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Sample records for 3-day dietary records

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  3. Disagreement of energy and macronutrient intakes estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day diet record in girls 4 to 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alissa M R; Lewis, Richard D

    2004-03-01

    The Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been validated for dietary assessment of usual intakes in adults, but not in children. To assess the agreement of the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records for measuring dietary intakes in young girls. Healthy 4- to 9-year-old girls (N=61; 6.5+/-1.6 years) were recruited from the Athens/Clarke county area in Georgia. Dietary intakes were measured using the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records, with nutrient analysis of the 3-day diet records conducted using the Food Processor computer program (ESHA; version 7.21, 1998, ESHA Research, Salem, OR). The Block98 FFQ was completed by a trained interviewer and parent, with input from the child, if able. Food models and portion size pictures were used to increase reporting accuracy. Paired sample t tests and simple regression were conducted to determine whether the two diet instruments reported similar values for energy and macronutrients. Block98 FFQ overestimated intakes from 3-day diet records for energy (2,180+/-692 vs 1,749+/-328 kcal), protein (68.3+/-25.9 vs 57.9+/-14.8 g/day), carbohydrate (298.7+/-97.0 vs 244.7+/-46.1 g/day) and fat (83.6+/-30.5 vs 62.3+/-14.7 g/day) (P<.05). Furthermore, the nutrients assessed using the two different methods were only moderately correlated (range: r=0.40 to 0.55). The Block98 FFQ agreed weakly to moderately with the 3-day diet records, and resulted in consistently higher intakes of all nutrients. These findings suggest that additional work is needed to develop a FFQ that reflects young children's energy and macronutrient intakes.

  4. Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire versus 3 day weighed diet records in middle-aged inhabitants in Chaoshan area, China.

    PubMed

    Ke, Li; Toshiro, Takezaki; Fengyan, Song; Ping, Yu; Xiaoling, Deng; Kazuo, Tajima

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire1 (SQFFQ) against 3 day weighted diet records (WDRs) for middle-aged inhabitants in the Chaoshan area, China. 100 middle-age healthy residents. Validity was examined via descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlations. Pearson's correlation coefficients (CCs) with energy-adjustment quantified by the SQFFQ and 3 day WDRs (minimum-median-maximum) ranged from 0.31(Vegetables)-0.35-0.53 (Cereals) for the selected foods, and 0.12 (retinol)-0.41-0.58 (phosphorous) for the selected nutrients. Favorably high agreement for intakes of foods/nutrients was achieved along with low disagreement. A moderate level of relative validity was observed; this food frequency questionnaire is reliable and valid for dietary assessment with middle-aged inhabitants in the Chaoshan area, China.

  5. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  6. Validation of Nutrient Intake Estimates Derived Using a Semi-Quantitative FFQ against 3 Day Diet Records in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Talegawkar, S A; Tanaka, T; Maras, J E; Ferrucci, L; Tucker, K L

    2015-12-01

    To examine the relative validity of a multicultural FFQ used to derive nutrient intake estimates in a community dwelling cohort of younger and older men and women compared with those derived from 3 day (3d) diet records during the same time-frame. Cross-sectional analyses. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) conducted in the Baltimore, MD and District of Columbia areas. A subset (n=468, aged 26 to 95 years (y), 47% female, 65% non-Hispanic white) from the BLSA, with complete data for nutrient estimates from a FFQ and 3d diet records. Pearson's correlation coefficients (energy adjusted and de-attenuated) for intakes of energy and 26 nutrients estimated from the FFQ and the mean of 3d diet records were calculated in a cross-sectional analysis. Rankings of individuals based on FFQ for various nutrient intakes were compared to corresponding rankings based on the average of the 3d diet records. Bland Altman plots were examined for a visual representation of agreement between both assessment methods. All analyses were stratified by sex and age (above and below 65 y). Median nutrient intake estimates tended to be higher from the FFQ compared to average 3d diet records. Energy adjusted and de-attenuated correlations between FFQ intake estimates and records ranged from 0.23 (sodium intake in men) to 0.81 (alcohol intake in women). The FFQ classified more than 70 percent of participants in either the same or adjacent quartile categories for all nutrients examined. Bland Altman plots demonstrated good agreement between the assessment methods for most nutrients. This FFQ provides reasonably valid estimates of dietary intakes of younger and older participants of the BLSA.

