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Sample records for 3-day dietary record

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  3. Validation of four questions on food habits from the Swedish board of health and social welfare by 3-day food records in medical and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Ellinor; Brekke, Hilde K.; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish board for health and social welfare (SoS) has presented four questions on dietary habits as indicators of adherence to dietary recommendations. However, these questions have not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate if four questions on dietary habits correlate with dietary intake assessed by food records. Design A total of 279 medical and nursing students, 170 women and 109 men, completed four questions on usual consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets. Depending on scoring from 0 to 12 points, subjects were classified as having low (0–4 points), average (5–8 points), or high (9–12 points) adherence to dietary recommendations as proposed by SoS. Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records. Mean dietary intake, expressed per 10 MJ of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, sucrose, fish, and fruits and vegetables, was analysed for each group and differences assessed by ANOVA. Results Energy intake was 11.8±3.0 MJ in male and 8.5±2.2 MJ in female students. Most students, 64%, were classified as average adherers to dietary recommendations, whereas only 6% were classified as low and 30% as high. Dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, and folate was significantly higher in the high adherence group compared to both the other groups (p<0.01), but vitamin D significantly so only compared to the average group (p=0.002). Intake of fruits and vegetables was significantly different between all groups (p<0.003), with increasing amounts with increasing adherence. The low adherence group had higher intake of sucrose than the other groups (p<0.005). Median fish intake was nil in the low and average adherence groups, with significant difference between high and average adherence groups (p=0.001). Conclusions Four questions on the consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets correlate well with the dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, fish, sucrose, and fruits and vegetables as

  4. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  5. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  6. Can Dental Microwear Textures Record Inter-Individual Dietary Variations?

    PubMed Central

    Merceron, Gildas; Escarguel, Gilles; Angibault, Jean-Marc; Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. Methodology/Principal Findings For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a well-known population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. Conclusions/Significance Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further exploration of the feeding

  7. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  8. Comparison of a Web-Based Dietary Assessment Tool with Software for the Evaluation of Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    BENEDIK, Evgen; KOROUŠIĆ SELJAK, Barbara; HRIBAR, Maša; ROGELJ, Irena; BRATANIČ, Borut; OREL, Rok; FIDLER MIS, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary assessment in clinical practice is performed by means of computer support, either in the form of a web-based tool or software. The aim of the paper is to present the results of the comparison of a Slovenian web-based tool with German software for the evaluation of four-day weighted paper-and-pencil-based dietary records (paper-DRs) in pregnant women. Methods A volunteer group of pregnant women (n=63) completed paper-DRs. These records were entered by an experienced research dietitian into a web-based application (Open Platform for Clinical Nutrition, OPEN, http://opkp.si/en, Ljubljana, Slovenia) and software application (Prodi 5.7 Expert plus, Nutri-Science, Stuttgart, Germany, 2011). The results for calculated energy intake, as well as 45 macro- and micronutrient intakes, were statistically compared by using the non-parametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The cut-off for Spearman’s rho was set at >0.600. Results 12 nutritional parameters (energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, water, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid, and stearic acid) were in high correlation (>0.800), 18 in moderate (0.600–0.799), 11 in weak correlation (0.400–0.599), while 5 (arachidonic acid, niacin, alpha-linolenic acid, fluoride, total sugars) did not show any statistical correlation. Conclusion Comparison of the results of the evaluation of dietary records using a web-based dietary assessment tool with those using software shows that there is a high correlation for energy and macronutrient content.

  9. How Willing Are Adolescents to Record Their Dietary Intake? The Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Paterson, Stacey; Aflague, Tanisha; Bosch Ruiz, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Delp, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing the diets of children and adolescents can be problematic. Use of technologies, such as mobile apps designed to capture food and beverages consumed at eating occasions with images taken using device-embedded cameras, may address many of the barriers to gathering accurate dietary intake data from adolescents. Objective The objectives of this study were to assess the willingness of adolescents to take images of food and beverages at their eating occasions using a novel mobile food record (mFR) and to evaluate the usability of the user confirmation component of the mFR app, referred to as the “review process.” Methods Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative protocols were used in this study. Adolescents (11-15-year olds) attending a summer camp were recruited to participate in the study. First, the participants were asked to take images of foods and beverages consumed as meals and snacks for 2 consecutive days using the mFR app running on an iPhone and the number of images taken was noted. This was followed by focus group sessions to evaluate usability, which was analyzed by content and themes. After using the mFR, a think-aloud method was used to evaluate the usability of the mFR method for reviewing system-identified foods (ie, the review process). A usability questionnaire was administered at the end of all activities. Results The mFR was accepted by the majority of the 24 boys and 17 girls (n=41) but varied according to gender and eating occasion. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to capture images of their eating occasions (Fisher exact test, P=.03). Participants were more likely to take images of their breakfasts (90%, 36/40) and lunches (90%, 72/80) and least likely to capture afternoon and evening snacks, 54% (43/80) and 40% (32/80), respectively. The major themes from the focus groups with regard to using the mFR were games, rewards, and the need to know more about why they were using the app

  10. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  11. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  12. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  13. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  14. Does the Medicare 3-Day Rule Increase Length of Stay?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Victor H; Ong, Alvin; Post, Zachary; Orozco, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Medicare will only cover a stay in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after TKA if the patient stays for at least 3 days at the inpatient hospital. The 3-day stay rule was instituted in 1965, to prevent over utilization of Medicare. We retrospectively reviewed 800 consecutive TKA, identifying patients that were discharged to rehab after surgery. 322 patients were discharged to SNF after surgery (209 Medicare, 113 private insurances). The LOS was 2.3 days for privately insured patients and 3.02 for Medicare recipients (P<0.05). No difference was found with regard to age, BMI, and ASA score. The Medicare 3-day rule independently increased the LOS in patients who required inpatient rehab, leading to increased cost. We suggest that this rule must be revised.

  15. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  16. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  17. A Three Day Dietary Survey of Piute Preschool Children in Inyo County, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of Piute Indian children being conducted by Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, 3-day dietary-intake records of 23 Piute Indian preschool children in Inyo County, California, were analyzed according to 4 food groups. As reported, results indicated that 5 or 6 food groups should be used if intake results of vitamins C…

  18. Trial of a mobile phone method for recording dietary intake in adults with type 2 diabetes: evaluation and implications for future applications.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a mobile phone application (Nutricam) for recording dietary intake. It allowed users to capture a photograph of food items before consumption and store a voice recording to explain the contents of the photograph. This information was then sent to a website where it was analysed by a dietitian. Ten adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI 24.1-47.9 kg/m(2)) recorded their intake over a three-day period using both Nutricam and a written food diary. Compared to the food diary, energy intake was under-recorded by 649 kJ (SD 810) using the mobile phone method. However, there was no trend in the difference between dietary assessment methods at levels of low or high energy intake. All subjects reported that the mobile phone system was easy to use. Six subjects found that the time taken to record using Nutricam was shorter than recording using the written diary, while two reported that it was about the same. The level of detail provided in the voice recording and food items obscured in photographs reduced the quality of the mobile phone records. Although some modifications to the mobile phone method will be necessary to improve the accuracy of self-reported intake, the system was considered an acceptable alternative to written records and has the potential to be used by adults with type 2 diabetes for monitoring dietary intake by a dietitian.

  19. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  20. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  1. Evaluation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies for use with a mobile telephone food record.

    PubMed

    Six, Bethany L; Schap, Tusarebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Boushey, Carol J

    2011-12-01

    The development of a mobile telephone food record (mpFR) in which image analysis and volume estimation data can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) has the potential to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. To validate the mpFR for use with adolescents, a convenience sample of adolescents, aged 11-18 years, was recruited to eat all meals and snacks in a controlled feeding environment over a 24-hour period. Each food item matched a food code in the FNDDS 3.0. The objective of this analysis was to compare the measured energy and protein content of foods to the published values in the FNDDS. Duplicate plates of all meals and snacks were prepared, and samples of 20 foods were individually weighed, homogenized, freeze dried, and analyzed for energy with a bomb calorimeter and for protein with a Dumas nitrogen analyzer. Eleven of the twenty food items had energy values in the FNDDS within ±10% of the measured energy value. The measured energy and protein values from all foods correlated significantly with the energy (r=0.981, P<0.01) and protein (r= 0.911, P<0.01) values in the FNDDS. These results support the use of the FNDDS with the mpFR. PMID:22389554

  2. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  3. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  4. Validation of a Web-based, self-administered, non-consecutive-day dietary record tool against urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-28

    New technologies are promising for the use of short-term instruments for dietary data collection; however, innovative tools should be validated against objective biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of a Web-based, self-administered dietary record (DR) tool using protein, K and Na intakes against 24 h urinary biomarkers (24 h U). Of the total participants, 199 adult volunteers (104 men and 95 women, mean age 50·5 (23-83 years)) of the NutriNet-Santé Study were included in the protocol. They completed three non-consecutive-day DR and two 24 h U on the first and third DR days. Relative differences between reported (DR) and measured (24 h U) intakes were calculated from the log ratio (DR/24 h U) for protein, K and Na intakes: -14·4,+2·6 and -2·1 % for men; and -13·9, -3·7 and -8·3 % for women, respectively. The correlations between reported and true intakes were 0·61, 0·78 and 0·47 for men and 0·64, 0·42 and 0·37 for women for protein, K and Na, respectively. Attenuation factors, that represent attenuation of the true diet-disease relationship due to measurement error (a value closer to 1 indicating lower attenuation), ranged from 0·23 (Na, women) to 0·60 (K, men). We showed that the Web-based DR tool used in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study performs well in estimating protein and K intakes and fairly well in estimating Na intake. Furthermore, three non-consecutive-day DR appear to be valid for estimating usual intakes of protein and K, although caution is advised regarding the generalisability of these findings to other nutrients and general population.

  5. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes. PMID:16095395

  6. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes.

  7. Physiological responses of horses competing at a modified 1 star 3-day-event.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R; Foreman, J; Allen, A K; White, S L; Maykuth, P L; Williamson, L H

    1995-11-01

    The impending 1996 summer Olympic 3-day-event in Atlanta has focused attention on the need to determine what modifications to the demanding Endurance Test will be required to ensure safety of the horses competing. Three groups of horses participated in a Field Trial held in August of 1994 in northern Georgia to determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a modified 3-day-event in hot, humid weather. One group (TD) completed a modified 1 Star 3-day-event test, a control group (HT) completed a Horse Trial identical to the modified 1 Star test except for the omission of Phases B and C and the third group (E), comprised of European horses, completed the modified 1 Star test with a longer, faster Phase C than was used for TD. During the Endurance Test, the ambient temperature and relative humidity ranged from 24.3 degrees C and 98.9% in the morning to 30.2 degrees C and 51.6% in the afternoon. No horse failed to complete the Trial because of heat stress or fatigue. There were no significant (P < 0.05) differences detected in heart rate, rectal temperature, respiratory rate or net weight loss between HT and TD horses at any observation time. The highest rectal temperature recorded at the end of Phase C was 39.6 degrees C. These findings suggest that the modified 1 Star Endurance Test was as well tolerated by American horses as the control Horse Trial test. Rectal temperature was significantly higher for E than for TD or HT at the finish of Phase C. European horses had significantly greater decreases in weight than HT and TD at the end of Phases C and D and the next day. These findings probably reflect the faster and longer work effort of E horses during Phase C. Modification of Phase C and the rest-pause to ensure that recovery and heat dissipation occurred before the start of Phase D resulted in a 3-day-event that was safe for horses. The Field Trial provides a model for designing a modified Olympic Endurance Test. If the 1996 Olympic 3-day-event is held in

  8. Usual dietary intakes of selected trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, I, Se, Cr, and Mo) and biotin revealed by a survey of four-season 7-consecutive day weighed dietary records in middle-aged Japanese dietitians.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Nahomi; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Fujiwara, Nakako; Goto, Chiho; Tokudome, Yuko; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify food sources of selected trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, I, Se, Cr, Mo) and biotin in the Japanese diet and to assess usual dietary intakes based on the ratios of within-person to between-person variance. Subjects were 98 middle-aged dietitians living in central Japan who participated in a survey of four-season 7 consecutive day weighed diet records. Based on the latest Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan published in 2010, food sources of selected nutrients were located according to a contribution analysis, and computed usual dietary intakes. Dietary intakes were checked with the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Prevalence of inadequacy in a group was determined using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. The major contributors to selected trace elements and biotin were not only meat and milk, but also traditional Japanese food items, including rice, tofu and tofu products, fish, seaweed, chicken eggs, fermented soy bean seasonings, and green tea. Medians of usual intakes were estimated for Zn (men 8.9 mg, women 8.4 mg), Cu (1.32 mg, 1.21 mg), Mn (3.73 mg, 3.76 mg), I (312 μg, 413 μg), Se (97 μg, 94 μg), Cr (10 μg, 9 μg), Mo (226 μg, 184 μg), and biotin (51.7 μg, 47.6 μg). The prevalence of inadequacy of dietary intakes was high for Zn, Cu and Cr. Regarding I, the proportion above the Tolerant Upper Level was overestimated based on the crude mean value. We first identified food sources of selected trace elements and biotin in the Japanese diet, and assessed the usual intakes.

  9. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. Methods We pooled data from individuals aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997–2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003–2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Results Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%–3.9% in men and 1.3%–2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Conclusions Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake. PMID:26548354

  10. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents. PMID:27698962

  11. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents.

  12. Self-monitoring of dietary intake by young women: online food records completed on computer or smartphone are as accurate as paper-based food records but more acceptable.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Adherence and accuracy of self-monitoring of dietary intake influences success in weight management interventions. Information technologies such as computers and smartphones have the potential to improve adherence and accuracy by reducing the burden associated with monitoring dietary intake using traditional paper-based food records. We evaluated the acceptability and accuracy of three different 7-day food record methods (online accessed via computer, online accessed via smartphone, and paper-based). Young women (N=18; aged 23.4±2.9 years; body mass index 24.0±2.2) completed the three 7-day food records in random order with 7-day washout periods between each method. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was derived from resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity level (PAL) derived from accelerometers (TEE=REE×PAL). Accuracy of the three methods was assessed by calculating absolute (energy intake [EI]-TEE) and percentage difference (EI/TEE×100) between self-reported EI and TEE. Acceptability was assessed via questionnaire. Mean±standard deviation TEE was 2,185±302 kcal/day and EI was 1,729±249 kcal/day, 1,675±287kcal/day, and 1,682±352 kcal/day for computer, smartphone, and paper records, respectively. There were no significant differences between absolute and percentage differences between EI and TEE for the three methods: computer, -510±389 kcal/day (78%); smartphone, -456±372 kcal/day (80%); and paper, -503±513 kcal/day (79%). Half of participants (n=9) preferred computer recording, 44.4% preferred smartphone, and 5.6% preferred paper-based records. Most participants (89%) least preferred the paper-based record. Because online food records completed on either computer or smartphone were as accurate as paper-based records but more acceptable to young women, they should be considered when self-monitoring of intake is recommended to young women.

  13. The isotope record of short- and long-term dietary changes in sheep tooth enamel: Implications for quantitative reconstruction of paleodiets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzo, A.; Balasse, M.; Passey, B. H.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of paleodiet by means of sequential sampling and carbon isotope analysis in hypsodont tooth enamel requires a precise knowledge of the isotopic enrichment between dietary carbon and carbon from enamel apatite ( ɛD-E), as well as of the timing and duration of the enamel mineralization process (amelogenesis). To better constrain these parameters, we performed a series of controlled feeding experiments on sheep ranging in age from 6 to 24 months-old. Twenty-eight lambs and 14 ewes were fed isotopically distinct diets for different periods of time, and then slaughtered, allowing the timing and rate of molar growth to be determined. High resolution sampling and stable carbon isotope analysis of breath CO 2 performed on six individuals following a diet-switch showed that 70-90% of dietary carbon had turned over in less than 24 h. Sequential sampling and carbon isotopic analysis was performed on the first (M 1) and second (M 2) lower molars of four lambs as well as on the third lower molar (M 3) of 11 ewes. The changes in diet were recorded in all molars. We found that the length of enamel matrix apposition is approximately one-quarter of the final tooth length during crown extension, and that enamel maturation spans slightly less than 3 months in M 1, and 4 months in M 2 and M 3. Portions of enamel in equilibrium with dietary carbon were used to calculate ɛD-E values. Animals on grass silage diets had values similar to previous observations, whereas animal switched to pelleted corn diets had values ca. 4‰ lower, a pattern consistent with lower methane production observed for animals fed concentrate diets. The tooth enamel forward model of Passey and Cerling (2002) closely predicted the amplitude of isotope changes recorded in tooth enamel, but slightly underestimated the rate of isotope change, suggesting that the rate of accumulation of carbonate during maturation may not be constant over time. Although stable isotope profiles in tooth

  14. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  15. Comparison of a full food-frequency questionnaire with the three-day unweighted food records in young Polish adult women: implications for dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-07-19

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21-26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: -29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: -36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the absolute

  16. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  17. Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire for Middle-Aged Urban Cancer Screenees: Comparison With 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hosoi, Satoko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of estimates of dietary intake calculated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) depends on the specific population. The 138-item FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study was initially developed for and validated in rural residents. However, the validity of estimates based on this FFQ for urban residents, whose diet and lifestyle differ from those of rural residents, has not been clarified. We examined the validity of ranking individuals according to level of dietary consumption, as estimated by this FFQ, among an urban population in Japan. Methods Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 144 participated in the study. In 2007–2008, at an average 2.7 years after cancer screening, participants were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to provide 4-day weighed diet records (4d-DRs) for use as the reference intake. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and 4d-DR estimates were calculated, after correction for intraindividual variation of 4d-DRs. Results The median (range) deattenuated CC for men and women was 0.57 (0.23 to 0.89) and 0.47 (0.08 to 0.94), respectively, across 45 nutrients and 0.51 (0.10 to 0.98) and 0.51 (−0.36 to 0.88) for 43 food groups. Conclusions Although the FFQ was developed for a rural population, it provided reasonably valid measures of consumption for many nutrients and food groups in middle-aged screenees living in urban areas in Japan. PMID:21963789

  18. Validation of two food frequency questionnaires for dietary calcium assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2009-01-01

    Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian, and 10 Latin women. The average age was 49 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with a range of 22.7 to 89.9 years. Measures utilized included an online calcium quiz, a printed calcium food frequency questionnaire and one three-day diet record. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson correlation coefficients. Sub-analyses were conducted by ethnicity. The correlation between each questionnaire and the daily calcium intake from the diet records was 0.37, p<0.001. Among the ethnic subgroups, the correlations were highest for African American women, followed by Caucasian women. There was also a trend toward higher correlations in younger women. These simple calcium assessment tools, taking less than five minutes to complete, have correlation values with diet records similar to more complex food frequency questionnaires reported in the literature. These questionnaires may provide valuable tools to estimate calcium intake in research, clinical and community settings. PMID:19559142

  19. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  20. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  1. The relationship between dietary lipids and serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Ali R; Nabipour, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in humans, particularly in postmenopausal women. Inflammation has been shown to play a basic role in the development of CVD. In light of the involvement of adipocytokines and dietary lipids in the induction of inflammation in CVD, this study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between dietary lipids and two well-known adipocytokines, visfatin and adiponectin. A total of 374 postmenopausal women were randomly selected from 13 geographical clusters in Bushehr port. Serum visfatin and adiponectin were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay technique and current dietary intake was recorded with a food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day recall. Each food and beverage was analyzed for macro- and micronutrient content. Bivariate correlation analysis showed a correlation between serum visfatin level and dietary SFA, n-6 PUFA and cholesterol intake. In multiple regression analyses, serum visfatin levels showed a significant positive correlation with dietary SFA (β=0.06, p=0.01), PUFA (β=0.02, p=0.02) and cholesterol (β=0.005, p=0.002) after controlling for age, diabetes, total energy intake and BMI. There was no significant relationship between dietary MUFA intake and serum visfatin level. No significant correlations were found between age- and BMI-adjusted adiponectin and dietary SFA, MUFA or n-6 PUFA intake (p>0.05). We found a positive relationship between dietary SFA, PUFA and cholesterol with serum visfatin level in postmenopausal women, and conclude that the postmenopause-induced inflammatory responses may be modulated at least in part by dietary modification.

  2. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  3. A 3-Day-Old Girl Referred From Her Pediatrician for Oral Ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Neel, Mary Lauren; Kern, Jeremy; Ronis, Tova

    2016-09-01

    A 3-day-old girl was referred from her pediatrician for oral ulcerations. The patient was otherwise well appearing and afebrile. Her prenatal and antenatal courses were unremarkable, except for a failed routine hearing screen. The patient's examination was notable for several yellowish ulcers on erythematous bases located on her anterior tonsillar pillars. The patient also had a right coloboma and a II/VI systolic ejection murmur. Laboratory analyses revealed a traumatic lumbar puncture with 182 000 red blood cells and 808 white blood cells, as well as a complete blood count that showed thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. During the patient's hospitalization, she developed a new facial rash. Her physical examination findings, along with her diagnostic evaluation and hospital course, ultimately led to 2 surprising diagnoses elaborated on in this case discussion.

