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Sample records for 3-day dietary record

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Validation of four questions on food habits from the Swedish board of health and social welfare by 3-day food records in medical and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Ellinor; Brekke, Hilde K.; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish board for health and social welfare (SoS) has presented four questions on dietary habits as indicators of adherence to dietary recommendations. However, these questions have not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate if four questions on dietary habits correlate with dietary intake assessed by food records. Design A total of 279 medical and nursing students, 170 women and 109 men, completed four questions on usual consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets. Depending on scoring from 0 to 12 points, subjects were classified as having low (0–4 points), average (5–8 points), or high (9–12 points) adherence to dietary recommendations as proposed by SoS. Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records. Mean dietary intake, expressed per 10 MJ of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, sucrose, fish, and fruits and vegetables, was analysed for each group and differences assessed by ANOVA. Results Energy intake was 11.8±3.0 MJ in male and 8.5±2.2 MJ in female students. Most students, 64%, were classified as average adherers to dietary recommendations, whereas only 6% were classified as low and 30% as high. Dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, and folate was significantly higher in the high adherence group compared to both the other groups (p<0.01), but vitamin D significantly so only compared to the average group (p=0.002). Intake of fruits and vegetables was significantly different between all groups (p<0.003), with increasing amounts with increasing adherence. The low adherence group had higher intake of sucrose than the other groups (p<0.005). Median fish intake was nil in the low and average adherence groups, with significant difference between high and average adherence groups (p=0.001). Conclusions Four questions on the consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets correlate well with the dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, fish, sucrose, and fruits and vegetables as

  3. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  4. Comparability of Weighed Dietary Records and a Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Estimating Monetary Cost of Dietary Energy

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have estimated monetary diet cost using various dietary assessment methods, based on databases on retail food prices, for investigating its association with dietary intake and health outcomes. However, information regarding the comparability of monetary diet cost across dietary assessment methods is absolutely lacking. This study compared monetary cost of dietary energy estimated from weighed dietary records (DRs) with that estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The subjects were 92 Japanese women aged 31–69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32–76 years. The DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4-day DRs (one weekend day and three weekdays) were completed in each season over a 1-year period (DHQs1-4 and DRs1-4, respectively). An additional DHQ was completed at one year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was calculated using food intake information derived from each dietary assessment method, based on retail food prices. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and mean of DHQs1-4 was 0.64 for women and 0.69 for men. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and DHQ1 was 0.60 for women and 0.52 for men, while intraclass correlation between DHQ1 and DHQ5 was 0.64 for women and 0.51 for men. These data indicate reasonable comparability of monetary cost of dietary energy across DR and a DHQ as well as usefulness of a single administration of the DHQ for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy. PMID:21572846

  5. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  6. Can Dental Microwear Textures Record Inter-Individual Dietary Variations?

    PubMed Central

    Merceron, Gildas; Escarguel, Gilles; Angibault, Jean-Marc; Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. Methodology/Principal Findings For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a well-known population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. Conclusions/Significance Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further exploration of the feeding

  7. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  8. Comparison of a Web-Based Dietary Assessment Tool with Software for the Evaluation of Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    BENEDIK, Evgen; KOROUŠIĆ SELJAK, Barbara; HRIBAR, Maša; ROGELJ, Irena; BRATANIČ, Borut; OREL, Rok; FIDLER MIS, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary assessment in clinical practice is performed by means of computer support, either in the form of a web-based tool or software. The aim of the paper is to present the results of the comparison of a Slovenian web-based tool with German software for the evaluation of four-day weighted paper-and-pencil-based dietary records (paper-DRs) in pregnant women. Methods A volunteer group of pregnant women (n=63) completed paper-DRs. These records were entered by an experienced research dietitian into a web-based application (Open Platform for Clinical Nutrition, OPEN, http://opkp.si/en, Ljubljana, Slovenia) and software application (Prodi 5.7 Expert plus, Nutri-Science, Stuttgart, Germany, 2011). The results for calculated energy intake, as well as 45 macro- and micronutrient intakes, were statistically compared by using the non-parametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The cut-off for Spearman’s rho was set at >0.600. Results 12 nutritional parameters (energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, water, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid, and stearic acid) were in high correlation (>0.800), 18 in moderate (0.600–0.799), 11 in weak correlation (0.400–0.599), while 5 (arachidonic acid, niacin, alpha-linolenic acid, fluoride, total sugars) did not show any statistical correlation. Conclusion Comparison of the results of the evaluation of dietary records using a web-based dietary assessment tool with those using software shows that there is a high correlation for energy and macronutrient content.

  9. How Willing Are Adolescents to Record Their Dietary Intake? The Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Paterson, Stacey; Aflague, Tanisha; Bosch Ruiz, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Delp, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing the diets of children and adolescents can be problematic. Use of technologies, such as mobile apps designed to capture food and beverages consumed at eating occasions with images taken using device-embedded cameras, may address many of the barriers to gathering accurate dietary intake data from adolescents. Objective The objectives of this study were to assess the willingness of adolescents to take images of food and beverages at their eating occasions using a novel mobile food record (mFR) and to evaluate the usability of the user confirmation component of the mFR app, referred to as the “review process.” Methods Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative protocols were used in this study. Adolescents (11-15-year olds) attending a summer camp were recruited to participate in the study. First, the participants were asked to take images of foods and beverages consumed as meals and snacks for 2 consecutive days using the mFR app running on an iPhone and the number of images taken was noted. This was followed by focus group sessions to evaluate usability, which was analyzed by content and themes. After using the mFR, a think-aloud method was used to evaluate the usability of the mFR method for reviewing system-identified foods (ie, the review process). A usability questionnaire was administered at the end of all activities. Results The mFR was accepted by the majority of the 24 boys and 17 girls (n=41) but varied according to gender and eating occasion. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to capture images of their eating occasions (Fisher exact test, P=.03). Participants were more likely to take images of their breakfasts (90%, 36/40) and lunches (90%, 72/80) and least likely to capture afternoon and evening snacks, 54% (43/80) and 40% (32/80), respectively. The major themes from the focus groups with regard to using the mFR were games, rewards, and the need to know more about why they were using the app

  10. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  11. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  12. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  13. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  14. Dietary correlates associated with the mental foramen in primates: implications for interpreting the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Deane, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    The mandibular nerve is a sensory and motor nerve that innervates the muscles of mastication, the lower dentition, and the lower lip and surrounding structures. Although this nerve contains both efferent and afferent fibers, the mental nerve, a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve, is a strictly sensory nerve that exits the mental foramen and innervates the lower lip, the skin overlaying the mandible, and the oral mucosa around the mandible. Osteological foramina are often used as proxies for nerve cross section area and they often correlate well with some aspect of a primate's ecology (e.g., optic foramen and visual acuity). The primary objective of this study is to explore the correlation between the mental foramen and dietary preference among primates. The mental foramen of 40 primate species (n = 180) was measured from 3-D surface models of the mandible. Both conventional and phylogenetic tests indicate that although frugivores have larger mental foramina than folivores, the differences were not significant. These results show that while structures like the infraorbital foramen correlate well with diet and touch sensitivity, the mental foramen does not. Based on these findings, the mental foramen is not a suggested morphological character for interpreting of the fossil record. J. Morphol. 277:978-985, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27130849

  15. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  16. A Three Day Dietary Survey of Piute Preschool Children in Inyo County, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of Piute Indian children being conducted by Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, 3-day dietary-intake records of 23 Piute Indian preschool children in Inyo County, California, were analyzed according to 4 food groups. As reported, results indicated that 5 or 6 food groups should be used if intake results of vitamins C…

  17. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  18. Environmental stress and 3-day eventing: effects of altitude.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Waldsmith, J K; Lalum, R B

    1999-07-01

    Three-day event horses are subject to various external environmental stresses including changes in ambient temperature, humidity, altitude, and test severity. Considerable research on the adverse effects of increased heat and humidity preceded the 1996 Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta, Georgia USA, but no research has been done previously on the effects of altitude on 3-day eventing. Physical and venous blood gas data were collected on horses (n = 24) competing in the High Prairie Preliminary (CCN*) and Intermediate (CCN**) 3-day events and Preliminary Horse Trials in Parker, Colorado (1900 m above sea level). Despite the increased altitude, only post exercise rectal temperature and pH were higher (P < 0.05) whereas heart rate (HR), [K+], and ionized calcium (ICa++) were lower (P < 0.05) in 3-day event horses compared to horse trial horses. All other variables (respiratory rate [RR], PCV, [Hb], PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE, and [Na+]) were not different between groups (P > 0.05). When these preliminary horse trial horses in Colorado were compared to those previously studied at preliminary horse trials at sea level in Arizona, post exercise HR and RR were higher (P < 0.05) and pH, PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE and [iCa++] were lower (P < 0.05) at altitude. These data show that increased altitude (1900 m above sea level) was more stressful for 3-day event horses, but did not result in the severe physiological changes and inability to complete prescribed exercise tests seen in previous studies with increased heat and humidity. It is clear from these and previous data that increased heat and humidity are the more important environmental stressors in 3-day eventing. PMID:10659288

  19. Metabolism of ifosfamide during a 3 day infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, J. M.; Hansen, L.; Harland, S. J.; Nicholson, P. W.; Pasini, F.; Souhami, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary drug metabolites were measured in 21 patients receiving ifosfamide by continuous infusion over 3 days. Mean values for the proportion of drug excreted as parent compound, 2-dechloroethylifosfamide (2-DC), 3-dechloroethylifosfamide (3-DC), carboxyifosfamide (CX) and ifosforamide mustard (IPM) were 19, 6, 10, 7 and 8% of dose respectively. The proportion of urinary drug products in the form of ifosfamide fell considerably over the course of the 3 days. This was mirrored by an increase in the proportion of 2-DC, 3-DC and CX. The proportion in the form of IPM, however, remained unchanged. With successive cycles the amount of 2-DC and IPM increased by about 10% per course. A very wide variation in the amount of each metabolite was reproducibly seen between patients, but no evidence for a genetic polymorphism was found. Urinary dechloroethyl metabolites correlated positively with each other and negatively with CX. Although autoinduction increases 'activation' of ifosfamide when given over 3 days, our evidence suggests that competing metabolic pathways prevent an increase in the amount of active metabolite formed. PMID:8180026

  20. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  1. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-01-01

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C4 grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by ≈2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred ≈3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  2. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  3. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  4. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes. PMID:16095395

  5. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. Methods We pooled data from individuals aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997–2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003–2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Results Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%–3.9% in men and 1.3%–2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Conclusions Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake. PMID:26548354

  6. Association between Hemoglobin Levels in the First 3 Days of Life and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Kong, Xiangyong; Li, Qiuping; Hua, Shaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Feng, Zhichun; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the first 3 days of life and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Study Design The study population comprises 147 neonates with a gestational age (GA) of less than 32 weeks who were admitted to BaYi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital from January 2014 to May 2015. Hb levels in the first 3 days of life, maternal and infant characteristics, were recorded and then analyzed. Results BPD patients had a lower GA and birth weight than non-BPD patients. Rates of surfactant use, use of early inhalation hormone, days of mechanical ventilation > 2 weeks, and patent ductus arteriosus in BPD patients were higher and have a significant difference. Number of transfusions was higher in BPD patients. Lower Hb levels in the first 3 days of life were also observed in BPD patients. A cutoff value of Hb levels was determined as 155.5 g/L. Hb ≤ 155 g/L in the first 3 days of life was a significant risk factor for BPD. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that lower Hb levels in the first 3 days of life may increase the risk of developing BPD in preterm infants. PMID:27120476

  7. Testing a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Fustinoni, Silvia; Moretto, Angelo; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Riso, Patrizia; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Hetmanski, Michel T; Fussell, Richard J; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a Cumulative Action Group, considering dietary and non-dietary sources and multiple exposure routes. To test the model a field study was carried out in Italy with operators applying tebuconazole fungicides, with measurements of dermal exposure collected. Whole urine samples were collected and analysed to provide values for the absorbed dose of tebuconazole, with duplicate diet samples collected and analysed as a measure of dietary exposures. The model provided predicted values of exposure for combined dietary and non-dietary routes of exposures which were compared to the measured absorbed dose values based on urinary analysis. The model outputs provided mean daily exposure values of 1.77 (± 1.96) µg a.s./kg BW which are comparable to measured mean values from the biomonitoring field study of 1.73 (± 1.31) µg a.s./kg BW. To supplement the limited measurement data available, comparisons against other models were also made and found to be comparable. PMID:25542526

  8. Self-monitoring of dietary intake by young women: online food records completed on computer or smartphone are as accurate as paper-based food records but more acceptable.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Adherence and accuracy of self-monitoring of dietary intake influences success in weight management interventions. Information technologies such as computers and smartphones have the potential to improve adherence and accuracy by reducing the burden associated with monitoring dietary intake using traditional paper-based food records. We evaluated the acceptability and accuracy of three different 7-day food record methods (online accessed via computer, online accessed via smartphone, and paper-based). Young women (N=18; aged 23.4±2.9 years; body mass index 24.0±2.2) completed the three 7-day food records in random order with 7-day washout periods between each method. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was derived from resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity level (PAL) derived from accelerometers (TEE=REE×PAL). Accuracy of the three methods was assessed by calculating absolute (energy intake [EI]-TEE) and percentage difference (EI/TEE×100) between self-reported EI and TEE. Acceptability was assessed via questionnaire. Mean±standard deviation TEE was 2,185±302 kcal/day and EI was 1,729±249 kcal/day, 1,675±287kcal/day, and 1,682±352 kcal/day for computer, smartphone, and paper records, respectively. There were no significant differences between absolute and percentage differences between EI and TEE for the three methods: computer, -510±389 kcal/day (78%); smartphone, -456±372 kcal/day (80%); and paper, -503±513 kcal/day (79%). Half of participants (n=9) preferred computer recording, 44.4% preferred smartphone, and 5.6% preferred paper-based records. Most participants (89%) least preferred the paper-based record. Because online food records completed on either computer or smartphone were as accurate as paper-based records but more acceptable to young women, they should be considered when self-monitoring of intake is recommended to young women. PMID:25262244

  9. The isotope record of short- and long-term dietary changes in sheep tooth enamel: Implications for quantitative reconstruction of paleodiets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzo, A.; Balasse, M.; Passey, B. H.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of paleodiet by means of sequential sampling and carbon isotope analysis in hypsodont tooth enamel requires a precise knowledge of the isotopic enrichment between dietary carbon and carbon from enamel apatite ( ɛD-E), as well as of the timing and duration of the enamel mineralization process (amelogenesis). To better constrain these parameters, we performed a series of controlled feeding experiments on sheep ranging in age from 6 to 24 months-old. Twenty-eight lambs and 14 ewes were fed isotopically distinct diets for different periods of time, and then slaughtered, allowing the timing and rate of molar growth to be determined. High resolution sampling and stable carbon isotope analysis of breath CO 2 performed on six individuals following a diet-switch showed that 70-90% of dietary carbon had turned over in less than 24 h. Sequential sampling and carbon isotopic analysis was performed on the first (M 1) and second (M 2) lower molars of four lambs as well as on the third lower molar (M 3) of 11 ewes. The changes in diet were recorded in all molars. We found that the length of enamel matrix apposition is approximately one-quarter of the final tooth length during crown extension, and that enamel maturation spans slightly less than 3 months in M 1, and 4 months in M 2 and M 3. Portions of enamel in equilibrium with dietary carbon were used to calculate ɛD-E values. Animals on grass silage diets had values similar to previous observations, whereas animal switched to pelleted corn diets had values ca. 4‰ lower, a pattern consistent with lower methane production observed for animals fed concentrate diets. The tooth enamel forward model of Passey and Cerling (2002) closely predicted the amplitude of isotope changes recorded in tooth enamel, but slightly underestimated the rate of isotope change, suggesting that the rate of accumulation of carbonate during maturation may not be constant over time. Although stable isotope profiles in tooth

  10. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  11. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population. PMID:24869974

  12. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China. PMID:26944225

  13. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  14. Comparison between an interactive web-based self-administered 24 h dietary record and an interview by a dietitian for large-scale epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Pollet, Clothilde; Malon, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Hercberg, Serge

    2011-04-01

    Online self-administered data collection, by reducing the logistic burden and cost, could advantageously replace classical methods based on dietitian's interviews when assessing dietary intake in large epidemiological studies. Studies comparing such new instruments with traditional methods are necessary. Our objective was to compare one NutriNet-Santé web-based self-administered 24 h dietary record with one 24 h recall carried out by a dietitian. Subjects completed the web-based record, which was followed the next day by a dietitian-conducted 24 h recall by telephone (corresponding to the same day and using the same computerised interface for data entry). The subjects were 147 volunteers aged 48-75 years (women 59·2 %). The study was conducted in February 2009 in France. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for foods and energy-adjusted Pearson's correlations for nutrients. Agreement between the two methods was high, although it may have been overestimated because the two assessments were consecutive to one another. Among consumers only, the median of ICC for foods was 0·8 in men and 0·7 in women (range 0·5-0·9). The median of energy-adjusted Pearson's correlations for nutrients was 0·8 in both sexes (range 0·6-0·9). The mean Pearson correlation was higher in subjects ≤ 60 years (P = 0·02) and in those who declared being 'experienced/expert' with computers (P = 0·0003), but no difference was observed according to educational level (P = 0·12). The mean completion time was similar between the two methods (median for both methods: 25 min). The web-based method was preferred by 66·1 % of users. Our web-based dietary assessment, permitting considerable logistic simplification and cost savings, may be highly advantageous for large population-based surveys. PMID:21080983

  15. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  16. Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire for Middle-Aged Urban Cancer Screenees: Comparison With 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hosoi, Satoko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of estimates of dietary intake calculated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) depends on the specific population. The 138-item FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study was initially developed for and validated in rural residents. However, the validity of estimates based on this FFQ for urban residents, whose diet and lifestyle differ from those of rural residents, has not been clarified. We examined the validity of ranking individuals according to level of dietary consumption, as estimated by this FFQ, among an urban population in Japan. Methods Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 144 participated in the study. In 2007–2008, at an average 2.7 years after cancer screening, participants were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to provide 4-day weighed diet records (4d-DRs) for use as the reference intake. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and 4d-DR estimates were calculated, after correction for intraindividual variation of 4d-DRs. Results The median (range) deattenuated CC for men and women was 0.57 (0.23 to 0.89) and 0.47 (0.08 to 0.94), respectively, across 45 nutrients and 0.51 (0.10 to 0.98) and 0.51 (−0.36 to 0.88) for 43 food groups. Conclusions Although the FFQ was developed for a rural population, it provided reasonably valid measures of consumption for many nutrients and food groups in middle-aged screenees living in urban areas in Japan. PMID:21963789

  17. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  18. Objective Assessment of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease Using a Body-Fixed Sensor Worn for 3 Days

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. Methods and Materials 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. Results The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78±0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71±0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall

  19. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Wise, Richard; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo modulates memory-relevant hippocampal response and fear processing in human models of antidepressant drug action 1 week post-administration, and improves self-reported mood for 3 days immediately following administration. The present study explored the effects of Epo (40 000 IU) vs saline on self-reported mood and on neural and cognitive function in healthy volunteers 3 days post-administration to test the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness and fear. This is similar to behavioral effects observed with acute administration of serotonergic antidepressants. Consistent with our previous finding, Epo improved self-reported mood for all 3 days post-administration. Together, these results suggest that characterization of the effects of Epo in a clinically depressed group is warranted. PMID:17473836