  7. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  8. Validation of a dietary questionnaire assessed with multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The authors evaluated the validity of a 152-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) by comparing it with two 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) or up to 4 automated self-administered 24-hour recalls (ASA24s) over a 1-year period in the women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), con...

  9. Validation of a dietary vitamin D questionnaire using multiple diet records and the block 98 health habits and history questionnaire in healthy postmenopausal women in northern California.

    PubMed

    Hacker-Thompson, Andrea; Schloetter, Monique; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in older women and can negatively impact bone status. A simple method by which clinicians and researchers can evaluate a patient's vitamin D dietary intake could help identify individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study was done to validate a short dietary vitamin D questionnaire. Postmenopausal women (n=122), with a mean age of 63.9 ± 7.8 years, completed a Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire (BVDQ), the Block Health History and Habits Questionnaire 1998 (BHHHQ98), a 3-day food record, and an evaluation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, and Bland-Altman analyses to compare the performance of the BVDQ to the BHHHQ98 and to the diet record. As assessed by the BVDQ, vitamin D intake averaged 178.7 ± 112.3 IU per day, correlating well with the Block HHHQ98 (r=0.51, P<0.001) and the 3-day food record (r=0.43, P<0.001). Compared with the food record, both the BVDQ and the BHHHQ98 overestimated dietary vitamin D intake by less than 100 IU/day. The two questionnaires performed nearly identically at all levels of vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to vitamin D intake as measured by either the BVDQ or the BHHHQ98, but did correlate weakly with vitamin D intake from the 3-day diet record (r=0.20, P=0.04). The Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire correlated well with the longer and more intense dietary assessment methods, making it a simple and accurate instrument for assessing vitamin D intake.

  10. Can Dental Microwear Textures Record Inter-Individual Dietary Variations?

    PubMed Central

    Merceron, Gildas; Escarguel, Gilles; Angibault, Jean-Marc; Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. Methodology/Principal Findings For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a well-known population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. Conclusions/Significance Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further exploration of the feeding

  11. New technology in dietary assessment: a review of digital methods in improving food record accuracy.

    PubMed

    Stumbo, Phyllis J

    2013-02-01

    Methods for conducting dietary assessment in the United States date back to the early twentieth century. Methods of assessment encompassed dietary records, written and spoken dietary recalls, FFQ using pencil and paper and more recently computer and internet applications. Emerging innovations involve camera and mobile telephone technology to capture food and meal images. This paper describes six projects sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health that use digital methods to improve food records and two mobile phone applications using crowdsourcing. The techniques under development show promise for improving accuracy of food records.

  12. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  13. Comparability of weighed dietary records and a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2008-09-15

    An increasing number of studies have estimated monetary diet cost using various dietary assessment methods, based on databases on retail food prices, for investigating its association with dietary intake and health outcomes. However, information regarding the comparability of monetary diet cost across dietary assessment methods is absolutely lacking. This study compared monetary cost of dietary energy estimated from weighed dietary records (DRs) with that estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The subjects were 92 Japanese women aged 31-69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32-76 years. The DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4-day DRs (one weekend day and three weekdays) were completed in each season over a 1-year period (DHQs1-4 and DRs1-4, respectively). An additional DHQ was completed at one year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was calculated using food intake information derived from each dietary assessment method, based on retail food prices. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and mean of DHQs1-4 was 0.64 for women and 0.69 for men. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and DHQ1 was 0.60 for women and 0.52 for men, while intraclass correlation between DHQ1 and DHQ5 was 0.64 for women and 0.51 for men. These data indicate reasonable comparability of monetary cost of dietary energy across DR and a DHQ as well as usefulness of a single administration of the DHQ for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy.

  14. A Mobile Food Record For Integrated Dietary Assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ziad; Kerr, Deborah A.; Bosch, Marc; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Khanna, Nitin; Zhu, Fengqing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated dietary assessment system based on food image analysis that uses mobile devices or smartphones. We describe two components of our integrated system: a mobile application and an image-based food nutrient database that is connected to the mobile application. An easy-to-use mobile application user interface is described that was designed based on user preferences as well as the requirements of the image analysis methods. The user interface is validated by user feedback collected from several studies. Food nutrient and image databases are also described which facilitates image-based dietary assessment and enable dietitians and other healthcare professionals to monitor patients dietary intake in real-time. The system has been tested and validated in several user studies involving more than 500 users who took more than 60,000 food images under controlled and community-dwelling conditions. PMID:28691119