  4. A 3-Day-Old Girl Referred From Her Pediatrician for Oral Ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Neel, Mary Lauren; Kern, Jeremy; Ronis, Tova

    2016-09-01

    A 3-day-old girl was referred from her pediatrician for oral ulcerations. The patient was otherwise well appearing and afebrile. Her prenatal and antenatal courses were unremarkable, except for a failed routine hearing screen. The patient's examination was notable for several yellowish ulcers on erythematous bases located on her anterior tonsillar pillars. The patient also had a right coloboma and a II/VI systolic ejection murmur. Laboratory analyses revealed a traumatic lumbar puncture with 182 000 red blood cells and 808 white blood cells, as well as a complete blood count that showed thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. During the patient's hospitalization, she developed a new facial rash. Her physical examination findings, along with her diagnostic evaluation and hospital course, ultimately led to 2 surprising diagnoses elaborated on in this case discussion. PMID:27507895

  5. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  6. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W

    2015-06-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77-0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82-0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  7. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E.; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  8. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W

    2015-06-17

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77-0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82-0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  9. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    PubMed

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p < 0.01). Energy intake assessed by the dietary record was significantly lower than TEE in the obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p < 0.001) but comparable to TEE in the nonobese children (8.03 +/- 0.99 MJ/day; p = not significant). Energy intake assessed by diet history was lower than TEE in the obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p < 0.05) but close to TEE in the nonobese children (8.64 +/- 1.54 MJ/day, p = not significant). These results suggest that obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  10. Radar observations of a 3-day Kelvin wave in the equatorial mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggin, Dennis M.; Fritts, David C.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Nakamura, Takuji; Vincent, Robert A.

    1997-11-01

    Mesospheric radars are used to investigate the characteristics of a Kelvin wave from two equatorial sites: Jakarta, Indonesia, in the western Pacific and Christmas Island in the central Pacific. Our study focuses on the time span from mid-January through mid-October 1993. A Kelvin wave with a period near 3 days was detected throughout this 9-month duration, although it underwent deep amplitude modulations on a ˜20-day timescale. A fitting procedure is applied to study the phase/amplitude behavior of the wave. The vertical wavenumber was measured by the radars and found to be small, wandering around zero with only a weak bias toward downward phase progression. The long vertical wavelength suggests that the wave was predominantly zonal wavenumber 1. The amplitude of the wave measured by the Jakarta meteor scatter radar was much larger than the amplitude measured by the MF partial reflection radar at Christmas Island. The smaller wave amplitude at Christmas Island could at least partially be due to a measurement bias associated with MF radars. The radar at Jakarta is a VHF meteor scatter radar and is not susceptible to this bias. However, the mean velocities and the amplitudes of the tidal and quasi 2-day wave components were in good agreement at the two sites. The estimated 9-month averaged zonal acceleration was ˜0.67 ms-1 day-1 over Jakarta at 94-98 km and only about half as large over Christmas Island. The magnitude of the zonal acceleration occasionally showed large enhancements which suggest the importance of refractive effects associated with vertical and temporal variations in the mean winds. The larger 3-day wave amplitudes and inferred acceleration at Jakarta may reflect its location in the western Pacific, a region of high convection, and hence an excitation region for equatorial waves. The relative phase of the wave between the two radar sites gradually shifted over a timescale of weeks. These smooth variations in relative phase are suggestive of a

  11. Rat lung metabolism after 3 days of continuous exposure to 0. 6 ppm ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, D.J.; Bowen-Kelly, E.

    1986-02-01

    Continuous exposure of rats to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with enhanced metabolic enzyme activities, when measured in lung homogenates. In this study, metabolic rates were measured in intact perfused lungs with altered pathology brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Increased metabolism of ozone-exposed lungs was indicated by a twofold enhancement in glucose utilization, associated with a 62% increase in lactate formation and a 166% increase in the rate of 14CO2 production from D-(U-14C)glucose from control values of 5.2 +/- 0.5 mumol lactate and 4.4 +/- 0.6 mumol 14CO2/h per lung (+/- SE, n = 4), respectively. Mitochondrial metabolism was separately assessed by measurements of 14CO2 production from (U-14C)-pyruvate, which was found not to be significantly altered by ozone exposure, although homogenate oxygen uptake in the presence of succinate was significantly enhanced by 57%. These changes in intermediary metabolism could be correlated with increased glucose carbon incorporation into lipid and elevated activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The observed elevated metabolic rates were consistent with the energy and synthetic needs of a lung during repair of ozone-induced damage.

  12. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  13. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance.

  14. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance. PMID:24855020

  15. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  16. Treatment recommendations following 3-day masked continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rasbach, Lisa E; Atkins, Ashley E; Milaszewski, Kerry M; Keady, Joyce; Schmidt, Lisa M; Volkening, Lisa K; Laffel, Lori M

    2014-05-01

    Glycemic control remains suboptimal in youth with type 1 diabetes. Retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has demonstrated utility in fine-tuning diabetes management by detecting postprandial hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. In this study, we explored the process of 3-day masked CGM use, subsequent treatment recommendations, and impact on A1c in a clinic-based sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Over 2 years, 122 youth were referred for masked CGM. Patients/families completed a diary of blood glucose levels, insulin doses, food intake, and exercise during CGM use. A1c was assessed pre- and 2-3 months post-CGM. Treatment recommendations were formulated using data from CGM reports and diaries. Mean age was 14.3 ± 3.9 years, diabetes duration was 7.5 ± 4.7 years, and A1c was 8.5 ± 1.1% (69 ± 12 mmol/mol); 61% were pump-treated. Patients received an average of 3.1 ± 1.1 treatment recommendations following review of the CGM report. Most (80%) received reinforcement of the importance of preprandial bolusing; 37% received a recommendation regarding advanced insulin management (use of combination boluses/attend to active insulin). Receipt of the latter recommendation was related to A1c improvement ≥0.5% (OR: 4.0, P < .001). Masked CGM offers opportunities to guide advanced insulin management (by injection or pump), which may yield A1c improvements in youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24876612

  17. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  18. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  19. Comparison of the dietary intakes of new parents, second-time parents, and nonparents: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Blanchard, Chris; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Warburton, Darren E R; Benoit, Cecilia; Symons Downs, Danielle; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake profiles of first-time parents, second-time parents, and couples without children; once during pregnancy, then at 6- and 12-months postpartum. This was an observational, longitudinal, cohort study. Participants were a community-based sample of 153 couples aged 25 to 40 years. Data were collected between 2007 and 2011. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day dietary recall. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare the dietary intakes of groups (ie, parent, sex, and couple days) over time. Percentage of participants per group meeting recommended daily dietary guidelines was also analyzed, as were variables that influenced meeting overall recommended guidelines using a multivariate analysis of variance. First-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, fruit, and milk intake compared with women without children, and longitudinally first-time mothers decreased their fruit intake. Second-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, and fruit intake compared with nonparent women, and longitudinally second-time mothers increased their meat intake. First-time fathers had overall higher bread intake compared with second-time fathers and men without children, and first-time fathers consumed less sugar than second-time fathers. Longitudinally, first-time fathers increased their fiber intake. At any stage of data collection, from pregnancy to 12-months postpartum, only 2% to 16% of all mothers met recommended overall daily dietary guidelines. The only variable investigated that influenced meeting overall daily dietary guidelines at baseline was parent status.

  20. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  1. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  2. Relationship between dietary copper intake and indices of copper status in men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.; Reiser, S.; Canary, J. )

    1989-02-09

    Dietary copper (Cu) intake, red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and plasma Cu were determined in 18 men, 18 premenopausal (PRE) and 18 postmenopausal (POST) women. Follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone were measured to verify menopausal status in women. SOD levels were significantly different in men, PRE and POST women and were used to divide subjects into adequate (350-700 U/mI) and inadequate (<350 U/ml) Cu status. Dietary Cu intake including supplements was highest for men (2.53 mg/day) as compared to PRE (1.35 mg/day) and POST (1.86 mg/day) women. There was an inverse correlation between dietary Cu intake and SOD levels. Plasma Cu levels were significantly higher in women (102.8 {mu}g/dl PRE, 108.95 POST {mu}g/dl) compared to men (88.34 {mu}g/dl). Cp levels showed a positive correlation with plasma Cu but did not show a sex effect. The present Cu intake levels were calculated from diet records using a food Cu data base. These results are in the process of being verified by direct analysis of Cu level in a 3 day food composite. The results indicate that Cu intake alone is not a good predictor of Cu status as determine by SOD levels.

  3. Dietary inflammatory index is associated with serum C-reactive protein and protein energy wasting in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tengilimoglu-Metin, M. Merve; Gumus, Damla; Sevim, Sumeyra; Turkoglu, İnci; Mandiroglu, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Malnutrition and inflammation are reported as the most powerful predictors of mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Diet has a key role in modulating inflammation and dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool for assessment of inflammatory potential of diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of DII on dietary intake of HD patients and examine the associations between DII and malnutrition-inflammation markers. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 105 subjects were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary recall, and pre-dialysis biochemical parameters were recorded for each subject. Subjective global assessment (SGA), which was previously validated for HD patients, and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) were used for the diagnosis of protein energy wasting. DII was calculated according to average of 3-day dietary recall data. RESULTS DII showed significant correlation with reliable malnutrition and inflammation indicators including SGA (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), MIS (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) in HD patients. When the study population was divided into three subgroups according to their DII score, significant increasing trends across the tertiles of DII were observed for SGA score (P = 0.035), serum CRP (P = 0.001), dietary energy (P < 0.001), total fat (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.006), and omega-6 fatty acids (P = 0.01) intakes. CONCLUSION This study shows that DII is a good tool for assessing the overall inflammatory potential of diet in HD patients. PMID:27478547

  4. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  5. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  6. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  7. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  8. Anthropometry, dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of Malaysian estate workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K

    1996-09-01

    Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134

  9. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  10. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  11. Merging Dietary Assessment with the Adolescent Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Schap, TusaRebecca E; Zhu, Fengqing M; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera, (e.g., Apple iPhone, Google Nexus One, Apple iPod Touch). Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis, i.e., segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiologic or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarizes the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  12. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  13. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  14. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  15. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  16. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  17. Cloud Based Surveys to Assess Patient Perceptions of Health Care: 1000 Respondents in 3 days for US $300

    PubMed Central

    Bardos, Jonah; Friedenthal, Jenna; Spiegelman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients’ perspectives of health care. Methods A national online survey posted to Amazon's MTurk consisted of 33 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Continuous attributes were compared using t tests. Results We obtained 1084 responses for a total cost of US $298.10 in less than 3 days with 300 responses in under 6 hours. Of those, 44.74% (485/1084) were male and 54.80% (594/1084) female, representing 49 out of 50 states and aged 18 to 69 years. Conclusions Amazon’s MTurk is a potentially useful survey method for attaining information regarding public opinions and/or knowledge with the distinct advantage of cost, speed, and a wide and relatively good representation of the general population, in a confidential setting for respondents. PMID:27554915

  18. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  19. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  20. Motility parameters and intracellular ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored for 3 days at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The effect of semen storage duration on motility parameters and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa were investigated. Ejaculates were collected from 9 New Zealand White male rabbits and diluted with a commercial rabbit semen extender Galap. Semen was stored at 15 degrees C for 3 days. On each day of storage sperm motility and intracellular ATP content were evaluated. Sperm motility parameters were assessed using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system and ATP content using the bioluminescence method. The time of storage had a significant effect on sperm motility parameters (except straight-line velocity) and ATP content. A significant correlation was observed between motility parameters and sperm ATP content. The motility parameters most strongly correlated with ATP content were total motile spermatozoa (r = 0.6364), progressively motile spermatozoa (r = 0.529), amplitude of lateral head displacement (r = 0.4178), curvilinear velocity (r = 0.4111) and average path velocity (r = 0.3743). Results show that motility parameters determined using the CASA system and intracellular ATP content are sensitive indicators of sperm quality during in vitro storage and may be useful for estimation of in vivo fertilizing ability of rabbit semen. PMID:23767298

  1. Treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage in rats with 12 h, 3 days and 6 days of selective brain hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Matthew; Penner, Mark; Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke with no proven treatment to reduce brain injury. In this study we modeled ICH by injecting 100 microL of autologous blood into the striatum of rats. We then tested whether hypothermia would reduce brain injury and improve recovery as has been repeatedly observed for ischemic and traumatic brain damage. Aside from reducing blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation and edema, hypothermia has not consistently improved behavioral or histological outcome after ICH in animal studies. As this might relate to the choice of cooling method and the duration of hypothermia, we used a system that selectively cooled the injured hemisphere to approximately 32 degrees C (striatum) while the body remained normothermic. Cooling (vs. normothermia) started 1 h after ICH and lasted for 12 h, 3 days or 6 days followed by slow re-warming (approximately 1 degrees C/h). Functional impairment was evaluated from 2 to 3 weeks post-ICH at which time brain injury was determined. The ICH caused significant impairment on a neurological deficit scale and in tests of walking (horizontal ladder), skilled reaching (tray task) and spontaneous limb usage (cylinder test). Only the limb use asymmetry deficit was significantly mitigated by hypothermia, and then only by the longest treatment. Lesion volume, which averaged 16.9 mm3, was not affected. These results, in conjunction with earlier studies, suggest that prolonged mild hypothermia will not be a profound neuroprotectant for patients with striatal ICH, but it may nonetheless improve functional recovery in addition to its use for treating cerebral edema. PMID:19445934

  2. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  3. Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and nonvegetarian men.

    PubMed

    Howie, B J; Shultz, T D

    1985-07-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in the SV than in the omnivores. Additionally, the plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups (SV, SNV, and NV) revealed a significant negative relationship with their crude and dietary fiber intakes. These subjects hormonal milieu was related to specific dietary constituents, possibly leading to a decreased plasma concentration of androgen and estrogen in vegetarians. Implications include the possible modification of prostate cancer risk through dietary intervention.

  4. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Akira; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na–K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population. Setting Prospective cohort study. Participants In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24 years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30–79 years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model. Primary outcome measures Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes. Results A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176 926 person-years. Na–K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na–K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na–K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population

  5. EFFECT OF A DIETARY INTERVENTION ON GROWTH AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Latham, Norma E.; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. RESULTS 63 children (57% males, age 10.6±2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109±8% predicted at baseline and 107±9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean±SE] −31±12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (−49±16 kcals, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. PMID:24518280

  6. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany. PMID:26928790

  7. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  8. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  9. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  10. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Guo, Y M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)(0.75) per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW(0·75) per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW(0.75) per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens.

  11. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  12. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  13. Dietary fibre analysis.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V

    2003-02-01

    The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research. PMID:12740050

  14. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  15. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  16. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  17. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  18. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  19. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  20. Habitually Higher Dietary Glycemic Index During Puberty Is Prospectively Related to Increased Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Goletzke, Janina; Herder, Christian; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Wudy, Stefan A.; Roden, Michael; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Buyken, Anette E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbohydrate nutrition during periods of physiological insulin resistance such as puberty may affect future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study examined whether the amount or the quality (dietary glycemic index [GI], glycemic load [GL], and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake) of carbohydrates during puberty is associated with risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The analysis was based on 226 participants (121 girls and 105 boys) from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (DONALD) with an average of five 3-day weighed dietary records (range 2–6) during puberty (girls, age 9–14 years; boys, age 10–15 years) and fasting blood samples in younger adulthood (age 18–36 years) (average duration of follow-up 12.6 years). Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (n = 214). RESULTS A higher dietary GI was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (Ptrend = 0.03), ALT (Ptrend = 0.02), and GGT (Ptrend = 0.04). After adjustment for sex, adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16–2.60), 2.47 (2.26–2.71), and 2.59 (2.35–2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. PMID:23349549

  1. In vitro Production of IL-6 and IFN-γ is Influenced by Dietary Variables and Predicts Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Incidence and Severity Respectively in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Huicui; Lee, Yujin; Ba, Zhaoyong; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Furumoto, Emily J.; Roberts, Robert F.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Rogers, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of immune responses in healthy adults following dietary or lifestyle interventions is challenging due to significant inter-individual variability. Thus, gaining a better understanding of host factors that contribute to the heterogeneity in immunity is necessary. To address this question, healthy adults [n = 36, 18–40 years old, body mass index (BMI) 20–35 kg/m2] were recruited. Dietary intake was obtained via 3-day dietary recall records, physical activity level was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood. Expression of activation markers on unstimulated immune subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion was assessed following in vitro stimulation with anti-CD3 or lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of cold or flu symptoms were obtained from self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) questionnaires. The relationship between activation marker expression on T cells and T-cell effector functions; and in vitro cytokine secretion and URTI was determined by linear or logistic regression. CD69 and CD25 expression on unstimulated T cells was significantly associated with T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 secretion. Incidence and severity of cold or flu symptoms was significantly associated with in vitro interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma secretion, respectively. Furthermore, host factors (e.g., age, BMI, physical activity, and diet) contributed significantly to the relationship between activation marker expression and T-cell effector function, and cytokine secretion and cold and flu status. In conclusion, these results suggest that lifestyle and dietary factors are important variables that contribute to immune responses and should be included in human clinical trials that assess immune endpoints. PMID:25788896

  2. Rocuronium and sugammadex in a 3 days old neonate for draining an ovarian cyst. Neuromuscular management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Ricardo Vieira; Torres, Marcelo Luis Abramides; de Boer, Hans D

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed.

  3. [Rocuronium and sugammadex in a 3 days old neonate for draining an ovarian cyst. Neuromuscular management and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Carlos, Ricardo Vieira; Torres, Marcelo Luis Abramides; de Boer, Hans D

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed.

  4. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  5. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  6. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements. PMID:19088792

  7. Dietary antioxidants and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Fraine, E; Hunt, L P; Acheson, D W; Braganza, J M

    1986-03-01

    Fifteen patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (aged 17-78 years), who had not altered their diet since their first symptoms, completed 7-d weighed dietary records at home. The computed information was compared with that from 15 age- and sex-matched volunteers. Attention was focussed on the intakes of antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids. The patients ingested less selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C and riboflavin than did controls (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.02, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 respectively, using paired t-tests): selenium was by far the best discriminator on step-wise analysis. When the selenium intakes were examined alongside the results of theophylline tests--which reflect cytochromes P450 activities and, thereby, provide an index of antioxidant demand--a line of discrimination separated the majority of patients (with faster drug clearances and lower selenium intakes) and controls. There were no differences in the intakes of individual unsaturated fatty acids, C14:1 through to C24:6, between the two groups. However, amongst six subjects in the overlap zone, three with chronic pancreatitis habitually ate greater amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids C20:4 to C24:6 inclusive (1970, 1049, 750 mg/d) than did three controls (329, 320, 82 mg/d). Animal experiments show that suboptimal intakes of dietary antioxidants and/or excessive intakes of highly unsaturated fatty acids and/or induction of cytochromes P450 facilitate peroxidation of cellular lipid membranes by free radicals. Our dietary data, taken in conjunction with pharmacokinetic data, thus suggest that a similar situation--favouring lipid peroxidation--may underlie human chronic pancreatitis.

  8. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  9. Dietary determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; Feskens, Edith

    2010-08-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss.

  10. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360575

  11. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Dietary fructose in relation to blood pressure and serum uric acid in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Bobridge, K S; Haines, G L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L J; Oddy, W H; Sherriff, J; O'Sullivan, T A

    2013-04-01

    Evidence that fructose intake may modify blood pressure is generally limited to adult populations. This study examined cross-sectional associations between dietary intake of fructose, serum uric acid and blood pressure in 814 adolescents aged 13-15 years participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Energy-adjusted fructose intake was derived from 3-day food records, serum uric acid concentration was assessed using fasting blood and resting blood pressure was determined using repeated oscillometric readings. In multivariate linear regression models, we did not see a significant association between fructose and blood pressure in boys or girls. In boys, fructose intake was independently associated with serum uric acid (P<0.01), and serum uric acid was independently associated with systolic blood pressure (P<0.01) and mean arterial pressure (P<0.001). Although there are independent associations, there is no direct relationship between fructose intake and blood pressure. Our data suggest that gender may influence these relationships in adolescence, with significant associations observed more frequently in boys than girls.

  13. Weight trajectory of youth with new-onset type 1 diabetes comparing standard and enhanced dietary education.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Indrajit; Bethin, Kathleen; Quattrin, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) gain weight after insulin therapy initiation. We aimed to study the effects of Enhanced Dietary Counseling (EDC) compared to Standard of Care Dietary Counseling (SDC) on BMI trajectory in youth with new-onset T1DM. Youth with new-onset T1DM (n = 47; 8.9 + 4.2 years) were randomized 6 weeks post-diagnosis to either SDC per American Diabetes Association guidelines (n = 25) or EDC (n = 22: SDC plus monthly nutritional education and 3-day food records (FRs) at 6 and 24 weeks). Weights and heights were measured at diagnosis, 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months post-diagnosis; pre-diagnosis BMI was obtained from pediatricians' records. BMI Z score was used to track BMI change. Knowledge of recommended daily energy intake (DEI) and daily carbohydrate intake was assessed at follow-up visits. Changes in BMI Z scores were similar in SDC versus EDC subjects from pre-diagnosis to 12 months post-diagnosis. BMI Z score at 12 months exceeded pre-diagnosis level in 58.5 % subjects (54.5 % EDC vs. 63.1 % SDC, p = 0.75). From 6 weeks to 6 months, percentage of subjects correctly recalling recommended DEI increased in EDC along with percentage of subjects meeting recommended daily fruit servings intake from 25 % (6 weeks) to 64 % (6 months), p = 0.047). EDC did not prevent BMI Z score increases in youth with new-onset T1DM, and BMI Z score exceeded pre-diagnosis levels in >50 % 12 months post-diagnosis. A family-based approach and/or additional intervention may be needed to prevent excessive weight gain.

