular dietary supplement consumption is associated with significant lower BMI outcomes of almost 1 kg/m2. The close relationship between diabetes and obesity has been at the center of the diet-health policy debate across Canada and the U.S. Knowledge about this linkage may help to improve the understanding of the factors that impact dietary choices and their overall health outcomes, which may lead to a more efficient and effective promotion of dietary guidelines, healthy food choices, and targeted consumer health and lifestyle policies. PMID:25852643

  20. Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponheimer, Matt; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Cerling, Thure E.; Grine, Frederick E.; Kimbel, William H.; Leakey, Meave G.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Reed, Kaye E.; Wood, Bernard A.; Wynn, Jonathan G.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The 13C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants.

  1. Diet and diabetes: lines and dots.

    PubMed

    Katz, David L

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, is epidemic in the United States among adults and children alike, and increasingly prevalent around the world. On its current trajectory, the increasing incidence of diabetes has the potential to ravage both public health and economies. There has, however, been evidence for decades that lifestyle has enormous potential to prevent chronic disease, diabetes included. Studies suggest that the combination of tobacco avoidance, routine physical activity, optimal dietary pattern, and weight control could eliminate as much as 80% of all chronic disease, and 90% of cases of diabetes specifically. None of these factors is necessarily easily achieved, but most are simple. Diet, on the other hand, is complex, and arguments abound for competing diets and related health benefits. From an expansive review of relevant literature, the case emerges that the overall theme of optimal eating for human beings is very well established, whereas the case for any given variation on that theme is substantially less so. Once the theme of healthful eating is acknowledged, the challenge shifts to getting there from here. Although much effort focuses on the wholesale conversion of dietary patterns, the introduction or removal of highly nutritious foods can have direct health effects, and potentially reverberate through the diet as well, shifting the quality of the diet and related health effects. Studies demonstrating favorable effects of daily walnut ingestion in diabetes and insulin resistance are profiled as an illustration, and an ongoing study examining the implications of daily walnut ingestion on diet quality and various biometric variables is described. The line between dietary pattern and the epidemiology of diabetes is indelibly established; we must work to connect the dots between here and there. PMID:24500937

  2. Human gut microbiota: does diet matter?

    PubMed

    Maukonen, Johanna; Saarela, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The human oro-gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex system, consisting of oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus, which all together with the accessory digestive organs constitute the digestive system. The function of the digestive system is to break down dietary constituents into small molecules and then absorb these for subsequent distribution throughout the body. Besides digestion and carbohydrate metabolism, the indigenous microbiota has an important influence on host physiological, nutritional and immunological processes, and commensal bacteria are able to modulate the expression of host genes that regulate diverse and fundamental physiological functions. The main external factors that can affect the composition of the microbial community in generally healthy adults include major dietary changes and antibiotic therapy. Changes in some selected bacterial groups have been observed due to controlled changes to the normal diet e.g. high-protein diet, high-fat diet, prebiotics, probiotics and polyphenols. More specifically, changes in the type and quantity of non-digestible carbohydrates in the human diet influence both the metabolic products formed in the lower regions of the GI tract and the bacterial populations detected in faeces. The interactions between dietary factors, gut microbiota and host metabolism are increasingly demonstrated to be important for maintaining homeostasis and health. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarise the effect of diet, and especially dietary interventions, on the human gut microbiota. Furthermore, the most important confounding factors (methodologies used and intrinsic human factors) in relation to gut microbiota analyses are elucidated. PMID:25156389

  3. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136

  4. Vegan diet in physiological health promotion.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, O; Rauma, A L; Kaartinen, K; Nenonen, M