  20. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  1. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  2. Efficacy of essential oil mouthwash with and without alcohol: a 3-Day plaque accumulation model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of a new alcohol free essential oil mouthwash with respect to a control of an essential oil with alcohol mouthwash, using an in vivo plaque regrowth model of 3-days. Methods The study was designed as a double-masked, randomized, crossover clinical trial, involving 30 volunteers to compare two different essential oil containing mouthwashes, during a 3-day plaque accumulation model. After receiving a thorough professional prophylaxis at the baseline, over the next 3-days each volunteer refrained from all oral hygiene measures and had two daily rinses with 20 ml of the test mouthwash (alcohol free essential oil) or the control mouthwash (essential oil with alcohol). At the end of the each experimental period, plaque was assessed and the panelists filled out a questionnaire. Each subject underwent a 14 days washout period and there was a second allocation. Results The essential oil mouthwash with ethanol shows a better inhibitory effect of plaque regrowth in 3-days than the mouthwash test with only essential oil in the whole mouth (plaque index = 2.18 against 2.46, respectively, p < 0.05); for the lower jaw (plaque index = 2.28 against 2.57, respectively, p < 0.05); for the upper jaw (plaque index = 2.08 against 2.35, respectively, p < 0.05); for the incisors (plaque index = 1.93 against 2.27, respectively, p < 0.05); and the canines (plaque index = 1.99 against 2.47, respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The essential oil containing mouthwash without alcohol seems to have a less inhibiting effect on the plaque regrowth than the traditional alcoholic solution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411618 PMID:22171999

  3. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E.; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  4. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  5. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  6. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282 mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2 yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  7. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  8. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  9. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  10. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  11. Preflight Adjustment to Eastward Travel: 3 Days of Advancing Sleep with and without Morning Bright Light

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Crowley, Stephanie J.; Gazda, Clifford J.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2005-01-01

    Jet lag is caused by a misalignment between circadian rhythms and local destination time. As humans typically take longer to re-entrain after a phase advance than a phase delay, eastward travel is often more difficult than westward travel. Previous strategies to reduce jet lag have focused on shaping the perceived light-dark cycle after arrival, in order to facilitate a phase shift in the appropriate direction. Here we tested treatments that travelers could use to phase advance their circadian rhythms prior to eastward flight. Thus, travelers would arrive with their circadian rhythms already partially re-entrained to local time. We determined how far the circadian rhythms phase advanced, and the associated side effects related to sleep and mood. Twenty-eight healthy young subjects participated in 1 of 3 different treatments, which all phase advanced each subject’s habitual sleep schedule by 1 h/day for 3 days. The 3 treatments differed in morning light exposure for the 1st 3.5 h after waking on each of the 3 days: continuous bright light (> 3000 lux), intermittent bright light (> 3000 lux, 0.5 h on, 0.5 off, etc.), or ordinary dim indoor light (< 60 lux). Aphase assessment in dim light (< 10 lux) was conducted before and after the treatments to determine the endogenous salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). The mean DLMO phase advances in the dim, intermittent, and continuous light groups were 0.6, 1.5, and 2.1 h, respectively. The intermittent and continuous light groups advanced significantly more than the dim light group (p < 0.01) but were not significantly different from each other. The side effects as assessed with actigraphy and logs were small. A 2-h phase advance may seem small compared to a 6- to 9-h time zone change, as occurs with eastward travel from the USA to Europe. However, a small phase advance will not only reduce the degree of re-entrainment required after arrival, but may also increase postflight exposure to phase-advancing light relative

  12. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection.

    PubMed

    Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2012-04-30

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1 and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were identified and their location was noted. The highest number of larvae was observed in the JX sample as compared to J1 and J2 (P<0.001). Most of them were located in the profound crypt zone of the mucosa (51%) as compared to the other zones (P<0.05). The number of larvae was higher in the lumen (63%) compared to the epithelium (32%) and lamina propria (5%) (P<0.001). A significantly higher number of eosinophils were found in lamina propria of the infected group compared to the control group (P<0.001). This experiment clearly showed that only few larvae had penetrated the epithelium and were positioned in the lamina propria at 3 days post infection. It was far more common that the larvae were localized within the epithelium or in the lumen of the crypts. It is therefore suggested that at least in this early phase "mucosal phase" is a more appropriate term to be used for the A. galli larval localization as compared to the term "histotrophic phase" currently used in many textbooks. PMID:22133491

  13. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  14. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance. PMID:24855020

  15. Human muscle signaling responses to 3-day head-out dry immersion.

    PubMed

    Vilchinskaya, N A; Mirzoev, T M; Lomonosova, Y N; Kozlovskaya, I B; Shenkman, B S

    2015-09-01

    To date little is known about catabolic NO-dependent signaling systems in human skeletal muscle during early stages of gravitational unloading. The goal of the study was to analyze signaling pathways that determine the initial development of proteolytic events in human soleus muscle during short-term gravitational unloading (simulated microgravity). Gravitational unloading was simulated by 3-day head-out dry immersion. Before and after the immersion the samples of soleus muscle were taken under local anesthesia, using biopsy technique. The content of desmin, IRS-1, phospho-AMPK, total and phospho-nNOS in soleus of 6 healthy men was determined using Western-blotting before and after the dry-immersion. Three days of the dry immersion resulted in a significant decrease in desmin, phospho-nNOS and phospho-AMPK as compared to the pre-immersion values. The results of the study suggest that proteolytic processes in human soleus at the early stage of gravitational unloading are associated with inactivation of nNOS. Reduction in AMPK phosphorylation could serve as a trigger event for the development of primary atrophic changes in skeletal muscle. PMID:26350948

  16. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  17. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  18. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  19. Y-STR profiling in extended interval (> or = 3 days) postcoital cervicovaginal samples.

    PubMed

    Mayntz-Press, Kathleen A; Sims, Lynn M; Hall, Ashley; Ballantyne, Jack

    2008-03-01

    Depending upon specific situations, some victims of sexual assault provide vaginal samples more than 36-48 h after the incident. We have tested the ability of commercial and in-house Y-STR systems to provide DNA profiles from extended interval (> or =3 days) postcoital samples. The commercial Y-STR systems tested included the AmpFlSTR Yfiler (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex Y (Promega) and Y-PLEX 12 (Reliagene) products whereas the in-house systems comprised Multiplex I (MPI) and Multiplex B (MPB). Three donor couples were recruited for the study. Postcoital cervicovaginal swabs (x2) were recovered by each of the three females at specified intervals after sexual intercourse (3-7 days). Each time point sample was collected after a separate act of sexual intercourse and was preceded by a 7-day abstention period. As a negative control, a precoital swab was also recovered prior to coitus for each sampling and only data from postcoital samples that demonstrated a lack of male DNA in the associated precoital sample was used. A number of DNA profile enhancement strategies were employed including sampling by cervical brushing, nondifferential DNA extraction methodology, and post-PCR purification. Full Y-STR profiles from cervicovaginal samples recovered 3-4 days after intercourse were routinely obtained. Profiles were also obtainable 5-6 days postcoitus although by this stage partial profiles rather than full profiles were a more likely outcome. The DNA profiles from the sperm fraction of a differential lysis were superior to that obtained when a nondifferential method was employed in that the allelic signal intensities were generally higher and more balanced and exhibited less baseline noise. The incorporation of a simple post-PCR purification process significantly increased the ability to obtain Y-STR profiles, particularly from 5- to 6-day postcoital samples. Remarkably an 8 locus Y-STR profile was obtained from a 7-day postcoital sample, which is approaching the

  20. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  1. Effect of 3-day dry immersion on ventilatory response to hypercapnic hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Dyachenko, Alexander; Shulagin, Yury; Ermolaev, Evgeny

    . This increase was 34% and 23% respectively. Tidal volume sensitivity in tests 2 and 3 increased in comparison with test 1 (P<0.05). Points of apnea in the 2-nd test changed to increased P _{CO2} values compared with 1-st test (P<0.05} and in the tests 2 and 3 compared with the test 4 (P<0.02). Thus, the VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased. Conclusion: Ventilation reaction to hypercapnia combined with hypoxia was changed during 3-day dry immersion. The VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased.

  2. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients. PMID:24800044

  3. Validity of Electronic Diet Recording Nutrient Estimates Compared to Dietitian Analysis of Diet Records: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. Objective To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Methods Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R 2) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. Results No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively

  4. Dietary inflammatory index is associated with serum C-reactive protein and protein energy wasting in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tengilimoglu-Metin, M. Merve; Gumus, Damla; Sevim, Sumeyra; Turkoglu, İnci; Mandiroglu, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Malnutrition and inflammation are reported as the most powerful predictors of mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Diet has a key role in modulating inflammation and dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool for assessment of inflammatory potential of diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of DII on dietary intake of HD patients and examine the associations between DII and malnutrition-inflammation markers. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 105 subjects were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary recall, and pre-dialysis biochemical parameters were recorded for each subject. Subjective global assessment (SGA), which was previously validated for HD patients, and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) were used for the diagnosis of protein energy wasting. DII was calculated according to average of 3-day dietary recall data. RESULTS DII showed significant correlation with reliable malnutrition and inflammation indicators including SGA (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), MIS (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) in HD patients. When the study population was divided into three subgroups according to their DII score, significant increasing trends across the tertiles of DII were observed for SGA score (P = 0.035), serum CRP (P = 0.001), dietary energy (P < 0.001), total fat (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.006), and omega-6 fatty acids (P = 0.01) intakes. CONCLUSION This study shows that DII is a good tool for assessing the overall inflammatory potential of diet in HD patients. PMID:27478547

  5. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  6. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  7. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  8. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  9. 75 FR 999 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). ] ACTION: Notice of availability of proposed records schedules... information concerning such matters as scientific nutritional research, dietary guidelines, and...

  10. Data from a Validation Study of Reporting Accuracy over Multiple Recalls, and School Foodservice Production Records Provide Insight into the Origins of Intrusions (Reports of Uneaten Food Items) in Children’s Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intrusions in dietary recalls may originate in confusion of episodic memories manifested as temporal dating errors. Objective Data from a validation study (concerning reporting accuracy over multiple recalls) and school foodservice production records were used to investigate origins of intrusions in school meals in children’s 24-hour recalls. Design/subjects/setting During the 1999–2000 school year, 104 fourth-grade children were observed eating school meals on one to three non-consecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed about the previous day’s intake in the morning on the day after each observation day. Statistical analyses performed For breakfast and lunch separately, logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of time (i.e., days) before the interview day on the probability that intrusions referred to items available in the school foodservice environment. Exploratory analyses were conducted for breakfast options observed and/or reported eaten. Results For interviews in which reported meals met criteria to be considered school meals and that contained intrusions, of 634 and 699 items reported eaten at breakfast and lunch, respectively, 394 and 331 were intrusions. Availability in the school foodservice environment of items referred to by intrusions in reports of lunch, but not breakfast, decreased as days increased before the interview day (P values=0.031 and 0.285, respectively). Concerning breakfast, children observed eating a cold option (i.e., ready-to-eat [RTE] cereal, milk, juice, crackers [graham; animal]) almost always reported a cold option, whereas children observed eating a hot option (i.e., non-RTE-cereal entrée [e.g., sausage biscuit], milk, fruit or juice) reported a cold option in approximately 50% of interviews. Conclusions In children’s 24-hour recalls, confusion of episodic memories contributes to intrusions in school lunch, and generic dietary information (e.g., cold option items available daily) or

  11. Adenovirus 36 infection: a role in dietary intake and response to inpatient weight management in obese girls.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I; Atkinson, R L; Dušátková, L; Sedláčková, B; Lee, Z P; Kunešová, M; Hill, M; Hainer, V

    2015-12-01

    Human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) increases adiposity and is more prevalent in overweight and obese children. Dietary intake in animal models is comparable regardless of Adv36 status. The effects of Adv36 on obesity treatment outcomes have not been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment dietary intake and the response to a 4-week inpatient weight management in 184 obese adolescent girls aged 13.0-17.9 years with respect to the presence of Adv36 antibodies. Evaluation of 3-day dietary records did not show any difference in daily intake of energy and essential nutrients between Adv36 antibody positive and negative girls. After the intervention Adv36 positive girls presented with significantly greater decrease of waist circumference (P=0.020), z-score of waist circumference (P=0.024), waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.007) and weight-to-height ratio (P=0.019) compared with Adv36 negative girls. On the contrary, the sum of four skinfolds decreased significantly more in Adv36 negative than in Adv36 positive individuals (P=0.013). Neither body fat percentage nor metabolic and hormonal parameters showed any significant relevance to Adv36 status in response to weight loss intervention. In conclusion, energy restriction in Adv36 antibody positive girls was associated with greater decrease of abdominal obesity and preservation of subcutaneous fat tissue than in those antibody negative. PMID:26303351

  12. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  13. An open evaluation of a 3-day course of pivmecillinam (ten 200 mg tablets) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Donald, J F; Rimmer, D M

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four women, with acute uncomplicated cystitis, received a 3-day course of pivmecillinam comprising an initial 400 mg (two tablets) dose, followed by 200 mg every 8 hours; a total of ten tablets. A satisfactory clinical response was achieved in 91% of patients. Bacteriological success was observed in 94% of sixty-eight patients with a proven infection. Side-effects were reported in sixteen patients (8.4%). Two patients ceased therapy prematurely. Pivmecillinam did not select out resistant Gram-negative organisms. A trend towards reinfection with Gram-positive cocci was observed. The possible significance of reinfection with different organisms is discussed. PMID:6245977

  14. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  15. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  16. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  17. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  18. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  19. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy. PMID:25069586

  20. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Akira; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na–K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population. Setting Prospective cohort study. Participants In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24 years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30–79 years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model. Primary outcome measures Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes. Results A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176 926 person-years. Na–K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na–K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na–K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population

  1. Associations between Dietary Intake of Fruits and Vegetables in relation to Urinary Estrogen DNA Adduct Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Zahid, Muhammad; Cavalieri, Ercole; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Yong, Mellissa; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Estrogen exposure plays a role in breast cancer (BC) development. A novel estrogen biomarker, the estrogen DNA adduct (EDA) ratio, was shown to be elevated in women at high-risk of BC and among BC cases. Modifiable factors may impact the EDA ratio, with studies demonstrating that resveratrol reduces EDA ratio in vitro. We sought to examine the hypothesis that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with EDA ratio. Methods This analysis was conducted in 53 pre-menopausal, healthy women aged 40–45 years from a cross-sectional study in which participants provided first-void urine samples and 3-day food records. Urine samples were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The EDA ratio was calculated as the estrogen-DNA adducts divided by estrogen metabolites and conjugates. A trend test was used to assess associations between tertiles of dietary intake using linear regression. Results After adjustment for age, total energy, percent adiposity, serum estradiol and estrone-sulfate, we observed inverse associations of EDA ratio with carbohydrate consumption (P=0.01) and vegetable intake (P =0.01). EDA ratio was inversely associated with 5 botanical groups (Chenopodiaceae: P=0.02; Umbelliferae: P=0.03; Compositae: P=0.01; Ericaceae: P=0.01; Musaceae: P=0.03) but not fruit intake overall. Conclusion Although these data require replication before conclusions are drawn, this report suggests an inverse association between vegetable and carbohydrate consumption and EDA ratio. Impact While more information is still needed, these findings suggest a link between dietary intake and a biomarker that is both associated with high-risk BC status and associated with modifiable factors. PMID:25431744

  2. Dietary Intake in Body Mass Index Differences in Community-Based Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Haruyuki; KUMAGAI, Takako; KIMURA, Midori; KOIKE, Shotaro; SHIMIZU, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass index) were measured at the commencement of the survey. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, total fiber, and salt were noted through a 3-day dietary recording. The nutrient intake was estimated using Excel add-in software (Excel Eiyou-kun Ver. 6.0, Kenpakusha Co., Ltd.). Patients were divided into two groups: those with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and with a BMI <25 kg/m2, and the differences in their nutrition intake were analyzed. To compare these patients with the general population, the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2010 (NHNS) were used (the NHNS group). For statistical analysis, an unpaired t-test was performed with P < 0.05. Results: Patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the higher intakes than those with a BMI <25 kg/m2 of energy, fat and phosphorus and salt. Patients with schizophrenia showed higher intakes of energy, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, phosphorus and salt than the NHNS group. Conclusion: The characteristics of the dietary intake in patients with schizophrenia were suggested the food constitution that is likely to increase the body weight. PMID:26284204

  3. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany. PMID:26928790

  4. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women. PMID:19942023

  5. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  6. Assessment of usual dietary intake in population studies of gene-diet interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake is a critical exposure when examining genetic factors on disease risk. Weighed diet records can provide the most accurate assessment of intake, but are usually not realistic in large population studies. Multiple 24 hour dietary recalls provide detail, allowing for diverse dietary prac...

  7. Personal Dietary Assessment Using Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed. PMID:21660219

  8. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  9. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  10. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

  11. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  12. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  13. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  14. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  15. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  16. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  17. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  18. The polyp prevention trial II: dietary intervention program and participant baseline dietary characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lanza, E; Schatzkin, A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Corle, D; Clifford, C; Paskett, E; Hayes, D; Bote, E; Caan, B; Shike, M; Weissfeld, J; Slattery, M; Mateski, D; Daston, C; Clifford, D C

    1996-05-01

    The Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a low-fat, high-dietary fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable eating pattern will reduce the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel. Men and women who had one or more adenomas removed recently were randomized into either the intervention (n = 1037) or control (n = 1042) arms. Food frequency questionnaire data indicate that PPT participants at the beginning of the trial consumed 36.8% of total energy from fat, 9.7 g of dietary fiber/1000 kcal, and 3.8 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Baseline dietary characteristics, including intake of fat, fiber, and fruits and vegetables, as well as other macro- and micronutrients, were similar in the two study groups. The intervention participants receive extensive dietary and behavioral counseling to achieve the PPT dietary goals of 20% of total energy from fat, 18 g/1000 kcal of dietary fiber, and 5-8 daily servings (depending on total caloric intake) of fruits and vegetables. Control participants do not receive such counseling and are expected to continue their usual intake. Dietary intake in both groups is mentioned annually using a 4-day food record (also completed at 6 months by intervention participants only) and a food frequency questionnaire, with a 10% random sample of participants completing an annual unscheduled 24-h telephone recall. Blood specimens are drawn and analyzed annually for lipids and carotenoids. This article provides details on the rationale and design of the PPT dietary intervention program and describes the participant baseline dietary intake data characteristics. PMID:9162305

  19. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  20. Comparative efficacy of 3-day and 7-day chemotherapy with twice-daily pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections seen in general practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, H H

    1984-01-01

    In a multi-centre general practice study, 183 females suffering from symptoms of acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg pivmecillinam twice-daily for either 3 or 7 days. The clinical response was equally good in both treatment groups with a mean reduction in symptom scores of 88%. Positive pre-treatment bacteriological cultures were obtained from 48 (36%) of the 134 patients for whom data were complete. Bacteriological cure was achieved in all these patients except for 1 in the 3-day treatment group. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated, with side-effects reported by 7 (7%) patients in the 3-day group and 12 (13%) patients in the 7-day group. One patient in the 3-day group and 2 patients in the 7-day group stopped treatment prematurely due to side-effects. PMID:6499513

  1. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  2. Dietary Exposure Potential Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing food consumption and contaminant residue databases, typically products of nutrition and regulatory monitoring, contain useful information to characterize dietary intake of environmental chemicals. A PC-based model with resident database system, termed the Die...

  3. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... batch of a dietary supplement; (b) Your batch production record must include complete...