  14. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  15. Concentrations of salinomycin in eggs and tissues of laying chickens fed medicated feed for 14 days followed by withdrawal for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, A H; abou el-Sooud, K; Shehata, M A

    1996-01-01

    Laying chickens were fed medicated feed containing various concentrations of sodium salinomycin (SAL) for 14 days followed by a 3 day withdrawal period. Eggs, collected during treatment and withdrawal, tissues and ovarian yolk of birds slaughtered after 0, 1, and 3 days' withdrawal were extracted and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tissues, ovarian yolk and freeze-dried egg albumen and yolk were extracted with acetone, followed by partitioning with petroleum ether and HPLC analysis. Albumen was extracted with methanol and analysed without further clean-up. Salinomycin was detected at 520 nm after post-column reaction with vanillin at 95 degrees C. Recoveries of fortified salinomycin from freeze-dried eggs (albumen and yolk) and tissue, premix and feed were nearly quantitative (> 90%), except liver which was < 85%. The detection limit was estimated to be 5 ng g-1, with the practical quantifiable limit being about 10 ng g-1. Highest SAL concentrations were in the more fatty components such as egg yolk, ovarian yolk and subcutaneous fat. SAL residues in other tissues were generally low and followed the order liver, kidney, thigh and breast muscles. SAL residues were dependent on the SAL concentration in feed and declined rapidly during withdrawal. PMID:8950111

  16. [Dietary habit and longevity].

    PubMed

    Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Obesity is one of the most important causes of life-style related diseases, and recently its pathophysiology is emphasized as metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity by good dietary habit is a key to achieve healthy longevity. However, a lean body is not always good for health. There is an ideal body size for each person. This ideal body size differs according to age. Especially in the elderly, to prevent weight loss is more important for maintaining health and longevity than to be obese. Malnutrition is a critical factor of diseases and death in the elderly. Problems in nutritional status, and dietary intake, and methods of nutritional assessment in the elderly are discussed. Ideal body size for health and longevity, the relationship of body fat distribution and intra-abdominal fat accumulation health, and the effects of rapid weight change are also discussed to clarify the association of dietary habit and nutrition with longevity.

  17. Promoting dietary change.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  18. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  19. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and...

  20. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and...

  1. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and...

  2. Familial aggregation and dietary patterns in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Fábia Albernaz; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Sichieri, Rosely; Yokoo, Edna Massae

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns in Brazil and verify aggregation among members of the same family based on the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2008-2009 in individuals over 10 years of age. Dietary intake was estimated with a food record. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, and familial aggregation was verified by linear regression. Three major dietary patterns were identified: (1) a traditional snack featuring coffee, rolls, oils and fats, and cheese; (2) traditional main meal, based on rice, beans and other legumes, and meat; and (3) fast food type snacks, namely sandwiches, processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, and pizza. Pattern 2 showed the strongest association (β = 0.37-0.64). Patterns 1 and 3 showed positive associations for all pairs of family members, with β ranging from 0.27 to 0.44 and 0.32 to 0.42, respectively. The study showed familial aggregation of dietary patterns in the Brazilian population.

  3. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  4. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  5. An evaluation of the lower coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder after 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    Twelve healthy male subjects were initially deconditioned by 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt bed rest followed by donning the reentry anti-G suit and being centrifuged using a simulated Shuttle reentry profile. For 6 of the 12 subjects, anti-G suit pressure was increased in 0.5 psig increments if eye level blood pressure dropped below 70 mmHg. The second half of the subjects had their G-suits inflated in 0.5 psig increments if they reported 50 percent peripheral light dimming. Results show that the maximum allowable pressure for either exposure was 2.5 psig, which is the operational limit of the Shuttle anti-G suit controller.

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  7. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  8. Evaluation of short-term clinical efficacy of 3-day therapy with azithromycin in comparison with 5-day cefcapene-pivoxyl for acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in primary care.

    PubMed

    Koga, Takeharu; Rikimaru, Toru; Tokunaga, Naoto; Higashi, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Yoichiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiko

    2011-08-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis is one of the few conditions for which antibiotics are advocated among common upper respiratory infections. Although a 3-day course of azithromycin is attracting attention as a treatment of choice for the condition, it is not clear if the efficacy of the treatment is comparable with that of treatment with cephalosporins. A prospective, randomized, comparative multicenter study was conducted to compare the efficacy of azithromycin (AZM) given once daily for 3 days with that of cefcapene-pivoxyl (CFPN-PI) divided into three daily doses for 5 days. 88 patients (male: 38, mean age: 16.5) were treated with AZM and 69 (male: 34, mean age: 16.9) with CFPN-PI. The symptoms of all but 5 (2 for AZM and 3 for CFPN-PI) of the patients were resolved by the 8th day of the treatment. By the 4th day of the treatment, criteria for clinical efficacy were fulfilled in 71 (80.7%) subjects who were treated with AZM and in 48 (67.6%) of those treated with CFPN-PI (p = 0.07). The same figures on the 8th day of the treatment were 86 (97.7%) and 68 (95.8%), respectively (p = 0.66), confirming there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between the two treatments. Mild adverse reactions were reported by two patients treated with AZM and by none treated with CFPN-PI. The clinical efficacy of a 3-day course with AZM was comparable with that of a 5-day course of CFPN-PI for GAS tonsillopharyngitis.

  9. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  10. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make and... you receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than...

  11. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make and... you receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than...

  12. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make and... you receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than...

  13. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make and... you receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than...

  14. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  15. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  16. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  17. [Dietary life style of Japanese college students: relationship between dietary life, mental health and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.

  18. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p < .001] and 361 ± 27 kcal vs. 819 ± 48 kcal, respectively, for female subjects [p < .001]). Blood thiamin concentration decreased significantly during the intensive-training period compared with the preparation period (41 ± 6 ng/ml decreased to 36 ± 3 ng/ml for male subjects [p = .048], and 38 ± 10 ng/ml decreased to 31 ± 5 ng/ml for female subjects [p = .004]); however, the concentration of riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers. PMID:21719900

  19. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p < .001] and 361 ± 27 kcal vs. 819 ± 48 kcal, respectively, for female subjects [p < .001]). Blood thiamin concentration decreased significantly during the intensive-training period compared with the preparation period (41 ± 6 ng/ml decreased to 36 ± 3 ng/ml for male subjects [p = .048], and 38 ± 10 ng/ml decreased to 31 ± 5 ng/ml for female subjects [p = .004]); however, the concentration of riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

  20. Dietary management of acute diarrhoea in children: effect of fermented and amylase-digested weaning foods on intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Willumsen, J F; Darling, J C; Kitundu, J A; Kingamkono, R R; Msengi, A E; Mduma, B; Sullivan, K R; Tomkins, A M

    1997-03-01

    The effect of three dietary treatments on intestinal permeability during acute diarrhea was compared in 86 Tanzanian children 6-25 months of age admitted to Muhimbili Medical Center's Pediatric Diarrhea Treatment Unit in Dar es Salaam in 1992. 55 children (64%) had received foods other than breast milk during the first week of life. After rehydration, children were randomly assigned to receive a conventional low-energy density porridge (n = 33), a high-energy density amylase digested (AMD) porridge (n = 28), or AMD porridge followed by fermented amylase digested (FAD) porridge (n = 25). Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) permeability tests were performed at admission, after 3 days, and at 2 and 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Children with diarrhea had higher L/M ratios (geometric mean, 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-1.05) at admission than the 30 age-matched healthy controls (mean, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.12-0.17). The L/M ratio of study children fell over time and approached values recorded among healthy controls by the first follow-up visit. The change in L/M ratio between admission and day 3 of hospitalization was significantly greater in the FAD group (89%) than the conventional or AMD groups (44% and 75%, respectively). Dietary treatment and intestinal damage at admission explained 13.5% of the variation in this L/M ratio, while age at admission and age at weaning explained an additional 8.4%. These findings suggest that a porridge that has been both amylase digested and fermented effectively repairs mucosal damage through trophic effects on intestinal epithelium and should be administered to children with acute diarrhea to prevent malnutrition.

  1. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  2. Dietary studies in the joint US-Russian space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic experiments in the joint US-Russian space program involve analysis of food records, which include weighed foods, stable-isotope turnover, and biochemical samples collected before, during, and after the flights. This article describes the methods of monitoring dietary intake for this program.

  3. Validity of repeated dietary measurements in a dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G; Callmer, E; Gustafsson, J A

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the compliance in a dietary intervention study. When drawing conclusions about the relationship between dietary intake and disease occurrence/disease-related variables it is important to obtain valid dietary data. 20 healthy, non-smoking normal-weight omnivores changed from a mixed to a lactovegetarian diet. Dietary surveys (four 24 h recalls per person and time-period), urinary and faecal sample collections were performed before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the dietary shift. The validation of energy, protein, sodium and potassium yielded approximately the same ratio of dietary intake to biological marker at 0 and 3 months. This ratio decreased towards 6 months and continued to decrease towards 12 months. The fibre intake was compared to the total faecal weight directly and indirectly by calculating the fibre intake from the stool weight, the water content in faeces and the excretion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These four methods of fibre validation showed that the ratio of dietary intake to biological marker was always highest at 12 months, indicating an overestimation of the fibre intake at the end of the study. This is the first time these methods of validating fibre intake have been used in an epidemiological study. The ratio of dietary calcium intake to urinary and faecal calcium excretion did not show any statistical difference between the period before and 3 months after the dietary shift. To conclude, almost all investigated dietary data show approximately the same validity before and 3 months after the dietary shift, and show the least validity 12 months after the dietary shift. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is difficult to obtain valid dietary data 1 year after a drastic dietary change, indicating a decreased compliance to the new dietary regimen at the end of the 1 year study period. This represents important information when attempting to relate biological effects to dietary intake, and illustrates

  4. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R.

    2014-01-01

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis. PMID:24445377

  5. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  6. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Mrigen Kr.; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents. PMID:26288775

  7. Effecting dietary change.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  8. [Dietary modification in hypertensives].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Kloock, B; König, D

    2006-11-23

    Successful treatment of hypertension requires a holistic approach. In this connection, focusing on a healthy lifestyle, eating, drinking and consumption behavior and, finally, the quality of foodstuffs and the exercise habits of the patient represents an essential supplement to the classical forms of pharmaceutical treatment. The major dietary-physiological factors have been shown to be weight reduction, the monitoring of salt consumption, appropriate intake of fiber, a preference for vegetables, and a reduction of immoderate alcohol consumption.

  9. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  10. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  11. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  12. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  13. Use of a nationwide call center for Ebola response and monitoring during a 3-day house-to-house campaign - Sierra Leone, September 2014.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Stanger, Emily; Senesi, Reynold Gb; DeLuca, Nick; Dietz, Patricia; Hausman, Leslie; Kilmarx, Peter H; Mermin, Jonathan

    2015-01-16

    During May 23, 2014-January 10, 2015, Sierra Leone reported 7,777 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). In response to the epidemic, on August 5, Sierra Leone's Emergency Operations Center established a toll-free, nationwide Ebola call center. The purpose of the call center is to encourage public reporting of possible Ebola cases and deaths to public health officials and to provide health education about Ebola to callers. This information also functions as an "alert" system for public health officials and supports surveillance efforts for the response. National call center dispatchers call district-level response teams composed of surveillance officers and burial teams to inform them of reported deaths and possible Ebola cases. Members of these response teams investigate cases and conduct follow-up actions such as transporting ill persons to Ebola treatment units or providing safe, dignified medical burials as resources permit. The call center continues to operate. This report describes calls received during a 3-day national campaign and reports the results of an assessment of the call center operation during the campaign.

  14. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  15. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report Concerning Dietary Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kim A; Krause, Amanda J; Shearer, Sarah; Devries, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The most recent 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report indicated that "cholesterol is not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption." However, this statement may be too general as it does not acknowledge conflicting findings in literature regarding cardiovascular risk in certain populations. Current research suggests that dietary cholesterol may increase an subject's risk of developing diabetes, increases a diabetic patient's risk of cardiovascular disease, and may worsen coronary risk factors in subjects who are "hyper-responders" to dietary cholesterol. In conclusion, we suggest that a more cautious approach to dietary cholesterol intake is warranted, especially in high-risk populations. PMID:26341187

  16. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications... the draft guidance for industry entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements:...

  17. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  18. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  19. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  1. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  2. Challenges in Dietary Exposure Assessment in Epidemiology: Research Trends.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure assessment of the usual diet is an essential component of nutrition epidemiology, it remains one of the most challenging issues in the field. Dietary exposure is widely measured using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs), which impose a low burden on respondents and are inexpensive in large-scale studies. FFQs have long satisfied the needs of epidemiological research, and have helped deliver the tremendous recent growth in knowledge of the diet-disease association. However, issues surrounding measurement errors with FFQs have attracted substantial research interest around the world. Attenuation of the diet-disease association due to measurement errors identified in Western populations has led to extended methodological investigations comparing the performance of FFQs with biomarkers. The need for better dietary assessment methods has increased. Dietary records or recall provide relatively accurate estimates of intake for specific days, and of the usual diet if collected on multiple days. Until recently, however, their use in large-scale studies was not feasible, mainly due to cost. One innovative tool which may overcome the limitations of dietary records or recall is computerized 24-h dietary recall systems. These systems have been demonstrated to provide high-quality dietary intake data among Western populations. Incorporation of such new technology into large-scale epidemiological studies would make multiple-day administration of 24-h recall feasible in terms of cost. Research efforts to improve dietary assessment among Japanese and Asian populations are still under development. The development of innovative methods for Japanese remains an urgent research challenge. PMID:26598878

  3. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.

  4. Dietary patterns are associated with dietary recommendations but have limited relationship to body mass index in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health promoting benefits. The objectives of this study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression (RRR) and if the pattern would be associated with lower body mass index (BMI) and current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes. Setting Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, United States. Subjects Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with lab-measured weight and height and up to 4 days of dietary records (n=418). Results A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with a lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian based dietary pattern were almost 6 times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fiber. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort’s dietary patterns needs to continue. PMID:22348238

  5. Dietary principles in disease management.

    PubMed

    Moser, E

    1990-08-01

    Nutritional management of medical and surgical animal patients to provide better total health care is not a new concept, but one that has gained credibility in veterinary medicine in the 1980s. Therapeutic dietary management is an alteration of diets intended to provide optimal health in pets by restricting, moderating, or enhancing nutrients and/or manipulating dietary ingredients. In many cases, dietary therapy is an integral component of animal patient management that may complement or even replace drug administration or surgery.

  6. Dietary bioavailability of Cu adsorbed to colloidal hydrous ferric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The dietary bioavailability of copper (Cu) adsorbed to synthetic colloidal hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was evaluated from the assimilation of 65Cu by two benthic grazers, a gastropod and a larval mayfly. HFO was synthesized, labeled with 65Cu to achieve a Cu/Fe ratio comparable to that determined in naturally formed HFO, and then aged. The labeled colloids were mixed with a food source (the diatom Nitzschia palea) to yield dietary 65Cu concentrations ranging from 211 to 2204 nmol/g (dry weight). Animals were pulse fed the contaminated diet and assimilation of 65Cu from HFO was determined following 1–3 days of depuration. Mass transfer of 65Cu from HFO to the diatom was less than 1%, indicating that HFO was the source of 65Cu to the grazers. Estimates of assimilation efficiency indicated that the majority of Cu ingested as HFO was assimilated (values >70%), implying that colloidal HFO potentially represents a source of dietary Cu to benthic grazers, especially where there is active formation and infiltration of these particles into benthic substrates.

  7. Dietary and non-dietary correlates of gastrointestinal distress during the cycle and run of a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether pre-race dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress during the cycle and run of a 70.3-mile triathlon. Fifty three participants recorded dietary details the day before and morning of the triathlon and retrospectively reported GI symptoms from the cycle and run. Occurrence and severity of nausea, regurgitation and fullness were combined into an upper GI (UGI) category, while lower abdominal cramps, flatulence and urge to defecate were combined into a lower GI (LGI) category. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine whether UGI and LGI were associated with: (1) pre-race diet (kilocalories, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, protein, caffeine); and (2) non-dietary factors (age, body mass index, experience, weight change, GI distress history, finishing time). Of non-dietary factors, only a history of GI distress showed significant associations with GI symptoms during the triathlon (ρ = .32-.36; P < .05). Morning kilocalorie (ρ = .28, P = .04) and carbohydrate (ρ = .36, P < .01) intakes were modestly, positively associated with UGI during the cycle, while morning caffeine intake (ρ = .30, P = .03) showed a modest positive association with LGI during the run. The associations between diet and GI distress variables remained significant after adjusting for non-dietary factors. Competitors of 70.3-mile triathlons should carefully weigh the benefits of higher race-morning energy, carbohydrate and caffeine intakes against their potential to increase GI distress.

  8. Observed Dietary Practices of Recreational Ultraendurance Cyclists in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Kunces, Laura J; Johnson, Evan C; Munoz, Colleen X; Hydren, Jay R; Huggins, Robert A; Judelson, Daniel A; Ganio, Mathew S; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-06-01

    Kunces, LJ, Johnson, EC, Munoz, CX, Hydren, JR, Huggins, RA, Judelson, DA, Ganio, MS, Vingren, JL, Volek, JS, and Armstrong, LE. Observed dietary practices of recreational ultraendurance cyclists in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1607-1612, 2016-Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to observe the food and fluid consumption of successful recreational ultraendurance cyclists on the day before (ED-1), Event Day, and the day after (ED+1), a 162 km endurance event in a hot environment, and subsequently compare dietary intakes to recommendations and other observed dietary practices. Twenty men (age, 48 ± 8 years; mass, 85.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 178.2 ± 7.4 cm) recorded all dietary items during ED-1, Event Day, and ED+1. Diet composition and the relationships between carbohydrate and caloric intake with finish time were examined. Results show athletes consumed a high-carbohydrate diet on ED-1 (384 g·d), Event Day (657 g·d), and ED+1 (329 g·d). However, there were no significant associations between carbohydrate (p > 0.05), or caloric intake (p > 0.05), and finish time. This study results great variation in diets of recreational endurance cyclists, although most consume within nationally recognized dietary recommendation ranges. Because there is great variation and lack of correlation with performance, these findings suggest that current high-carbohydrate dietary recommendations for general endurance athletes may not be sport specific or individualized enough for recreational ultraendurance cyclists, and that individualized dietary macronutrient composition manipulations may improve

  9. Observed Dietary Practices of Recreational Ultraendurance Cyclists in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Kunces, Laura J; Johnson, Evan C; Munoz, Colleen X; Hydren, Jay R; Huggins, Robert A; Judelson, Daniel A; Ganio, Mathew S; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-06-01

    Kunces, LJ, Johnson, EC, Munoz, CX, Hydren, JR, Huggins, RA, Judelson, DA, Ganio, MS, Vingren, JL, Volek, JS, and Armstrong, LE. Observed dietary practices of recreational ultraendurance cyclists in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1607-1612, 2016-Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to observe the food and fluid consumption of successful recreational ultraendurance cyclists on the day before (ED-1), Event Day, and the day after (ED+1), a 162 km endurance event in a hot environment, and subsequently compare dietary intakes to recommendations and other observed dietary practices. Twenty men (age, 48 ± 8 years; mass, 85.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 178.2 ± 7.4 cm) recorded all dietary items during ED-1, Event Day, and ED+1. Diet composition and the relationships between carbohydrate and caloric intake with finish time were examined. Results show athletes consumed a high-carbohydrate diet on ED-1 (384 g·d), Event Day (657 g·d), and ED+1 (329 g·d). However, there were no significant associations between carbohydrate (p > 0.05), or caloric intake (p > 0.05), and finish time. This study results great variation in diets of recreational endurance cyclists, although most consume within nationally recognized dietary recommendation ranges. Because there is great variation and lack of correlation with performance, these findings suggest that current high-carbohydrate dietary recommendations for general endurance athletes may not be sport specific or individualized enough for recreational ultraendurance cyclists, and that individualized dietary macronutrient composition manipulations may improve

  10. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  11. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  12. Hormetic Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer, and inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging findings suggest that several dietary phytochemicals also benefit the nervous system and, when consumed regularly, may reduce the risk of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The evidence supporting health benefits of vegetables and fruits provide a rationale for identification of the specific phytochemicals responsible, and for investigation of their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. One general mechanism of action of phytochemicals that is emerging from recent studies is that they activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways. From an evolutionary perspective, the noxious properties of such phytochemicals play an important role in dissuading insects and other pests from eating the plants. However at the relatively small doses ingested by humans that consume the plants, the phytochemicals are not toxic and instead induce mild cellular stress responses. This phenomenon has been widely observed in biology and medicine, and has been described as ‘preconditioning’ or ‘hormesis’. Hormetic pathways activated by phytochemicals may involve kinases and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors and other cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin – FOXO pathway, the NF-κB pathway and the Nrf-2 –ARE pathway. In this article we describe the hormesis hypothesis of phytochemical actions with a focus on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as a prototypical example of a neuroprotective mechanism of action of specific dietary phytochemicals. PMID:18543123

  13. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  14. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  15. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  16. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of oritavancin in plasma and skin blister fluid following administration of a 200-milligram dose for 3 days or a single 800-milligram dose.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Gerald J; Ong, Christine M; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Loutit, Jeffrey S; Porter, Steven B; Morello, Lisa G; Ambrose, Paul G; Nicolau, David P

    2005-01-01

    Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide currently being developed for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by multidrug resistant gram-positive pathogens. The disposition of oritavancin in skin structures was investigated using a cantharide-induced blister fluid model. Seventeen healthy male subjects received oritavancin, but only 16 subjects were evaluated after one subject discontinued study drug. Each subject (eight per dose group) received 200 mg of oritavancin once a day for 3 days (group A) or 800 mg as one single dose (group B). Group A plasma samples and exudates from blister fluid were collected on days 3, 4, 7, 9, and 12 and on days 3, 4, 7, and 9, respectively. Group B samples and exudates were collected on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay and, subsequently, pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Differences between treatment groups in ratios for area under the concentration-time curve for blister fluid and plasma (AUC(blister fluid)/AUC(plasma) ratios) were evaluated using a t test (alpha = 0.05). Mean maximum concentration of drug in plasma or blister fluid was approximately 8-fold and 11-fold higher in plasma than in blister fluid following the 200- or 800-mg doses of oritavancin, respectively. Mean AUC(blister fluid)/AUC(plasma) ratios at 24 h were 0.190 (standard deviation [SD], 0.052) and 0.182 (SD, 0.062) for groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.791). To place these results in a clinical context, mean drug concentrations in blister fluid exceed the oritavancin MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited of Staphylococcus aureus (2 microg/ml) by approximately 2- to 5.5-fold at 12 h and 1.5- to 3-fold at 24 h following administration of both dosing regimens. These results support the potential use of oritavancin for the treatment of cSSSI.