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a number of studies including dietary interventions and cross-sectional studies on subjects consuming uncooked vegan food called living food (LF) and clarified the changes in several parameters related to health risk factors. LF consists of germinated seeds, cereals, sprouts, vegetables, fruits, berries and nuts. Some items are fermented and contain a lot of lactobacilli. The diet is rich in fiber. It has very little sodium, and it contains no cholesterol. Food items like berries and wheat grass juice are rich in antioxidants such as carotenoids and flavonoids. The subjects eating living food show increased levels of carotenoids and vitamins C and E and lowered cholesterol concentration in their sera. Urinary excretion of sodium is only a fraction of the omnivorous controls. Also urinary output of phenol and p-cresol is lowered as are several fecal enzyme levels which are considered harmful. The rheumatoid arthritis patients eating the LF diet reported amelioration of their pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness which all got worse after finishing LF diet. The composite indices of objective measures showed also improvement of the rheumatoid arthritis patients during the intervention. The fibromyalgic subjects eating LF lost weight compared to their omnivorous controls. The results on their joint stiffness and pain (visual analogue scale), on their quality of sleep, on health assessment questionnaire and on general health questionnaire all improved. It appears that the adoption of vegan diet exemplified by the living food leads to a lessening of several health risk factors to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Rheumatoid patients subjectively benefited from the vegan diet which was also seen in serum parameters and fecal analyses. PMID:10943644

  5. Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets

    PubMed Central

    Sponheimer, Matt; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Cerling, Thure E.; Grine, Frederick E.; Kimbel, William H.; Leakey, Meave G.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Reed, Kaye E.; Wood, Bernard A.; Wynn, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The 13C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants.

  6. Reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiration following acute high-fat diet is prevented by PGC-1α overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Matthew; Jackman, Matthew R.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Lopez, Jordan L.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in substrate utilization and reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity following exposure to energy-dense, high-fat diets (HFD) are putatively key components in the development of obesity-related metabolic disease. We examined the effect of a 3-day HFD on isolated liver mitochondrial respiration and whole body energy utilization in obesity-prone (OP) rats. We also examined if hepatic overexpression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial respiratory capacity and biogenesis, would modify liver and whole body responses to the HFD. Acute, 3-day HFD (45% kcal) in OP rats resulted in increased daily energy intake, energy balance, weight gain, and adiposity, without an increase in liver triglyceride (triacylglycerol) accumulation. HFD-fed OP rats also displayed decreased whole body substrate switching from the dark to the light cycle, which was paired with reductions in hepatic mitochondrial respiration of multiple substrates in multiple respiratory states. Hepatic PGC-1α overexpression was observed to protect whole body substrate switching, as well as maintain mitochondrial respiration, following the acute HFD. Additionally, liver PGC-1α overexpression did not alter whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation but resulted in greater storage of dietary free fatty acids in liver lipid, primarily as triacylglycerol. Together, these data demonstrate that a short-term HFD can result in a decrease in metabolic flexibility and hepatic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in OP rats that is completely prevented by hepatic overexpression of PGC-1α. PMID:24091599

  7. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  8. Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  9. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. PMID:24462788

  10. The Development and Validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J.; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of…

  11. The Ketogenic Diet Improves Recently Worsened Focal Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Pinton, Florence; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We observed a dramatic response to the ketogenic diet in several patients with highly refractory epilepsy whose seizure frequency had recently worsened. This study aimed to identify whether this characteristic was a useful indication for the ketogenic diet. Method: From the 70 patients who received the ketogenic diet during a 3-year period at…

  12. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  13. Insect diets as mixtures: Optimization for a polyphagous weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development or improvement of artificial insect diets can be tedious, convoluted and under-appreciated. Modern hardware and software can be applied to efficiently sample multidimensional designs to analyze diets as n-dimensional mixtures. We identified a set of response-optimized meridic diets that ...

  14. Weight-reducing diets: Are there any differences?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not ...

  15. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C.; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  16. Atherogenic diets exacerbate colitis in mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Esworthy, R. Steven; Kim, Byung-Wook; Synold, Timothy W.; Smith, David D.; Chu, Fong-Fong

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory effect of high-fat diet has been observed beyond the cardiovascular system, but there is little evidence to support its role in triggering inflammatory bowel disease. GPx1/2-double knockout (DKO) mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2, on a C57BL/6 (B6) background, have mild ileocolitis on a conventional chow. We fed B6 DKO mice two atherogenic diets to test the dietary effect on atherosclerosis and ileocolitis. Both atherogenic diets have high cholesterol, the Chol+/CA diet has cholic acid (CA) and the Chol+ diet has no CA. The Chol+/CA diet induced severe colitis, but not ileitis, in the DKO mice compared with Chol+ and a Chol- control diet. On the Chol+/CA diet, the wild-type (WT) mice had similar levels of aortic lesions and hypercholesterolemia as DKO mice did, but had no intestinal pathology. The diet-associated inflammatory responses in the DKO mice included increase of colonic pro-inflammatory serum amyloid A 3 expression, plasma lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α levels. The Chol+/CA diet has lowered the expression of unfolded protein response genes, ATF6, CHOP, unspliced XbpU and Grp78/Bip, in WT and DKO mice on the Chol- diet. Thus, we conclude that cholesterol diet weakens colon unfolded protein response, which can aggravate spontaneous colitis leading to gut barrier breakdown. GPx has no impact on atherosclerosis without ultra-hypercholesterolemia. PMID:20848490