  4. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements. PMID:19088792

  5. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  6. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360575

  7. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  8. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. PMID:26634419

  9. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d. PMID:25757395

  10. Dietary habits after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chartrand-Lefebvre, C; Heppell, J; Davignon, I; Dubé, S; Pomp, A

    1990-04-01

    Dietary habits of patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were assessed and correlated with bowel function. Twenty-four well-adapted patients (11 women, 13 men; mean age 32 years) voluntarily entered the study 30 +/- 4 months after closure of the diverting ileostomy. A standardized questionnaire on 108 food items and a 3-day food journal were used in the assessment. Twenty-one patients had no difficulty in selecting an appropriate diet. Caloric intake was adequate. Specific symptoms associated with several foods were as follows: increased stool frequency (beer, spirits, chinese food), decreased stool consistency (beer, wine, fried fish), perianal irritation (spicy foods), undigested particles (grapefruit, lettuce), odours (eggs). Pasta and bananas were associated with increased stool consistency. The authors believe that these observations may help in dietary counselling after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. PMID:2268807

  11. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  12. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  13. Dietary management of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Susan M; Arrowsmith, Fiona E; Allen, Jane R

    2003-01-01

    Galactosemia is detected by newborn screening in New South Wales and managed by the metabolic team at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Infants with the Duarte variant are not treated. Management is based on the Handbook for Galactosemia prepared in 1998. This handbook provides information for the family on the dietary management, inheritance and ovarian function. The major dietary sources of galactose are milk and milk products. Breastfeeding must be ceased and replaced with a soy formula. Once solid foods are commenced certain foods should be avoided. Other foods, which may contain some free galactose are recommended in limited quantities only. There is no restriction on other fruits and vegetables. An ongoing issue with dietary management is adequate nutrient intake, particularly of calcium. Intake of milk substitutes and calcium supplements is often inadequate. PMID:15906738

  14. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  15. Familial aggregation and dietary patterns in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Fábia Albernaz; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Sichieri, Rosely; Yokoo, Edna Massae

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns in Brazil and verify aggregation among members of the same family based on the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2008-2009 in individuals over 10 years of age. Dietary intake was estimated with a food record. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, and familial aggregation was verified by linear regression. Three major dietary patterns were identified: (1) a traditional snack featuring coffee, rolls, oils and fats, and cheese; (2) traditional main meal, based on rice, beans and other legumes, and meat; and (3) fast food type snacks, namely sandwiches, processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, and pizza. Pattern 2 showed the strongest association (β = 0.37-0.64). Patterns 1 and 3 showed positive associations for all pairs of family members, with β ranging from 0.27 to 0.44 and 0.32 to 0.42, respectively. The study showed familial aggregation of dietary patterns in the Brazilian population. PMID:26872230

  16. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  17. Dietary patterns and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2004-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature on dietary patterns (multiple dietary components operationalized as a single exposure) in relation to nutrient adequacy, lifestyle and demographic variables, and health outcome was conducted. Most of the published reports on the subject have used one of two methods to determine dietary patterns: (a) diet indexes or scores that assess compliance with prevailing dietary guidance as dietary patterns, and (b) data-driven methods that use factor or cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns. Irrespective of the approach used, patterns characterized by fruit/vegetable/whole grain/fish/poultry consumption generally have been reported to relate to micronutrient intake, and to selected biomarkers of dietary exposure and disease risk in the expected direction. Age, income, and education have been reported to be among positive predictors of the so-called more healthful dietary patterns. An inverse association of healthful dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease risk was reported in most studies. However, the magnitude of risk reduction was modest and was attenuated after control for confounders. Few published studies showed an association between risk of most incident cancers and dietary patterns. Both of the currently used approaches for extracting dietary patterns have limitations, are subject to dietary measurement errors, and have not generated new diet and disease hypotheses. PMID:15054348

  18. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  19. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  20. DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  2. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  3. Dietary PUFA and cancer.

    PubMed

    Abel, S; Riedel, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a brief overview on the role of dietary fat in carcinogenesis and as possible anticancer agents. Dietary fat is an essential nutrient and important source for the essential fatty acids (FA), linoleic and α-linolenic acids, which contribute to proper growth and development. However, dietary fat has been associated with the development of colorectal, breast, prostate, endometrial and ovarian cancers, with the type and quality of fat playing an underlying role. Tumour growth is the disruption of the homoeostatic balance regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and is associated with altered lipid metabolism. Animal cancer models and human cancer biopsy tissue demonstrate that a characteristic lipid profile is associated with the growth and development of neoplastic lesions. This entails alterations in membrane cholesterol, phospholipid and PUFA metabolism. Particularly, alterations in cell membrane FA metabolism involving the n-6 and n-3 PUFA, are associated with changes in membrane structure, function, cellular oxidative status, activity of enzymes and signalling pathways. These events are a driving force in sustaining the altered growth of cancerous lesions and provide unique targets for intervention/cancer modulation. Challenges in utilising FA in cancer modulation exist regarding intake and effect on cell structure and biochemical interactions within the cell in the prevention of cancer development. Therefore, utilising dietary PUFA in a specific n-6:n-3 ratio may be an important chemopreventive tool in altering the growth characteristics of cancer cells. PMID:24850051

  4. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  5. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... relating to the production and control of each batch; (c) Your batch production record must...

  6. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... relating to the production and control of each batch; (c) Your batch production record must...

  7. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping § 111.610...

  8. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping § 111.610...

  9. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping § 111.610...

  10. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping § 111.610...

  11. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping § 111.610...

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  13. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  14. Anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial, and dietary characteristics of overweight/obese postmenopausal women with a history of weight cycling: a MONET (Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team) study.

    PubMed

    Strychar, Irene; Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Messier, Lyne; Karelis, Antony D; Doucet, Eric; Prud'homme, Denis; Fontaine, Jonathan; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of weight cyclers have not been fully assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial, and dietary profile of postmenopausal women according to weight-cycling history, defined as the frequency of going on a diet and losing >10 kg: never (0 times), low (1 time), moderate (2 to 3 times), or frequent (> or = 4 times). The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 121 overweight/obese postmenopausal women enrolled in a 6-month randomized weight-loss intervention between 2003 and 2006. Measures at baseline were used to evaluate body composition (fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and visceral fat by computed tomography); resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids, leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin; blood pressure; psychosocial profile (eg, body-esteem, self-esteem, stress, perceived risks, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, quality of life, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger); and dietary profile (3-day food record). Differences among groups of weight cyclers were determined using analyses of variance. Among the 121 women, 15.7%, 24.8%, 33.9%, and 25.6% were non-, low, moderate, and frequent cyclers, respectively. Frequent cyclers were characterized by higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) (current and at 25 years of age) and percent body fat mass, larger waist circumference, and lower resting metabolic rate/kg body weight than noncyclers (P<0.05); and moderate cyclers had lower plasma adiponectin values than noncyclers (P<0.05). For psychosocial measures, frequent cyclers were characterized by greater disinhibition and lower body esteem after controlling for body mass index (P<0.05). In conclusion, weight cycling was found to be associated with some unfavorable metabolic and psychosocial parameters. PMID:19328269

  15. Dietary studies in the joint US-Russian space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic experiments in the joint US-Russian space program involve analysis of food records, which include weighed foods, stable-isotope turnover, and biochemical samples collected before, during, and after the flights. This article describes the methods of monitoring dietary intake for this program.

  16. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  17. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p < .001) wake times. Also, the Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p < .05) sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  18. Comparative efficacy and safety of 3-day azithromycin and 10-day penicillin V treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, L; Scopetti, F; Ranucci, A; Pataracchia, M; Savignoni, F; Chiesa, C

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a 3-day course of azithromycin oral suspension (10 mg/kg of body weight once daily) were compared with those of penicillin V (50,000 U/kg/day in two divided doses) in children aged 3 to 12 years for the treatment of symptomatic pharyngitis caused by the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). For the 154 evaluable patients, the original infecting strain of GABHS was eliminated at the end of follow-up (34 to 36 days after treatment started) from 67 (85.8%) of 78 penicillin-treated patients and 41 (53.9%) of 76 azithromycin-treated patients (P < 0.0001). Overall clinical success was achieved in 71 (91.0%) of 78 penicillin V-treated patients and 57 (75.0%) of 76 azithromycin-treated patients (P < 0.05). Potential drug-related adverse events were reported for 5.5 and 8.6% of the penicillin V- and azithromycin-treated patients, respectively (P = 0.6). In the present study, a once-daily (10 mg/kg), 3-day oral regimen of azithromycin was as safe as a 10-day course of penicillin but did not represent an effective alternative to penicillin for the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis, even for those children with azithromycin-susceptible strains. PMID:8849215

  19. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  20. Is it dietary insulin?

    PubMed

    Vaarala, Outi

    2006-10-01

    In humans the primary trigger of insulin-specific immunity is a modified self-antigen, that is, dietary bovine insulin, which breaks neonatal tolerance to self-insulin. The immune response induced by bovine insulin spreads to react with human insulin. This primary immune response induced in the gut immune system is regulated by the mechanisms of oral tolerance. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as the gut microflora, breast milk-derived factors, and enteral infections, control the development of oral tolerance. The age of host modifies the immune response to oral antigens because the permeability of the gut decreases with age and mucosal immune response, such as IgA response, develops with age. The factors that control the function of the gut immune system may either be protective from autoimmunity by supporting tolerance, or they may induce autoimmunity by abating tolerance to dietary insulin. There is accumulating evidence that the intestinal immune system is aberrant in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intestinal immune activation and increased gut permeability are associated with T1D. These aberrancies may be responsible for the impaired control of tolerance to dietary insulin. Later in life, factors that activate insulin-specific immune cells derived from the gut may switch the response toward cytotoxic immunity. Viruses, which infect beta cells, may release autoantigens and potentiate their presentation by an infection-associated "danger signal." This kind of secondary immunization may cause functional changes in the dietary insulin primed immune cells, and lead to the infiltration of insulin-reactive T cells to the pancreatic islets. PMID:17130578

  1. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  2. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  3. Dietary intake by Dutch 1- to 3-year-old children at childcare and at home.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N=1016) of Dutch toddlers (1-3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children's intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children's dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. PMID:24406847

  4. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  5. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  6. Dietary patterns are associated with dietary recommendations but have limited relationship to body mass index in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health promoting benefits. The objectives of this study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression (RRR) and if the pattern would be associated with lower body mass index (BMI) and current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes. Setting Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, United States. Subjects Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with lab-measured weight and height and up to 4 days of dietary records (n=418). Results A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with a lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian based dietary pattern were almost 6 times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fiber. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort’s dietary patterns needs to continue. PMID:22348238

  7. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  8. Dietary and non-dietary correlates of gastrointestinal distress during the cycle and run of a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether pre-race dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress during the cycle and run of a 70.3-mile triathlon. Fifty three participants recorded dietary details the day before and morning of the triathlon and retrospectively reported GI symptoms from the cycle and run. Occurrence and severity of nausea, regurgitation and fullness were combined into an upper GI (UGI) category, while lower abdominal cramps, flatulence and urge to defecate were combined into a lower GI (LGI) category. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine whether UGI and LGI were associated with: (1) pre-race diet (kilocalories, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, protein, caffeine); and (2) non-dietary factors (age, body mass index, experience, weight change, GI distress history, finishing time). Of non-dietary factors, only a history of GI distress showed significant associations with GI symptoms during the triathlon (ρ = .32-.36; P < .05). Morning kilocalorie (ρ = .28, P = .04) and carbohydrate (ρ = .36, P < .01) intakes were modestly, positively associated with UGI during the cycle, while morning caffeine intake (ρ = .30, P = .03) showed a modest positive association with LGI during the run. The associations between diet and GI distress variables remained significant after adjusting for non-dietary factors. Competitors of 70.3-mile triathlons should carefully weigh the benefits of higher race-morning energy, carbohydrate and caffeine intakes against their potential to increase GI distress. PMID:26222930

  9. Observed Dietary Practices of Recreational Ultraendurance Cyclists in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Kunces, Laura J; Johnson, Evan C; Munoz, Colleen X; Hydren, Jay R; Huggins, Robert A; Judelson, Daniel A; Ganio, Mathew S; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-06-01

    Kunces, LJ, Johnson, EC, Munoz, CX, Hydren, JR, Huggins, RA, Judelson, DA, Ganio, MS, Vingren, JL, Volek, JS, and Armstrong, LE. Observed dietary practices of recreational ultraendurance cyclists in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1607-1612, 2016-Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to observe the food and fluid consumption of successful recreational ultraendurance cyclists on the day before (ED-1), Event Day, and the day after (ED+1), a 162 km endurance event in a hot environment, and subsequently compare dietary intakes to recommendations and other observed dietary practices. Twenty men (age, 48 ± 8 years; mass, 85.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 178.2 ± 7.4 cm) recorded all dietary items during ED-1, Event Day, and ED+1. Diet composition and the relationships between carbohydrate and caloric intake with finish time were examined. Results show athletes consumed a high-carbohydrate diet on ED-1 (384 g·d), Event Day (657 g·d), and ED+1 (329 g·d). However, there were no significant associations between carbohydrate (p > 0.05), or caloric intake (p > 0.05), and finish time. This study results great variation in diets of recreational endurance cyclists, although most consume within nationally recognized dietary recommendation ranges. Because there is great variation and lack of correlation with performance, these findings suggest that current high-carbohydrate dietary recommendations for general endurance athletes may not be sport specific or individualized enough for recreational ultraendurance cyclists, and that individualized dietary macronutrient composition manipulations may improve

  10. Health effects of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Otles, Semih; Ozgoz, Selin

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fibres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fibres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous beneficial effects on human health. Dietary fibre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fibers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fibers and their important implications on human health will be investigated. PMID:24876314

  11. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  12. Dietary bioavailability of Cu adsorbed to colloidal hydrous ferric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The dietary bioavailability of copper (Cu) adsorbed to synthetic colloidal hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was evaluated from the assimilation of 65Cu by two benthic grazers, a gastropod and a larval mayfly. HFO was synthesized, labeled with 65Cu to achieve a Cu/Fe ratio comparable to that determined in naturally formed HFO, and then aged. The labeled colloids were mixed with a food source (the diatom Nitzschia palea) to yield dietary 65Cu concentrations ranging from 211 to 2204 nmol/g (dry weight). Animals were pulse fed the contaminated diet and assimilation of 65Cu from HFO was determined following 1–3 days of depuration. Mass transfer of 65Cu from HFO to the diatom was less than 1%, indicating that HFO was the source of 65Cu to the grazers. Estimates of assimilation efficiency indicated that the majority of Cu ingested as HFO was assimilated (values >70%), implying that colloidal HFO potentially represents a source of dietary Cu to benthic grazers, especially where there is active formation and infiltration of these particles into benthic substrates.

  13. An evaluation of the lower coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder after 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    Twelve healthy male subjects were initially deconditioned by 3 days of 7 deg head down tilt bed rest followed by donning the reentry anti-G suit and being centrifuged using a simulated Shuttle reentry profile. For 6 of the 12 subjects, anti-G suit pressure was increased in 0.5 psig increments if eye level blood pressure dropped below 70 mmHg. The second half of the subjects had their G-suits inflated in 0.5 psig increments if they reported 50 percent peripheral light dimming. Results show that the maximum allowable pressure for either exposure was 2.5 psig, which is the operational limit of the Shuttle anti-G suit controller.

  14. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  15. A Dietary Screening Questionnaire Identifies Dietary Patterns in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns reflect habitual exposure of foods and nutrients, and are a preferred means to assess diet and disease relationships. Our objective was to design a screening tool to assess diet quality and dietary patterns among older adults, and to relate the patterns to markers of general health ...

  16. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  17. 42 CFR 484.48 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 484....48 Condition of participation: Clinical records. A clinical record containing pertinent past and... information; name of physician; drug, dietary, treatment, and activity orders; signed and dated clinical...

  18. 42 CFR 484.48 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 484....48 Condition of participation: Clinical records. A clinical record containing pertinent past and... information; name of physician; drug, dietary, treatment, and activity orders; signed and dated clinical...

  19. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  20. DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure research supports the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 by improving methods of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments for children. The goal of this research is to reduce the level of uncertainty in assessing the dietary path...

  1. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  2. Dietary restrictions and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, R W; Turturro, A

    1997-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) alters a significant environmental factor in carcinogenesis, dietary intake, thus inhibiting both spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of spontaneous cancer may include the effects of DR to do the following: decrease body weight, which decreases cellular proliferation and increases apoptosis in a number of organs that increase and decrease with body size; decrease body temperature, thereby lowering the amount of endogenous DNA damage temperature generates; decrease oxidative damage, by increasing antioxidant damage defense systems; decrease, generally, cellular proliferation; and protect the fidelity of the genome by decreasing DNA damage, increasing DNA repair, and preventing aberrant gene expression. Potential mechanisms for reducing induced tumor incidence include lowering agent activation, changing agent disposition, decreasing the adducts most associated with agent toxicity, and inhibiting tumor progression through mechanisms similar to those that can effect spontaneous tumorigenesis. As a method to control a major source of environmental cancer, and as the major modulator of the agent induction of this disease, understanding how DR works may significantly contribute to the efforts to explain how diet impacts on development of cancer in the United States, and may suggest methods to reduce the adverse impacts of other environmental agents on the disease. PMID:9255593

  3. Dietary control of cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  4. A comprehensive survey of atmospheric quasi 3 day planetary-scale waves and their impacts on the day-to-day variations of the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiping; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.; Frey, Harald U.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2015-04-01

    This study reports a comprehensive survey of quasi 3 day (2.5-4.5 day period) planetary-scale waves in the low-latitude mesosphere and lower thermosphere using the temperature observations from Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Electric Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry throughout 2002-2012. Occurrences and properties of the waves, including the eastward propagating zonal wave numbers of 1-3 (E1-E3) and vertical wavelengths, are determined for each case. The impacts of these waves on the equatorial ionosphere are investigated by searching for the corresponding variations with the same periods and wave numbers in total electron content (TEC) from the concurrent observations of the ground-based GPS network. For a threshold amplitude of 4 K in temperature, a total of 300 waves are identified, of which there are 186 E1, 63 E2, and 51 E3 events. The mean amplitudes and vertical wavelengths of these waves are calculated to be about 7.9 K and 34 km for the E1, 5.7 K and 29 km for the E2, and 5.1 K and 27 km for the E3, having the standard deviations of 1.5 K and 6.5 km, 0.6 K and 5.6 km, and 0.5 K and 6.7 km. Occurrences of the E1 cases are not observed to depend on season, but the large-amplitude (>8 K) cases occur more often during solstices than at equinoxes. Similarly, the E2 and E3 cases are observed to occur most often in January-February and May-August. Among these waves, 199 cases (66%) are found to have the corresponding variations in the equatorial ionosphere with amplitudes ≥4.2% relative to the mean TEC values (corresponding to 90th percentile). Most of these waves have long vertical wavelengths and large amplitudes (˜3 times more than short vertical wavelength and small-amplitude waves). Because no seasonal or solar cycle dependence on the frequency at which these waves have corresponding variations in the ionosphere at this TEC perturbation threshold is observed, we conclude that there is no seasonal and solar

  5. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines. PMID:18296306

  6. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  7. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  8. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year. PMID:26253749

  9. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data.