  18. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  19. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  20. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  1. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  2. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  3. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally

  4. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  5. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  6. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year. PMID:26253749

  7. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines. PMID:18296306

  8. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  9. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  10. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies.

  11. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called "Dietary Advice on Prescription" (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish). It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish). The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  12. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  13. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  14. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

  15. Dietary carbohydrates for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Costabile, Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    The literature on the impact of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of blood glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients over the last 3 years is reviewed. We try to differentiate the metabolic effects due to the amount of carbohydrates from those due to their different types. The review comprises a part dealing with the effects of diets having low or high carbohydrate content on body weight reduction, and a part in which the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are discussed in relation to isoenergetic diets. Overall, the data accumulated in the period considered seem to confirm that the decrease in energy intake is more important than the qualitative composition of the diet to reduce body weight, but that both the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are important in modulating blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in both the fasting and the postprandial phases in diabetic individuals. PMID:22847773

  16. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  17. Growth performance and puberty attainment in growing pigs fed dietary fumonisin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gbore, F A

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-four male weaned piglets assigned to four diets containing 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 0.2 mg fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) /kg as diets 1, 2, 3 and control diet, respectively, were used to study the effect of dietary FB(1) on growth and puberty attainment in pigs in a 6-month feeding trial. Lower feed intake during 0-4 months and a non-significant (p > 0.05) but FB(1) concentration-dependent decrease in live and DWGs in animals fed FB(1)-contaminated diets was observed at the end of the pubertal phase. The daily and the final live weight gains of animals fed diet 3 were 75.8% and 90.6%, respectively, of the control values. The mean ages at puberty by boars on diets 2 and 3 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those for animals on the control and diet 1. The animals on diet 3 attained puberty when mean live weight was 60.1 kg, some 30.3 days after the controls attained puberty, at 156.3 days, when the mean live weight was 46.9 kg. This study revealed that dietary FB(1) delays sexual maturity in growing pigs. Male weanling pigs for breeding should not be exposed to dietary FB(1) higher than 5 mg/kg for optimum growth and reproductive performance.

  18. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P < .000) and were correlated only in the older group. CT were higher under glare conditions, at the intermediate and smaller visual angles, with greater differences in the older (P < .003) than the younger group (P < .014). In the total sample, CT correlated inversely with MPOD (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.245 to -.152 and from .000 to .026, respectively) and directly with F + V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  19. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  20. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  1. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  2. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  3. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  4. Dietary changes among cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, G; Murphy, S; Shumay, D M; Kakai, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the limited scientific knowledge about dietary factors that affect cancer recurrence, dietary guidelines for cancer survivors are similar to general recommendations on healthy eating. This study explored the patterns of and motivation for, dietary changes among cancer patients. We conducted in-person interviews with 143 cancer survivors who were chosen from a mail survey on complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients. We applied qualitative analysis using the software package NUD*IST to sort and code the transcribed interviews. The majority of dietary changes reported by 69 cancer patients agreed with current nutritional recommendations, such as decreasing meat and fat intake and increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, many diet changers also reported the intake of herbal and vitamin supplements, many with unproven effects. The major themes for changing diet were hopes that nutrition would increase well-being, maintain health and prevent cancer recurrence and beliefs that foods that cause or prevent cancer should be avoided and increased, respectively. Many cancer patients use non-scientific reasons when deciding on dietary changes and supplement use. Increasing communication with health care providers may prevent the use of extreme diets, unproven and possibly harmful supplements and reduce exaggerated hopes related to the benefits of a particular dietary regimen. PMID:11827263

  5. The dietary status of "new" vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Brown, P T; Bergan, J G

    1975-11-01

    A study of fifty well educated young adults, average age twenty-eight years, living in a metropolitan area of New England, who were followers of Zen macrobiotics, revealed that none was below his/her desirable weight although all were at the limit of the normal range. Average triceps skinfold thickness of the men and women fell in the 15th percentile, while arm circumference for members of both sexes was in the 5th percentile (24). Their ten-day dietary records indicated that the base of their diet was grains interspersed with a wide variety of vegetables, fish, cheese, and eggs and that nutrient intakes of the adults were limiting in energy, calcium, and riboflavin--and additionally in iron for the women. Improvement in the nutritional value could be achieved by greater consumption of foods common to macrobiotic dietary practices. Calcium and energy intakes of ten young children were low, especially for a period of rapid growth and development. Because of the bulk necessary to achieve nutritional adequacy with respect to calcium, increasing the children's consumption of macrobiotic food would not be advisable. Consequently, it is suggested that milk be included in their diets.

  6. Dietary Fiber, Kidney Function, Inflammation, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Cederholm, Tommy; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70–71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991–1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Results Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). Conclusions High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also

  7. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery.

  8. Hominoid dietary evolution.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P; Martin, L

    1991-11-29

    During the later Palaeocene and early Miocene, catarrhine primates and the evolving hominoids had adaptations for frugivorous diets, with the emphasis on soft foods. Early in the middle Miocene the hominoids underwent a major shift, both in morphology and in habitat, with the morphology characterized by thickened enamel on the molars, enlarged incisors and massive jaws. The diet indicated by this morphology is interpreted as still mainly frugivorous but with changed emphasis, possibly towards harder objects. The thick-enamelled hominoids are found associated with more open forest habitats, and the distribution of food resources in equivalent habitats today is discontinuous both in time and in space, leading to evolutionary pressures particularly affecting locomotion, brain size and social behaviour. The earliest known hominid fossils differed little in dental and mandibular morphology from the middle Miocene apes, and the implied dietary similarity, together with ape-like patterns of dental development and retained arboreal adaptations of the postcrania, suggests little change in the foraging strategies of the earliest hominids compared with their ape ancestors and further suggests similarity in evolutionary grade. This similarity may have extended to other aspects of behaviour, for example to patterns of tool making and use, which may have been similar in the common ancestor of apes and humans to the pattern shared by the earliest australopithecines and chimpanzees. PMID:1685578

  9. Dietary assessment and self-monitoring with nutrition applications for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice. PMID:22958633

  10. Influence of dietary supplementation with flaxseed and lactobacilli on the cells of local innate immunity response in the jejunal mucosa in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Toth, Stefan; Jonecova, Zuzana; Kruzliak, Peter; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Nemcova, Radomira

    2015-03-01

    A histological study was designed to determine the influence of flaxseed and/or lactobacilli inclusion in the diet of piglets from 10 days before to 21 days after weaning. The selected inflammatory cell population incidence in the piglet jejunal mucosa was investigated. Significantly higher numbers of myeloperoxidase-positive (P<0.01) and CD163-positive (P<0.001) cells in the jejunal mucosa were recorded on the weaning day and for 7 days after (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively) in the flaxseed group compared with the basal diet. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes was also significantly increased until 3 days after weaning (P<0.001). A prolonged significant increase in the myeloperoxidase-positive cells and intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers in the flaxseed+lactobacilli group was detected. In contrast, the number of CD163-positive cells in the flaxseed+lactobacilli group was significantly lower on the day of weaning (P<0.05) and 3 days after (P<0.01). The same effect was observed in the group with lactobacilli alone during the first 3 days after weaning (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) and these findings indicate down-regulation of CD163 expression in the jejunal mucosa by lactobacilli. The presence of lactobacilli in the diet had a stimulatory effect on goblet cell quantity in the epithelium (P<0.001) and a distinct 50% reduction in the flaxseed group (P<0.01) compared with the basal diet was observed on the weaning day. A significant increase in myeloperoxidase-positive cell number in the jejunal mucosa in the flaxseed+lactobacilli group was the only significant difference (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) found 21 days after weaning in comparison with all the other groups, indicating the pro-inflammatory effect of this feed additive combination. We conclude that dietary supplementation with flaxseed and lactobacilli on the cells of local innate immunity response in the jejunal mucosa in piglets after weaning might be linked with significant anti

  11. Responsiveness of 6 to 14 generations of birds to dietary dieldrin toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The lethal dietary toxicity of dieldrin was estimated repeatedly during 8 years of testing young bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Toxicities, quantified as 8-day LC50 values (5 days on toxic diet, followed by 3 days of untreated feed), were estimated at least 18 times per species. Average dietary LC50 values (ppm) and their 95% confidence limits for 14-day-old quail and 10-day-old pheasants and mallards were: bobwhite, 38 (34?42); Japanese quail, 61 (58?64); ring-necked pheasant, 56 (53?59); and mallard, 179 (163?195). No time-related changes were detected in LC50 values for any of the species.

  12. Presenilin Promotes Dietary Copper Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Southon, Adam; Greenough, Mark A.; Ganio, George; Bush, Ashley I.; Burke, Richard; Camakaris, James

    2013-01-01

    Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1). Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN) gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake. PMID:23667524

  13. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  14. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  15. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  16. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  17. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported.

  18. Dietary compounds in relation to dietary diversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Claude L; Dhiman, Tilak R

    2002-01-01

    The human diet contains numerous endocrine-active compounds that influence mammalian physiology. The effects of these dietary compounds may be mediated by interaction with well-characterized intracellular hormone receptors or by other effects on patterns of endogenous hormone production, metabolism, target tissue signaling, growth, or differentiation. Because humans evolved as omnivores, the spectrum of dietary compounds that can be tolerated at modest levels of intake without frank toxicity is broad. Modest intake of these diverse nonnutritive endocrine-active compounds offers potential human health benefits through modulation of metabolic and hormonal responses, especially in sedentary individuals consuming a highly refined diet.

  19. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  20. Effect of excess dietary calcium on colon mucosal membranes and fecal lipids.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Short, M E; Fink, C S

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the present studies was to examine the biochemical alterations in colon apical membranes upon feeding excess calcium to animals on a saturated fatty acid-rich diet. It has been suggested recently that excess dietary calcium may offer a protection to colon membranes as judged by histologic examination. Sprague-Dawley weanling male rats were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 14% beef fat plus 2% corn oil and either the calcium requirement or excess calcium in the form of calcium carbonate. Animals were fed the diets for 4 weeks. Feces were collected in the last 3 days. The results indicate that excess dietary calcium resulted in alteration in the density of 4 protein bands of colon apical membranes upon examination on SDS-gel electrophoresis. These bands contain 20% of membrane proteins. The diet had no effect on either the lipid content or fatty acid composition of the membranes. Excess dietary calcium resulted in a 54% reduction in fecal water bile acids and a 44% reduction in fecal water free fatty acids. The reduction in fecal water lipids was due to alterations in the solubility of these lipids. This was not mediated through alterations in the pH of fecal water. The observed alterations in protein patterns of these membranes may be due to either the reduction of fecal water bile acids and free fatty acids or may be a direct effect of dietary calcium on membrane proteins.

  1. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  2. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  3. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  5. Dietary patterns and incident cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis123

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Joseph F; Tracy, Russell; Burke, Gregory L; Jacobs, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background: Empirically derived dietary patterns show strong cross-sectional associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Objective: We investigated associations between dietary patterns and risk of incident CVD in 5316 men and women. Design: White, black, Hispanic, and Chinese adults aged 45–84 y and free of CVD and diabetes completed food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis. Incident CVD events (n = 207) identified over a median of 4.6 y were verified by death certificates and medical records. Results: The Fats and Processed Meat dietary pattern was associated with a greater risk (hazard ratio quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 1.82; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.35), and the Whole Grains and Fruit dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk (0.54; 0.33, 0.91) of CVD after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle confounders. Associations between CVD and the Whole Grains and Fruit dietary pattern remained strong after adjustment for waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, or inflammatory markers. Conclusions: Data from this multiethnic cohort reinforce findings from predominantly white cohorts, ie, that “healthy” and “unhealthy” dietary patterns empirically exist and that these patterns are important lifestyle predictors of CVD incidence. PMID:19625679

  6. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children. PMID:10967615

  7. Re-feeding rats a high-sucrose diet after 3 days of starvation enhances histone H3 acetylation in transcribed region and expression of jejunal GLUT5 gene.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kazue; Masuda, Yuriko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-01-01

    Fasting for 3 days leads to reduction in the expression of GLUT5 and SGLT1 genes in jejunum. Re-feeding a high-sucrose diet in fasted rats enhanced mRNA levels and histone H3 acetylation on transcribed region of GLUT5 gene within 24 h, but not in SGLT1. Responsiveness of jejunal GLUT5 gene is associated with changes in histone H3 acetylation on transcribed region.

  8. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  9. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  10. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  11. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  12. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  13. Dietary pretreatment with green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces the bioavailability and hepatotoxicity of subsequent oral bolus doses of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    James, Karma D; Forester, Sarah C; Lambert, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    Human case-studies have reported an association between green tea-based dietary supplements and hepatotoxicity. Studies have demonstrated the hepatotoxicity of high-dose oral bolus dosing with the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in mice and dogs. We examined the effect of pretreatment with dietary EGCG on the hepatotoxicity and bioavailability of acute oral bolus dosing with EGCG in CF-1 mice. EGCG (750 mg/kg, i.g., once daily for 3 days) increased plasma alanine aminotransferase by 80-fold, decreased both reduced (by 59%) and total (by 33%) hepatic glutathione, and increased hepatic levels of phosphorylated histone 2AX. Pretreatment with dietary EGCG (3.2 mg/g diet) for 2 weeks mitigated hepatotoxicity. Acute oral EGCG also decreased mRNA expression of glutathione reductase. Dietary pretreatment prevented these decreased and increased glutathione peroxidase (Gpx)2, Gpx3, Gpx5, and Gpx7 expression. We found that dietary EGCG reduced the plasma (57% reduction) and hepatic (71% reduction) EGCG exposure following oral bolus dosing compared to mice that were not pre-treated. Overall, it appears that EGCG can modulate its own bioavailability and that dietary treatment may reduce the toxic potential of acute high oral bolus doses of EGCG. These data may partly explain the observed variation in hepatotoxic response to green tea-containing dietary supplements.

  14. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is intended primarily for use by policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators. The information in the Dietary Guidelines is useful for the development of educational materials and aids policymakers in designing and implementing nutrition-related programs, including federal food, nutrition…

  15. Longitudinal changes in dietary patterns during adult life.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G D; McNaughton, S A; Bramwell, G D; Wadsworth, M E J

    2006-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in dietary patterns, there have been few longitudinal investigations. The objective of the present study was to extend an earlier method of dietary pattern assessment to longitudinal binary data and to assess changes in patterns over time and in relation to socio-demographic covariates. A prospective national cohort of 1265 participants completed a 5 d food diary at three time-points during their adult life (at age 36 years in 1982, 43 years in 1989 and 53 years in 1999). Factor analysis identified three dietary patterns for women (fruit, vegetables and dairy; ethnic foods and alcohol; meat, potatoes and sweet foods) and two patterns in men (ethnic foods and alcohol; mixed). Trends in dietary pattern scores were calculated using random effects models. Marked changes were found in scores for all patterns between 1989 and 1999, with only the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern in women recording a decline. In a multiple variable model that included the three time-points, socio-demographic variables and BMI time-dependent covariates, both non-manual social class and higher education level were also strongly associated with the consumption of more items from the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern and the mixed pattern for men (P < 0.0001) and the fruit, vegetables and dairy pattern and the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern for women (P < 0.01). In conclusion, longitudinal changes in dietary patterns and across socio-economic groups can assist with targeting public health initiatives by identifying stages during adult life when interventions to improve diet would be most beneficial to health.

  16. Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents’ Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa; Magnusson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed. Objective To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied. Results The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators. Conclusions Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies. PMID:27473462

  17. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshavitz, Helen

    1974-01-01

    Pupil files are accumulating increasing amounts of sensitive data. Yet parents have been barred from seeing their children's files while law enforcement officials and other public agencies have been given virtually free access. However, a national law in regard to student records is a real possibility. (Author/WM)

  18. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  19. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  1. Obamacare's (3) Day(s) in Court.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Abigail R

    2012-06-01

    Before the oral arguments in late March, the vast majority of legal scholars felt confident that the Supreme Court of the United States would uphold the individual mandate against the constitutional challenge that 26 states have levied against it. Since the oral arguments, that confidence has been severely shaken. This article asks why legal scholars were so confident before the argument and what has made us so concerned since the argument. The article posits that certain fundamental characteristics of health insurance, particularly its unusual role in steering health-care consumption decisions, which distinguishes health insurance from standard kinds of indemnity insurance, should make the constitutional question easy, but the Obama Administration's legal team was understandably hesitant to highlight those unique characteristics in its arguments. Because the Supreme Court justices seemed not to understand the uniqueness of health insurance without the government's help and because the justices seemed unusually willing to adopt a new constitutional constraint in this case, the individual mandate appears to be in far greater jeopardy than we legal scholars anticipated.

  2. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from 28- or 14-day dietary records and 2 FFQs. To assess reproducibility and validity, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between dietary pattern scores derived from FFQs separated by a 1-year interval, and between dietary pattern scores derived from dietary records and those derived from a FFQ completed after the dietary records, respectively. Results We identified 3 Japanese dietary patterns from the dietary records and 2 FFQs: prudent, westernized, and traditional. Regarding reproducibility, Spearman correlation coefficients between the 2 FFQs ranged from 0.55 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men and the prudent Japanese pattern in women to 0.77 for the traditional Japanese pattern in men. Regarding validity, the corresponding values between dietary records and the FFQ ranged from 0.32 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men to 0.63 for the traditional Japanese pattern in women. Conclusions Acceptable reproducibility and validity was shown by the 3 dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis based on the FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study. PMID:22343330

  3. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  4. Dietary and hormonal interrelationships in premenopausal women: evidence for a relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Shultz, T D; Wilcox, R B; Spuehler, J M; Howie, B J

    1987-12-01

    To investigate possible differences in tissue exposures to reproductive hormones and to determine hormone-nutrient interrelationships, we studied 10 vegetarian and 10 nonvegetarian premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist women. Over 3 d in each of three consecutive menstrual cycles, we collected diet records, fasting midluteal phase blood, and 24-h urine samples. During each study period, we measured plasma and urinary estrogens, plasma free and protein bound-estradiol-17 beta, the binding capacity of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androgens, progesterone, and prolactin levels. The omnivores consumed significantly more protein, total and saturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids, and cholesterol than did the vegetarians. Hormonal status and binding capacity of SHBG were similar in both groups. However, for nonvegetarians, prolactin levels were positively correlated with dietary energy, protein, total and saturated fatty acids, and oleic acid. Further study delineating the effects of specific dietary nutrients on the basal level of prolactin secretion is warranted.

  5. Effect of dietary components on renal inorganic phosphate (Pi) excretion induced by a Pi-depleted diet.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Ritsuko; Segawa, Hiroko; Ohmoto, Tomoyo; Sasaki, Shohei; Hanazaki, Ai; Mori, Ayaka; Ikuta, Kayo; Furutani, Junya; Kawakami, Eri; Tatsumi, Sawako; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) is the most important factor in the regulation of renal Pi excretion. Recent studies suggest the presence of an enteric-renal signaling axis for dietary Pi as well as the existence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects changes in luminal Pi concentrations. The mechanisms of intestinal Pi sensing, however, are unknown. In the present study, we focused on Pi depletion signals and investigated the effects of dietary components on intestinal Pi sensing. After feeding rats experimental diets for 3 days, we investigated urinary Pi excretion and plasma biochemical parameters. Renal Pi excretion was suppressed in rats fed a low-Pi diet (0.02% Pi). Elimination of dietary calcium (Ca) completely blocked the suppression of Pi excretion, suggesting that the presence of Ca is essential for the Pi depletion signal. Furthermore, a minimum Ca content of more than 0.02% was necessary for the Pi depletion signal. Magnesium, lanthanum, and strontium, which are agonists of calcium sensing receptor, instead of Ca, reduced Pi excretion. Therefore, dietary Ca appears to be important for the Pi depletion-sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the calcium sensing receptor may be involved in the Pi depletion signal.