  17. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  18. Consistent Prebiotic Effect on Gut Microbiota With Altered FODMAP Intake in Patients with Crohn's Disease: A Randomised, Controlled Cross-Over Trial of Well-Defined Diets

    PubMed Central

    Halmos, Emma P; Christophersen, Claus T; Bird, Anthony R; Shepherd, Susan J; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Altering FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) intake has substantial effects on gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate effects of altering FODMAP intake on markers of colonic health in patients with Crohn's disease. Methods: After evaluation of their habitual diet, 9 patients with clinically quiescent Crohn's disease were randomised to 21 days of provided low or typical (“Australian”) FODMAP diets with ≥21-day washout in between. Five-day fecal samples were collected at the end of each diet and analyzed for calprotectin, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial abundance. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded daily. Results: Eight participants collected feces and were adherent to the diets. FODMAP intake differed across the three dietary periods with lowdiet. SCFA, pH and total bacterial abundance remained unaltered, but relative abundance was higher for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (P=0.008) and mucus-associated Akkermansia muciniphila (P=0.016), and lower for Ruminococcus torques (P=0.034) during the Australian compared with low FODMAP diet. Results during habitual diet were similar to the low FODMAP intervention, but significantly different to the Australian diet. The diets had no effects on calprotectin, but symptoms doubled in severity with the Australian diet (n=9; P<0.001). Conclusions: In clinically quiescent Crohn's disease, altering dietary FODMAP intake is associated with marked changes in fecal microbiota, most consistent with a prebiotic effect of increasing FODMAPs as shown in an irritable bowel/healthy cohort. This strategy might be favorable for gut health in Crohn's disease, but at the cost of inducing symptoms. PMID:27077959

  19. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  20. Precipitation Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. R.; Prat, O.; Vasquez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Five precipitation CDRs are now or soon will be transitioned to NOAA's CDR program. These include the PERSIANN data set, which is a 30-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation based on retrievals from satellite microwave data using artificial neural networks. The AMSU-A/B/Hydrobundle is an 11-year record of precipitable water, cloud water, ice water, and other variables. CMORPH (the NOAA Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation measured from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. GPCP (the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and a 17-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The NEXRAD Reanalysis is a 10-year record of high resolution NEXRAD radar based adjusted CONUS-wide hourly and daily precipitation. This study provides an assessment of the existing and transitioned long term precipitation CDRs and includes the verification of the five precipitation CDRs using various methods including comparison with in-situ data sets and trend analysis. As all of the precipitation related CDRs are transitioned, long term analyses can be performed. Comparisons at varying scales (hourly, daily and longer) of the precipitation CDRs with in-situ data sets are provided as well as a first look at what could be an ensemble long term precipitation data record.

  1. Pilot study of diet and microbiota: interactive associations of fibers and polyphenols with human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Valdés, Lorena; Salazar, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia

    2014-06-11

    Several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibers in the modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, information about other highly correlated components in foods, such as polyphenols, is scarce. The aim of this work was to explore the association between the intake of fibers and polyphenols from a regular diet and fecal microbiota composition in 38 healthy adults. Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Quantification of microbial populations in feces was performed by quantitative PCR. A negative association was found between the intake of pectins and flavanones from oranges and the levels of Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum. By contrast, white bread, providing hemicellulose and resistant starch, was directly associated with Lactobacillus. Because some effects on intestinal microbiota attributed to isolated fibers or polyphenols might be modified by other components present in the same food, future research should be focused on diet rather than individual compounds. PMID:24877654

  2. Immune parameters in male atheletes after a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and a mixed Western diet.