    PubMed

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: (1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; (2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; (3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; (4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; (5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; (6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and (7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  10. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  11. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  12. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  13. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  14. Use of a nationwide call center for Ebola response and monitoring during a 3-day house-to-house campaign - Sierra Leone, September 2014.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Stanger, Emily; Senesi, Reynold Gb; DeLuca, Nick; Dietz, Patricia; Hausman, Leslie; Kilmarx, Peter H; Mermin, Jonathan

    2015-01-16

    During May 23, 2014-January 10, 2015, Sierra Leone reported 7,777 confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). In response to the epidemic, on August 5, Sierra Leone's Emergency Operations Center established a toll-free, nationwide Ebola call center. The purpose of the call center is to encourage public reporting of possible Ebola cases and deaths to public health officials and to provide health education about Ebola to callers. This information also functions as an "alert" system for public health officials and supports surveillance efforts for the response. National call center dispatchers call district-level response teams composed of surveillance officers and burial teams to inform them of reported deaths and possible Ebola cases. Members of these response teams investigate cases and conduct follow-up actions such as transporting ill persons to Ebola treatment units or providing safe, dignified medical burials as resources permit. The call center continues to operate. This report describes calls received during a 3-day national campaign and reports the results of an assessment of the call center operation during the campaign. PMID:25590683

  15. Insulin sensitivity is independent of lipid binding protein trafficking at the plasma membrane in human skeletal muscle: effect of a 3-day, high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas B; Serup, Annette K; Karstoft, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette; Kiens, Bente; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced regulation of lipid binding proteins in human skeletal muscle and the impact hereof on insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a 3-day hypercaloric and high-fat diet regime. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the diet intervention, and giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared. The high-fat diet induced decreased insulin sensitivity, but this was not associated with a relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. However, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm mRNA, but not the proteins, were upregulated by increased fatty acid availability. This suggests a time dependency in the upregulation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein during high availability of plasma fatty acids. Furthermore, we did not detect FATP1 and FATP4 protein in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from human skeletal muscle. In conclusion, this study shows that a short-term lipid-load increases mRNA content of key lipid handling proteins in human muscle. However, decreased insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet is not accompanied with relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. Finally, FATP1 and FATP4 protein was located intracellularly but not at the sarcolemma in humans. PMID:25163924

  16. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  17. Dietary carbohydrates for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Costabile, Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    The literature on the impact of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of blood glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients over the last 3 years is reviewed. We try to differentiate the metabolic effects due to the amount of carbohydrates from those due to their different types. The review comprises a part dealing with the effects of diets having low or high carbohydrate content on body weight reduction, and a part in which the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are discussed in relation to isoenergetic diets. Overall, the data accumulated in the period considered seem to confirm that the decrease in energy intake is more important than the qualitative composition of the diet to reduce body weight, but that both the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are important in modulating blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in both the fasting and the postprandial phases in diabetic individuals. PMID:22847773

  18. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  19. Markers of lutein and zeaxanthin status in two age groups of men and women: dietary intake, serum concentrations, lipid profile and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in retina (macular pigment). Their nutritional status can be assessed using dietary or biochemical markers and both have been associated with macular pigment optical density. We proposed to assess dietary and status markers of lutein and zeaxanthin in a group of healthy Spanish volunteers, considering the potential influence of age, gender and serum lipids to investigate the predictors of the macular pigment optical density. Methods Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, dietary intake and macular pigment optical density were determined in 108 healthy men and women (20–35 and 45–65 years), using high-performance liquid chromatography, 3-day food records and heterochromic flicker photometry, respectively. Mann–Whitney U-test, Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used for the statistical study. Results Serum concentrations and dietary intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively) were higher in older vs younger subjects, whereas macular pigment optical density was lower (p = 0.038). The highest correlation coefficients between intake and serum were for fruit and serum lutein (ρ = 0.452, p < 0.0001) and for fruit and lutein + zeaxanthin (ρ = 0.431, p < 0.0001) in the younger group. Macular pigment optical density correlated with serum xanthophylls (ρ = 0.223, p = 0.02) and fruit and vegetable intake (ρ = 0.350, p = 0.0002), showing highest correlations when lutein and zeaxanthin were expressed in relation to serum lipids in older subjects (ρ = 0.262, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis identified age and serum lutein as major predictors of macular pigment optical density (total sample), and a coefficient of determination of 29.7% for the model including lutein + zeaxathin/cholesterol + triglycerides, sex and fruit + vegetables in the older group. Conclusions The

  20. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  1. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  2. Results from a comparative dietary assessment in Europe: II. Feasibility of pooling individual-based dietary data between countries.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, J; Boeing, H; Heinemann, L; Kulesza, W; Rywik, S L; Schroll, M; Sznajd, J; Thiel, C

    1989-06-01

    Dietary investigations in four central European survey populations carried out in the German Democratic Republic, Poland and Denmark between 1982 and 1984 using different methodologies were analysed in order to assess the possibilities of characterizing the dietary habits of individual survey participants in a comparable fashion. This was done with the view of assessing the feasibility of a pooled cancer cohort study. For this purpose a method has been devised to combine dietary information derived by food frequency questionnaires and quantitative recording methods into a quantitative characterization of individuals' habits. A comparable characterization between different cultural settings could be demonstrated for a selected list of food items. The selection was determined by the food items considered in common in the different food frequency questionnaires and yielding sufficient and comparable variation as well as absolute amounts of intake. This was more clearly found for food items such as 'fruit' which experience a concise role in dietary habits. However, the observed discrepancies of the different dietary methods within the countries, and, most importantly, between the countries, result in distributions of average daily consumption values which are not deemed to be comparable. PMID:2743961

  3. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  4. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  5. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  6. DIETARY RISK EVALUATION SYSTEM: DRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRES) estimates exposure to pesticides in the diet by combining information concerning residues on raw agricultural commodities with information on consumption of those commodities. It then compares the estimated exposure level to a toxicologi...

  7. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  8. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  9. Socioeconomic, Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement Use during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pouchieu, Camille; Lévy, Rachel; Faure, Céline; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on dietary supplement (DS) use during pregnancy is largely lacking. Besides, little is known about the share of DS use as self-medication versus such use following a physician's advice/prescription. Our aim was to evaluate DS use and its socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary correlates among pregnant women participating in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Method Data were collected by self-administered web-based questionnaires. Food intake was assessed by repeated 24 h dietary records. 903 pregnant women provided data on their DS use (both “regular” DS and medication containing mainly vitamins/minerals). Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. Results DS use—in general and as regards folic acid in particular—was positively correlated with age, being primiparous, having higher income and belonging to a higher socioprofessional category. DS users had significantly higher dietary intakes of most vitamins and minerals. The proportion of DS users (e.g., those reporting use at least three days a week) increased significantly with the trimester of pregnancy (58.0%, 62.2% and 74.5%, respectively). 50.2% of women in their 1st trimester used folic acid. The proportion of iron users tripled from the 1st to the 3rd trimester (18.5 to 63.9%). DS use was prescribed or recommended by a physician in 86.7% of the cases. Conclusion This study provided new and detailed information on DS use and its correlates during pregnancy. Even in this relatively well-educated population, folic acid supplementation at the beginning of pregnancy was inadequate and was associated with socioeconomic and demographic disparities. PMID:23967094

  10. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P < .000) and were correlated only in the older group. CT were higher under glare conditions, at the intermediate and smaller visual angles, with greater differences in the older (P < .003) than the younger group (P < .014). In the total sample, CT correlated inversely with MPOD (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.245 to -.152 and from .000 to .026, respectively) and directly with F + V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  11. Lifestyle modification decreases arterial stiffness in overweight and obese men: dietary modification vs. exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Seiji; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-02-01

    Obesity and increased arterial stiffness are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is increased in obese individuals than in age-matched nonobese individuals. We demonstrated that dietary modification and exercise training are effective in reducing arterial stiffness in obese persons. However, the differences in the effect on arterial stiffness between dietary modification and exercise training are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of dietary modification and aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in overweight and obese persons. Forty-five overweight and obese men (48 ± 1 year) completed either a dietary modification (well-balanced nutrient, 1680 kcal/day) or an exercise-training program (walking, 40-60 min/day, 3 days/week) for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all participants underwent anthropometric measurements. Arterial stiffness was measured based on carotid arterial compliance, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and endothelial function was determined by circulating level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide metabolite (nitrites/nitrate as metabolite: NOx). Body mass and waist circumference significantly decreased after both intervention programs. Weight loss was greater after dietary modification than after exercise training (-10.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. -3.6 ± 0.5 kg, p < .01). Although arterial stiffness and the plasma levels of ET-1 and NOx were improved after dietary modification or exercise training, there were no differences in those improvements between the 2 types of interventions. Exercise training improves arterial function in obese men without as much weight loss as after dietary modification. PMID:25029200

  12. Dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in 4-14-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Rothausen, Berit W; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per B; Tetens, Inge

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in children, and the aim of the present study was to investigate 4–14-year-old children's dietary patterns specifically on weekdays (Monday–Thursday) and weekend days (Saturday–Sunday). Dietary data were derived from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003–8, where a total of 784 children aged 4–14 years completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns in the age groups 4–6, 7–10 and 11–14 years. Consistently, two dietary patterns, labelled ‘processed’ and ‘health conscious’, emerged on both weekdays and weekend days. Factor scores from corresponding dietary patterns were significantly correlated between weekdays and weekend days with the exception of the ‘health conscious’ pattern in the 7–10-year-olds. Within each age group, children with high agreement for the ‘processed’ pattern had a significantly higher dietary energy density, which was reflected in significantly higher intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, compared with children with high agreement for the ‘health conscious’ pattern (P< 0·05). Moreover, these variables indicated less healthy dietary intakes on weekend days than on weekdays for both patterns. In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns, labelled ‘processed’ and ‘health conscious’, were identified on both weekdays and weekend days for each age group. While overall major dietary patterns may somewhat track between weekdays and weekends, the specific foods actually eaten became less healthy during weekends. PMID:22958341

  13. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  14. Dietary Fiber, Kidney Function, Inflammation, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Cederholm, Tommy; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70–71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991–1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Results Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). Conclusions High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also

  15. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. PMID:24521459

  16. Hominoid dietary evolution.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P; Martin, L

    1991-11-29

    During the later Palaeocene and early Miocene, catarrhine primates and the evolving hominoids had adaptations for frugivorous diets, with the emphasis on soft foods. Early in the middle Miocene the hominoids underwent a major shift, both in morphology and in habitat, with the morphology characterized by thickened enamel on the molars, enlarged incisors and massive jaws. The diet indicated by this morphology is interpreted as still mainly frugivorous but with changed emphasis, possibly towards harder objects. The thick-enamelled hominoids are found associated with more open forest habitats, and the distribution of food resources in equivalent habitats today is discontinuous both in time and in space, leading to evolutionary pressures particularly affecting locomotion, brain size and social behaviour. The earliest known hominid fossils differed little in dental and mandibular morphology from the middle Miocene apes, and the implied dietary similarity, together with ape-like patterns of dental development and retained arboreal adaptations of the postcrania, suggests little change in the foraging strategies of the earliest hominids compared with their ape ancestors and further suggests similarity in evolutionary grade. This similarity may have extended to other aspects of behaviour, for example to patterns of tool making and use, which may have been similar in the common ancestor of apes and humans to the pattern shared by the earliest australopithecines and chimpanzees. PMID:1685578

  17. Hyperhydration prior to a simulated second day of the 3-day moderate intensity equestrian competition does not cause arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Tennent-Brown, B S; Goetz, T E; Manohar, M; Hassan, A S; Freeman, D E; Bundy, J S; Evans, M R

    2006-07-01

    Dehydration and the associated impairment of cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function comprise major veterinary problems in horses performing prolonged exercise, particularly under hot and humid conditions. For these reasons, there is considerable interest in using pre-exercise hyperhydration to help maintain blood volume in the face of the excessive fluid loss associated with sweat production during prolonged exertion. However, recently it was reported that pre-exercise hyperhydration causes arterial hypoxemia in horses performing moderate intensity exercise simulating the second day of an equestrian 3-day event competition (E3DEC) which may adversely affect performance (Sosa Leon et al. in Equine Vet J Suppl 34:425-429, 2002). These findings are contrary to data from horses performing short-term maximal exertion, wherein hyperhydration did not affect arterial O2 tension/saturation. Thus, our objective in the present study was to examine the impact of pre-exercise hyperhydration on arterial oxygenation of Thoroughbred horses performing an exercise test simulating the second day of an E3DEC. Control and hyperhydration studies were carried out on seven healthy Thoroughbred horses in random order, 7 days apart. In the control study, horses received no medications. In the hyperhydration experiments, nasogastric administration of NaCl (0.425 g/kg) 5 h pre-exercise induced a plasma volume expansion of 10.9% at the initiation of exercise. This methodology for inducing hypervolemia was different from that of Sosa Leon et al. (2002). Blood-gas tensions/pH as well as plasma protein, hemoglobin and blood lactate concentrations were measured pre-exercise and during the exercise test. Our data revealed that pre-exercise hyperhydration neither adversely affected arterial O2 tension nor hemoglobin-O2 saturation at any time during the exercise test simulating the second day of an E3DEC. Further, it was observed that arterial blood CO2 tension, pH, and blood lactate

  18. Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every 3 days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral intravenous device (IVD) complications were traditionally thought to be reduced by limiting dwell time. Current recommendations are to resite IVDs by 96 hours with the exception of children and patients with poor veins. Recent evidence suggests routine resite is unnecessary, at least if devices are inserted by a specialised IV team. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of peripheral IVD 'routine resite' with 'removal on clinical indication' on IVD complications in a general hospital without an IV team. Methods A randomised, controlled trial was conducted in a regional teaching hospital. After ethics approval, 362 patients (603 IVDs) were randomised to have IVDs replaced on clinical indication (185 patients) or routine change every 3 days (177 patients). IVDs were inserted and managed by the general hospital medical and nursing staff; there was no IV team. The primary endpoint was a composite of IVD complications: phlebitis, infiltration, occlusion, accidental removal, local infection, and device-related bloodstream infection. Results IVD complication rates were 68 per 1,000 IVD days (clinically indicated) and 66 per 1,000 IVD days (routine replacement) (P = 0.86; HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). Time to first complication per patient did not differ between groups (KM with log rank, P = 0.53). There were no local infections or IVD-related bloodstream infections in either group. IV therapy duration did not differ between groups (P = 0.22), but more (P = 0.004) IVDs were placed per patient in the routine replacement (mean, 1.8) than the clinical indication group (mean, 1.5), with significantly higher hospital costs per patient (P < 0.001). Conclusions Resite on clinical indication would allow one in two patients to have a single cannula per course of IV treatment, as opposed to one in five patients managed with routine resite; overall complication rates appear similar. Clinically indicated resite would achieve savings in equipment, staff

  19. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  20. Helical recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. T.; Studer, P. A.; Tyler, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Tape recorder, using metallic tape, has a minimum of moving parts and no belts. It permits long-term bulk storage in extreme environments, and has less weight and bulk than present recording equipment.

  1. [Effect of contraceptives on the digestibility of dietary protein and nitrogen balance].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K; Hennig, A; Klinger, G; Krause, G

    1981-01-01

    The present paper deals with the effects of the hormonal contraceptives Deposiston and Gravistat on the digestibility of dietary crude protein and on the urine excretion of nitrogen. The substances under test were given to nine women aged between 18 and 25 years. The faecal and the urinary nitrogen were determined in the first two cycles during which no contraceptives were used, and also in the subsequent three cycles during which Deposiston and Gravistat were taken by mouth. The preperiod extended over 3 days; and the sampling period, over 4 days. The apparent digestibility of the dietary protein was but slightly increased by the contraceptives. In case of Deposiston for example, it amounted to 85.0% (1st cycle), 86.0% (2nd cycle), 87.3% (3rd cycle), 87.1% (4th cycle), and 88.2% (5th cycle). Deposiston and Gravistat did not affect the urine excretion of nitrogen and the nitrogen balance. PMID:7290175

  2. Responsiveness of 6 to 14 generations of birds to dietary dieldrin toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The lethal dietary toxicity of dieldrin was estimated repeatedly during 8 years of testing young bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Toxicities, quantified as 8-day LC50 values (5 days on toxic diet, followed by 3 days of untreated feed), were estimated at least 18 times per species. Average dietary LC50 values (ppm) and their 95% confidence limits for 14-day-old quail and 10-day-old pheasants and mallards were: bobwhite, 38 (34?42); Japanese quail, 61 (58?64); ring-necked pheasant, 56 (53?59); and mallard, 179 (163?195). No time-related changes were detected in LC50 values for any of the species.

  3. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  4. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  5. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  6. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

  7. Dietary selenium and selenoprotein function

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Benjamin S.; Hanna, Mirna S.; Cooperstein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Selenium is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient in the human diet. Selenium is found in soil and water and consequently enters the food chain through the root ways of plants and aquatic organisms. Some areas of the world are low in soil selenium resulting in a selenium deficient population and the appearance of an associated heart disease and bone disorders that can be corrected with dietary selenium. Indeed the requirement for dietary selenium was established by these observations and while selenium deficiency is rare in the West, patients requiring long-term intravenous feedings have also show heart disease associated with a deficiency of selenium in the feeding fluids. Subsequently, it has been established that dietary selenium can improve a wide range of human health conditions even in areas with soil replete in selenium. PMID:22847213

  8. Progress in Developing Dietary Supplement Databases: The Analytically Validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) and Dietary Supplement Label Databases (DSLD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although an estimated 50% of the US population consumes dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on bioactive constituents in them are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database deve...

  9. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J.; Shi, Zumin

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern. PMID:22822450

  12. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  13. DIETARY FIBER CONTENT IN FRESH CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a wide variation in the reported values for pectin and dietary fiber content in the edible portions of fresh orange and grapefruit. Two studies done by the Produce Marketing Association in 1990 reported 4.0 g dietary fiber/ 100 g of fresh edible grapefruit and 4.4 g dietary fiber / 100 g f...

  14. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  15. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  16. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly...

  17. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by...

  18. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is intended primarily for use by policymakers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators. The information in the Dietary Guidelines is useful for the development of educational materials and aids policymakers in designing and implementing nutrition-related programs, including federal food, nutrition…

  19. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  20. DIETARY EXPOSURE METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving N...

  1. DIETARY INTAKE AND BONE HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and related fractures represent major public health problems that will increase dramatically as the population ages. Dietary risk factors are particularly important, as they are modifiable. However, attention has focused almost exclusively on calcium and vitamin D. Recently, there has...

  2. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  3. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  4. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  5. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make...

  6. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  7. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  8. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make...

  9. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with...

  10. Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents’ Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa; Magnusson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed. Objective To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied. Results The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators. Conclusions Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies. PMID:27473462

  11. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from 28- or 14-day dietary records and 2 FFQs. To assess reproducibility and validity, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between dietary pattern scores derived from FFQs separated by a 1-year interval, and between dietary pattern scores derived from dietary records and those derived from a FFQ completed after the dietary records, respectively. Results We identified 3 Japanese dietary patterns from the dietary records and 2 FFQs: prudent, westernized, and traditional. Regarding reproducibility, Spearman correlation coefficients between the 2 FFQs ranged from 0.55 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men and the prudent Japanese pattern in women to 0.77 for the traditional Japanese pattern in men. Regarding validity, the corresponding values between dietary records and the FFQ ranged from 0.32 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men to 0.63 for the traditional Japanese pattern in women. Conclusions Acceptable reproducibility and validity was shown by the 3 dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis based on the FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study. PMID:22343330

  12. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  13. [Dietary modification of bile lipids].