  6. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  7. Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Coward, Andy; Jebb, Susan A

    2007-06-01

    Under-reporting (UR) of energy intake (EI) by self-reported dietary methods is well-documented but the methods used to estimate UR in population-based studies commonly assume a sedentary lifestyle. We compared estimated UR using individualised estimates of energy requirements with a population cut-off based on minimum energy needs. UR was estimated for 1551 adults aged 19-64 years enrolled in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Physical activity diaries and 7 d weighed dietary records were completed concurrently. Mean daily EI (kJ/d) was calculated from the dietary records. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level, and then to calculate estimated energy requirements (EER) from published equations. UR was calculated both as EER - EI with an adjustment for daily EER and EI variation, and also by a population method. By the individual method UR was approximately 27 % of energy needs in men and 29 % in women, with 75 % of men and 77 % of women classified as under-reporters; by the population method 80 and 88 % were classified as under-reporters respectively. When subjects who reported their eating being affected by dieting or illness during dietary recording were excluded, UR was 25 % of energy needs in both sexes. UR was higher in overweight and obese men and women compared with their lean counterparts (P < 0.001). UR of EI must be considered in dietary surveys. The EER method allows UR to be quantified and takes into account an individual's activity level. Measures of physical activity and questions to identify under-eating during dietary recording may help to evaluate secular trends in UR. PMID:17433123

  8. Image-assisted dietary assessment: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Images captured during eating episodes provide objective information to assist in the assessment of dietary intake. Images are captured using handheld devices or wearable cameras, and can support traditional self-report or provide the primary record of dietary intake. A diverse range of image-assisted methods have been developed and evaluated but have not been previously examined together. Therefore, a review was undertaken to examine all studies that have evaluated or validated image-assisted methods of dietary assessment for assessing dietary energy intake. Identified image-assisted methods that employ similar methodologies were grouped for comparison. English-language full-text research articles published between January 1998 and November 2013 were searched using five electronic databases. A search of reference lists and associated websites was also conducted. Thirteen studies that evaluated 10 unique image-assisted methods among adults aged 18 to 70 years were included. Ten studies used handheld devices and three studies used wearable cameras. Eight studies evaluated image-based food records, two studies explored the use of images to enhance written food records, and three studies evaluated image-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls. Results indicate images enhance self-report by revealing unreported foods and identify misreporting errors not captured by traditional methods alone. Moreover, when used as the primary record of dietary intake, images can provide valid estimates of energy intake. However, image-assisted methods that rely on image analysis can be prone to underestimation if users do not capture images of satisfactory quality before all foods are consumed. Further validation studies using criterion measures are warranted. The validity among children, adolescents, and elderly persons as well as the feasibility of using image-assisted methods in large samples needs to be examined. Additional research is also needed to better understand the potential

  9. Detailed Dietary Assessment in Patients with Inoperable Tumors: Potential Deficits for Nutrition Care Plans.

    PubMed

    Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Schina, Evaggelia; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    Advanced cancer often results in reduced dietary intake; however, data on actual intake at the time of diagnosis are limited. In the present study, a detailed dietary intake assessment was performed in patients with metastatic lung and upper gastrointestinal cancer, before initiation of systemic therapy. Basic demographics and performance status (PS) were recorded. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometry, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and 3 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Of the 84 patients enrolled, 61.4% were protein, energy, or protein-energy undernourished, regardless of body mass index (BMI) or MNA category. No differences in energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients intakes across BMI categories were recorded. Very low consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), irrespective of energy intake, tumor site, BMI category, or PS was found. Suboptimal micronutrients intakes were recorded even in well-nourished and overweight/obese patients. Patients with adequate PS and better MNA score reported significantly higher intake of certain macro- and micronutrients (all P < 0.05). Most patients exhibited reduced dietary intake in terms of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient. Very low EPA and DHA intake was recorded for the whole sample, whereas micronutrient suboptimal intakes were also prevalent in well-nourished or overweight patients. All the above should be taken into account during patients' nutritional care. PMID:27552101

  10. The Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Comment on Stice et al. (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Staveren, Wija; Herman, C. Peter

    2006-01-01

    In 4 empirical studies, E. Stice, M. Fisher, and M. R. Lowe (see record 2004-11653-006) calculated the correlations between some widely used dietary restraint scales and food intake. Failing to find substantial negative correlations, they concluded that these scales were invalid. The current article challenges this conclusion. For one thing, there…

  11. Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lako, J V; Nguyen, V C

    2001-01-01

    The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary

  12. Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lako, J V; Nguyen, V C

    2001-01-01

    The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary

  13. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  14. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  15. Dietary protein and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bursztyn, P G; Vas Dias, F W

    1985-01-01

    Vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores. Dietary protein may be partly responsible. Human volunteers, whose normal diet contained little soya protein, were given soya based foods to replace some of the meat in their diet. During this period over 20% of the total protein intake was derived from soya, however blood pressures remained unchanged. Rabbits were given diets based on either soya, casein, or fish protein. The animals' diets were then changed to one of the other protein sources. During the subsequent 3 weeks, small increases in blood pressure were seen in the casein and soya groups. When rabbits were given fat enriched diets, blood pressures rose but the increase was independent of the type of protein in the diet. It is concluded that the type of protein consumed is unlikely to account for the blood pressure differences between vegetarians and omnivores. Arguments are presented suggesting that other dietary components, such as fat or fibre may be responsible.

  16. Physiological relevance of dietary melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J; Somoza, Veronika; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Melanoidins are the final products of the Maillard reaction. The main dietary sources of melanoidins are coffee, bread crust, bakery products, black beer and cocoa. Although the chemical structures of melanoidins are widely unknown, data from gravimetric techniques allow to roughly estimate a daily intake in the order of 10 g with a Western diet. Melanoidins contribute to the sensorial properties, modulating texture and flavour of foods. Growing evidence also suggests that melanoidins have health beneficial properties, such as chemopreventive, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the ability to chelate different minerals. In the gastrointestinal tract, melanoidins behave not only as antioxidants, but also as dietary fibre by promoting the growth of bifidobacteria. This array of biological activities suggests the need for analytical techniques to identify the melanoidin structures and to control their formation during thermal food processing.

  17. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  18. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05). This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin. PMID:26644854

  19. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  20. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  2. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  3. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  4. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Karen S.; Erdrich, Sharon; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat. PMID:25580814

  5. The frequency of dietary references in homeopathic consultations.

    PubMed

    Filho, Rubens Dolce

    2011-07-01

    A retrospective quantitative study on dietary references found in medical records of 2753 patients attending consultations from 10/1/1994 to 5/31/2007 was conducted. The symptoms found in the rubrics relating to food and drink aggravation and amelioration, aversion and craving of homeopathic repertories reflect diets at different places and times and do not correspond fully, to contemporary gastronomy. Desires for sweet and spicy foods were statistically more frequent, revealing the prevailing taste for such food among the studied population. Food cravings should be carefully analyzed before considering them as indications for choosing homeopathic therapy, they are less significant than aversions, aggravations and ameliorations.

  6. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

  7. Mixed method approaches to understanding cancer-related dietary risk reduction among public housing residents.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Ann C; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Black, Maureen M; Caulfield, Laura E

    2009-07-01

    Improving diet is one important pathway for addressing cancer disparities. We conducted mixed-method analyses of 468 24-h dietary recalls from 156 African-American women residents of Washington DC public housing to better understand dietary patterns. Recalls were rated for five cancer-related preventive characteristics (adequate fruits/vegetables, moderate fat, moderate calories, no alcohol, and adequate Healthy Eating Index score), combined as a scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified psychosocial and dietary characteristics associated with scale scores. Qualitative analyses of dietary records identified contextual aspects of food patterns within and across score groups. Sixty-one percent of respondents met zero or one dietary goal; alcohol abstention was most common (64%). Only 12% achieve either three (6%), four (4%), or all five (<1%) goals; five fruit and vegetable servings were least common (15%). The underlying scalar structure of responses suggests that fruit and vegetable consumption is seldom achieved in this population without other scale components. Poorer scores were associated with younger age, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, smoking, and food-purchasing practices. Qualitative analyses identified eight themes related to differences between dietary patterns. Findings reinforce the value of nonreductionist approaches to cancer-related nutrition intervention. PMID:19444616

  8. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  9. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data.

  10. Dietary Exposure to Aluminium and Health Risk Assessment in the Residents of Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0–2 and 3–13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China. PMID:24594670

  11. Association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of a group of female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houghton, L A; Green, T J; Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S; Stephen, A M; O'Connor, D L

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited and fasting blood samples were collected. Dietary intakes (3-d food record) were recorded and participants were classified as lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, or omnivores on the basis of food-consumption patterns assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Fourteen percent, 17%, and 26% of lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, and omnivores, respectively, had dietary folate intakes below their predicted requirements; 1%, 4%, and 23%, respectively, had serum folate concentrations indicative of deficiency. Despite low dietary folate intakes and serum folate concentrations, few subjects had homocysteine concentrations indicative of deficiency, suggesting that the degree of folate depletion had not yet produced functional consequences. Most important, results suggest that the consumption of nonstarch polysaccharide is significantly associated with serum folate concentrations (P < 0.001). For each 1-g increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake, a 1.8% increase in serum folate concentration is expected. In summary, we propose that an increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake may promote the intestinal biosynthesis of folate, providing a complementary strategy to enhance the folate nutriture of humans.

  12. Dietary self-monitoring and its impact on weight loss in overweight children

    PubMed Central

    Mockus, Danyte S.; Macera, Caroline A.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Peddecord, Michael; Thomas, Ronald G.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether dietary self-monitoring is related to weight loss in overweight children and whether perceived social support or dietary self-efficacy affects this relation. Design Longitudinal, behavioral intervention study. Subjects The study population included 153 children, aged 7–12 years, with daily food records from a 20-week weight loss program in San Diego, California, USA, conducted between 1999 and 2002. Methods Self-monitoring was assessed using two methods: a weekly index as a measure of competency (possible range −7 to +35) and recording sufficiency for total compliance (percentage of days). Results Significantly greater decreases in percentage overweight were found for children with recording competency at or above the median (mean change: −13.4% vs. −8.6%; p < 0.001) or who were compliant in recording ≥50% of the days (mean change: −13.0% vs. −8.4%; p < 0.001). Using hierarchical linear regression, children who had a higher average weekly monitoring index or recorded sufficiently on more days had significantly greater decreases in percent overweight, after adjusting for age, sex, SES, race/ethnicity and baseline percent overweight (p < 0.001). Perceived social support at baseline and dietary self-efficacy were not related to self-monitoring or change in percent overweight in this sample. Conclusion As has been demonstrated with adults and adolescents, self-monitoring in children was associated with greater decreases in percent overweight. However, dietary self-efficacy and perceived social support were not related to how frequently or thoroughly they monitored dietary intake. PMID:21722068

  13. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds.

  14. Dietary factors in lung cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M T; Kolonel, L N; Wilkens, L R; Yoshizawa, C N; Le Marchand, L; Hankin, J H

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis-generating analysis of the role of diet on survival was conducted among a sample of 463 men and 212 women with histologically-confirmed lung cancer. Interview information was obtained from two population-based case-control studies of lung cancer conducted on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, between 1979 and 1985. The interview consisted of a quantitative dietary history to assess the usual intake of foods 1 year prior to diagnosis, a complete tobacco history, and other demographic and lifestyle information. Records from the Hawaii Tumor Registry were reviewed for data on stage, histology, and follow-up status of these patients. A food group analysis showed a significant reduction in the risk of death with increasing consumption of all vegetables combined among women (P for trend = 0.03), but not among men. The covariate-adjusted median survival times for women from the highest to the lowest quartiles of vegetable intake were 33, 21, 15, and 18 months, respectively. The results also suggested an association of fruit intake and survival among women (P for trend = 0.02), although a similar effect was not found among men. Increased consumption of certain foods, such as tomatoes and oranges among men, and broccoli and, perhaps, tomatoes among women, appeared to improve survival. This exploratory analysis provides mixed indications that certain components of vegetables and fruits may prolong survival in lung cancer patients. PMID:1591072

  15. Seizure prophylaxis in an animal model of epilepsy by dietary fluoxetine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Richman, Alyssa; Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2007-04-01

    Clinical and animal model evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act as anticonvulsants. The present studies tested the possibility that the El mouse model of genetically predisposed/handling-triggered epilepsy would exhibit fewer seizures following SSRI treatment via dietary fluoxetine adulteration. In particular, potential bioenergetic and neural mechanisms for anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine were explored using food intake/body weight monitoring and quantification of brain serotonin transporter protein. El mice consuming a chow diet ad libitum or yoked in quantity to fluoxetine diet intake exhibited seizure incidence of 40% in response to tail-suspension handling, whereas seizures were abolished (0%) among El mice consuming a fluoxetine-adultered diet over 7 days. A 3 day period of fluoxetine administration was insufficient to exert anticonvulsant efficacy and all treatment groups exhibited the same circadian locomotor activity patterns at the time of seizure susceptibility testing. Bioenergetic factors could not account for the anticonvulsant efficacy of fluoxetine since yoked diet controls with matched food intake, body weight change and blood glucose levels exhibited the same 40% seizure incidence as ad libitum chow controls. Importantly, the 7 day period of dietary fluoxetine exposure was effective in selectively reducing cell density in the parietal cortex and increasing serotonin transporter protein content in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary fluoxetine supplementation abolishes handling-induced seizure susceptibility in El mice via a neural remodeling mechanism independent of energy balance.

  16. Socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary patterns among Malaysian aborigines and rural native Malays.

    PubMed

    Ali, O; Shamsuddin, Z; Khalid, B A

    1991-09-01

    The socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary pattern of 100 Aborigines and Malays, aged 7 years and above from Kuala Pangsoon, Selangor Malaysia were studied by using pretested questionnaires. The individual's dietary intake was estimated using 24 hour recall for 3 days within one week which was chosen at random. The household's food consumption pattern was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. There was no difference in the total income per month for both communities, as well as the educational attainment of the head of household and property ownership. The proportion of smokers among the Aborigines and the Malays was almost similar (33%) but the percentage of heavy smokers was higher among Aborigines compared to Malays. One third of the Aborigines regularly consume alcohol. The main energy source for both communities was rice, sugar and cooking oil whilst fish and eggs were the main sources of protein. More than 50% of the Aborigines take tapioca or tapioca leaves at least once a week compared to less than 20% among the Malays. There was no significant different in the intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the groups. However, the Aborigines take less fats and iron compared to the Malays. The difference in terms of smoking, drinking habit and dietary intake may determine the distribution of disease in both communities.

  17. Dietary Quality Indices and Biochemical Parameters Among Patients With Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi kani, Ali; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake might have important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Although, there are some reports on dietary intake and anthropometrics measurements, few studies have focused on the markers of assessing whole diet like dietary quality indices. Objectives Therefore, our aim was to determine the diet quality indices and biochemical parameters among patients with NAFLD and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods This case-control study was performed on 100 patients with NAFLD and 100 healthy subjects who were attending to Gastrointestinal Research Center, Baqiyatallah University, Tehran, Iran during the recent years. Usual dietary intake was assessed by three dietary records (one weekend and two week days). Healthy eating index (HEI), dietary diversity score (DDS), dietary energy density (DED), mean adequacy ratio of nutrients (MAR) were assessed according to the standard methods. Results Patients with NAFLD had higher body mass index, weight and waist circumference compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of liver enzymes, triglyceride, LDL, BUN, and uric acid were higher in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Although patients with NAFLD had higher energy, carbohydrate and fat intake, their values for antioxidant vitamins, calcium and vitamin D were lower than healthy subjects (P < 0.05). HEI and MAR were higher among healthy group, and DED was lower among them. Nutrient adequacy ratio for calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients were lower in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions It seems that dietary quality indices may be associated with NAFLD. Calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant micronutrients intake might be lower among patients with NAFLD based on this case-control study. Further prospective studies should be conducted in this regard. PMID:24065998

  18. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  19. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Vajihe; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not. PMID:25983773

  20. Does dietary vitamin E or C decrease egg yolk cholesterol?

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Maziar; Zaghari, Mojtaba

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period (10 days) to adjust egg production. Treatments were levels of vitamin E or C (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) supplementation to the basal diet for 4 weeks, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, and feed consumption were recorded during the study. Shell thickness, Haugh unit score, yolk color, yolk weight, yolk cholesterol, and blood parameters were measured at the end of experiment. There was no significant effect of dietary vitamin E or C on hen performance. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly by antioxidant vitamin supplementation (P < 0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol reduction did not have any negative effect on egg production rate. Antioxidants, especially vitamin C, increased serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05). Serum total cholesterol content did not change by vitamin supplementation but cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) increased (P < 0.05), as dietary vitamin E or C supplementation increased in diets. These results are in conflict with the previous hypothesis that antioxidants have a role in LDL-C removal from the blood or increasing HDL-C. Vitamin E was more effective than vitamin C in this case and if these results are confirmed by further studies, they may result to revision in researchers' point of view about antioxidant especially in human medicine. PMID:20127202

  1. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  2. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS), which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) longitudinal study. Methods We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points) were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points). Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of T2DM. Results We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25–39 points) vs. low (11–24) category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40–60) vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019). Conclusions The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve

  3. Dietary interpretations for extinct megafauna using coprolites, intestinal contents and stable isotopes: Complimentary or contradictory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Bocherens, Herve; Rogers, Karyne M.

    2016-06-01

    For many extinct species, direct evidence of diet (e.g. coprolites, gizzard/intestinal contents) is not available, and indirect dietary evidence (e.g. stable isotopes) must be relied upon. The Late Holocene fossil record of New Zealand provides a unique opportunity to contrast palaeodietary reconstructions for the extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) using stable isotopes and coprolite/gizzard contents. Palaeodietary reconstructions from isotopes are found to contradict those based on direct dietary evidence. We discuss reasons for this and advocate, where possible, for the use of multiple lines of evidence in reconstructing the diets of extinct species.

  4. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  5. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26874700

  6. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  7. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits. PMID:22221489

  8. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  10. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. PMID:27516168

  11. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  12. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  13. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  14. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  15. Dietary survey in 40-year-old Edinburgh men.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; Logan, R L; Sharman, M; Lockerbie, L; Riemersma, R A; Oliver, M F

    1982-08-01

    One hundred and seven healthy 40-yr-old Edinburgh men were asked to participate in a dietary survey involving a 7-d weighed record. Ninety seven successfully completed the record. The results showed that the total energy was made up of 13 per cent protein, 38 per cent fat, 40 per cent carbohydrate and 9 per cent alcohol. A small proportion of the men had exceptionally high alcohol intakes. The mean intake of fat was high, 121 g, it is nevertheless lower than amounts consumed in other areas of Britain. Of the energy from fat, 16 per cent came from saturated-fatty acid, 15 per cent from monounsaturated-fatty acid and 4 per cent from polyunsaturated-fatty acid. Linoleic acid contributed 3 per cent of the mean energy intake. In some mens' diet this essential fatty acid provided under 2 per cent of their total energy consumption.

  16. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  17. Transversal stiffness and beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 content of the M. soleus fibers in the conditions of a 3-day reloading after 14-day gravitational unloading.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions.

  18. Effects of financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on dietary intake and weight outcomes among older adults: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Bannon, Annika L; Moore, Reneé H

    2016-05-01

    Providing financial incentives can be a useful behavioral economics strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake among consumers. It remains to be determined whether financial incentives can promote intake of other low energy-dense foods and if consumers who are already using promotional tools for their grocery purchases may be especially responsive to receiving incentives. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects of offering financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on 3-month changes in dietary intake, weight outcomes, and the home food environment among older adults. A secondary aim was to compare frequent coupon users (FCU) and non-coupon users (NCU) on weight status, home food environment, and grocery shopping behavior. FCU (n = 28) and NCU (n = 26) were randomly assigned to either an incentive or a control group. Participants in the incentive group received $1 for every healthy food or beverage they purchased. All participants completed 3-day food records and a home food inventory and had their height, weight, and waist circumference measured at baseline and after 3 months. Participants who were responsive to the intervention and received financial incentives significantly increased their daily vegetable intake (P = 0.04). Participants in both groups showed significant improvements in their home food environment (P = 0.0003). No significant changes were observed in daily energy intake or weight-related outcomes across groups (P < 0.12). FCU and NCU did not differ significantly in any anthropometric variables or the level at which their home food environment may be considered 'obesogenic' (P > 0.73). Increased consumption of vegetables did not replace intake of more energy-dense foods. Incentivizing consumers to make healthy food choices while simultaneously reducing less healthy food choices may be important.

  19. Effects of financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on dietary intake and weight outcomes among older adults: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Bannon, Annika L; Moore, Reneé H

    2016-05-01

    Providing financial incentives can be a useful behavioral economics strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake among consumers. It remains to be determined whether financial incentives can promote intake of other low energy-dense foods and if consumers who are already using promotional tools for their grocery purchases may be especially responsive to receiving incentives. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects of offering financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on 3-month changes in dietary intake, weight outcomes, and the home food environment among older adults. A secondary aim was to compare frequent coupon users (FCU) and non-coupon users (NCU) on weight status, home food environment, and grocery shopping behavior. FCU (n = 28) and NCU (n = 26) were randomly assigned to either an incentive or a control group. Participants in the incentive group received $1 for every healthy food or beverage they purchased. All participants completed 3-day food records and a home food inventory and had their height, weight, and waist circumference measured at baseline and after 3 months. Participants who were responsive to the intervention and received financial incentives significantly increased their daily vegetable intake (P = 0.04). Participants in both groups showed significant improvements in their home food environment (P = 0.0003). No significant changes were observed in daily energy intake or weight-related outcomes across groups (P < 0.12). FCU and NCU did not differ significantly in any anthropometric variables or the level at which their home food environment may be considered 'obesogenic' (P > 0.73). Increased consumption of vegetables did not replace intake of more energy-dense foods. Incentivizing consumers to make healthy food choices while simultaneously reducing less healthy food choices may be important. PMID:26879224

  20. Demographic and economic factors associated with dietary quality for adults in the 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S P; Rose, D; Hudes, M; Viteri, F E

    1992-11-01

    Data for 5,884 adults (19 years of age and older) who participated in the 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1987-88 NFCS) were used to investigate demographic and economic factors associated with dietary quality. Although the low response rate for the 1987-88 NFCS has raised concerns about possible bias, it is appropriate to use this extensive data set for analyses that do not attempt to generalize the results to the US population as a whole. Two aspects of quality were calculated for the mean of the 3-day reported intakes: number of nutrients below two thirds of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (low-intake nutrients) and percent of energy from fat. Few adults reported mean intakes that met suggested guidelines: 22% of diets were above two thirds of the RDA for all 15 nutrients and 14% were below 30% fat, but only 2% met both criteria. Energy intake was a strong negative predictor of number of low-intake nutrients and a weak positive predictor of percent of energy from fat. Results of multivariate regression analyses identified few demographic or economic predictors of either the number of low-intake nutrients or percent of energy from fat. According to these data, diets of most adults do not conform to current dietary guidelines. Nutrition education efforts should be directed to all adults, and research should be undertaken to determine more effective ways to help adults improve their overall dietary quality. PMID:1430720

  1. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  2. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  3. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  4. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  5. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  6. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  7. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... nutritional needs of residents in accordance with the recommended dietary allowances of the Food and...