  15. BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet with a Mobile Food Record among Adults Participating in Dietary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Pollard, Christina M.; Norman, Richard; Wright, Janine L.; Harray, Amelia J.; Shoneye, Charlene L.; Solah, Vicky A.; Hunt, Wendy J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4-day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow-up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake. PMID:28272343

  16. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  17. How willing are adolescents to record their dietary intake? The mobile food record.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Carol Jo; Harray, Amelia J; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Paterson, Stacey; Aflague, Tanisha; Bosch Ruiz, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Delp, Edward J

    2015-05-29

    Accurately assessing the diets of children and adolescents can be problematic. Use of technologies, such as mobile apps designed to capture food and beverages consumed at eating occasions with images taken using device-embedded cameras, may address many of the barriers to gathering accurate dietary intake data from adolescents. The objectives of this study were to assess the willingness of adolescents to take images of food and beverages at their eating occasions using a novel mobile food record (mFR) and to evaluate the usability of the user confirmation component of the mFR app, referred to as the "review process." Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative protocols were used in this study. Adolescents (11-15-year olds) attending a summer camp were recruited to participate in the study. First, the participants were asked to take images of foods and beverages consumed as meals and snacks for 2 consecutive days using the mFR app running on an iPhone and the number of images taken was noted. This was followed by focus group sessions to evaluate usability, which was analyzed by content and themes. After using the mFR, a think-aloud method was used to evaluate the usability of the mFR method for reviewing system-identified foods (ie, the review process). A usability questionnaire was administered at the end of all activities. The mFR was accepted by the majority of the 24 boys and 17 girls (n=41) but varied according to gender and eating occasion. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to capture images of their eating occasions (Fisher exact test, P=.03). Participants were more likely to take images of their breakfasts (90%, 36/40) and lunches (90%, 72/80) and least likely to capture afternoon and evening snacks, 54% (43/80) and 40% (32/80), respectively. The major themes from the focus groups with regard to using the mFR were games, rewards, and the need to know more about why they were using the app. Results of the usability questionnaire

  18. How Willing Are Adolescents to Record Their Dietary Intake? The Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Paterson, Stacey; Aflague, Tanisha; Bosch Ruiz, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Delp, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing the diets of children and adolescents can be problematic. Use of technologies, such as mobile apps designed to capture food and beverages consumed at eating occasions with images taken using device-embedded cameras, may address many of the barriers to gathering accurate dietary intake data from adolescents. Objective The objectives of this study were to assess the willingness of adolescents to take images of food and beverages at their eating occasions using a novel mobile food record (mFR) and to evaluate the usability of the user confirmation component of the mFR app, referred to as the “review process.” Methods Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative protocols were used in this study. Adolescents (11-15-year olds) attending a summer camp were recruited to participate in the study. First, the participants were asked to take images of foods and beverages consumed as meals and snacks for 2 consecutive days using the mFR app running on an iPhone and the number of images taken was noted. This was followed by focus group sessions to evaluate usability, which was analyzed by content and themes. After using the mFR, a think-aloud method was used to evaluate the usability of the mFR method for reviewing system-identified foods (ie, the review process). A usability questionnaire was administered at the end of all activities. Results The mFR was accepted by the majority of the 24 boys and 17 girls (n=41) but varied according to gender and eating occasion. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to capture images of their eating occasions (Fisher exact test, P=.03). Participants were more likely to take images of their breakfasts (90%, 36/40) and lunches (90%, 72/80) and least likely to capture afternoon and evening snacks, 54% (43/80) and 40% (32/80), respectively. The major themes from the focus groups with regard to using the mFR were games, rewards, and the need to know more about why they were using the app

  19. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; Ocké, Marga C; Casagrande, Corinne; Nicolas, Geneviève; Crispim, Sandra P; Niekerk, Maryse; van der Laan, Jan; de Boer, Evelien; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; de Maeyer, Mieke; Ruprich, Jiri; Dofkova, Marcela; Huybrechts, Inge; Trolle, Ellen; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) <1 year; (ii) 1-3 years; (iii) >3-10 years. Overall, 70% of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC-Soft DataEntry as easy. With both dietary assessment methods, an equally high proportion of specific food names (e.g., "yoghurt, strawberry") were reported, where only between 5 and 15% of foods were non-specified (e.g., "yoghurt, n.s."). The two 1-day food diaries yielded a higher proportion of foods with detailed description. For example, in the age category of 1-3 year olds in Belgium, for 7 out of 16 systematic questions on food description (e.g., "preservation method,") specific answers were significantly higher (all P < 0.03). The proportion of missing quantities of consumed foods was comparable between the two methods. The EPIC-Soft DataEntry application was positively evaluated by the majority of the interviewers. Two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview provide a more detailed description of consumed foods as compared with a 3-day food diary.