    PubMed

    Wechsler, J G; Wenzel, H; Swobodnik, W; Splitt, S; Janowitz, P; Ditschuneit, H

    1988-02-01

    The average incidence of gallstones in european countries is about 25%. Excessive secretion of cholesterol into the bile can predispose to saturation and gallstone-formation. Obesity, overnutrition, diets rich in refined carbohydrates, diets high in cholesterol intake and poor in dietary fibre, lipid lowering drugs, age and female sex hormones are recognized causing increased cholesterol secretion into the bile. These metabolic consequences may predispose to a higher incidence of cholesterol gallstone than in normal persons. Taking all the results of the literature together patients with gallstones should be encouraged to take a low cholesterol, low calorie, low refined carbohydrate and high polyunsaturated fat diet rich in bran und vegetable fibre. Obese patients should reduce their body weight. These dietary recommendations should be given for patients with gallstones during bile acid therapy and after successful dissolution in order to prevent gallstone recurrence. PMID:3280933

  14. Dietary patterns in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Huse, D M; Lucas, A R

    1984-08-01

    This study characterized the dietary patterns of 96 patients with anorexia nervosa who were seen for diet history. The mean age of the patients was 16.6 yr, and mean loss from preillness weight was 28%. Twenty-five patients ate high-quality meals regularly but simply restricted calories. Eleven maintained a high-quality diet but ate at irregular intervals; of these, six had episodes of binge-eating and vomiting or fasting. Among patients whose diets were qualitatively poor, 19 consumed regular meals and 41 ate irregularly; 31 of the latter had episodes of binge-eating and vomiting or fasting. No typical profile of dietary manipulations by these patients was found. Beyond the generalization that there was caloric restriction that resulted in weight loss, there was great variability in the diet patterns. PMID:6465058

  15. Dietary manipulation in musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Pattison, Dorothy J

    2008-06-01

    Dietary advice and intervention clearly have a place in rheumatology and allow patients to have some control over their own disease. Although there is no evidence for efficacy of 'fad' diets, 30-40% of rheumatoid patients can benefit from excluding foods individually identified during the reintroduction phase of an elimination diet. A proportion of patients who follow a vegetarian or Mediterranean-type diet will experience benefit. Patients who are either overweight or obese should participate in weight-loss programmes. Those with osteoarthritis need to concentrate on reducing fat mass while maintaining muscle mass. Arthritic patients, other than those with gout, should increase their intake of oily fish and additionally supplement with fish oil for up to 3 months to see whether they experience benefit. All arthritic patients, particularly those with inflammatory disease, should be advised to ensure a good dietary intake of antioxidants, copper and zinc. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin D may be advisable. PMID:18519104

  16. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  17. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-08-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  18. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  19. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  20. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05). This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin. PMID:26644854

  1. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Karen S.; Erdrich, Sharon; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat. PMID:25580814

  2. The frequency of dietary references in homeopathic consultations.

    PubMed

    Filho, Rubens Dolce

    2011-07-01

    A retrospective quantitative study on dietary references found in medical records of 2753 patients attending consultations from 10/1/1994 to 5/31/2007 was conducted. The symptoms found in the rubrics relating to food and drink aggravation and amelioration, aversion and craving of homeopathic repertories reflect diets at different places and times and do not correspond fully, to contemporary gastronomy. Desires for sweet and spicy foods were statistically more frequent, revealing the prevailing taste for such food among the studied population. Food cravings should be carefully analyzed before considering them as indications for choosing homeopathic therapy, they are less significant than aversions, aggravations and ameliorations. PMID:21784331

  3. Mixed method approaches to understanding cancer-related dietary risk reduction among public housing residents.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Ann C; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Black, Maureen M; Caulfield, Laura E

    2009-07-01

    Improving diet is one important pathway for addressing cancer disparities. We conducted mixed-method analyses of 468 24-h dietary recalls from 156 African-American women residents of Washington DC public housing to better understand dietary patterns. Recalls were rated for five cancer-related preventive characteristics (adequate fruits/vegetables, moderate fat, moderate calories, no alcohol, and adequate Healthy Eating Index score), combined as a scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified psychosocial and dietary characteristics associated with scale scores. Qualitative analyses of dietary records identified contextual aspects of food patterns within and across score groups. Sixty-one percent of respondents met zero or one dietary goal; alcohol abstention was most common (64%). Only 12% achieve either three (6%), four (4%), or all five (<1%) goals; five fruit and vegetable servings were least common (15%). The underlying scalar structure of responses suggests that fruit and vegetable consumption is seldom achieved in this population without other scale components. Poorer scores were associated with younger age, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, smoking, and food-purchasing practices. Qualitative analyses identified eight themes related to differences between dietary patterns. Findings reinforce the value of nonreductionist approaches to cancer-related nutrition intervention. PMID:19444616

  4. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data. PMID:26386452

  5. Dietary under-reporting: what foods and which meals are typically under-reported?

    PubMed

    Gemming, L; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2016-05-01

    Little objective information exists regarding which foods and meals are typically under-reported during retrospective self-reported dietary assessments. Automated wearable cameras record dietary behaviours in free-living settings and allow the context of under-reporting to be explored. As part of a study to validate image-assisted dietary assessment, 40 participants wore a wearable camera on days before three image-assisted 24-h dietary recalls. The foods and meals were typically under-reported, and the environmental and social contexts of under-reporting were assessed. Under-reporting occurred most frequently during afternoon snacks (75/265 foods), dinner (54/265 foods) and breakfast (44/265 foods). Snack foods were most frequently unreported during afternoon snacks, and condiments were most frequently under-reported at breakfasts. No clear pattern of social or environmental contexts for under-reporting was observed. Wearable cameras can identify when specific foods are likely to be under-reported during retrospective dietary assessments. Problematic foods and meals identified could be given additional attention during dietary assessments. PMID:26669571

  6. Inflammation but Not Dietary Macronutrients Insufficiency Associated with the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences of macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population. PMID:24349471

  7. Dietary Exposure to Aluminium and Health Risk Assessment in the Residents of Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0–2 and 3–13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China. PMID:24594670

  8. Considerations for selecting a dietary assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    The software available with some food composition databases allows for the dietary assessment of individuals and groups and may provide graphic comparisons of nutrient intakes to dietary standards. Four factors to consider when choosing a computerized dietary assessment system are availability of desired database features, efficiency of the search engine in finding foods in the database, educational value of the output, and cost of purchasing and updating the software. Printed output should clearly characterize dietary adequacy with graphs or simple tables. Dietary assessment data used for research must also be available in electronic spreadsheet format for statistical analysis. Peer-reviewed papers in journals that provide overviews of the features of various computerized dietary assessment software are helpful for informing the selection process. PMID:19337578

  9. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

  10. Dietary self-monitoring and its impact on weight loss in overweight children

    PubMed Central

    Mockus, Danyte S.; Macera, Caroline A.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Peddecord, Michael; Thomas, Ronald G.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether dietary self-monitoring is related to weight loss in overweight children and whether perceived social support or dietary self-efficacy affects this relation. Design Longitudinal, behavioral intervention study. Subjects The study population included 153 children, aged 7–12 years, with daily food records from a 20-week weight loss program in San Diego, California, USA, conducted between 1999 and 2002. Methods Self-monitoring was assessed using two methods: a weekly index as a measure of competency (possible range −7 to +35) and recording sufficiency for total compliance (percentage of days). Results Significantly greater decreases in percentage overweight were found for children with recording competency at or above the median (mean change: −13.4% vs. −8.6%; p < 0.001) or who were compliant in recording ≥50% of the days (mean change: −13.0% vs. −8.4%; p < 0.001). Using hierarchical linear regression, children who had a higher average weekly monitoring index or recorded sufficiently on more days had significantly greater decreases in percent overweight, after adjusting for age, sex, SES, race/ethnicity and baseline percent overweight (p < 0.001). Perceived social support at baseline and dietary self-efficacy were not related to self-monitoring or change in percent overweight in this sample. Conclusion As has been demonstrated with adults and adolescents, self-monitoring in children was associated with greater decreases in percent overweight. However, dietary self-efficacy and perceived social support were not related to how frequently or thoroughly they monitored dietary intake. PMID:21722068

  11. Handling alternative dietary requests from pet owners.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jacqueline M; Remillard, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term. PMID:24951340

  12. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshavitz, Helen

    1974-01-01

    Pupil files are accumulating increasing amounts of sensitive data. Yet parents have been barred from seeing their children's files while law enforcement officials and other public agencies have been given virtually free access. However, a national law in regard to student records is a real possibility. (Author/WM)

  13. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  14. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  15. Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo. PMID:22312245

  16. Dietary flavonoids as cancer prevention agents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua; Xu, Weizheng; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    Dietary agents identified from fruits and vegetables contribute to keeping balanced cell proliferation and preventing cell carcinogenesis. Dietary flavonoids, combined with other components such as various vitamins, play an important role in cancer prevention. Flavonoids act on reactive oxygen species, cell signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Many studies demonstrate that flavonoids are responsible for chemoprevention, although mechanisms of action remain to be investigated. Overall, exciting data show that dietary flavonoids could be considered as a useful cancer preventive approach. This review summarizes recent advancements on potential cancer preventive effects and mechanic insight of dietary flavonoids. PMID:21424974

  17. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  18. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure. PMID:23741310

  19. Dietary factors in lung cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M T; Kolonel, L N; Wilkens, L R; Yoshizawa, C N; Le Marchand, L; Hankin, J H

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis-generating analysis of the role of diet on survival was conducted among a sample of 463 men and 212 women with histologically-confirmed lung cancer. Interview information was obtained from two population-based case-control studies of lung cancer conducted on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, between 1979 and 1985. The interview consisted of a quantitative dietary history to assess the usual intake of foods 1 year prior to diagnosis, a complete tobacco history, and other demographic and lifestyle information. Records from the Hawaii Tumor Registry were reviewed for data on stage, histology, and follow-up status of these patients. A food group analysis showed a significant reduction in the risk of death with increasing consumption of all vegetables combined among women (P for trend = 0.03), but not among men. The covariate-adjusted median survival times for women from the highest to the lowest quartiles of vegetable intake were 33, 21, 15, and 18 months, respectively. The results also suggested an association of fruit intake and survival among women (P for trend = 0.02), although a similar effect was not found among men. Increased consumption of certain foods, such as tomatoes and oranges among men, and broccoli and, perhaps, tomatoes among women, appeared to improve survival. This exploratory analysis provides mixed indications that certain components of vegetables and fruits may prolong survival in lung cancer patients. PMID:1591072

  20. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  1. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  2. Does dietary vitamin E or C decrease egg yolk cholesterol?

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Maziar; Zaghari, Mojtaba

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period (10 days) to adjust egg production. Treatments were levels of vitamin E or C (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) supplementation to the basal diet for 4 weeks, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, and feed consumption were recorded during the study. Shell thickness, Haugh unit score, yolk color, yolk weight, yolk cholesterol, and blood parameters were measured at the end of experiment. There was no significant effect of dietary vitamin E or C on hen performance. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly by antioxidant vitamin supplementation (P < 0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol reduction did not have any negative effect on egg production rate. Antioxidants, especially vitamin C, increased serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05). Serum total cholesterol content did not change by vitamin supplementation but cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) increased (P < 0.05), as dietary vitamin E or C supplementation increased in diets. These results are in conflict with the previous hypothesis that antioxidants have a role in LDL-C removal from the blood or increasing HDL-C. Vitamin E was more effective than vitamin C in this case and if these results are confirmed by further studies, they may result to revision in researchers' point of view about antioxidant especially in human medicine. PMID:20127202

  3. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD. PMID:16987404

  4. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS)

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Ligia J.; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Gea, Alfredo; Barbagallo, Mario; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS), which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) longitudinal study. Methods We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points) were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points). Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of T2DM. Results We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25–39 points) vs. low (11–24) category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40–60) vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019). Conclusions The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve

  5. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  6. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  7. The role of dietary creatine.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26874700

  8. Dietary interpretations for extinct megafauna using coprolites, intestinal contents and stable isotopes: Complimentary or contradictory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Bocherens, Herve; Rogers, Karyne M.

    2016-06-01

    For many extinct species, direct evidence of diet (e.g. coprolites, gizzard/intestinal contents) is not available, and indirect dietary evidence (e.g. stable isotopes) must be relied upon. The Late Holocene fossil record of New Zealand provides a unique opportunity to contrast palaeodietary reconstructions for the extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) using stable isotopes and coprolite/gizzard contents. Palaeodietary reconstructions from isotopes are found to contradict those based on direct dietary evidence. We discuss reasons for this and advocate, where possible, for the use of multiple lines of evidence in reconstructing the diets of extinct species.

  9. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  10. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  11. THE INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS (IBIDS) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database provides access to bibliographic citations and abstracts from published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Instit...

  12. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  13. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  14. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  15. Dietary fibers and cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  17. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  18. A brief dietary screener: Appropriate for overweight Latino adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N.; Nelson, Melissa C.; Ventura, Emily E.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess whether a brief dietary screener designed to assess fast food and beverage consumption in a primarily Caucasian, adolescent population, is also valid and reliable in an overweight, adolescent, Latina population. This screener was developed by University of Minnesota to assess beverage consumption (9 items) and fast food consumption (13 items) in normal weight, primarily Caucasian, adolescents (ages 11–18). Thirty-five at risk for overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile), adolescent (ages 14–17), Latina females were recruited from East Los Angeles and completed the screener twice, approximately seven to 14 days apart, during the fall of 2007. Dietary intake was also assessed by three-day diet records. Spearman correlation and simple Kappas were employed for test-retest assessment and comparisons between the screener and the records. Test-retest assessment yielded a mean Spearman or Kappa statistic of 0.49 with 17 of the 21 responses being significant (P<0.05). Validity was much lower and yielded a Kappa statistic of only 0.08 and no responses were significant. Although this screener appeared to be a valid and reliable measure to assess beverage and fast food consumption in a primarily Caucasian, adolescent population, it does not appear to be appropriate for an overweight Latina female adolescent population. PMID:19328270

  19. Measuring Vitamins and Minerals in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Describe 1) why information on vitamin and mineral intakes from dietary supplements is needed for estimating total nutrient intakes in populations 2) the current status and challenges in developing an analytically validated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) 3) lessons from pil...

  20. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  1. A Computer-Based Dietary Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary trial of a program in which principles of patient-computer dialogue have been applied to dietary counseling is described. The program was designed to obtain historical information from overweight patients and to provide instruction and guidance regarding dietary behavior. Beginning with a teaching sequence, 25 non-overweight…

  2. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  3. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  4. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  5. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  6. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  7. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  8. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.140 Dietary services. The program... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional... provide nutritional guidance. (2) A qualified dietitian is one who is qualified based upon registration...

  9. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.140 Dietary services. The program... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional... provide nutritional guidance. (2) A qualified dietitian is one who is qualified based upon registration...

  10. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.140 Dietary services. The program... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional... provide nutritional guidance. (2) A qualified dietitian is one who is qualified based upon registration...

  11. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  12. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  13. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  14. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  15. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  16. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging.

    PubMed

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  17. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  18. Effects of financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on dietary intake and weight outcomes among older adults: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Bannon, Annika L; Moore, Reneé H

    2016-05-01

    Providing financial incentives can be a useful behavioral economics strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake among consumers. It remains to be determined whether financial incentives can promote intake of other low energy-dense foods and if consumers who are already using promotional tools for their grocery purchases may be especially responsive to receiving incentives. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects of offering financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on 3-month changes in dietary intake, weight outcomes, and the home food environment among older adults. A secondary aim was to compare frequent coupon users (FCU) and non-coupon users (NCU) on weight status, home food environment, and grocery shopping behavior. FCU (n = 28) and NCU (n = 26) were randomly assigned to either an incentive or a control group. Participants in the incentive group received $1 for every healthy food or beverage they purchased. All participants completed 3-day food records and a home food inventory and had their height, weight, and waist circumference measured at baseline and after 3 months. Participants who were responsive to the intervention and received financial incentives significantly increased their daily vegetable intake (P = 0.04). Participants in both groups showed significant improvements in their home food environment (P = 0.0003). No significant changes were observed in daily energy intake or weight-related outcomes across groups (P < 0.12). FCU and NCU did not differ significantly in any anthropometric variables or the level at which their home food environment may be considered 'obesogenic' (P > 0.73). Increased consumption of vegetables did not replace intake of more energy-dense foods. Incentivizing consumers to make healthy food choices while simultaneously reducing less healthy food choices may be important. PMID:26879224

  19. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  20. A prospective study of hospitalization with gallstone disease among women: role of dietary factors, fasting period, and dieting.

    PubMed Central

    Sichieri, R; Everhart, J E; Roth, H

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary risk factors for the development of gallstones have not been clearly established. We analyzed data from a population-based prospective study to determine dietary risk factors for hospitalization with gallstone disease. METHODS: We evaluated the role of dietary constituents, fasting, and dieting on subsequent hospitalization with gallstone disease among 4,730 women, ages 25 to 74 years, who participated in the first follow-up of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline dietary variables were established through a 24-hour dietary recall and a medical history. Proportional hazards models were used to calculate the effects of dietary variables while controlling for baseline risk factors. RESULTS: After an average of 10 years follow-up, gallstone disease was confirmed by hospital records among 216 women who denied gallstone disease at the baseline examination. The hazard rate of hospitalization with gallstone disease increased with increasing overnight fasting period and with dieting. Intake of fiber showed a small protective effect. The effect of energy intake was significant only among women younger than age 50 years at baseline. Results were not affected by adjustment for known risk factors for gallstone disease or other dietary factors. CONCLUSION: A long overnight fasting period, dieting, and low fiber intake may increase the risk of hospitalization with gallstone disease. PMID:1647144

  1. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  2. Dietary cholesterol modulates the excitability of rabbit hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Desheng; Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown high dietary cholesterol can affect learning and memory including rabbit eyeblink conditioning and this effect may be due to increased membrane cholesterol and enhanced hippocampal amyloid beta production. This study investigated whether dietary cholesterol modulates rabbit hippocampal CA1 neuron membrane properties known to be involved in rabbit eyeblink conditioning. Whole-cell current clamp recordings in hippocampal neurons from rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or normal chow for 8 weeks revealed changes including decreased after-hyperpolarization amplitudes (AHPs) – an index of membrane excitability shown to be important for rabbit eyeblink conditioning. This index was reversed by adding copper to drinking water – a dietary manipulation that can retard rabbit eyeblink conditioning. Evidence of cholesterol effects on membrane excitability was provided by application of methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a compound that reduces membrane cholesterol, which increased the excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons. PMID:20639007

  3. Effect of dietary phosphorus content on milk production and phosphorus excretion in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) supplementation is costly and can result in excess P excretion. This study investigated the effects of reducing dietary P on milk production and P excretion in dairy cows over a full lactation. Method Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 15 blocks according to expected calving date and previous milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: 0.37, 0.47, and 0.57% P (DM basis); these P levels represent the NRC recommendations, Chinese recommendations, and the amount of dietary P commonly fed by Chinese dairy farmers, respectively. Average daily feed intake was calculated from monthly data on feed offered and refused. Milk yields of individual cows were recorded weekly, and milk samples were taken for analysis of protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected on days −6, −3, 0, 3, 6 relative to calving, and then monthly throughout lactation, and analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. Spot samples of feces and urine were collected for 3 consecutive d during weeks 12, 24, and 36, and P concentrations were analyzed. Reproduction and health data were recorded. Results Dietary P did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield (P > 0.10). Milk fat content was slightly higher in cows fed 0.37% P than in cows fed 0.47% P (P = 0.05). Serum concentrations of P and Ca did not reflect dietary P content (P > 0.10). Fecal and urinary P both declined linearly (P < 0.05) as dietary P decreased from 0.57 to 0.37%. Fecal P content was 25% less when dietary P was 0.37% compared to 0.57%. Health events and reproductive performance were not associated with dietary P content (P > 0.05). Conclusions Lowering dietary P from 0.57 to 0.37% did not negatively affect milk production, but did significantly reduce P excretion into environment. PMID:24872881

  4. Reducing Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Through Maternal Dietary Changes: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Emily S; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2015-09-01

    Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for 3 days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F = 0.21; adjusted p value = 0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t = -1.07, adjusted p value = 0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  5. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  6. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  7. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  8. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  9. Benefits of Selenium Supplementation on Leukocyte DNA Integrity Interact with Dietary Micronutrients: A Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Zhu, Shuotun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    A male cohort from New Zealand has previously shown variability in Selenium (Se) supplementation effects on measured biomarkers. The current analysis is to understand the reasons for variability of the H2O2-induced DNA damage recorded after Se supplementation. We have looked at the variation of demographic, lifestyle, medication, genetic and dietary factors and biomarkers measured at baseline and post-supplementation in these two extreme subgroups A and B. Group A showed increased H2O2-induced DNA damage and group B showed decreased damage after Se supplementation. We have also considered correlations of biomarkers and dietary factors in the complete dataset. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and DNA damage were significantly lower at post-supplementation in Group B compared to Group A. Post-supplementation, Group B showed a significant reduction in the GPx activity, while Group A showed a significant increase in DNA damage compared to baseline levels. Dietary methionine intake was significantly higher and folate intake was significantly lower in Group B compared to Group A. Se supplementation significantly increased the caspase-cleaved keratin 18 levels in both groups, indicating increased apoptotic potential of this supplement. Parameter correlation with the complete dataset showed dietary methionine to have a significant negative correlation with H2O2-induced DNA damage post-supplementation. The data suggest that Se supplementation is beneficial for the leukocyte DNA integrity only in interaction with the dietary methionine and folate intake. PMID:27128937

  10. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R; Northstone, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The "health-conscious" and "traditional" patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the "processed" patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the "health-conscious" patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the "processed" pattern. An "energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat" dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  11. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patterns. The “health-conscious” and “traditional” patterns were associated with high intakes of fruits and/or vegetables and better nutrient profiles than the “processed” patterns. There was evidence of tracking in childhood diet, with the “health-conscious” patterns tracking most strongly, followed by the “processed” pattern. An “energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat” dietary pattern was extracted using reduced rank regression; high scores on this pattern were associated with increasing adiposity. Maternal education was a strong determinant of pattern score or cluster membership; low educational attainment was associated with higher scores on processed, energy-dense patterns in both parents and children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided unique insights into the value of empirically derived dietary patterns and has demonstrated that they are a useful tool in nutritional epidemiology. PMID:26395343

  12. Dietary fibre: consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Bijlani, R L

    1985-01-01

    Technological advances have reduced and refined man's plant food intake and consequently brought about an unprecedented decline in his consumption of dietary fibre (DF). The emergence of certain diseases selectively in regions which have been affected the most by this dietary change has led to an enhanced awareness of the functions of DF. DF is a heterogeneous group of substances which resist digestion by the endogenous enzymes of the human gut, although they are fermented to a substantial extent by the bacterial flora of the large intestine. Chemically, DF essentially consists of nonstarch polysaccharides and lignin, and its major constituents are cellulose, hemicelluose, lignin and pectin. The physiological effects of DF are attributable largely to its physicochemical properties. DF primarily affects gastrointestinal (GI) function; its effects are observable at all stages from ingestion through defaecation. It restricts caloric intake, shows gastric and small intestinal transit, and affects the activity of digestive enzymes and release of GI hormones. Its overall impact is to reduce apparent digestibility of nutrients marginally but consistently. In the large intestine, DF accelerates transit, supports bacterial growth and serves to hold water. As a result, the faecal weight and water content increase, and the transit time generally becomes shorter. Secondary to its GI effects, DF attenuates postprandial glycaemia and has long term effects on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein metabolism. These effects have important implications in the aetiopathogenesis of constipation and its sequelae including diverticulosis, cholesterol gallstones, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. DF has traditionally been used therapeutically for constipation; now its use in diabetes is also well established. Our appreciation of the role of DF in human nutrition has undergone a major change in the last two decades. From a redundant constituent of plant foods

  13. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  14. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  15. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Evans, W J; Hughes, V A

    1985-05-01

    Antecedent diet can greatly influence both substrate utilization during exercise and exercise performance itself. A number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that short-term (three to seven days) adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet results in greatly reduced liver and muscle glycogen stores. While carbohydrate utilization after such a diet is reduced, the limited glycogen stores can severely limit endurance exercise performance. High carbohydrate diets on the other hand expand carbohydrate stores which can limit performance. However, long-term adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet can greatly alter muscle and whole body energy metabolism to drastically limit the oxidation of limited carbohydrate stores with no adverse effect on performance. Glycogen loading techniques can result in supercompensation of muscle stores. Exercise induced depletion of muscle glycogen is the most important single factor in this phenomenon. Following the exercise a low carbohydrate diet for two to three days after which a high carbohydrate diet is eaten seemingly has the same effect on increasing muscle glycogen stores as simply eating a high carbohydrate diet. The form of the dietary carbohydrate during glycogen loading should be high in complex carbohydrates; however, the type of dietary starch that effects the greatest rate of resynthesis has not been investigated. Rapid resynthesis of glycogen following exercise is at least in part due to increased insulin sensitivity. The enhanced glucose transport caused by the increased sensitivity provides substrate for glycogen synthase. How rapidly this enhanced sensitivity returns to pre-exercise levels in humans is uncertain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3993621

  16. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  17. Volume estimation using food specific shape templates in mobile image-based dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Junghoon; Woo, Insoo; Kim, SungYe; Maciejewski, Ross; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Ebert, David S.

    2011-03-01

    As obesity concerns mount, dietary assessment methods for prevention and intervention are being developed. These methods include recording, cataloging and analyzing daily dietary records to monitor energy and nutrient intakes. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices with built-in cameras, one possible means of improving dietary assessment is through photographing foods and inputting these images into a system that can determine the nutrient content of foods in the images. One of the critical issues in such the image-based dietary assessment tool is the accurate and consistent estimation of food portion sizes. The objective of our study is to automatically estimate food volumes through the use of food specific shape templates. In our system, users capture food images using a mobile phone camera. Based on information (i.e., food name and code) determined through food segmentation and classification of the food images, our system choose a particular food template shape corresponding to each segmented food. Finally, our system reconstructs the three-dimensional properties of the food shape from a single image by extracting feature points in order to size the food shape template. By employing this template-based approach, our system automatically estimates food portion size, providing a consistent method for estimation food volume.

  18. Volume Estimation Using Food Specific Shape Templates in Mobile Image-Based Dietary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chae, Junghoon; Woo, Insoo; Kim, Sungye; Maciejewski, Ross; Zhu, Fengging; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J; Ebert, David S

    2011-02-01

    As obesity concerns mount, dietary assessment methods for prevention and intervention are being developed. These methods include recording, cataloging and analyzing daily dietary records to monitor energy and nutrient intakes. Given the ubiquity of mobile devices with built-in cameras, one possible means of improving dietary assessment is through photographing foods and inputting these images into a system that can determine the nutrient content of foods in the images. One of the critical issues in such the image-based dietary assessment tool is the accurate and consistent estimation of food portion sizes. The objective of our study is to automatically estimate food volumes through the use of food specific shape templates. In our system, users capture food images using a mobile phone camera. Based on information (i.e., food name and code) determined through food segmentation and classification of the food images, our system choose a particular food template shape corresponding to each segmented food. Finally, our system reconstructs the three-dimensional properties of the food shape from a single image by extracting feature points in order to size the food shape template. By employing this template-based approach, our system automatically estimates food portion size, providing a consistent method for estimation food volume. PMID:22025936

  19. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements... record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch of... that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of...

  20. 21 CFR 111.23 - Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and keep? 111.23 Section 111.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 111.23 Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep records... the dietary supplement, meets the requirements of § 111.15(e)(2)....

  1. Dietary composition and weight loss: can we individualize dietary prescriptions according to insulin sensitivity or secretion status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compo...

  2. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers. PMID:16503233

  3. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  4. Dietary supplement drug therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Many dietary supplements are readily accessible and commonly used for the treatment of depression. A dietary supplement is a product intended to supplement the diet but is not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can take action against dietary supplement manufacturers for products only after they are marketed, mainly if the product is found to be unsafe or if false or misleading claims are made about the product. Few dietary supplement products have been adequately studied for their safety and efficacy. Of the five products reviewed in this article (L-methylfolate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], omega-3 fatty acids, L-tryptophan, and inositol), only omega-3 fatty acids and SAM-e have sufficient supporting evidence for their efficacy to warrant safe use. PMID:22589230

  5. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  6. ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR DIETARY SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division's (MCEARD) dietary exposure research program is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improvin...

  7. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... regulations and provides oversight of dietary supplement labeling, marketing, and safety. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION The Federal Trade ... 17, 2011 Share This Page: E-mail Twitter Facebook Google+ Pinterest Contact Us | Accessibility | Site Policies | Disclaimer | ...

  8. [Estimation of dietary fiber content of feedstuffs].

    PubMed

    Lipiec, A; Grela, E; Zürcher, U; Wenk, C

    1994-01-01

    In a series of 8 concentrates, 18 roughages and 13 wet feedstuffs the interactions between different dietary fibre fractions were studied. In comparison to other analytical methods the crude fibre method (XF) did not allow a satisfactory estimation of the dietary fibre content (DF) of the experimental feedstuffs. In comparison to the NDF and the dietary fibre content and depending on the feedstuff, XF content was lowered by 2 to 3 times and 2 to 4 times, respectively. There was a surprisingly high correspondence between the contents of NDF and unsoluble dietary fibre for almost all feedstuffs. Highly significant statistical coherences could be observed between the different fibre fractions. It can be expected, that these correlations do not always follow a linear relationship, as could be observed in the regressions equations for NDF to DF and XF to ADF. PMID:7668971

  9. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  10. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  11. Dietary Screener in the 2009 CHIS: Validation

    Cancer.gov

    In the Eating at America's Table Study and the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, Risk Factors Branch staff assessed the validity of created aggregate variables from the 2009 CHIS Dietary Screener.

  12. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  13. A mobile phone user interface for image-based dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-02-01

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  14. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  15. College Students' Dietary Practices Affect Lutein/Zeaxanthin Intake: A Two-Generation, Ethnic and Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaseri, Uyi E.; Kwok, Shiu Y.; Kwok, Wendy; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are important anti-oxidant nutrients obtained only from foods that are essential for good eye health. The purpose of this study was to assess food choices rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and compare the amount of lutein/zeaxanthin intake amongst college students and their live-in parents. Three-day dietary records from 95…

  16. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  17. Dietary surveillance for states and communities.

    PubMed

    Byers, T; Serdula, M; Kuester, S; Mendlein, J; Ballew, C; McPherson, R S

    1997-04-01

    Information about dietary behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge is important for state and local health agencies because national monitoring lacks the local representativeness and timeliness necessary to catalyze community interest and to design, target, and evaluate dietary intervention programs. Currently, however, both methods and resources are limited for surveying diet in the population of a state or community. Brief assessments are included in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System for adolescents, which is conducted by state departments of education, and in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for adults, which is operated by state departments of health. More quantitatively precise measurements are being made by a few states and communities but personnel and financial resources for such surveys are limited. Nutritionists in state and local health agencies should explore the possibility of developing public-private partnerships with food producers, retailers, and marketers to collect information about dietary determinants and behaviors in states and communities. Better standardization of dietary assessment methods is needed, as is development of better methods to identify attitudes about diet and barriers to dietary improvement. Most important, though, dietary surveillance in states and communities must be more strongly tied to intervention programs intended to improve nutrition in those populations. PMID:9094925

  18. Influences on food choice and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Richard

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of possible reasons for the lack of effectiveness of attempts at changing dietary behaviors. While lack of information and knowledge about foods and nutrient contents might play a part, motivation to change is likely to be much more important. Food choice, like any complex human behavior, is influenced by many interrelating factors, including various physiological, social and cultural factors, and these need to be taken into account when considering dietary interventions. In many cases people lack motivation to change. This can be related to optimistic bias, where people underestimate the risk to themselves relative to others from a variety of hazards. People feel less at risk personally for many dietary risks and this is related both to the control they feel they have over dietary behaviors and also to their considering themselves to have better diets than the average. The 'stages of change' model is a possible means for trying to address these motivational issues. While this model has been applied to various forms of behavior such as smoking, there are a number of problems transferring such a model from smoking to dietary behaviors, including the lack of clear cut specific behaviors and behavior change targets in the dietary field. PMID:15702586

  19. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  20. Using both Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression to Study Dietary Patterns and Diabetes in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting glucose. Design We measured diet over a 3-day period with 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Setting Adults (n = 4,316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile to the lowest, was 1.26 (0.76, 2.08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry, and fish), and 2.37 (1.56, 3.60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviorally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat (high intake of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat, and soy milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern (low intake of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Conclusions Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes. PMID:26784586

  1. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  2. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  3. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  4. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species. PMID:25009067

  5. Measurement of novel dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; Rossiter, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described. PMID:15287670

  6. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term ‘omnivore’ should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species. PMID:25009067

  7. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  8. Subminiature micropower digital recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. M.; Pitman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    High-density digital data, collected periodically or randomly from multiplicity of sensors, are recorded by subminiature recorder. Magnetic recording head is energized with suitable pulsatile signals to reverse polarization on magnetically-sensitive tape while tape is immobilized at recording head. Prior to next recording, set tape so new area of tape is at recording head.

  9. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  10. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents' employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  11. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  12. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  13. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  14. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  15. Dietary Adherence and Mealtime Behaviors in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes on Intensive Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Chen, Ming; Powers, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important component of diabetes treatment and integral to successful management. While intensive insulin therapy can allow patients to eat more freely, it is not known how the rapid uptake of intensive therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes has impacted their diet and if diet and healthful eating in young children correlates with mealtime behaviors and glycemic control. This study examined diet, mealtime behaviors, and glucose control in a sample of 39 young children on intensive therapy. This was a one-sample, cross-sectional study. Children had a mean age of 5.1±1.1 years. Children’s 3-day diet diaries were assessed using a deviation scale (measure of adherence) and a healthy eating index. Mealtime behaviors were assessed using the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale. Children’s glucose control was measured using continuous glucose monitoring. Children’s mean carbohydrate intake was 72%±24% of the recommended levels based on their age, sex, size, and activity level, and children exceeded national guidelines for percentage of calories from fat and saturated fat. A more healthful diet correlated with fewer child mealtime behavior problems, but better dietary adherence correlated with more parent mealtime behavior problems. Even in the context of intensive management, diet can be problematic for young children with type 1 diabetes. Parent-reported problems with mealtime behaviors seem to correlate with healthy eating and dietary adherence. PMID:23351629

  16. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (D...

  17. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (DQS...

  18. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  19. DIETARY AND NON-DIETARY DETERMINANTS OF VITAMIN K BIOCHEMICAL MEASURES IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few epidemiological studies that rely on the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment have measured biomarkers of vitamin K intake to independently confirm associations between self-reported dietary vitamin K intake and disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to exami...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States ...

  1. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  2. Orthostatic responses to dietary sodium restriction during heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szlyk, Patricia C.; Sils, Ingrid V.; Caretti, David M.; Moore, Robert J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tartarini, Kim A.; Francesconi, Ralph P.; Askew, Eldon W.; Hubbard, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals consuming low-salt diets and working in the heat have an increased risk or incidence of heat injury, suggestive of inadequate cardiovascular adjustment. Furthermore, others have shown that prolonged work in hot climates can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and syncope. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate-salt (MS) and low-salt (LS) diets on the circulatory responses and incidence of presyncopal symptoms to an orthostatic test (OT) during successive days of heat acclimation (HA). Seventeen unacclimatized male soldiers (mean +/- SE: age 20+/-1 yrs) participated in this two-phase study. The first phase consisted of a seven day dietary stabilization period during which all subjects consumed similar diets of about 4000 kcal/day containing 8g NaCl and lived in a dormitory setting (21 C, 30% RH). The second phase commenced on day eight and consisted of dietary NaCl restriction and 10 days HA (days 8-17). Volunteers were randomly assigned to either the MS diet (n=9) providing 8g NaCl/day or the LS diet (n=8) furnishing just 4g NaCl/day. The acquisition of HA was manifested in both groups by reductions in exercising rectal temperature and heart rate (HR); these characteristics were similar in the MS and LS diets. The OT was performed at 21 C on day seven of the stabilization phase and on days 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 of the HA phase, before and after 8.5 hr of intermittent treadmill walking in a hot environment. Blood pressure (BP) and HR responses at 1,2, and 4 min and any presyncopal symptoms were recorded after assuming an upright position from recumbency. All subjects completed the OT before and after prolonged exercise in the heat without incidence of either hypotension or presyncopal symptoms irrespective of dietary-salt intake and day of HA. The results indicate that the prolonged work in the heat can be performed without orthostatic hypotension or syncope while consuming 4g NaCl/day with adequate

  3. Dietary therapy in gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C R; Cerda, J J

    1989-02-01

    Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases or disorders. Failure to eat, digest, or assimilate nutrients can provoke malnutrition in just a few weeks, although careful assessment of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional history by a trained professional can protect against this. Diet therapy through the elimination of offending foods such as wheat gluten or lactose, or inclusion of specialized products such as medium chain triglycerides or elemental formulas, can sustain nutritional status. Dietary components such as insoluble fiber appear to have physiologic effects, while soluble fibers may have metabolic effects important to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is a high potential for malnutrition in Crohn's disease during active and remittent phases. Elemental enteral formulas or TPN are used during the active phase to ensure optimal nutritional status and bowel rest. Hyperalimentation using the GI tract during remittent stage maintains this. Avoiding offending foods by Crohn's patients is an acceptable practice as long as entire categories of foods are not deleted. Avoiding all foods containing gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oats, however, is a crucial prerequisite to recovery from celiac disease. Gluten is commonly used as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and extender in the food industry and is not always shown on food labels. Careful consultation with a registered dietitian can identify hidden sources of gluten in the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2647390

  4. Are adolescents' perceptions of dietary practices associated with their dietary behaviors?

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E; Ranjit, Nalini; Mirchandani, Gita; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2011-11-01

    Despite interventions designed to change behavior, many adolescents continue to consume unhealthy foods. Dietary patterns are important for disease prevention, making it necessary to understand the reasons for these poor choices. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between perception of dietary practices and dietary behaviors among adolescents. Participants (n=15,283; mean age=15 years; 50.7% female) completed the 2004-2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition survey. Perception of dietary practices included fat content of foods usually eaten and healthiness of usual eating habits. Dietary behavior was measured by self-report of foods eaten the day before survey administration. Composite scores of unhealthy and healthy eating were created. Regression analyses examined whether perception of dietary practices was consistent with actual dietary behavior, controlling for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity, and accounting for the complex sampling design. Higher perceived fat content was associated with increased consumption of unhealthy foods, while higher perceived healthiness of eating was associated with increased consumption of healthy foods. For perceived fat content, the difference in the Healthy Eating Index between extreme categories was 26% (P<0.001), while the difference in the Unhealthy Eating Index between extreme categories was 81% (P<0.001). For perceived healthiness, the difference in the Healthy Eating Index between extreme categories was 23% (P<0.001), while the difference for the Unhealthy Eating Index was 44% (P<0.001). Self-perceptions of dietary practices were significantly associated with dietary behaviors, indicating awareness about the relative nutrient content of foods consumed. Interventions that move beyond dietary knowledge and create changes in the social and physical environment are needed. PMID:22027057

  5. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    PubMed

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24298009

  6. Longitudinal Analysis of Dietary Patterns in Chinese Adults from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mendez, Michelle A.; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and the tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence of these patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We used seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9,253 adults with ≥3 waves complete. Diet was measured over a 3-day period with 24-hr recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified, remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern pattern was characterized by high intake of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour, corn/coarse grains; and the modern high-wheat pattern was characterized by high intake of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy roots/tubers products, fruits, eggs/eggs products, soy milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity level were positively associated with both dietary patterns, but the association became smaller in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China; the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods is cause of concern. PMID:24331247

  7. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council’s framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic “nudge” theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16 months will be recorded. A process

  8. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging. PMID:25355192

  9. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate. PMID:25976309

  10. A 3-day regimen with azithromycin 1.5% eyedrops for the treatment of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis in children: efficacy on clinical signs and impact on the burden of illness

    PubMed Central

    Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Messaoud, Riadh; Lazreg, Sihem; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Renault, Didier; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of azithromycin 1.5% versus tobramycin 0.3% eyedrops on clinical ocular signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis in children and to assess the parents’ satisfaction regarding the dosing regimen. Patients and methods An international, multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted in children (1 day to 18 years old) with bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and purulent discharge. Azithromycin 1.5% was administered as 1 drop twice daily for 3 days, and tobramycin 0.3% as 1 drop every 2 hours for 2 days, then 4 times daily for 5 days. Results A total of 286 patients (mean age: 3.2 years) were enrolled. In children with bacteriologically positive cultures (N=203), azithromycin produced a significantly greater improvement in conjunctival discharge (P<0.01) and a trend (P=0.054) toward improvement in conjunctival hyperemia at day 7 than did tobramycin. Complete resolution of conjunctival discharge was significantly more frequent at day 3 on azithromycin than tobramycin (P=0.005). More parents found azithromycin easier to use (in terms of treatment duration, total number of instillations, instilling drops during the day, and difficulty in performing daily activities) than tobramycin. Conclusion The azithromycin 1.5% regimen produced a rapid resolution of cardinal signs of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis with a more convenient dosage regimen. Such improved convenience is likely to improve compliance and lessen the burden of illness for patients and carers. PMID:25945033

  11. The effects of serum, lithium, ethacrynic acid, and a low external concentration of potassium on specific [3H]-ouabain binding to human lymphocytes after incubation for 3 days.