    PubMed

    Richter, E A; Kiens, B; Raben, A; Tvede, N; Pedersen, B K

    1991-05-01

    The influence of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet versus a meat-rich Western diet on in vitro measures of immune function was studied in eight male endurance athletes. Subjects consumed two different diets for 2 x 6 wk, separated by 4 wk on an ad libitum diet, in a cross-over design. Both diets consisted of 57 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 14 E% protein and 29 E% fat. One diet was a mixed meat-rich diet (M) prepared with 69% animal protein sources, whereas the other diet (V) was a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet prepared with 82% vegetable protein sources. Blood for determination of leukocyte subpopulations and in vitro function was collected at the end of each diet period 36 h after the last training bout. Fiber content and P/S ratio of fatty acids were twice as high on the V diet as on the M diet. Training volume was similar on the two diets, and maximal aerobic capacity did not change during diet periods. The number of CD3+ (pan T-cells), CD8+ (mainly T suppressor cells), CD4+ (mainly T helper cells), CD16+ (natural killer cells), and CD14+ (monocytes) was similar after the two different diets. Similarly, proliferations of mononuclear cells after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin, and purified derivative of tuberculin (PPD), as well as activity of natural killer cells in the unstimulated state and after stimulation with IL-2, indomethacin, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), were identical after the two diet periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2072829

  3. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency. PMID:16422117

  4. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  5. Laboratory Fire Ant colonies (Solenopsis invicta) fail to grow with Bhatkar Diet and three other artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various artificial diets have been used for rearing imported fire ants; however most of these diets include insect supplements. This study was designed to examine growth of red imported fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis invicta Buren) on four artificial diets: a chemically unde...

  6. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  7. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  8. An anti-inflammatory diet as treatment for inflammatory bowel disease: a case series report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Anti-Inflammatory Diet (IBD-AID) is a nutritional regimen for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that restricts the intake of certain carbohydrates, includes the ingestion of pre- and probiotic foods, and modifies dietary fatty acids to demonstrate the potential of an adjunct dietary therapy for the treatment of IBD. Methods Forty patients with IBD were consecutively offered the IBD-AID to help treat their disease, and were retrospectively reviewed. Medical records of 11 of those patients underwent further review to determine changes in the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) or Modified Truelove and Witts Severity Index (MTLWSI), before and after the diet. Results Of the 40 patients with IBD, 13 patients chose not to attempt the diet (33%). Twenty-four patients had either a good or very good response after reaching compliance (60%), and 3 patients’ results were mixed (7%). Of those 11 adult patients who underwent further medical record review, 8 with CD, and 3 with UC, the age range was 19–70 years, and they followed the diet for 4 or more weeks. After following the IBD-AID, all (100%) patients were able to discontinue at least one of their prior IBD medications, and all patients had symptom reduction including bowel frequency. The mean baseline HBI was 11 (range 1–20), and the mean follow-up score was 1.5 (range 0–3). The mean baseline MTLWSI was 7 (range 6–8), and the mean follow-up score was 0. The average decrease in the HBI was 9.5 and the average decrease in the MTLWSI was 7. Conclusion This case series indicates potential for the IBD-AID as an adjunct dietary therapy for the treatment of IBD. A randomized clinical trial is warranted. PMID:24428901

  9. Long-term consumption of a carbohydrate-restricted diet does not induce deleterious metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Paweł; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Smol, Ewelina; Pilis, Tomasz; Pilis, Wiesław; Sadowska-Krepa, Ewa; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Nauman, Janusz; Stańczak, Kinga; Langfort, Józef

    2008-12-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted diets have been recommended for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but their long-term effects have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (>1 year) consumption of a low-CHO high-fat diet ("The optimal diet," developed by Dr Kwaśniewski referenced herein) on lipid profile, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects. Of 31 "optimal" dieters enrolled in the study (17 women and 14 men, aged 51.7+/-16.6 years), 22 declared adherence to the diet for more than 3 years. Average energy intake and principal nutrients consumed were assessed from 6-day dietary records provided by the participants. In most dieters, concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol exceeded the upper limits of the reference ranges for nonstarved subjects. The metabolic profiles of most subjects were positive for several indicators, including relatively low concentrations of triacylglycerols, high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and normal ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C. In most subjects, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, homocysteine, glycerol, and C-reactive protein were within reference ranges. Notably, in all but one subject, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance remained below the threshold for diagnosis of insulin resistance. These results indicate that long-term (>1 year) compliance with a low-CHO high-fat "optimal diet" does not induce deleterious metabolic effects and does not increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by maintenance of adequate glycemic control and relatively low values for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:19083495