  20. Tele-dietetics with food images as dietary intake record in nutrition assessment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Lousia Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2010-01-01

    Tele-dietetic is not common in current practice. To promote this, food images as dietary intake records should be validated before application. Two-dimensional (2D) digital images are reliable and have been validated in previous studies. However, the depth is virtual with a 2D image. And ingredient types, sauce types, cooking methods, and amount of oil added have not been researched for accurate food analysis. This study was designed to compare the reliability and accuracy of these parameters estimated using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) food images. Ten nutritionists evaluated 10 selected food items between January 2008 and June 2008. Ten 2D food images and ten 3D images of the same food items were captured for the observers' evaluation. The actual weightings or volume of the food items were measured as the gold standard for comparisons. Intraclass correlations (ICCs), percentage agreement, and one-sample t-tests were analyzed to compare the reliability and accuracy of each type of images. Both images showed high reliability among observers with 3D images giving less variance (2D: ICC=0.916, F=17.001, p<0.001; 3D: ICC=0.846, F=6.501, p<0.001). Both images resulted in good ingredient and cooking method identification, but 3D was better in identifying sauce type. 2D images provided better volume and oil estimation when compared with 3D images. The research findings confirmed the application of 2D and 3D food images as reliable and accurate dietary records for nutritionists to evaluate clients' dietary habits. This implied the feasibility of tele-dietetics that one's nutrition status could be assessed over the Internet.

  1. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists.

  2. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  3. Singh's verbal autopsy questionnaire for the assessment of causes of death, social autopsy, tobacco autopsy and dietary autopsy, based on medical records and interview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram B; Fedacko, Jan; Vargova, Viola; Kumar, Adarsh; Mohan, Varun; Pella, Daniel; De Meester, Fabien; Wilson, Douglas

    2011-08-01

    The exact causes of death in India are not known because autopsy studies are difficult to conduct due to religious considerations. There are rapid changes in diet and lifestyle amongst social classes causing changes in the pattern of risk factors and mortality. In the present study, we attempt to develop a verbal autopsy questionnaire based on medical records and interview of a family member, for the assessment of causes of death, social class, tobacco consumption and dietary intakes among urban decedents in north India. For the period 1999-2001, we studied the randomly selected records of death of 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) decedents, aged 25-64 years, out of 3034 death records overall from the records at the Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. Families of these decedents were contacted individually to find out the causes of death, by scientist- administered, informed-consented, verbal autopsy questionnaire, completed with the help of the spouse and local treating doctor practicing in the appropriate health care region. Clinical data and causes of death were assessed by a questionnaire based on available hospital records and a modified WHO verbal autopsy questionnaire. Dietary intakes of the dead individuals were estimated by finding out the food intake of the spouse from 3-day dietary diaries and by asking probing questions about differences in food intake by the decedents. Tobacco consumption of the victim was studied by a questionnaire administered to family members. Social classes were assessed by a questionnaire based on attributes of per capita income, occupation, education, housing and ownership of consumer luxury items in the household. The diagnoses of overweight and obesity were based on the new WHO and International College of Nutrition criteria. Cardiac diseases (23.4%, n = 520) including coronary artery disease (10%), valvular heart disease (7.2%, n = 160), diabetic heart disease (2.2%, n = 49), sudden cardiac death and inflammatory cardiac disease