  8. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  9. A Computer-Based Dietary Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary trial of a program in which principles of patient-computer dialogue have been applied to dietary counseling is described. The program was designed to obtain historical information from overweight patients and to provide instruction and guidance regarding dietary behavior. Beginning with a teaching sequence, 25 non-overweight…

  10. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  11. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  12. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  13. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  14. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  15. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  16. Dietary reference intervals for vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Dietary reference intervals relate to the distribution of dietary requirement for a particular nutrient as defined by the distribution of physiological requirement for that nutrient. These have more commonly been called Dietary Reference Values (DRV) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), amongst other names. The North American DRI for vitamin D are the most current dietary reference intervals and arguably arising from the most comprehensive evaluation and report on vitamin D nutrition to date. These are a family of nutrient reference values, including the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level. In particular, the EAR is used for planning and assessing diets of populations; it also serves as the basis for calculating the RDA, a value intended to meet the needs of nearly all people. The DRVs for vitamin D in the UK and the European Community have been in existence for almost two decades, and both are currently under review. The present paper briefly overviews these three sets of dietary reference intervals as case studies to highlight both the similarities as well as possible differences that may exist between reference intervals for vitamin D in different countries/regions. In addition, it highlights the scientific basis upon which these are based, which may explain some of the differences. Finally, it also overviews how the dietary reference intervals for vitamin D may be applied, and especially in terms of assessing the adequacy of vitamin D intake in populations. PMID:22536775

  17. Long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor correlates with butyrate production and markers of protein fermentation during in vitro fecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2014-09-01

    Diet influences gut microbiota composition. Therefore, we hypothesized that diet would impact the extent of dietary fiber utilization and the types of metabolic end-products produced by the microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. By obtaining long-term dietary records from fecal donors, we aimed to determine the correlations between dietary intake variables and dietary fiber degradation and short-/branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation. Eighteen subjects completed 1-year diet history questionnaires and provided fecal samples that were used for in vitro fermentation of a whole wheat substrate. The percentage of dietary fiber fermented was not correlated with nutrient intakes; however, butyrate production was correlated with fecal donor intake of many nutrients of which principal component analysis revealed were mostly contributed by grain-, nut-, and vegetable-based foods. Negative correlations were found for propionate with intake of total carbohydrate, added sugar, and sucrose and for ammonia and BCFA production with intake of unsaturated fats. Thus, our analysis did not support our first hypothesis: the percentage of dietary fiber fermented during in vitro fermentation was not correlated with dietary records. However, production of butyrate; BCFA; ammonia; and, to a lesser extent, propionate was correlated with the diet records of fecal donors, thus supporting our second hypothesis. These results suggest that diets high in plant-based foods and high in unsaturated fats are associated with microbial metabolism that is consistent with host health.

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  19. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  20. Dietary intake data: usefulness and limitations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, A G; Sevigny, J; Seoane, N; Richard, L

    1984-01-01

    In past decades, the main objectives of nutrition surveys were to define nutritional status at the time of the study, to cross-sectionally describe dietary patterns of consumption and food preparation practices, and to identify areas for improvement. Nowadays, the need for ongoing evaluation of nutritional status of individuals and of population is gaining recognition. The present paper, in discussing usefulness and limitations of dietary intake data, will focus on the importance of considering nutrition as a component of overall quality of life as well as a discipline that gains to be integrated to other disciplinary fields such as medicine, biochemistry, immunology, anthropometry and agribusiness. In this respect, the present paper will discuss the methodology of dietary data collection, the various uses of dietary data collected at the individual, community and general population levels and finally will try to define new vistas in regard to emphasis and tools for future dietary intake studies.

  1. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  2. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  3. Under the law, FDA must grant different standards for new dietary ingredients and food additives.

    PubMed

    Mister, Steven; Hathcock, John

    2012-04-01

    The FDA's draft Guidance on notifications for new dietary ingredients attempts to narrow the scope of "old" dietary ingredients that do not require notification to FDA and repeats some mistakes from the past by going beyond what is required or permitted by the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994. The draft Guidance attempts to apply the notification requirement to new supplements, not just new ingredients, and it expands the working definition of "chemically altered" to include many changes that were not foreseen in the Congressional Record in 1994. Through these misinterpretations, FDA attempts to impose a food additives-like safety standard, and gain de facto premarket approval against the overt wishes of Congress.

  4. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  5. Reducing Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Through Maternal Dietary Changes: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Emily S; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2015-09-01

    Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for 3 days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F = 0.21; adjusted p value = 0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t = -1.07, adjusted p value = 0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  6. A statistical approach for estimating the distribution of usual dietary intake to assess nutritionally at-risk populations based on the new Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

    PubMed

    Ishiwaki, Asako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Fujii, Hiroko; Saito, Kyoko; Nozue, Miho; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2007-08-01

    The health of individuals is not markedly affected by the nutrients ingested in a single day; rather it is influenced by dietary habits over a long period of time. However, it is impossible to survey usual intake directly because recording diet over a long period of time is burdensome for the subjects, so usual dietary intake is rarely measured directly. Instead, we estimated the distribution of selected nutrients in subjects' usual dietary intake using a statistical method (Best-Power method) described previously. And we assessed the proportion of nutritionally at-risk subjects in individual groups based on the new Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), or the tentative dietary goal for preventing life-style related diseases (DG) as cut-points. We collected the survey data from 208 men and 251 women, aged 50 to 69 y in 2004 and 2005. The survey was carried out on three non-consecutive days four times each year: in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The distribution of nutrients in the usual intake was estimated from a dietary survey of 3 d using one-way analyses of variance. We found that the proportion of the population at risk for nutrient deficiency was overestimated in the 1-d intake distribution. On the other hand, the fraction that was nutritionally at-risk in terms of salt intake, according to DG as the cut-point, was underestimated in the 1-d intake distribution: 74.0% of men and 82.5% of women in the 1-d intake, and 90.5% and 93.2%, respectively, for the estimated usual intake adjusted for seasonal variation.

  7. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  8. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Balder, Helena F; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered questionnaire on dietary intake, smoking habits, and other covariates. Follow-up was established by computerized record linkage to cancer registries and a pathology register. After 9.3 years of follow-up, 1,426 confirmed cases of incident male lung cancer were detected. Five dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis in a randomly sampled subcohort (n = 2,190). The dietary pattern labeled "salad vegetables" was associated with decreased risk of lung cancer [rate ratios (RR)(Q5), 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-1.01], after multivariate adjustment. This inverse association was most evident among current and former smokers. A dietary pattern labeled "sweet foods" was also inversely associated with lung cancer risk (RR(Q5), 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89). However, the higher intake of monosaccharides and disaccharides, fruits, and lower consumption of alcohol associated with this pattern could not account for its full protective effect. The "pork, processed meat, and potatoes" pattern was nonsignificantly associated with increased risk (RR(Q5), 1.44; 95% CI, 0.99-2.09), and this positive association was most evident among current smokers. The other dietary patterns characterized by brown/white bread substitution and by consumption of cooked vegetables were not associated with lung cancer risk. These results show how studying both single factors and dietary patterns gives more insight into the complex, and often seemingly inconsistent, associations between diet and cancer.

  9. Bile-pancreatic juice-independent increases in pancreatic proteases and intestinal cholecystokinin by dietary protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Ochi, Y; Kasai, T

    1998-02-01

    Luminal bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ) is involved in the induction of pancreatic proteases in rats fed a high-protein diet. Recently, we have demonstrated that a BPJ-independent mechanism is responsible for enhancement of pancreatic secretion after feeding of a dietary protein in chronic BPJ-diverted rats. The aim of the present study was to explore the existence of a BPJ-independent mechanism during adaptation of the exocrine pancreas to dietary protein. Rats, whose BPJ was diverted into the ileum through a common bile-pancreatic duct catheter for 5 days (PBD rat), were fed a fat-free diet containing 25% or 60% casein for 3 days. Messenger RNA levels for pancreatic enzymes, cholecystokinin, and secretin in the jejunal mucosa were evaluated by northern blotting method. Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and mRNA levels of their zymogens were higher in PBD rats than in rats whose diverted BPJ was returned into the duodenum (PBD returned rat). In the PBD groups, pancreatic protease activities were further increased by 3-day feeding of a high-protein diet without changes in mRNA levels of these proteases. Cholecystokinin mRNA was increased after feeding of a high-protein diet in the PBD rats. These results indicate that pancreatic proteases are induced by feeding a high-protein diet by a mechanism independent of luminal BPJ, which is associated with an increase in intestinal cholecystokinin mRNA level.

  10. Dietary interventions for atopic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mavrommati, Despoina; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of atopic conditions that involve mast cells ranging from common allergies to arthritis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In addition to the well known allergic triggers, many food substances, drugs, as well as physical and mental stressful conditions could trigger mast cell activation in the absence of any allergic diathesis. The chronicity and morbidity of these conditions and the concern for the "adverse side effects" of the available therapeutic agents has prompted the widespread use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). One of the most common CAM interventions in the treatment of allergies is the use of dietary supplements that may contain specific compounds such as chondroitin sulfate, bioflavonoids or various herb extracts including Forsythia, Gingko, and Echinacea. The basis of such use has evolved from clinical anecdotal observations over time, to a growing number of in vitro and some in vivo studies that support the use of some of these compounds, especially select flavonoids. PMID:23701569

  11. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  12. Benefits of Selenium Supplementation on Leukocyte DNA Integrity Interact with Dietary Micronutrients: A Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Zhu, Shuotun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    A male cohort from New Zealand has previously shown variability in Selenium (Se) supplementation effects on measured biomarkers. The current analysis is to understand the reasons for variability of the H2O2-induced DNA damage recorded after Se supplementation. We have looked at the variation of demographic, lifestyle, medication, genetic and dietary factors and biomarkers measured at baseline and post-supplementation in these two extreme subgroups A and B. Group A showed increased H2O2-induced DNA damage and group B showed decreased damage after Se supplementation. We have also considered correlations of biomarkers and dietary factors in the complete dataset. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and DNA damage were significantly lower at post-supplementation in Group B compared to Group A. Post-supplementation, Group B showed a significant reduction in the GPx activity, while Group A showed a significant increase in DNA damage compared to baseline levels. Dietary methionine intake was significantly higher and folate intake was significantly lower in Group B compared to Group A. Se supplementation significantly increased the caspase-cleaved keratin 18 levels in both groups, indicating increased apoptotic potential of this supplement. Parameter correlation with the complete dataset showed dietary methionine to have a significant negative correlation with H2O2-induced DNA damage post-supplementation. The data suggest that Se supplementation is beneficial for the leukocyte DNA integrity only in interaction with the dietary methionine and folate intake. PMID:27128937

  13. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  14. Dietary energy density is associated with increased intake in free-living humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-02-01

    Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the relation of energy density to body size and to per-meal, daily, and weekly dietary intake. High energy density was associated with greater (P < 0.001) total intake, especially of fat, when intake was correlated with energy density (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and when the daily intake of individual participants was correlated with their daily dietary density (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). These results occurred regardless of sex, low reporting, or the inclusion of drinks in the energy density calculations. High energy density was also associated with a high rate of intake (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and large meal sizes (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). However, energy density was not correlated with body size, height, weight, or body mass index. High energy density appears to be related to greater overall intake in the short-term, but there may be compensation over the long term, with no net effect on body size. PMID:14747669

  15. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary fibre on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Margetts, B M; Beilin, L J; Vandongen, R; Armstrong, B K

    1987-03-01

    Eighty-eight healthy omnivores with normal blood pressure participated in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial of the effect on blood pressure of increasing dietary fibre intake. Subjects were randomly allocated to a control group eating a low fibre diet throughout, or to one of two experimental groups eating a high fibre diet for one of two 6-week experimental periods. Changes in body weight, other dietary constituents and lifestyle factors were avoided as far as possible. Twenty-four hour diet records showed a substantial increase in dietary fibre when subjects were on the high fibre diet. There was no consistent effect of change in dietary fibre intake on group mean systoloic or diastolic blood pressures. Adjusting blood pressures for changes in other dietary components, plasma lipids, electrolytes, body weight and other lifestyle variables did not alter this result. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the blood pressure lowering effect of a vegetarian diet is solely due to an increase in fibre intake.

  16. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Northstone, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The "health-conscious" and "traditional" patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the "processed" patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the "health-conscious" patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the "processed" pattern. An "energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat" dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology.

  17. Safety evaluation of dietary aluminum.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; White, S M; Flamm, W G; Burdock, G A

    2001-02-01

    Aluminum is a nonessential metal to which humans are frequently exposed. Aluminum in the food supply comes from natural sources, water used in food preparation, food ingredients, and utensils used during food preparations. The amount of aluminum in the diet is small, compared with the amount of aluminum in antacids and some buffered analgesics. The healthy human body has effective barriers (skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract) to reduce the systemic absorption of aluminum ingested from water, foods, drugs, and air. The small amount of aluminum (<1%) that is systemically absorbed is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the feces. No reports of dietary aluminum toxicity to healthy individuals exist in the literature. Aluminum can be neurotoxic, when injected directly into the brains of animals and when accidentally introduced into human brains (by dialysis or shrapnel). A study from Canada reports cognitive and other neurological deficits among groups of workers occupationally exposed to dust containing high levels of aluminum. While the precise pathogenic role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be defined, present data do not support a causative role for aluminum in AD. High intake of aluminum from antacid for gastrointestinal ailments has not been reported to cause any adverse effects and has not been correlated with neurotoxicity or AD. Foods and food ingredients are generally the major dietary sources of aluminum in the United States. Cooking in aluminum utensils often results in statistically significant, but relatively small, increases in aluminum content of food. Common aluminum-containing food ingredients are used mainly as preservatives, coloring agents, leavening agents, anticaking agents, etc. Safety evaluation and approval of these ingredients by the Food and Drug Administration indicate that these aluminum-containing compounds are safe for use in foods.

  18. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  19. Barriers to changing dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Kavita; Kapur, A; Ramachandran, Shobhana; Mohan, V; Aravind, S R; Badgandi, M; Srishyla, M V

    2008-01-01

    Dietary change requires giving up long established patterns of eating behavior and acquiring new habits. 'Non-compliance' to diet advice may be a result of inability to provide diet self-management training and getting the right messages across to change eating behavior. Using a pre-tested questionnaire based interview, we carried out a study amongst 350 adults (> 20 years) with type 2 diabetes from two metro cities in South India, who had previously received diet advice with the objective to understand perceptions, attitudes and practices, as well as study factors that enhance or reduce compliance to diet advice. Ninety six patients (28%) followed diet for the full duration of diabetes (Group1), 131 (38%) followed diet for a partial duration varying between more than a quarter to three quarters of the total diabetes duration (Group 2) and 115 (34%) did not follow diet advice (Group 3) - followed for a duration less than a quarter of their diabetes duration. Study results show that many factors both patient and health care provider related influence outcomes of dietary advice. Factors that have a positive impact on compliance are - older age, shorter duration, nuclear family, good family support, less busy work life, higher health consciousness, advice given by dietician, more frequent visits to dietician, advice that includes elements to promote overall health not merely control of blood sugar, diet counseling that is easy to understand and use and includes healthy food options, cooking methods, practical guidance to deal with lifestyle issues. We conclude that patient barriers related to life circumstance are mostly non-modifiable, most modifiable barriers are related to behavioural aspect and the inability of the health care provider to provide individualized diet advice and self management training. Efforts must be made to improve counseling skills.

  20. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  1. Double-blind randomized study comparing the efficacies and safeties of a short (3-day) course of azithromycin and a 5-day course of amoxicillin in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, J C; van Barneveld, P W; Asin, H R; Ligtvoet, E; Visser, M R; Branger, T; Hoepelman, A I

    1992-01-01

    The efficacies and safeties of a three-dose regimen of azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days) and a 15-dose regimen of amoxicillin (500 mg three times daily for 5 days) were compared in a double-blind manner in patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. A total of 92% of patients suffered a type 1 exacerbation. Treatment success, defined as cure or major improvement, was achieved in all patients in the azithromycin group by day 5, compared with 23 (92%) of 25 patients in the amoxicillin group. On day 12, these data were 24 of 25 (96%) in the azithromycin group and 20 of 25 (80%) in the amoxicillin group (results were not significantly different). Several pathogens were isolated (MIC ranges [micrograms per milliliter] in parentheses): Haemophilus influenzae or Haemophilus parainfluenzae was isolated 23 times (azithromycin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 32; amoxicillin, 0.12 to 2); Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 11 patients (azithromcyin, less than or equal to 0.06 greater than 256; amoxicillin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 0.25); Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis was isolated from eight patients (azithromycin, less than or equal to 0.06; amoxicillin, less than or equal to 0.06 to 16); and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from eight patients. One patient treated with azithromycin had Legionella pneumophila pneumonia, and another in that group had a significant rise in titer of antibody against influenza A virus. One patient treated with amoxicillin also had a significant rise in titer of antibody against influenza A virus. Microbiological response rates were comparable. One patient who received azithromycin developed abnormal liver function. Two patients treated with amoxicillin developed abnormal liver functions, one developed exanthema, and one treatment was stopped because of nausea. It is concluded that a three-dose (3-day) regimen of azithromycin is as effective clinically and microbiologically as a

  2. Nutrition awareness, health practices and dietary supplementation.

    PubMed

    Worsley, A; Crawford, D

    1987-04-01

    A detailed questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of 1000 Melbourne residents in June 1984 in order to assess their understanding of the Australian dietary guidelines. Seven hundred and thirty people returned questionnaires. The respondents were categorized as regular dietary supplementers (RS, n = 245); irregular dietary supplementers (IS, n = 84), or non-supplementers (NS, n = 370). Comparisons of the responses of these groups showed that more RS and IS women reported that they drank alcohol and experienced occupational stress; more RS and IS practised meditation-relaxation, and fewer RS were smokers. More of the RS expressed satisfaction with their nutrient status, whereas more of the IS and NS were dissatisfied about their intakes of fibre, starch, salt, sugar and calories. More of the RS practised a range of specific activities related to both orthodox and non-orthodox dietary recommendations, and they attached greater importance to them for their health. They had also referred to more sources of nutrition information in the year preceding the study. The results suggest that regular dietary supplementers are more oriented toward both orthodox and 'alternative' nutrition information than other people. However, they are likely to be a more receptive audience for nutritional or dietary recommendations, such as the dietary guidelines, than other sections of the general population.

  3. Dietary aspects of migraine trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Fernanda C; de Oliveira, Vanessa R; Castro, Kamila; Chaves, Márcia L F; Perla, Alexandre da S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2012-06-01

    The significance of dietary factors as triggers for migraines is controversial, and the assessment of this topic is complex and inconclusive. In order to evaluate the published evidence on dietary triggers, a critical review of the literature was performed by conducting a search for food item descriptors linked to migraines in the PubMed and SciELO databases. Reviews and relevant references cited within the articles that resulted from the search were also included. Of the 45 studies reviewed, 16 were population studies that involved the association between migraines and eating habits or the prevalence of related dietary factors; 12 involved interventions or analyzed observational prospective cohorts; and 17 were retrospective studies. Approximately 30 dietary triggers were explored in total, although only seven of these were addressed experimentally. In the prospective studies, patients were instructed to keep a diary; two of these studies involved dietary interventions. Conclusions that are based on nonpharmacological prophylactic strategies with a scientific basis and that show an association between certain dietary factors and the triggering of migraines are limited by the lack of prospective studies with clear experimental designs. Nevertheless, the high frequency of possible specific dietary triggers validates efforts to elucidate the involvement of food-related factors in precipitating migraines.

  4. Volume estimation using food specific shape templates in mobile image-based dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Junghoon; Woo, Insoo; Kim, SungYe; Maciejewski, Ross; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Ebert, David S.

    2011-03-01

    As obesity concerns mount, dietary assessment methods for prevention and intervention are being developed. These methods include recording, cataloging and analyzing daily dietary records to monitor energy and nutrient intakes. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices with built-in cameras, one possible means of improving dietary assessment is through photographing foods and inputting these images into a system that can determine the nutrient content of foods in the images. One of the critical issues in such the image-based dietary assessment tool is the accurate and consistent estimation of food portion sizes. The objective of our study is to automatically estimate food volumes through the use of food specific shape templates. In our system, users capture food images using a mobile phone camera. Based on information (i.e., food name and code) determined through food segmentation and classification of the food images, our system choose a particular food template shape corresponding to each segmented food. Finally, our system reconstructs the three-dimensional properties of the food shape from a single image by extracting feature points in order to size the food shape template. By employing this template-based approach, our system automatically estimates food portion size, providing a consistent method for estimation food volume.