    PubMed Central

    Rapeport, W G; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G; Harper, C

    1986-01-01

    We have quantified specific [3H]-ouabain binding sites in normal human lymphocytes, and have measured the changes in the numbers of those sites which occur in response to various stimuli. We have confirmed previous findings that incubation for 72 h in the presence of fetal calf serum causes an increase in [3H]-ouabain binding, and that this does not occur if the cells are incubated in fetal calf serum which has first been dialysed. During incubation of the lymphocytes for 3 days in the presence of dialysed fetal calf serum each of the following stimuli caused an increase in specific [3H]-ouabain binding: addition of ethacrynic acid (1 mumol l-1), addition of lithium (1 mmol l-1), and reduction of the external potassium concentration (to 0.75 mmol l-1). By analogy with the similar results in HeLa cells reported by others, we suggest that the increase in [3H]-ouabain binding may, in the case of ethacrynic acid and the reduction of the external potassium concentration, be initiated by an increase in the intracellular sodium concentration. The mechanisms whereby fetal calf serum and lithium cause an increase in [3H]-ouabain binding are not clear. PMID:3768239

  12. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  13. The influence of dietary patterns on the development of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Markaki, I; Linos, D; Linos, A

    2003-09-01

    To elucidate the role of diet in the development of thyroid cancer, we conducted a case-control study of 113 persons with histologically-verified thyroid cancer and 138 controls, matched by age, gender and health unit. Socio-economic data, known risk factors and food consumption of more than 100 items were recorded by interviewer-administered prestructured questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify possible dietary patterns and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effect of food items or dietary patterns on thyroid cancer. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and total energy intake, significant positive associations were observed for pork consumption, while negative ones were observed for tomatoes, lemons and pasta. Dietary patterns of fruits, raw vegetables and mixed raw vegetables and fruits, led to a reduced risk (corresponding odds ratios (ORs) 0.68, 0.71, 0.73) for all thyroid cancers and similar figures were obtained for papillary thyroid cancers. A dietary pattern of fish and cooked vegetables led to an increased risk (OR 2.79) of follicular cancer. PMID:12932671

  14. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  15. The Use of Mobile Devices in Aiding Dietary Assessment and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Woo, Insoo; Kim, SungYe; Boushey, Carol J.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing concern about chronic diseases and other health problems related to diet including obesity and cancer. The need to accurately measure diet (what foods a person consumes) becomes imperative. Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of chronic diseases. Measuring accurate dietary intake is considered to be an open research problem in the nutrition and health fields. In this paper, we describe a novel mobile telephone food record that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food that is consumed at a meal. Images obtained before and after foods are eaten are used to estimate the amount and type of food consumed. The mobile device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on respondents that are obtained using more classical approaches for dietary assessment. We describe our approach to image analysis that includes the segmentation of food items, features used to identify foods, a method for automatic portion estimation, and our overall system architecture for collecting the food intake information. PMID:20862266

  16. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P < 0.03). Gain:feed (G:F) was greater for pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P < 0.03) and for the duration of the nursery phase (P < 0.03). There were no effects of CLA on ADG, ADFI, or G:F. There were no residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P < 0.06). Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P

  17. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-20

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26923351

  18. Dietary RNAs: New Stories Regarding Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Farmer, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional functions of plant miRNAs. Subsequently, multiple efforts have attempted to replicate these findings, with the results arguing against the uptake of plant dietary miRNAs in healthy consumers. Moreover, several reports suggest the potential for “false positive” detection of plant miRNAs in human tissues. Meanwhile, some research continues to suggest both the presence and function of dietary miRNAs in mammalian tissues. Here we review the recent literature and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of emerging work that suggests the feasibility of dietary delivery of miRNAs. We also discuss future experimental approaches to address this controversial topic. PMID:25942490

  19. [Dietary advice in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Rigalleau, Vincent; Gonzalez, Concepcion; Raffaitin, Christelle; Gin, Henri

    2010-04-20

    The dietary advice is a part of the global care for type 2 diabetes. First, overweight implies a caloric restriction. When poor glucose control is associated with weight gain, important errors are obvious (excess fat and sugar), providing more pills or insulin without correcting them is poorly effective, but promotes further weight gain. Normal body weight, or poor glucose control despite loss of weight, needs to reappraise the diagnosis: diabetes type, intercurrent disease. The cofactors of the "metabolic syndrom" are usually present, so saturated fat has to be reduced, while maintaining fish, fruits, vegetables and whole grain cereals. Blood pressure and dyslipidemia may need further counselling about dietary sodium, carbohydrates, cholesterol. When insulin, sulfonylurea or glinids are indicated, the dietary intake of carbohydrates has to be regular to avoid hypoglycemia. PMID:20465121

  20. Dietary intake data collection: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review the origin of US dietary surveys, the challenges and limitations of obtaining dietary intake data, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990, the integrated US federal food survey, and the development of the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) automated multiple-pass method. The USDA has monitored the food consumption patterns of Americans since the late 1890 s. In 2002, the US Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA integrated their data collection efforts, with data now collected on a continuous basis. Two 24-hour dietary recalls are obtained using USDA's automated multiple-pass method. By combining their respective areas of expertise, the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services have increased research opportunities for scientists and provided data foundational for establishing programs and public policy. PMID:23121343

  1. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  2. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  3. Underutilized sources of dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Latner, T A

    2000-01-01

    Interest in the fiber content of foods has decreased in recent years as concerns about fat intake have increased. Fiber, however, remains an important component of the diet. Soluble dietary fiber, including pectic substances and hydrocolloids, is found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and oat bran. Insoluble fiber, including cellulose and hemicellulose, is found in foods such as whole grains. Fiber supplementation has been used to enhance the fiber content of a variety of foods ranging from cereal-based products to meats, imitation cheeses and sauces. Products used to enhance fiber content of foods have traditionally come from cereals such as wheat, corn and oats. There are a variety of other products, however, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and less commonly used cereals such as barley, which are potential sources of dietary fiber supplements. This article reviews research on some of these underutilized sources of dietary fiber. PMID:11086873

  4. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided. PMID:24791915

  5. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296

  6. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  7. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  8. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes. PMID:25940747

  9. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159836.html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sufficient dietary levels of the mineral nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good ...

  10. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  11. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  12. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children Share: Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  13. Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model – Food Commodity Intake Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEEM is a dietary exposure analysis system for performing chronic and acute exposure assessments. DEEM employs Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) techniques in order to provide probabilistic assessments of dietary pesticide exposures when residue data for targeted foods are available as ...

  14. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  15. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  16. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  17. Medical records and record-keeping standards.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Iain; Ram, Mala Bridgelal; Croft, Giles P; Williams, John G

    2007-08-01

    The structure of medical records becomes ever more critical with the advent of electronic records. The Health Informatics Unit (HIU) of the Royal College of Physicians has two work streams in this area. The Records Standards programme is developing generic standards for all entries into medical notes and standards for the content of admission, handover and discharge records. The Information Laboratory (iLab) focuses on hospital episode statistics and their use for monitoring clinician performance. Clinician endorsement of the work is achieved through extensive consultations. Generic medical record-keeping standards are now available. PMID:17882846

  18. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  19. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18-25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  20. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  1. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended. PMID:12810409

  2. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  3. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  4. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  5. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  6. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  7. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  8. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  9. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  10. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  11. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  12. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined. PMID:26506017

  13. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  14. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  15. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  16. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  17. Viewpoints: feeding mechanics, diet, and dietary adaptations in early hominins.

    PubMed

    Daegling, David J; Judex, Stefan; Ozcivici, Engin; Ravosa, Matthew J; Taylor, Andrea B; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; Ungar, Peter S

    2013-07-01

    Inference of feeding adaptation in extinct species is challenging, and reconstructions of the paleobiology of our ancestors have utilized an array of analytical approaches. Comparative anatomy and finite element analysis assist in bracketing the range of capabilities in taxa, while microwear and isotopic analyses give glimpses of individual behavior in the past. These myriad approaches have limitations, but each contributes incrementally toward the recognition of adaptation in the hominin fossil record. Microwear and stable isotope analysis together suggest that australopiths are not united by a single, increasingly specialized dietary adaptation. Their traditional (i.e., morphological) characterization as "nutcrackers" may only apply to a single taxon, Paranthropus robustus. These inferences can be rejected if interpretation of microwear and isotopic data can be shown to be misguided or altogether erroneous. Alternatively, if these sources of inference are valid, it merely indicates that there are phylogenetic and developmental constraints on morphology. Inherently, finite element analysis is limited in its ability to identify adaptation in paleobiological contexts. Its application to the hominin fossil record to date demonstrates only that under similar loading conditions, the form of the stress field in the australopith facial skeleton differs from that in living primates. This observation, by itself, does not reveal feeding adaptation. Ontogenetic studies indicate that functional and evolutionary adaptation need not be conceptually isolated phenomena. Such a perspective helps to inject consideration of mechanobiological principles of bone formation into paleontological inferences. Finite element analysis must employ such principles to become an effective research tool in this context. PMID:23794331

  18. CHALLENGES IN MEASURING INSOLUBLE DIETARY FIBER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this review are to define the criteria needed to evaluate insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) methods, discuss their relevance in meeting nutritional needs, describe problems with empirical IDF methods, and assess their relative merits. The challenge for the researcher, nutritionist, and...

  19. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional services. The program management provides and/or contracts with a food service entity and provides and/or contracts sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the food service. (1)...

  20. Dietary attitudes and diseases of comfort.

    PubMed

    Allegri, C; Turconi, G; Cena, H

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews Western dietary attitudes and lifestyle choices by identifying the environmental, social and personal factors that determine said attitudes and choices. Environmental factors exert a major influence on, and complicate, dietary behavior, primarily by facilitating the consumption of meals away from home and by minimizing time dedicated to meal preparation and consumption. Social factors, from mass media to advertising and cultural traditions, also influence food intake, to an extent that is still underestimated. Ignorance of the real influence of environment and society on food choices could well blind consumers to the real significance of such choices. Accordingly, this review discusses differing aspects of emerging dietary trends and/or philosophies, and underlines their potentially harmful influence on health. Western countries are increasingly witnessing a dichotomy between the findings of nutritional science and the choices that dietary trends propose and impose. Coinciding with the obesity epidemic and the spread of other food-related diseases, this dichotomy calls for the development of effective preventive strategies. PMID:22526128

  1. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-06-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY SOY PHYTOESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to conduct a series of experiments to determine whether developmental exposure to dietary phytochemicals that have estrogenic activity will affect central nervous system and reproductive system functions later in life. The basic design is, in additio...

  3. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  4. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  5. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long...

  6. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long...

  7. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... following problems: (i) Refuses the food served. (ii) Cannot tolerate the food served. (iii) Does not...

  8. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long...

  9. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long...

  10. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements §...

  11. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dietary services. 483.35 Section 483.35 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long...

  12. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... following problems: (i) Refuses the food served. (ii) Cannot tolerate the food served. (iii) Does not...

  13. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... following problems: (i) Refuses the food served. (ii) Cannot tolerate the food served. (iii) Does not...

  14. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... following problems: (i) Refuses the food served. (ii) Cannot tolerate the food served. (iii) Does not...

  15. MEASURING DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...

  16. Dietary Issues Inpatients Face With Being Vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Dunlop, Julie A.; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified. PMID:22157507

  17. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  18. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  19. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because of lack of details on the type, source and the quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed. There is evidence to suggest that consumption of processed meat may increase BC risk. Dietary carbohydrate intake does not appear to be directly associated with BC risk. Even though a large number of studies have investigated the association between fruit/vegetable consumption/micronutrients in those and BC risk, they have yielded inconsistent results. Gender-specific subgroup analysis, details of how fruits and vegetables are consumed (raw vs. cooked), adequate control for smoking status/aggressiveness of the cancer and consideration of genetic make-up may clarify these inconsistent results. There is no strong evidence to suggest that supplementation with any common micronutrient is effective in reducing BC risk. These limitations in published research however do not totally eclipse the observation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in processed meat along with especially smoking cessation may convey some protective effects against BC risk. PMID:27326403

  20. IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES OF DIETARY PLUM ON COCCIDIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with a lyophilized powder made from plums (P) on host protective immune responses against avian coccidiosis, the most economically important parasitic disease of poultry. One-day-old White Leghorn chickens were fed fr...

  1. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  2. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  3. The economic value of dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is possibly protective of heart disease, some cancers, and accrued adiposity, among other adult diseases. Since dietary intake levels track from childhood to the adult years, it is prudent to encourage children to eat more FV in order to establish healthy habits ...

  4. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  5. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  6. Effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum milling waste on growth response, nutrient utilisation, gut characteristics and cecal microflora of weaner rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oso, Oladele A; Sobayo, Richard; Jegede, Vincent; Fafiolu, Adeboye; Iyasere, Oluwaseun Serah; Dele, Peter; Bamgbose, Adeyemi; Cecilia, Adesida

    2011-06-01

    Growth response, nutrient digestibility and cecal microflora of 80 male, mixed breed weaner rabbits fed with varying dietary inclusions of sorghum milling waste (SMW) was investigated. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SMW was included at 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/kg, respectively. Each dietary treatment was performed on 20 rabbits. Feed intake increased (P < 0.05) while final live weight and feed conversion ratio of rabbits decreased (P < 0.05) following increased dietary inclusion of SMW. Rabbits fed with 100 and 200 g/kg SMW had similar feed conversion ratios, weight gain, crude fiber, dry matter and crude protein digestibility values. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and rack weight. Similar dressing percentage and rack weight were recorded for rabbits fed with control diet, 100 and 200 g/kg SMW. The weight of cecal content increased (P < 0.05) with increased dietary inclusion levels of SMW. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) coliform and lactobaccillus counts. Dietary inclusion of up to 200 g/kg SMW supported improved growth response and carcass yield without imposing any detrimental effect on cecal microflora. PMID:21615842

  7. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular disease mortality in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Threapleton, Diane E; Greenwood, Darren C; Burley, Victoria J; Aldwairji, Maryam; Cade, Janet E

    2013-04-01

    Dietary fibre has been associated with improvements in key risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior research has focussed more on CVD development in men and our aim was therefore to explore the association between dietary fibre intake and CVD mortality using data from the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). Dietary fibre intake from 31,036 women was calculated both as non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) and using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method from food-frequency questionnaires. Participants were free from history of CVD at baseline and mean age at recruitment was 51.8 years (standard deviation 9.2). Mortality records for participants were linked from national registry data and 258 fatal CVD cases [130 stroke, 128 coronary heart disease (CHD)] were observed over an average follow-up period of 14.3 years. Total dietary fibre (NSP/AOAC) and fibre from different food sources were not associated with fatal CHD, stroke or CVD risk in the full sample. For every 6 g/day increase in NSP, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.91 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.08) or for every 11 g/day increase in fibre assessed as AOAC, the HR was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.80-1.05). Sensitivity analyses suggest a possible protective association for cereal sources of fibre on fatal stroke risk in overweight women, HR 0.80 (95 % CI 0.65-0.93) p < 0.01. In the UKWCS, a sample of health-conscious women, greater dietary fibre intake may confer no additional cardiovascular benefit, in terms of mortality, but may contribute to lower fatal stroke risk in some subgroups such as overweight women. PMID:23543118

  8. Traditional v. modified dietary patterns and their influence on adolescents' nutritional profile.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoonju; Joung, Hyojee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Yoo, Sun Young; Paik, Hee Young

    2005-06-01

    Korea has experienced exceptionally rapid economic developments. Even though the country has managed to maintain aspects of its traditional diet, dietary habits are changing, especially among adolescents. This study was carried out to identify prevailing dietary patterns among Korean adolescents and to compare the nutrient intakes and dietary behaviours between the patterns. A 3 d diet record, collected from 671 Korean adolescents aged 12-14 years in Seoul, Korea, was assessed. By cluster analysis, subjects were classified into a modified (69.9 %) and a traditional (30.1 %) dietary pattern group. The modified group consumed more bread, noodles, cookies and pizza/hamburgers compared with the traditional group, which consumed mainly rice and kimchi (fermented cabbage). The modified group had significantly higher intakes of all nutrients. It had a higher total daily energy intake (7719 kJ), a higher daily energy intake from fat (29.8 %) and a higher cholesterol intake (326 mg/d), compared with the traditional group (6686 kJ, 24.8 % and 244 mg/d, respectively). The modified group was more likely to consume fast foods, fried foods and carbonated beverages even though they consumed more fresh fruits and milk, while the traditional group was more likely to have a rice-based diet and not to skip breakfast. These results suggest that monitoring dietary behaviours of adolescents, especially in a society experiencing a nutrition transition, is necessary in order to identify both negative and positive changes in respect of risk factors for nutrition-related chronic diseases as well as for undernutrition. PMID:16022765

  9. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  10. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Ghotbodin-Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20–60 years in the ICUs of the hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013. Data of two groups including 83 patients (cases) who had consumed regular hospital meals and dietary supplements and 97 patients (controls) who had received regular hospital meals were compared. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory values, and dietary intakes were extracted from medical records, and Maastricht index (MI) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21. T-test and paired-sample t-test were used to determine the difference between groups. Results: Taking supplements increased daily energy intake, carbohydrate, and protein in case group (n = 83) significantly (P < 0.05). MI changed to 3.1 ± 3.8 and 4.3 ± 4.2 in case (n = 83) and control (n = 97) groups, respectively. Although the MI fell in both groups, it showed a greater reduction in case group (from 6.3 ± 5.3 to 3.1 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU. PMID:27512556