  4. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  5. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  6. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  7. Effect of age and food intake on dietary carbon turnover recorded in sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, Antoine; Moloney, Aidan P; Monahan, Frank J; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Schmidt, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of a series of controlled feeding experiments with sheep, designed to investigate the effects of age and level of food intake on the kinetics of incorporation of the dietary carbon signal into wool. Four different groups of three sheep each, ranging in age from 6 to 78 months, were fed a C(3) diet and switched to a C(4) diet for up to 250 days. Different quantities of the same C(4) diet were provided to each group, in order to achieve different growth rates (high, low, and no growth). Wool was repeatedly shorn from each animal and processed for delta(13)C analyses. Results show that newly grown wool does not start recording the isotope composition of the new diet immediately after the diet-switch. The time-lag varies according to the age of the animal, from 6 +/- 1 days in lambs to up to 15 +/- 4 days in the older ewes. Wool from fast-growing lambs approached equilibrium faster than that from slow-growing lambs and young ewes, with old ewes being the slowest. However, 3 weeks after the diet-switch, the differences in wool delta(13)C values between the four different groups of animals were relatively small and represented less than 15% of the isotopic difference between the two diets. These results suggest that a single equation can be used to reconstruct previous diets for animals of different age, provided that the diet is similar and all individuals are in positive protein balance.

  8. Electronic dietary recording system improves nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes and habitual physical activity: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Law, Queenie Pui Sze; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2014-08-01

    This study's objective was to investigate whether use of an electronic dietary recording system improves nutrition knowledge, eating attitudes and habitual physical activity levels compared to use of a food diary and no self-monitoring. Sixty adults aged 20-60 with a body mass index ≥25 were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group using an electronic system (EG), a group using a food diary (FD) and a control group using nothing (CG) to record food intake. All participants took part in three 60-90 nutrition seminars and completed three questionnaires on general nutrition knowledge, habitual physical activity levels and eating attitudes at the beginning and end of the 12-week study. The pre- and post-test scores for each questionnaire were analysed using a paired sample t-test. Significant improvements in the domain of 'dietary recommendations' were found in the EG (p=0.009) and FD groups (p=0.046). Great improvements were found in 'sources of nutrients', 'choosing everyday foods' and 'diet-disease relationships' in EG and FD groups. EG group showed greater improvement in the work index and sport index. An electronic dietary recording system may improve eating and exercise behaviour in a self-monitoring process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin C intake from diary recordings and risk of breast cancer in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J; Lentjes, M A H; Greenwood, D C; Burley, V J; Cade, J E; Cleghorn, C L; Threapleton, D E; Key, T J; Cairns, B J; Keogh, R H; Dahm, C C; Brunner, E J; Shipley, M J; Kuh, D; Mishra, G; Stephen, A M; Bhaniani, A; Borgulya, G; Khaw, K T

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin C intake has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk in case-control studies, but not in meta-analyses of cohort studies using Food Frequency Questionnaires, which can over-report fruit and vegetable intake, the main source of vitamin C. This is the first study to investigate associations between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk using food diaries. Estimated dietary vitamin C intake was derived from 4-7 day food diaries pooled from five prospective studies in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. This nested case-control study of 707 incident breast cancer cases and 2144 matched controls examined breast cancer risk in relation to dietary vitamin C intake using conditional logistic regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Additionally, total vitamin C intake from supplements and diet was analysed in three cohorts. No evidence of associations was observed between breast cancer risk and vitamin C intake analysed for dietary vitamin C intake (odds ratios (OR)=0.98 per 60 mg/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.09, P (trend)=0.7), dietary vitamin C density (OR=0.97 per 60 mg/day, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, P (trend)=0.5 ) or total vitamin C intake (OR=1.01 per 60 mg/day, 95% CI: 0.99-1.03, P (trend)=0.3). Additionally, there was no significant association for post-menopausal women (OR=1.02 per 60 mg/day, 95% CI: 0.99-1.05, P (trend)=0.3). This pooled analysis of individual UK women found no evidence of significant associations between breast cancer incidence and dietary or total vitamin C intake derived uniquely from detailed diary recordings.

  10. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  11. A Brief Tool to Assess Image-Based Dietary Records and Guide Nutrition Counselling Among Pregnant Women: An Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Brown, Leanne J; Rae, Kym M; Rollo, Megan E