  5. Are dietary bioactives ready for recommended intakes?

    PubMed

    Gaine, P Courtney; Balentine, Douglas A; Erdman, John W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Ellwood, Kathleen C; Hu, Frank B; Russell, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there.

  6. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations.

  7. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers. PMID:16503233

  8. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers.

  9. Development of a Mobile User Interface for Image-based Dietary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungye; Schap, Tusarebecca; Bosch, Marc; Maciejewski, Ross; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-12-31

    In this paper, we present a mobile user interface for image-based dietary assessment. The mobile user interface provides a front end to a client-server image recognition and portion estimation software. In the client-server configuration, the user interactively records a series of food images using a built-in camera on the mobile device. Images are sent from the mobile device to the server, and the calorie content of the meal is estimated. In this paper, we describe and discuss the design and development of our mobile user interface features. We discuss the design concepts, through initial ideas and implementations. For each concept, we discuss qualitative user feedback from participants using the mobile client application. We then discuss future designs, including work on design considerations for the mobile application to allow the user to interactively correct errors in the automatic processing while reducing the user burden associated with classical pen-and-paper dietary records.

  10. A mobile phone user interface for image-based dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-02-01

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  11. College Students' Dietary Practices Affect Lutein/Zeaxanthin Intake: A Two-Generation, Ethnic and Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaseri, Uyi E.; Kwok, Shiu Y.; Kwok, Wendy; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are important anti-oxidant nutrients obtained only from foods that are essential for good eye health. The purpose of this study was to assess food choices rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and compare the amount of lutein/zeaxanthin intake amongst college students and their live-in parents. Three-day dietary records from 95…

  12. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  13. [Estimation of dietary fiber content of feedstuffs].

    PubMed

    Lipiec, A; Grela, E; Zürcher, U; Wenk, C

    1994-01-01

    In a series of 8 concentrates, 18 roughages and 13 wet feedstuffs the interactions between different dietary fibre fractions were studied. In comparison to other analytical methods the crude fibre method (XF) did not allow a satisfactory estimation of the dietary fibre content (DF) of the experimental feedstuffs. In comparison to the NDF and the dietary fibre content and depending on the feedstuff, XF content was lowered by 2 to 3 times and 2 to 4 times, respectively. There was a surprisingly high correspondence between the contents of NDF and unsoluble dietary fibre for almost all feedstuffs. Highly significant statistical coherences could be observed between the different fibre fractions. It can be expected, that these correlations do not always follow a linear relationship, as could be observed in the regressions equations for NDF to DF and XF to ADF. PMID:7668971

  14. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  15. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... regulations and provides oversight of dietary supplement labeling, marketing, and safety. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION The Federal Trade ... 17, 2011 Share This Page: E-mail Twitter Facebook Google+ Pinterest Contact Us | Accessibility | Site Policies | Disclaimer | ...

  16. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  17. Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use. PMID:22589230

  18. Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use.

  19. Dietary Screener in the 2009 CHIS: Validation

    Cancer.gov

    In the Eating at America's Table Study and the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, Risk Factors Branch staff assessed the validity of created aggregate variables from the 2009 CHIS Dietary Screener.

  20. [Intensive dietary advice program in primary care].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Raquel; Gea-Lázaro, María Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate eating habits are the main causes of major diseases (cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancers), as well as a high morbidity and mortality. The Dietary Advice program was designed by the Andalusian Health Department to promote healthy habits (i.e. physical exercise and a balanced diet) to prevent secondary diseases. This program is organised in two phases: Basic Dietary Advice and Intensive Dietary Advice. This paper aims to describe the interventions protocol on the intensive dietary phase of the program focused on the promotion on changes in people's lifestyles from a multi-factorial approach. The program consisted of two individual nurse visits, five workshops and nursing follow up clinics. The individual visits ensured that the team learned of each person needs; likewise, the group activities were aimed at improving the transmission of knowledge and the acquisition of skills, abilities and attitudes towards healthier lifestyles.

  1. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  2. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  3. [Dietary management of diabetic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Shimron-Nachmias, Limor; Frishman, Sigal; Hod, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    During pregnancy, several metabolic changes are observed which aim to provide optimum substrate, energy and other nutritional requirements to both the mother and the fetus. Maternal nutrition is the only source for most nutrients, influencing neonatal and placenta development, mother's physiological adjustment and also playing a major role in the destiny of the offspring. Over-nutrition or malnutrition are both linked with increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the offspring. Diabetes in pregnancy is the most common and important metabolic dysfunction in pregnancy. This is divided into two types and it is very important to distinguish between them, as each has different nutritional requirements and a different impact on the course of the pregnancy and the development of the fetus. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the main type of diabetes in pregnancy, it usually appears in the second half of pregnancy and mainly influences fetal growth rate and can slow systemic development. Most women with GDM are treated with nutritional management alone. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus is present before pregnancy and it's effects begin at fertilization and implantation, and continue throughout pregnancy and thereafter. It involves high risk of early abortion, severe congenital defects and disrupted organogenesis. Although the treatment of pre-existing diabetes is usually a pharmacological one (insulin or oral pharmacological agents), nutritional management is still very important in normalization of glucose levels before and throughout the pregnancy. Fetal morbidity is lower in women with diabetes in pregnancy when optimal glucose control is maintained. Normalization of glucose levels during pregnancy is agreed to be the main factor in preventing poor outcomes in pregnancy. Dietary advice throughout pregnancy include frequent small meals which contain carbohydrates that are not highly processed, rich with slowly absorbed starches and non-soluble polysaccharides and with a

  4. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  5. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.

  6. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  7. Using both Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression to Study Dietary Patterns and Diabetes in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting glucose. Design We measured diet over a 3-day period with 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Setting Adults (n = 4,316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile to the lowest, was 1.26 (0.76, 2.08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry, and fish), and 2.37 (1.56, 3.60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviorally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat (high intake of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat, and soy milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern (low intake of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Conclusions Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes. PMID:26784586

  8. Dietary fibre in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Asp, N G; Agardh, C D; Ahrén, B; Dencker, I; Johansson, C G; Lundquist, I; Nyman, M; Sartor, G; Scherstén, B

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in digestible carbohydrates and dietary fibre might be beneficial in the regulation of type II non insulin dependent diabetes (NIDD). Addition of the gel forming type of dietary fibre such as pectin and guar gum to meals or glucose solutions reduces post-prandial glucose and insulin response. Addition of cereal fibres in the form of bran seems to have long term beneficial effect improving glucose tolerance. Little is known, however, concerning effects of dietary fibre naturally occurring in food on postprandial glucose and hormone response. In the present study we prepared two breakfast meals which were similar regarding digestible carbohydrates but differed in their dietary fibre content. One of the meals, including whole grain bread and whole apples, contained 8.4 g of dietary fibre, and the other one, containing white bread and apple juice, 3.1 g. When given to eight NIDD, the fibre rich breakfast gave significantly lower blood glucose increment during the three hours following ingestion. The results indicate that foods rich in dietary fibre might be useful in the regulation of type II diabetes.

  9. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  10. Pediatric dietary lipid guidelines: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaull, G E; Giombetti, T; Woo, R W

    1995-10-01

    The 1992 AAP policy of dietary fat and cholesterol restrictions in all children over two is based on incomplete evidence. The low-fat diet has never been demonstrated to be beneficial for prepubescent healthy children, and the unguided rapid implementation of numerical guidelines could lead to ill effects. Caution in the face of incomplete data was the hallmark of the 1983 and 1986 AAP Committee positions. Subsequent AAP policy change should have awaited either the direct clinical evidence they had previously considered necessary to demonstrate efficacy or the more general availability of the dietary guidance needed for safe implementation of strict numerical guidelines. We are neither calling for paralysis of policy nor do we wish to imply that 30% dietary fat is necessarily unhealthful for children. However, we do foresee the need for greater nutritional guidance for parents. In the absence of better nutrition education, zealous parents could switch a 2-year old immediately to a low-fat regimen to such an extent that the child might not achieve adequate nutrient intake to assure optimal growth and development. Moreover, current changes in lifestyle result in less parental supervision in all spheres of behavior, making closer dietary supervision less likely. A prudent pediatric guideline should encourage moderation and the gradual reduction of dietary fat intake throughout the early childhood years, achieving the numerical standards set for adults during adolescence. Such a policy has not been shown to foster atherosclerosis or to provide the yoke of unhealthful dietary habits that must be broken in adulthood.

  11. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  12. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  13. Intestinal adaptations of rainbow trout to changes in dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Buddington, R K; Hilton, J W

    1987-10-01

    Although omnivores are able to alter the structure and functions of their digestive system in response to changes in dietary carbohydrate content, it is unclear whether carnivores are capable of such adaptive flexibility. Hence we recorded growth rates, intestinal morphometrics and histology, and nutrient uptake rates and concentrations of disaccharidases in the intestines of a carnivorous fish, the rainbow trout, fed different levels and types of carbohydrate. The trout is unable to adaptively regulate digestive system structure and function to increase glucose availability in response to increasing levels of dietary carbohydrates, even to easily digestible forms such as glucose. Paradoxically, a reduction in the concentrations of enzymes associated with carbohydrate digestion in response to elevated levels of easily digested carbohydrates suggests that carnivores may actually try to repress carbohydrate digestion when glucose is available in high quantities. Thus the lower levels of carbohydrate in the diet of trout throughout their evolution has resulted in a reduced ability to phenotypically regulate the digestion of carbohydrates.

  14. Nutrition knowledge and dietary practices of college coaches.

    PubMed

    Corley, G; Demarest-Litchford, M; Bazzarre, T L

    1990-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure nutrition knowledge of college coaches, to identify educational and demographic factors that affect nutrition knowledge of college coaches, to describe dietary practices recommended by these coaches, and to identify major sources of nutrition information used by coaches. Questionnaires were mailed to 296 coaches of senior and junior colleges in North Carolina using a listing from the National Directory of College Athletics. Coaches of the following sports were included: track and field, cross country, swimming, tennis, basketball, gymnastics, golf, football, and wrestling. The response rate was 36%. Seventy percent of the 15 nutrition knowledge test items were answered correctly; however, only one-third of the coaches indicated a high degree of certainty for the correctness of their responses. There were no significant relationships between nutrition knowledge and sex, age, collegiate conference, course work in nutrition, win/loss record, and years of coaching experience. Major dietary problems of college athletes reported by coaches were consumption of "junk food," poor eating habits, and consumption of an unbalanced diet. The authors recommend an annual workshop for coaches, trainers, and dietitians to develop criteria for nutrition assessment and body composition for college athletes and to develop training diets. Special workshops for foodservice personnel are also recommended.

  15. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  16. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  17. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  18. Medical records and record-keeping standards.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Iain; Ram, Mala Bridgelal; Croft, Giles P; Williams, John G

    2007-08-01

    The structure of medical records becomes ever more critical with the advent of electronic records. The Health Informatics Unit (HIU) of the Royal College of Physicians has two work streams in this area. The Records Standards programme is developing generic standards for all entries into medical notes and standards for the content of admission, handover and discharge records. The Information Laboratory (iLab) focuses on hospital episode statistics and their use for monitoring clinician performance. Clinician endorsement of the work is achieved through extensive consultations. Generic medical record-keeping standards are now available. PMID:17882846

  19. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  20. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  1. Multiple dosing of ephedra-free dietary supplements: hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and bacterial contamination effects.

    PubMed

    Foster, L; Allan, M C; Khan, A; Moore, P; Williams, D K; Hubbard, M; Dixon, L; Gurley, B J

    2013-03-01

    Four popular ephedra-free dietary supplements were evaluated for their effects on heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters. Twelve healthy men participated in a study randomized for product sequence, with a 21-day washout period between supplement-administration phases. Throughout the study, Holter monitors were used to assess ECG and HR activity. BP was assessed automatically on multiple occasions. The supplements were ingested three times daily for 3 days. Caffeine content, microbial load, and serum caffeine concentrations were determined. Mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) readings showed significant increases relative to baseline (10.8 ± 2.5 and 5.3 ± 3.1 mm Hg, respectively; P < 0.05). All supplements significantly increased HR and decreased bradycardia runs; abnormal atrial/ventricular events were frequently noted. Gastrointestinal and sympathomimetic symptoms were also common. Two supplements were heavily contaminated with Bacillus species. In light of these findings, the use of ephedra-free dietary supplements should be discouraged in individuals with hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23361101

  2. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer.

  3. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  4. Three-day dietary intake of incarcerated and nonincarcerated adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Gans, D A; Norwell, N J; Harper, A E

    1992-02-01

    We collected 3-day dietary intake information from both incarcerated (n = 137) and nonincarcerated (n = 42) adolescent males to provide an objective assessment of diets of residents of a juvenile correctional facility. Average daily intake of energy, protein, 13 indicator micronutrients and of macronutrients as percent of energy were calculated. Average intakes of the total group of adolescents (n = 179) were greater than 90% of the 1980 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for energy, protein, and 10 micronutrients. There were no statistically significant differences between black (n = 63) and white (n = 63) incarcerated subgroups and white (n = 41) nonincarcerated subjects on average measures of energy, protein, macronutrients as percent of energy, and seven micronutrients. Cumulative intakes (as a proportion of the 1980 RDA) of nonincarcerated subjects and at least one group of incarcerated subjects were significantly different for vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, iron, sodium, and thiamin. However, average intakes of vitamin C, sodium, and iron by all groups exceeded the RDA. Overall, the total group of adolescents did not appear to be at significant nutritional risk. Folate, copper, and magnesium intakes were consistently below RDA in all groups. We suggest that these findings are not indicative of nutritional inadequacy but are, rather, cues that some RDAs may be inappropriately high.

  5. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  6. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  7. Orthostatic responses to dietary sodium restriction during heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szlyk, Patricia C.; Sils, Ingrid V.; Caretti, David M.; Moore, Robert J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tartarini, Kim A.; Francesconi, Ralph P.; Askew, Eldon W.; Hubbard, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals consuming low-salt diets and working in the heat have an increased risk or incidence of heat injury, suggestive of inadequate cardiovascular adjustment. Furthermore, others have shown that prolonged work in hot climates can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and syncope. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate-salt (MS) and low-salt (LS) diets on the circulatory responses and incidence of presyncopal symptoms to an orthostatic test (OT) during successive days of heat acclimation (HA). Seventeen unacclimatized male soldiers (mean +/- SE: age 20+/-1 yrs) participated in this two-phase study. The first phase consisted of a seven day dietary stabilization period during which all subjects consumed similar diets of about 4000 kcal/day containing 8g NaCl and lived in a dormitory setting (21 C, 30% RH). The second phase commenced on day eight and consisted of dietary NaCl restriction and 10 days HA (days 8-17). Volunteers were randomly assigned to either the MS diet (n=9) providing 8g NaCl/day or the LS diet (n=8) furnishing just 4g NaCl/day. The acquisition of HA was manifested in both groups by reductions in exercising rectal temperature and heart rate (HR); these characteristics were similar in the MS and LS diets. The OT was performed at 21 C on day seven of the stabilization phase and on days 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 of the HA phase, before and after 8.5 hr of intermittent treadmill walking in a hot environment. Blood pressure (BP) and HR responses at 1,2, and 4 min and any presyncopal symptoms were recorded after assuming an upright position from recumbency. All subjects completed the OT before and after prolonged exercise in the heat without incidence of either hypotension or presyncopal symptoms irrespective of dietary-salt intake and day of HA. The results indicate that the prolonged work in the heat can be performed without orthostatic hypotension or syncope while consuming 4g NaCl/day with adequate

  8. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  9. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population. PMID:20513246

  10. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ - Hawaii, 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David I; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  12. The effects of dietary protein restriction on chorda tympani nerve taste responses and terminal field organization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Hill, D L

    2008-11-19

    Prenatal dietary sodium restriction produces profound developmental effects on rat functional taste responses and formation of neural circuits in the brainstem. Converging evidence indicates that the underlying mechanisms for these effects are related to a compromised nutritional state and not to direct stimulus-receptor interactions. We explored whether early malnourishment produces similar functional and structural effects to those seen following dietary sodium restriction by using a protein deficient, sodium replete diet. To determine if early dietary protein-restriction affects the development of the peripheral gustatory system, multi-fiber neurophysiological recordings were made from the chorda tympani nerve and anterograde track tracing of the chorda tympani nerve into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was accomplished in rats fed a protein-restricted or a control diet (6% and 20%, respectively). The dietary regimens began on embryonic day 7 and continued until rats were used for neurophysiological recordings (postnatal days (P) 35-50) or for chorda tympani terminal field labeling (P40-50). Responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate, KCl, and to 0.50 M sucrose, 0.03 M quinine-HCl, and 0.01 N HCl revealed attenuated responses (30-60%) to sodium-specific stimuli in rats fed the 6% protein diet compared with those fed the 20% protein diet. Responses to all other stimuli were similar between groups. Terminal field volumes were nearly twofold larger in protein-restricted rats compared with controls, with the differences located primarily in the dorsal-caudal zone of the terminal field. These results are similar to the results seen previously in rats fed a sodium-restricted diet throughout pre- and postnatal development, suggesting that dietary sodium- and protein-restriction share similar mechanisms in altering gustatory development.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States ...

  14. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  15. [Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lourdes Carrillo; Serra, Jaime Dalmau; Álvarez, Jesús Román Martínez; Alberich, Rosa Solà; Jiménez, Francisco Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.

  16. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    PubMed

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council’s framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic “nudge” theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16 months will be recorded. A process

  18. The use of dietary supplements in oncology.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

    2014-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations.

  19. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  20. Trends of dietary habits in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Fleta, Jesus; Bueno-Lozano, Manuel; Lazaro, Aurora; Bueno, Gloria

    2010-02-01

    Lifestyle plays an important role in the development of obesity during childhood and adolescence. We provide up-to-date information about the relationship between obesity and food intake and dietary patterns in adolescents. Scientific evidence is increasing about the dietary factors associated with this relationship, specifically a low meal frequency, skipping breakfast, and a high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Maybe some of the reviewed dietary factors could cluster in the same population of adolescents, increasing the individual risk. There is little information about dietary patterns and current time trends in adolescents; however, the available data seem to show that the tendency in the adolescent population worldwide is to increase those dietary factors related with obesity development. Public health efforts should be emphasized in order to decrease the current tendency. Regular family meals could serve as role models for healthy eating behaviors. Educational intervention programs for parents, aiming to modify the healthfulness of the diet, seems to be one of the most adequate tools to deal with the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  1. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years.

  2. Behavioral thermoregulation in a gregarious lemur, Eulemur collaris: effects of climatic and dietary-related factors.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Ricci, Eva; Baldi, Nicoletta; Morelli, Valentina; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M

    2011-03-01

    Primates deal with fluctuations of the thermal environment by both physiological and behavioral mechanisms of thermoregulation. In this article we focus on non-hibernating lemurs, which are hypometabolic and have to cope with a seasonal environment. Behavioral thermoregulation has received little attention compared with specific physiological adaptations to seasonality, i.e., hibernation and torpor, which characterize a number of lemurs. We investigated the role of seasonality and dietary-related factors in determining frequencies of resting, social and postural thermoregulation, and microhabitat selection in collared lemurs, Eulemur collaris. We observed two groups of collared lemurs over a 14-month period in the littoral forest of Sainte Luce, Southern Madagascar. Frequencies of total resting and time spent in huddling, prone, and curled postures were collected via 5-min instantaneous sampling. Microhabitat selection was evaluated as the proportion of time spent in the upper canopy as compared with other layers. Climatic variables were recorded by automatic data loggers, while dietary variables were derived from phenological data and nutritional analyses of the ingested food items. We weighted the combined effects of climatic and dietary variables on the different types of behavioral thermoregulation by means of canonical correlation analysis. The model with the strongest canonical correlation included a first root representing mainly feeding time, day length, and ambient temperature and a second root representing diet quality and height of feeding trees. The output indicated that collared lemurs adapt to thermal and dietary-related metabolic stress by adjusting resting time, social, and postural thermoregulation.

  3. The Use of Mobile Devices in Aiding Dietary Assessment and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Woo, Insoo; Kim, SungYe; Boushey, Carol J.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing concern about chronic diseases and other health problems related to diet including obesity and cancer. The need to accurately measure diet (what foods a person consumes) becomes imperative. Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of chronic diseases. Measuring accurate dietary intake is considered to be an open research problem in the nutrition and health fields. In this paper, we describe a novel mobile telephone food record that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food that is consumed at a meal. Images obtained before and after foods are eaten are used to estimate the amount and type of food consumed. The mobile device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on respondents that are obtained using more classical approaches for dietary assessment. We describe our approach to image analysis that includes the segmentation of food items, features used to identify foods, a method for automatic portion estimation, and our overall system architecture for collecting the food intake information. PMID:20862266

  4. Assessment of dietary intake in rural communities in Africa: experiences in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kigutha, H N

    1997-04-01

    Dissemination of state-of-the-art dietary assessment methods is especially critical in both developed and developing countries with rising rates of various chronic diseases. Such activity provides opportunities to address dietary issues related to specific cultures, especially non-Western cultures, and in groups with different styles of serving and eating food. Special considerations are necessary when planning and performing dietary intake studies in less literate rural communities in developing countries. In this study, dietary intake data collected from preschool children and elderly subjects in a rural area of Kenya with use of repeated 24-h recalls were compared with data obtained by means of 3-d weighed-food records. The two methods yielded similar results but the 24-h recall was quicker and less expensive. If 24-h recall studies are carefully planned and carried out and include consideration of local household measures and eating habits, they can provide reliable information, especially about communities in which people have simple and monotonous diets.