  11. DIETARY PATTERNS RELATED TO CARIES IN A LOW-INCOME ADULT POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Brian A.; Kolker, Justine L.; Sandretto, Anita M.; Yuan, Ying; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and caries experience in a representative group of low-income African-American adults. Participants were residents of Detroit, Michigan, with household incomes below 250% of the federally-established poverty level (n = 1,021). Dietary histories were obtained by trained interviewers in face-to-face interviews with the adult participants, using the Block 98.2® food frequency questionnaire developed by Block Dietary Systems, Berkeley, CA. Caries was measured by the ICDAS criteria (International Caries Detection and Assessment System). There were 200 dietary records whose data were judged to be invalid; these participants were omitted from the dietary analyses to leave n = 821. Analyses were conducted using software from SAS and SUDAAN. Factor analysis identified patterns of liquid and solid food consumption, and the resulting factor scores were used as covariates in multivariable linear regression. Caries was extensive, with 82.3% of the 1,021 participants (n=839) having at least one cavitated lesion. Nearly three-quarters of the adult participants were overweight or obese. This population has severe caries, poor oral hygiene, and diets that are high in sugars and fats and low in fruits and vegetables. Apart from tapwater, the most frequently consumed food item by adults of all ages was soft drinks; 19% of all energy from sugar came from soft drinks alone. In both the bivariate analyses and in the regression model, frequency of soft drink consumption and the presence of gingival plaque deposits were significantly associated with caries. Interventions to promote oral health are unlikely to be successful without improvements in the social and physical environment. PMID:17063017

  12. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  13. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrate Quality and Quantity, and Mortality Risk of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. Objective To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992–2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75–0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64–0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07–1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18–2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12–2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m2; 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes. PMID:22927948

  14. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  15. Developing and implementing dietary guidelines in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    Single nutrients are no solution to the problem of malnutrition. It is essential that food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are developed and implemented to overcome the diet related diseases and promote health in the population. A multidisciplinary group was constituted to develop FBDGs in India. A manual with scientific details and an abridged version were prepared with 6 goals and 14 dietary guidelines covering all age groups to overcome the public health nutritional problems. The guidelines are based on dietary patterns and specific outcomes of health and disease. Dietary diversification has been suggested as the practical approach. Diets from locally available and culturally accepted foods in household measures have been suggested to ensure optimal health. For successful implementation of FBDGs, political/bureaucratic commitment are essential. It must become a tool in the developmental plans for food, nutrition, agriculture, rural, educational and biotechnology policies. Workshops and meetings were organized to sensitise the administrative set-up. The intersectoral nature of FBDG for implementation was highlighted. The department of women and child development, which is responsible for implementing the National Nutritional Policy, was recognized as nodal agency. Meetings were organised for secondary target audiences. The press was invited to participate in popularization of the FBDGs. Social marketing strategies were used to match the local dietary and cultural aspects. Interpersonal communication and professional societies were used for better dissemination. Industry and legislative bodies were requested to take active action in this regard. The FBDGs have to be implemented to achieve food and nutrition security and the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:18296304

  16. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks. PMID:12003281

  17. Predictors for Reporting of Dietary Assessment Methods in Food-based Randomized Controlled Trials over a Ten-year Period.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Zammit, Gail

    2016-09-01

    The importance of monitoring dietary intake within a randomized controlled trial becomes vital to justification of the study outcomes when the study is food-based. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine how dietary assessment methods used to monitor dietary intake are reported and whether assisted technologies are used in conducting such assessments. OVID and ScienceDirect databases 2000-2010 were searched for food-based, parallel, randomized controlled trials conducted with humans using the search terms "clinical trial," "diet$ intervention" AND "diet$ assessment," "diet$ method$," "intake," "diet history," "food record," "food frequency questionnaire," "FFQ," "food diary," "24-hour recall." A total of 1364 abstracts were reviewed and 243 studies identified. The size of the study and country of origin appear to be the two most common predictors of reporting both the dietary assessment method and details of the form of assessment. The journal in which the study is published has no impact. Information technology use may increase in the future allowing other methods and forms of dietary assessment to be used efficiently. PMID:26212597

  18. Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, Susan C.; Holtrop, Grietje; Fyfe, Claire; Lobley, Gerald E.; Pearson, Donald W. M.; Abraham, Prakash; Megson, Ian L.; MacRury, Sandra M.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed dietary record. Patients with T2DM consumed more daily portions of wholegrains (2.3 vs. 1.1, P = 0.003), more dietary fibre (32.1 vs. 20.9 g, P < 0.001) and had a lower diet GI (53.5 vs. 57.7, P = 0.009) than subjects without T2DM. Both groups had elevated fat and salt intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, relative to current UK recommendations. Conclusions: Patients with T2DM may already consume a lower GI diet than the general population but further efforts are needed to reduce dietary GI and achieve other nutrient targets. PMID:22254116

  19. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Aljumaah, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity. PMID:27175130

  20. Coronary heart disease: prevalence and dietary sugars in Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton-Smith, C; Woodward, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary intakes of different types of sugars (extrinsic, intrinsic, and lactose) and the dietary fat to sugar ratio on prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD). DESIGN--This was a baseline cross sectional survey of CHD risk factors. SETTING--Twenty two Scottish health districts were surveyed between 1984 and 1986. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were screened as part of the Scottish Heart Health Study, and a further 1267 men and women aged 25-39 and 60-64 years were screened as part of the Scottish MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Study. The response rates were 74% and 64% respectively. METHODS--Subjects completed a questionnaire which included sociodemographic, health, and food frequency information. Medical history, response to the Rose chest pain questionnaire, and results of a 12 lead ECG recording were used to categorize subjects into CHD diagnosed, previously CHD undiagnosed, or no CHD groups. The chi 2 statistic was used to determine whether the CHD groups differed in their sugar consumption, and multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for other potential coronary risk factors, was used to calculate odds ratios for prevalent CHD by intake fifths of dietary sugars. MAIN RESULTS--Men, but not women, differed in their sugar consumption by CHD group. The odds ratios showed a tendency for a U shaped relationship for extrinsic sugar intake with CHD prevalence, but no significant effect of the fat to sugar ratio (possible marker of obesity) on CHD was seen. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that neither extrinsic sugar, intrinsic sugar, nor the fat to sugar ratio are significant independent predictors of prevalent CHD in the Scottish population, when the other major risk factors such as cigarette smoking, blood cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant vitamins intake are accounted for. These new data for different sugar types

  1. The Kunming CalFit study: modeling dietary behavioral patterns using smartphone data.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Bestick, Aaron; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Han, Jay; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human behavioral interventions aimed at improving health can benefit from objective wearable sensor data and mathematical models. Smartphone-based sensing is particularly practical for monitoring behavioral patterns because smartphones are fairly common, are carried by individuals throughout their daily lives, offer a variety of sensing modalities, and can facilitate various forms of user feedback for intervention studies. We describe our findings from a smartphone-based study, in which an Android-based application we developed called CalFit was used to collect information related to young adults' dietary behaviors. In addition to monitoring dietary patterns, we were interested in understanding contextual factors related to when and where an individual eats, as well as how their dietary intake relates to physical activity (which creates energy demand) and psychosocial stress. 12 participants were asked to use CalFit to record videos of their meals over two 1-week periods, which were translated into nutrient intake by trained dietitians. During this same period, triaxial accelerometry was used to assess each subject's energy expenditure, and GPS was used to record time-location patterns. Ecological momentary assessment was also used to prompt subjects to respond to questions on their phone about their psychological state. The GPS data were processed through a web service we developed called Foodscoremap that is based on the Google Places API to characterize food environments that subjects were exposed to, which may explain and influence dietary patterns. Furthermore, we describe a modeling framework that incorporates all of these information to dynamically infer behavioral patterns that may be used for future intervention studies. PMID:25571578

  2. Effects of dietary changes and yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on rumen microbial fermentation of Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Blanch, M; Fandiño, J I; Castillejos, L; Yoon, I

    2009-09-01

    The effects of a dietary challenge to induce digestive upsets and supplementation with yeast culture on rumen microbial fermentation were studied using 12 Holstein heifers (277 +/- 28 kg of BW) fitted with a ruminal cannula, in a crossover design with 2 periods of 5 wk. In each period, after 3 wk of adaptation to a 100% forage diet, the dietary challenge consisted of increasing the amount of grain at a rate of 2.5 kg/d (as-fed basis) over a period of 4 d, until a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet was reached, and then it was maintained for 10 d. Between periods, animals were fed again the 100% forage diet without any treatment for 1 wk as a wash-out period. Treatments started the first day of each period, and they were a control diet (CL) or the same diet with addition of yeast culture (YC, Diamond V XPCLS). Digestive upsets were determined by visual observation of bloat or by a reduction in feed intake (as-fed basis) of 50% or more compared with intake on the previous day. Feed intake was determined daily at 24-h intervals during the adaptation period and daily at 2, 6, and 12 h postfeeding during the dietary challenge. Ruminal liquid samples were collected daily during the dietary challenge to determine ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding, and total and individual VFA, lactic acid, ammonia-N, and rumen fluid viscosity at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. The 16s rRNA gene copies of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii were determined by quantitative PCR. Foam height and strength of the rumen fluid were also determined the day after the digestive upset to evaluate potential foam production. A total of 20 cases (83.3%) of digestive upsets were recorded in both periods during the dietary challenge, all diagnosed due to a reduction in feed intake. Rumen fermentation profile at 0 h on the digestive upset day was characterized by low ruminal pH, which remained under 6.0 for 18 h, accompanied by elevated total VFA concentration and, in some cases, by elevated lactate

  3. Influence of chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on visceral organ mass of growing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R L; McLeod, K R; Elsassert, T H; Kahl, S; Rumsey, T S; Streeter, M N

    2000-12-01

    Thirty-two beef steers (285 +/- 3 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on visceral tissue mass, chemical composition, intestinal morphology, and proliferation rate indices. Steers were allotted randomly by weight to a factorial arrangement of dietary treatments consisting of either 10 or 13% CP diets top-dressed with a corn meal carrier (500 g/d) containing either 0 or 350 mg of chlortetracycline. After 84 d, steers were slaughtered and visceral organs removed and separated. Rinsed wet tissue mass was recorded; total RNA, total DNA, tissue DM, and tissue N content were determined; and tissue sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Thin tissue sections were evaluated to determine crypt depth and villus height as well as proliferation rate by immunohistochemical detection of the nuclear antigen Ki67. Rumen and abomasum weights and small intestinal length were greater (P < 0.04) in steers fed the 13% CP diet than in those fed the 10% CP diet on both an absolute weight basis and a percentage of empty BW. Chemical composition of the small intestinal and ruminal segments were largely unaffected by increased dietary protein. Increasing the dietary CP also increased the villus height in duodenal (P = 0.02) and the crypt depth of jejunal (P = 0.03) sections. Dietary administration of chlortetracycline decreased (P < 0.01) small intestinal weight both on absolute and empty BW bases. Nitrogen and RNA concentrations of the small intestinal segments were unaffected (P > 0.1) by dietary administration of subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline; however, because of increases (P < 0.05), or tendencies for an increase (P < 0.1), in the tissue content of DNA, the ratio of N to DNA was decreased (P < 0.05) or tended to be decreased (P < 0.1) in the small intestinal segments of the chlortetracycline-treated animals. The observed decrease in small intestinal epithelial mass does not appear to be due to alterations

  4. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  5. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults. PMID:19050230

  6. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care. PMID:15883557

  7. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    PubMed

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    What is clear from the research thus far is that dietary fat intake does influence insulin action. However, whether the effect is good, bad, or indifferent is strongly related to the fatty acid profile of that dietary fat. The evidence has taken many forms, including in vitro evidence of differences in insulin binding and glucose transport in cells grown with different types of fat in the incubation medium, in vivo results in animals fed different fats, relationships demonstrated between the membrane structural lipid fatty acid profile and insulin resistance in humans, and finally epidemiological evidence linking particularly high saturated fat intake with hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of diabetes. This contrasts with the lack of relationship, or even possible protective effect, of polyunsaturated fats. In particular, habitual increased n-3 polyunsaturated dietary fat intake (as fish fats) would appear to be protective against the development of glucose intolerance. It is reassuring that the patterns of dietary fatty acids that appear beneficial for insulin action and energy balance are also the patterns that would seem appropriate in the fight against thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms, though, still need to be defined. However, there are strong indicators that defining the ways in which changes in the fatty acid profile of membrane structural lipids are achieved, and in turn influence relevant transport events, plus understanding the processes that control accumulation and availability of storage lipid in muscle may be fruitful avenues for future research. One of the problems of moving the knowledge gained from research at the cellular level through to the individual and on to populations is the need for more accommodating research designs. In vitro studies may provide in-depth insights into intricate mechanisms, but they do not give the "big picture" for practical recommendations. On the other hand, correlational studies tend to be fairly

  8. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  9. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. Objective To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Methods Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. Results The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (P<.001) compared to TEE measured with the SWA, and there was no significant correlation between EI and TEE. Accuracy of EI relative to TEE increased with a weekend day in the record (P=.007) and lower BMI z-score (P=.001). TEE assessed with the mobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (P<.001), and the correlation between the methods was .75 (P<.001). Analysis of physical activity levels (PAL) from the mobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. Conclusions By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents’ EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app

  10. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  11. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  12. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  13. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen J; Fulford, Jonathan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Winyard, Paul G; Blackwell, Jamie R; DiMenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Benjamin, Nigel; Jones, Andrew M

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanistic bases for the reported reduction in the O(2) cost of exercise following short-term dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, seven men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml/day of either nitrate-rich beet root juice (BR, 5.1 mmol of NO(3)(-)/day) or placebo (PL, with negligible nitrate content) for 6 consecutive days, and completed a series of low-intensity and high-intensity "step" exercise tests on the last 3 days for the determination of the muscle metabolic (using (31)P-MRS) and pulmonary oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) responses to exercise. On days 4-6, BR resulted in a significant increase in plasma [nitrite] (mean +/- SE, PL 231 +/- 76 vs. BR 547 +/- 55 nM; P < 0.05). During low-intensity exercise, BR attenuated the reduction in muscle phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]; PL 8.1 +/- 1.2 vs. BR 5.2 +/- 0.8 mM; P < 0.05) and the increase in Vo(2) (PL 484 +/- 41 vs. BR 362 +/- 30 ml/min; P < 0.05). During high-intensity exercise, BR reduced the amplitudes of the [PCr] (PL 3.9 +/- 1.1 vs. BR 1.6 +/- 0.7 mM; P < 0.05) and Vo(2) (PL 209 +/- 30 vs. BR 100 +/- 26 ml/min; P < 0.05) slow components and improved time to exhaustion (PL 586 +/- 80 vs. BR 734 +/- 109 s; P < 0.01). The total ATP turnover rate was estimated to be less for both low-intensity (PL 296 +/- 58 vs. BR 192 +/- 38 microM/s; P < 0.05) and high-intensity (PL 607 +/- 65 vs. BR 436 +/- 43 microM/s; P < 0.05) exercise. Thus the reduced O(2) cost of exercise following dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation appears to be due to a reduced ATP cost of muscle force production. The reduced muscle metabolic perturbation with NO(3)(-) supplementation allowed high-intensity exercise to be tolerated for a greater period of time. PMID:20466802

  14. Evaluation of dietary assessment tools used to assess the diet of adults participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of dietary intake is essential for researchers and public health practitioners to make advancements in health. This is especially important in Native Americans who display disease prevalence rates that are dramatically higher than the general U.S. population. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate three dietary assessment tools: 1) dietary records, 2) a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 3) a shellfish assessment survey (SAS) among Native American adults from the Communities Advancing Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Design CoASTAL was comprised of randomly selected individuals from three tribal registries of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations. This cross-sectional study used data from the baseline of CoASTAL and was restricted to the non-pregnant adults (18+ yr) who completed the SAS (n=500), a FFQ (n=518), dietary records (n=444), weight measures (n=493), and height measures (n=496). Paired t-tests, Pearson correlation coefficients, and percent agreement were used to evaluate the dietary records and the FFQ with and without accounting for plausibility of reported energy intake (rEI). Sensitivity and specificity as well as Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the SAS and the FFQ compared to dietary records. Results Statistically significant correlations between the FFQ and dietary records for selected nutrients were not the same by gender. Accounting for plausibility of rEI for the dietary records and the FFQ improved the strength of the correlations for percent energy from protein, energy from carbohydrate, and calcium for both men and women. In addition, significant associations between rEI (dietary records and FFQ) and weight were more apparent when using only rEI considered plausible. The SAS was found to similarly assess shellfish consumption in comparison to the FFQ. Conclusion These results support the benefit of multiple measures of diet, including regional

  15. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  16. Dietary modulation of the inflammatory cascade.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Branch-Mays, Grishondra; Gonzalez, Octavio A; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation has traditionally consisted of adding vitamins and/or minerals to correct or prevent a nutritional deficiency. When supplementing the diet with other inflammatory mediators, such as essential fatty acids, there is an adjunctive benefit to the standard therapies used in the control of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis. This review focuses on the strategies utilized for therapeutic modulation of the inflammatory cascade through dietary supplementation with specific biomolecules. Examples of how these biomolecules affect local and systemic immune responses to chronic inflammation are examined. In particular, an overview of the literature identifying the potential to modify the host response to chronic periodontitis is provided. PMID:24320963

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  18. Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence1

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Glen D.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ω3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking. PMID:23674795

  19. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  20. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more

  1. Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Gibson Hall, Nicolette

    2012-08-01

    The WHO (2007) Technical Report on protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition states that the best estimate for a population average requirement is 105 mg nitrogen/kg body weight per day, or 0·66 g protein/kg body weight per day. In many developing countries protein intake falls significantly short of these values. Apart from protein quantity, protein quality including bioavailability and digestibility, from different food sources, are currently on the global agenda. The 1st International Symposium on Dietary Protein for Human Health held in Auckland, in March 2011, and the consecutive Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Consultation on Dietary Protein Quality, both highlighted the importance of assessing the quality of protein from different food sources through determination of amino acid content. Throughout the developed world, animal products and cereals are the two most important sources of protein; in developing countries this order is reversed. In low income countries only 3 % of total dietary energy, as an indicator of diet composition, is derived from meat and offal, 11 % from roots and tubers and 6 % from pulses, nuts and oilseeds. The remainder of the dietary energy is mainly derived from cereal-based staple food. Although the production of livestock has increased in developing countries, the consumption of protein in these countries with people consuming the most limited amounts of protein are continually decreasing. Undernutrition, including insufficient consumption of protein, remains a persistent problem in the developing world, and although many diets within these developing countries are deficient in the quantity of protein compared to recommendations, the quality of the protein also strongly comes into focus. PMID:23107550

  2. Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

  3. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T.; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30–64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Results Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Conclusions Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people’s decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices. PMID:26536243

  4. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement; and (D) Any material review and disposition... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 21 CFR 111.140 - Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.140 Under this subpart F, what records must you make and... responsibilities of the quality control operations, including written procedures for conducting a material...

  6. THE USE OF SCHOOL FOOD PRODUCTION RECORDS AS A SURROGATE MEASURE OF STUDENT INTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National School Lunch Program meals provide an important source of fruit, vegetables, and milk for students. In intervention studies, measuring individual dietary intake is expensive. This study investigated whether food production records could be used as a surrogate measure of student consumption....

  7. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product Complaints § 111.570... record of every product complaint that is related to good manufacturing practice, (i) The person...

  8. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product Complaints § 111.570... record of every product complaint that is related to good manufacturing practice, (i) The person...

  9. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product Complaints § 111.570... record of every product complaint that is related to good manufacturing practice, (i) The person...

  10. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  11. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  12. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  13. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  14. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  15. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  16. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Production and Process Control System § 111.95 Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? (a... under § 111.75(c)(1) ensure that the dietary supplement meets all product specifications;...

  17. 21 CFR 111.35 - Under this subpart D, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart D, what records must you make and keep? 111.35 Section 111.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Equipment and Utensils §...

  18. 21 CFR 111.14 - Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep? 111.14 Section 111.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Personnel § 111.14 Under...

  19. Validity of electronic assessment methods compared to RD analysis of diet records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of dietary intake by diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool. However, manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the RD effort spent in diet entry. In order to determine the ...

  20. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.180 Under this subpart G, what records must you make and...) The initials of the person performing the required operation; (C) The results of any tests...