  10. Diet and behavior of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion.

    PubMed

    Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent

    2006-10-01

    Biogeochemistry is a powerful tool for dietary reconstruction, and mixing equations can be used to quantify the contribution of multiple sources to an individual's diet. The goals of this paper are: 1) to generalize the inverse method to dietary mixtures; and 2) to reconstruct the diet of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal using Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data of the mineral fraction of bone (hydroxylapatite), and with published delta13C and delta15N data of the associated organic fraction of bone (collagen). A new method is proposed to calculate the maximum diagenetic contribution of the Sr/Ba ratio, assuming that the soil soluble fraction is the diagenetic end-member and, for a given fraction of diagenesis, allows the restoration of the original Sr/Ba ratio. Considering the Saint-Césaire Châtelperronian mammalian assemblage as the meat source, and on the basis of available Sr, Ba, and Ca contents of plants, the results indicate that the percentage of plants in the Neanderthal's diet must have been close to zero for realistic Sr and Ba impoverishment between diet and hydroxylapatite. Contrary to previous studies, it is shown that fish could constitute a significant proportion (30%) of the diet of the Saint-Césaire Neanderthal. However, this mass balance solution is not supported by the zooarchaeological data. When the entire faunal assemblage is considered as the dietary source, the calculation shows that bovids (except reindeer) represent the greatest percentage of consumed meat (58%), followed by horses/rhinoceros (22%), reindeer (13%), and mammoths (7%). These respective percentages are in close accordance with zooarchaeological records, suggesting that the faunal assemblage associated with the Neanderthal of Saint-Césaire reliably reflects what he ate during the last few years of his life. In behavioral terms, this result supports the hypothesis that this Neanderthal carried the foodstuffs back to the Saint-Césaire shelter before their consumption. PMID:16908051

  11. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  12. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  13. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  14. 5 CFR 850.301 - Electronic records; other acceptable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electronic records; other acceptable... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.301 Electronic records; other acceptable records. (a) Acceptable electronic records for processing by the electronic...

  15. Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does your doc scribble notes onto sheets of paper and then slide them into an ever-expanding ... for errors. Security. There's always the chance that paper records can get lost or misfiled or somehow ...

  16. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  17. Biomedical recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    System collects medical data directly from patients and permanently records and displays several parameters - electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, auscultatory blood pressure, leg circumference changes, body temperature, and time. Components and operation of the system are described.

  18. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get records for non-emergency situations (like switching to a new doctor), it's best to give ... Your Medical Care Health Insurance Basics Finding Low-Cost Medical Care Health Insurance: Cracking the Code Questions ...

  19. Role of diet in prostate cancer: the epigenetic link

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, D P; Zadra, G; Ebot, E M; Mucci, L A; Kantoff, P W; Loda, M; Brown, M

    2015-01-01

    Diet is hypothesized to be a critical environmentally related risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa) development, and specific diets and dietary components can also affect PCa progression; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. As for a maturing organism, PCa's epigenome is plastic and evolves from the pre-neoplastic to the metastatic stage. In particular, epigenetic remodeling relies on substrates or cofactors obtained from the diet. Here we review the evidence that bridges dietary modulation to alterations in the prostate epigenome. We propose that such diet-related effects offer a mechanistic link between the impact of different diets and the course of PCa development and progression. PMID:25531313

  20. Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Hefetz, Abraham; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (<1 % of total FA), which contains a high fraction of saturated (SFA) and mono-unsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. We found similar low levels of PUFA in mouse-tailed bat WAT, but not in their heart total lipids. The expression of two appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) hypothalamic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, increased in parallel to the shift in diet and with fat gain in these bats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only documented example of specific pre-hibernation diet in bats, and one which reveals the most saturated FA composition ever documented in a mammal. We suggest that the increase in expression levels of NPY and AgRP may contribute to the observed diet shift and mass gain, and that the FA composition of the bat's specialized diet is adaptive in the relatively high temperatures we recorded in both their winter and summer roosts. PMID:22843120