  5. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Albar, Salwa A; Morris, Michelle A; Mulla, Umme Z; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11-18 years) (n = 28), adults (19-64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥ 65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0-100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  6. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  7. Dietary vitamin C supplementation reduces noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Sandra L; Woo, Jenifer M; Michalak, Nathan; Ding, Dalian

    2005-04-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is a water-soluble, low molecular weight antioxidant that works in conjunction with glutathione and other cellular antioxidants, and is effective against a variety of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that have been implicated in the etiology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Whereas most animals can manufacture their own vitamin C, humans and a few other mammals such as guinea pigs lack the terminal enzyme for vitamin C synthesis and must obtain it from dietary sources. To determine if susceptibility to NIHL could be influenced by manipulating dietary levels of vitamin C, albino guinea pigs were raised for 35 days on a diet with normal, supplemented or deficient levels of ascorbate, then exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 114 dB SPL for 6 h to induce permanent threshold shifts (PTS) of the scalp-recorded auditory brainstem response. Animals that received the highest levels of dietary ascorbate developed significantly less PTS for click stimuli and 4, 8, 12, and 16 kHz tones than animals on normal and deficient diets. Outer hair cell loss was minimal in all groups after noise exposure, but permanent damage to stereocilia were observed in noise-exposed ears. The results support the hypothesis that dietary factors influence individual susceptibility to hearing loss, and suggest that high levels of vitamin C may be beneficial in reducing susceptibility to NIHL.

  8. Ensuring the safety of botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, Richard B; Fong, Harry Hs; Farnsworth, Norman R

    2008-02-01

    Botanical dietary supplements with a history of safe human use may not require the same level of toxicity testing as synthetic pharmaceutical drugs. Most of the documented examples of acute toxicity caused by botanical dietary supplements have been caused by the substitution of toxic plants for the desired species, probably through misidentification or production errors, or by contamination with pharmaceutical agents, either as a result of poor manufacturing practices or adulteration. Although more difficult to document, chronic toxicities attributed to botanical dietary supplements may be caused by contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, or microbes or by inherent properties of constituents of the botanicals themselves. Like drug-drug interactions, botanical-drug interactions can also be a source of toxicity. Most of these toxicity problems may be prevented by implementing good agricultural practices and good manufacturing practices and applying existing toxicity testing similar to those used in drug development or new toxicity assays under development based on proteomics, genomics, or metabolomics.

  9. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  10. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  11. Dietary management of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Moser, H W; Borel, J

    1995-01-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder that involves mainly the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex. It is associated with the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), such as hexacosanoic acid (C26:0), that occurs as a result of the impaired capacity to degrade these substances, a reaction that normally takes place in the peroxisome. The VLCFAs originate from the diet and are also synthesized endogenously. Interest in dietary therapy arose from the observation that the administration of oils containing erucic and oleic acid (Lorenzo's oil), when combined with restriction of dietary intake of VLCFAs, can normalize plasma VLCFA levels in ALD patients. Clinical results in patients who are already symptomatic have been disappointing. However, preliminary data, still in need of confirmation, suggest that dietary therapy begun in asymptomatic patients can reduce the frequency and severity of later neurological disability.

  12. Dietary RNAs: New Stories Regarding Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Farmer, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional functions of plant miRNAs. Subsequently, multiple efforts have attempted to replicate these findings, with the results arguing against the uptake of plant dietary miRNAs in healthy consumers. Moreover, several reports suggest the potential for “false positive” detection of plant miRNAs in human tissues. Meanwhile, some research continues to suggest both the presence and function of dietary miRNAs in mammalian tissues. Here we review the recent literature and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of emerging work that suggests the feasibility of dietary delivery of miRNAs. We also discuss future experimental approaches to address this controversial topic. PMID:25942490

  13. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  14. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  15. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  16. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  17. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  18. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration....

  19. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  20. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  1. [Diet counseling through "Shoku-dietary Coaching"].

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Naoko

    2005-11-01

    "Shoku-dietary Coaching" is a skill under development by Kageyama, who applies "coaching," widely used in the business field, to diet counseling. This counseling aims at improving conventional "nutritional guidance-type diet counseling" and promoting self-motivation so that healthy clients eagerly improve their own health, and clients with obesity or lifestyle-related diseases can learn self-control. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, the basis for the differentiation between healthy and unhealthy conditions is not only the parameters measured by medical devices. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, attention is directed to clients' assessment of their own lifestyle, dietary goals they have, and actions they will take to achieve them. To increase the health level of clients, we are developing techniques to enhance their motivation by showing sympathy with and support for their dietary behavior and health awareness. In addition, we give guidance through both theory and the practice of such things as having three meals a day at regular hours, knowing the kinds and daily amounts of foods appropriate for each client, and clarifying the percentages of seasonings necessary for cooking. The habit of having meals at regular hours alleviates stress, promotes communication with people sitting at the same table, and increases the health level of both the client and the others. These are important elements in the theory of Shoku-dietary Coaching. Putting the above into practice should not be limited to clients, but should include the clinic staff so as to deepen their own understanding and communication. Enhanced communication reinforces team medical care in the clinic. Communication skills which involve respect for others, continuous motivation of individuals, and achievement of purposes that may even require a long time may be useful for all people.

  2. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  3. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1) a high fiber diet and 2) the American Heart Association (AHA) diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885 PMID:20042092

  4. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  5. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  6. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love.

  7. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  8. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159836.html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sufficient dietary levels of the mineral nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good ...

  9. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  10. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  11. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-05

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment--VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only--Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20-30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women.

  12. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  13. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  14. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress.

  15. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  16. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  17. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  18. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  19. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  20. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  1. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  2. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  3. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  4. Viewpoints: feeding mechanics, diet, and dietary adaptations in early hominins.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; Judex, Stefan; Ozcivici, Engin; Ravosa, Matthew J; Taylor, Andrea B; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-07-01

    Inference of feeding adaptation in extinct species is challenging, and reconstructions of the paleobiology of our ancestors have utilized an array of analytical approaches. Comparative anatomy and finite element analysis assist in bracketing the range of capabilities in taxa, while microwear and isotopic analyses give glimpses of individual behavior in the past. These myriad approaches have limitations, but each contributes incrementally toward the recognition of adaptation in the hominin fossil record. Microwear and stable isotope analysis together suggest that australopiths are not united by a single, increasingly specialized dietary adaptation. Their traditional (i.e., morphological) characterization as "nutcrackers" may only apply to a single taxon, Paranthropus robustus. These inferences can be rejected if interpretation of microwear and isotopic data can be shown to be misguided or altogether erroneous. Alternatively, if these sources of inference are valid, it merely indicates that there are phylogenetic and developmental constraints on morphology. Inherently, finite element analysis is limited in its ability to identify adaptation in paleobiological contexts. Its application to the hominin fossil record to date demonstrates only that under similar loading conditions, the form of the stress field in the australopith facial skeleton differs from that in living primates. This observation, by itself, does not reveal feeding adaptation. Ontogenetic studies indicate that functional and evolutionary adaptation need not be conceptually isolated phenomena. Such a perspective helps to inject consideration of mechanobiological principles of bone formation into paleontological inferences. Finite element analysis must employ such principles to become an effective research tool in this context. PMID:23794331

  5. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  6. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  7. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  8. Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

  9. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  10. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., palatable, well-balanced diet that meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident...) Substitutes offered of similar nutritive value to residents who refuse food served. (e) Therapeutic diets. Therapeutic diets must be prescribed by the attending physician. (f) Frequency of meals. (1) Each...

  11. Dietary attitudes and diseases of comfort.

    PubMed

    Allegri, C; Turconi, G; Cena, H

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to meal preparation and consumption. Social factors, from mass media to advertising and cultural traditions, also influence food intake, to an extent that is still underestimated. Ignorance of the real influence of environment and society on food choices could well blind consumers to the real significance of such choices. Accordingly, this review discusses differing aspects of emerging dietary trends and/or philosophies, and underlines their potentially harmful influence on health. Western countries are increasingly witnessing a dichotomy between the findings of nutritional science and the choices that dietary trends propose and impose. Coinciding with the obesity epidemic and the spread of other food-related diseases, this dichotomy calls for the development of effective preventive strategies.

  12. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  13. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  14. Dietary Issues Inpatients Face With Being Vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Dunlop, Julie A.; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified. PMID:22157507

  15. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS... statement articulating the religious motivation for participation in the religious diet program. (b)...

  16. Mechanisms underlying immune effects of dietary oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, Prescilla V; van Esch, Betty C A M; Rijnierse, Anneke; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Léon M J

    2013-08-01

    The WHO refers to human milk as the nutritional gold standard for term infants. Human milk contains many immunomodulatory compounds, including oligosaccharides. Human-milk oligosaccharides can serve as prebiotics because the nondigestible oligosaccharides present in human milk show a clear bifidogenic effect on the gut microbiota. Dietary oligosaccharide structures that have prebiotic effects similar to human-milk oligosaccharides include galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. Both animal studies and human clinical trials showed that dietary intervention with these dietary oligosaccharides in early life could lead to the prevention of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and allergic asthma. The immune-modulating effects of these oligosaccharides are likely assisted via alteration of the intestinal microbiota or in a microbiota-independent manner by direct interaction on immune cells or both. In this review, an overview of the prebiotic role of dietary oligosaccharides on the microbiota and the microbiota-independent immune modulation by these prebiotics is provided. In addition, recent publications that report on the pathways by which the oligosaccharides might exert their direct immunomodulatory effect are summarized.

  17. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  18. MEASURING DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...

  19. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  20. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  1. Dietary attitudes and diseases of comfort.

    PubMed

    Allegri, C; Turconi, G; Cena, H

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to meal preparation and consumption. Social factors, from mass media to advertising and cultural traditions, also influence food intake, to an extent that is still underestimated. Ignorance of the real influence of environment and society on food choices could well blind consumers to the real significance of such choices. Accordingly, this review discusses differing aspects of emerging dietary trends and/or philosophies, and underlines their potentially harmful influence on health. Western countries are increasingly witnessing a dichotomy between the findings of nutritional science and the choices that dietary trends propose and impose. Coinciding with the obesity epidemic and the spread of other food-related diseases, this dichotomy calls for the development of effective preventive strategies. PMID:22526128

  2. Beneficial effects of the RESMENA dietary pattern on oxidative stress in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia are associated to dietary TAC and fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (-30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  3. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Zulet, M. Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia. PMID:23535332

  4. Effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum milling waste on growth response, nutrient utilisation, gut characteristics and cecal microflora of weaner rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oso, Oladele A; Sobayo, Richard; Jegede, Vincent; Fafiolu, Adeboye; Iyasere, Oluwaseun Serah; Dele, Peter; Bamgbose, Adeyemi; Cecilia, Adesida

    2011-06-01

    Growth response, nutrient digestibility and cecal microflora of 80 male, mixed breed weaner rabbits fed with varying dietary inclusions of sorghum milling waste (SMW) was investigated. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SMW was included at 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/kg, respectively. Each dietary treatment was performed on 20 rabbits. Feed intake increased (P < 0.05) while final live weight and feed conversion ratio of rabbits decreased (P < 0.05) following increased dietary inclusion of SMW. Rabbits fed with 100 and 200 g/kg SMW had similar feed conversion ratios, weight gain, crude fiber, dry matter and crude protein digestibility values. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and rack weight. Similar dressing percentage and rack weight were recorded for rabbits fed with control diet, 100 and 200 g/kg SMW. The weight of cecal content increased (P < 0.05) with increased dietary inclusion levels of SMW. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) coliform and lactobaccillus counts. Dietary inclusion of up to 200 g/kg SMW supported improved growth response and carcass yield without imposing any detrimental effect on cecal microflora. PMID:21615842

  5. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  6. Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein ingestion results in higher ratings of satiety than equicaloric amounts of carbohydrates or fat. Their effect on satiety is mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess; this effect is higher with ingestion of specific "incomplete" proteins (vegetal) than with animal proteins. Diet-induced thermogenesis is higher for proteins than for other macronutrients. The increase in energy expenditure is caused by protein and urea synthesis and by gluconeogenesis. This effect is higher with animal proteins containing larger amounts of essential amino acids than with vegetable proteins. Specifically, diet-induced thermogenesis increases after protein ingestion by 20 - 30 %, but by only 5 - 10 % after carbohydrates and 0 - 5 % after ingestion of fat. Consumption of higher amounts of protein during dietary treatment of obesity resulted in greater weight loss than with lower amounts of protein in dietary studies lasting up to one year. During weight loss and decreased caloric intake, a relatively increased protein content of the diet maintained fat-free mass (i. e. muscle mass) and increased calcium balance, resulting in preservation of bone mineral content. This is of particular importance during weight loss after bariatric surgery because these patients are at risk for protein malnutrition. Adequate dietary protein intake in diabetes type 2 is of specific importance since proteins are relatively neutral with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism, and they preserve muscle and bone mass, which may be decreased in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen

  7. Electronic health record and electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    This article considers the government plans for the development of electronic health and patient records as set out in the NHS Plan and the progress and problems which have been encountered in their realization. PMID:16116372

  8. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  9. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Karen H. C.; Booth, Alison O.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Irving, David O.; Riddell, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18–50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R2 of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R2 of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  10. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  11. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-09-02

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores.

  12. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of dietary total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Salvatore, Sara; Valtueña, Silvia; Bedogni, Giorgio; Porrini, Marisa; Pala, Valeria; Del Rio, Daniele; Sieri, Sabina; Miglio, Cristiana; Krogh, Vittorio; Zavaroni, Ivana; Brighenti, Furio

    2007-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may be an important tool to monitor the protective effect of plant foods in epidemiological studies. We developed a semi-quantitative FFQ for the assessment of dietary TAC by 3 different assays, i.e., Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). The FFQ consists of 53 questions about the major sources of dietary TAC in Northern Italy and was validated against a 3-d weighed food record (3D-WR) in 285 individuals (159 males and 126 females) aged 35-88 y and living in the province of Parma (Italy). Plasma TAC was also evaluated in a subgroup of subjects using the TEAC and FRAP assays. The FFQ was associated with 3D-WR (quadratic-weighted kappa = 0.49 for TEAC, 0.53 for TRAP, and 0.49 for FRAP; P < 0.0001) and proved reasonably accurate to classify individuals into quartiles of TAC intake. The FFQ had a good repeatability when readministered after 1 y in 55 subjects (quadratic-weighted kappa for intertertile agreement = 0.66 for TEAC, 0.70 for TRAP and 0.68 for FRAP; P < 0.0001). With both dietary instruments, the main contributors to TAC intake were coffee and tea in women and alcoholic beverages in men, followed by fruits and vegetables in both sexes. Plasma TAC and dietary TAC were not associated. In conclusion, our FFQ has the potential for being used to rank subjects on the basis of their antioxidant intake as determined by dietary TAC in large epidemiological studies. The FFQ should be validated in external populations before being used for research purposes. PMID:17182807

  13. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  14. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  15. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Ghotbodin-Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20–60 years in the ICUs of the hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013. Data of two groups including 83 patients (cases) who had consumed regular hospital meals and dietary supplements and 97 patients (controls) who had received regular hospital meals were compared. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory values, and dietary intakes were extracted from medical records, and Maastricht index (MI) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21. T-test and paired-sample t-test were used to determine the difference between groups. Results: Taking supplements increased daily energy intake, carbohydrate, and protein in case group (n = 83) significantly (P < 0.05). MI changed to 3.1 ± 3.8 and 4.3 ± 4.2 in case (n = 83) and control (n = 97) groups, respectively. Although the MI fell in both groups, it showed a greater reduction in case group (from 6.3 ± 5.3 to 3.1 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU. PMID:27512556

  16. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process.

  17. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  18. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  19. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Aljumaah, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity. PMID:27175130

  20. Performance of rabbits and oxidative stability of muscle tissues as affected by dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Christaki, E; Giannenas, I; Spais, A B

    2004-06-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on the performance of rabbits, and the susceptibility of the produced raw and thermally treated muscle tissue to lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage, were investigated. A total of 96 weaned rabbits were separated into four equal groups with three subgroups each. One group was given the basal diet and served as control, two groups were administered diets supplemented with oregano essential oil at levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg diet, whereas the remaining group was given a diet supplemented with alpha-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg/kg. During the 42-day experimental period, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and the feed conversion ratio was calculated. Feeding the experimental diets to rabbits, performance parameters were not affected. Therefore, dietary oregano essential oil exerted no growth-promoting effect on rabbits. With increased supplementation of oregano essential oil, malondialdehyde values decreased in both raw and thermally treated muscles during refrigerated storage. This finding suggests that dietary oregano essential oil exerted a significant antioxidant effect. Dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil at the level of 200 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the level of 100 mg/kg, but inferior to dietary supplementation of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate per kg. This study indirectly provides evidence that antioxidant compounds occurring in oregano essential oil were absorbed by the rabbit and increased the antioxidative capacity of tissues. PMID:15264670

  1. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2000-06-01

    Micronutrient intakes and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements were investigated in 26 vegans, comprising 17 non-supplement users (NSU) and nine supplement users (SU), consuming their habitual diet. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a four-day weighed record and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements was assessed according to the manufacturers' declarations on the packaging. Mean daily intakes from food sources were similar in NSU and SU. Dietary supplements significantly increased intakes of riboflavin (p < 0.05), niacin (p < 0.05), folate (p < 0.01), vitamin A (p < 0.05) and vitamin D (p < 0.05). The mean daily contribution of dietary supplements ranged from 7-1640% of the reference nutrient intake (RNI). Intakes of vitamin B12 and selenium (Se) were below the appropriate lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) in 80% and 65% of NSU respectively. After supplements, 33% of SU remained below the LRNI for vitamin B12 and 33% below the LRNI for Se. Some vegans who took supplements were not taking certain micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet the RNIs but were taking a mix of micronutrients, some of which they needed and others which they did not need. Some vegans who did not take supplements had a potential need for the addition of supplements to their diets. Advice on the appropriate usage of dietary supplements for those on a vegan diet is needed.

  2. Predictors for Reporting of Dietary Assessment Methods in Food-based Randomized Controlled Trials over a Ten-year Period.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Zammit, Gail

    2016-09-01

    The importance of monitoring dietary intake within a randomized controlled trial becomes vital to justification of the study outcomes when the study is food-based. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine how dietary assessment methods used to monitor dietary intake are reported and whether assisted technologies are used in conducting such assessments. OVID and ScienceDirect databases 2000-2010 were searched for food-based, parallel, randomized controlled trials conducted with humans using the search terms "clinical trial," "diet$ intervention" AND "diet$ assessment," "diet$ method$," "intake," "diet history," "food record," "food frequency questionnaire," "FFQ," "food diary," "24-hour recall." A total of 1364 abstracts were reviewed and 243 studies identified. The size of the study and country of origin appear to be the two most common predictors of reporting both the dietary assessment method and details of the form of assessment. The journal in which the study is published has no impact. Information technology use may increase in the future allowing other methods and forms of dietary assessment to be used efficiently.

  3. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks.

  4. Public Records 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  5. Dental records: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Charangowda, B K

    2010-01-01

    Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics. PMID:21189983

  6. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  7. The Kunming CalFit study: modeling dietary behavioral patterns using smartphone data.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Bestick, Aaron; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Han, Jay; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human behavioral interventions aimed at improving health can benefit from objective wearable sensor data and mathematical models. Smartphone-based sensing is particularly practical for monitoring behavioral patterns because smartphones are fairly common, are carried by individuals throughout their daily lives, offer a variety of sensing modalities, and can facilitate various forms of user feedback for intervention studies. We describe our findings from a smartphone-based study, in which an Android-based application we developed called CalFit was used to collect information related to young adults' dietary behaviors. In addition to monitoring dietary patterns, we were interested in understanding contextual factors related to when and where an individual eats, as well as how their dietary intake relates to physical activity (which creates energy demand) and psychosocial stress. 12 participants were asked to use CalFit to record videos of their meals over two 1-week periods, which were translated into nutrient intake by trained dietitians. During this same period, triaxial accelerometry was used to assess each subject's energy expenditure, and GPS was used to record time-location patterns. Ecological momentary assessment was also used to prompt subjects to respond to questions on their phone about their psychological state. The GPS data were processed through a web service we developed called Foodscoremap that is based on the Google Places API to characterize food environments that subjects were exposed to, which may explain and influence dietary patterns. Furthermore, we describe a modeling framework that incorporates all of these information to dynamically infer behavioral patterns that may be used for future intervention studies. PMID:25571578

  8. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care. PMID:15883557

  9. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care.

  10. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  11. 21 CFR 111.375 - Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Manufacturing Operations § 111.375 Under this subpart K, what records must...

  12. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product Complaints § 111.570... record of every product complaint that is related to good manufacturing practice, (i) The person...

  13. 21 CFR 111.140 - Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... supplement as specified in the master manufacturing record; (iv) Identification of the action(s) taken...

  14. 21 CFR 111.375 - Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Manufacturing Operations § 111.375 Under this subpart K, what records must...

  15. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... follow the appropriate master manufacturing record and you must perform each step in the production...

  16. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... follow the appropriate master manufacturing record and you must perform each step in the production...

  17. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product Complaints § 111.570... record of every product complaint that is related to good manufacturing practice, (i) The person...

  18. 21 CFR 111.140 - Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... supplement as specified in the master manufacturing record; (iv) Identification of the action(s) taken...

  19. 21 CFR 111.140 - Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... supplement as specified in the master manufacturing record; (iv) Identification of the action(s) taken...

  20. 21 CFR 111.375 - Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Manufacturing Operations § 111.375 Under this subpart K, what records must...