    2016-11-04

    Dietitians ideally should provide personally tailored nutrition advice to pregnant women. Provision is hampered by a lack of appropriate tools for nutrition assessment and counselling in practice settings. Smartphone technology, through the use of image-based dietary records, can address limitations of traditional methods of recording dietary intake. Feedback on these records can then be provided by the dietitian via smartphone. Efficacy and validity of these methods requires examination. The aims of the Australian Diet Bytes and Baby Bumps study, which used image-based dietary records and a purpose-built brief Selected Nutrient and Diet Quality (SNaQ) tool to provide tailored nutrition advice to pregnant women, were to assess relative validity of the SNaQ tool for analyzing dietary intake compared with nutrient analysis software, to describe the nutritional intake adequacy of pregnant participants, and to assess acceptability of dietary feedback via smartphone. Eligible women used a smartphone app to record everything they consumed over 3 nonconsecutive days. Records consisted of an image of the food or drink item placed next to a fiducial marker, with a voice or text description, or both, providing additional detail. We used the SNaQ tool to analyze participants' intake of daily food group servings and selected key micronutrients for pregnancy relative to Australian guideline recommendations. A visual reference guide consisting of images of foods and drinks in standard serving sizes assisted the dietitian with quantification. Feedback on participants' diets was provided via 2 methods: (1) a short video summary sent to participants' smartphones, and (2) a follow-up telephone consultation with a dietitian. Agreement between dietary intake assessment using the SNaQ tool and nutrient analysis software was evaluated using Spearman rank correlation and Cohen kappa. We enrolled 27 women (median age 28.8 years, 8 Indigenous Australians, 15 primiparas), of whom 25

  12. A Brief Tool to Assess Image-Based Dietary Records and Guide Nutrition Counselling Among Pregnant Women: An Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Brown, Leanne J; Rae, Kym M

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietitians ideally should provide personally tailored nutrition advice to pregnant women. Provision is hampered by a lack of appropriate tools for nutrition assessment and counselling in practice settings. Smartphone technology, through the use of image-based dietary records, can address limitations of traditional methods of recording dietary intake. Feedback on these records can then be provided by the dietitian via smartphone. Efficacy and validity of these methods requires examination. Objective The aims of the Australian Diet Bytes and Baby Bumps study, which used image-based dietary records and a purpose-built brief Selected Nutrient and Diet Quality (SNaQ) tool to provide tailored nutrition advice to pregnant women, were to assess relative validity of the SNaQ tool for analyzing dietary intake compared with nutrient analysis software, to describe the nutritional intake adequacy of pregnant participants, and to assess acceptability of dietary feedback via smartphone. Methods Eligible women used a smartphone app to record everything they consumed over 3 nonconsecutive days. Records consisted of an image of the food or drink item placed next to a fiducial marker, with a voice or text description, or both, providing additional detail. We used the SNaQ tool to analyze participants’ intake of daily food group servings and selected key micronutrients for pregnancy relative to Australian guideline recommendations. A visual reference guide consisting of images of foods and drinks in standard serving sizes assisted the dietitian with quantification. Feedback on participants’ diets was provided via 2 methods: (1) a short video summary sent to participants’ smartphones, and (2) a follow-up telephone consultation with a dietitian. Agreement between dietary intake assessment using the SNaQ tool and nutrient analysis software was evaluated using Spearman rank correlation and Cohen kappa. Results We enrolled 27 women (median age 28.8 years, 8 Indigenous

  13. Does the Medicare 3-Day Rule Increase Length of Stay?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Victor H; Ong, Alvin; Post, Zachary; Orozco, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Medicare will only cover a stay in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after TKA if the patient stays for at least 3 days at the inpatient hospital. The 3-day stay rule was instituted in 1965, to prevent over utilization of Medicare. We retrospectively reviewed 800 consecutive TKA, identifying patients that were discharged to rehab after surgery. 322 patients were discharged to SNF after surgery (209 Medicare, 113 private insurances). The LOS was 2.3 days for privately insured patients and 3.02 for Medicare recipients (P<0.05). No difference was found with regard to age, BMI, and ASA score. The Medicare 3-day rule independently increased the LOS in patients who required inpatient rehab, leading to increased cost. We suggest that this rule must be revised.

  14. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  15. Inadequate Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Data from a Seven-Day Weighed Dietary Record.

    PubMed

    Bovio, Giacomo; Esposito, Ciro; Montagna, Giovanni; Brazzo, Silvia; Esposito, Vittoria; Torreggiani, Massimo; Semeraro, Luca; Cena, Hellas

    2016-01-01

    It is very important to assess the nutritional intake in patients on dialysis given the high prevalence of poor nutritional status of those in this population. The aim of this study was to assess nutrient intakes in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. A clinical cross-sectional study was conducted over 7 days on 14 dialysis patients (98 days) who were trained to keep a weighed food record and a 7-day food diary. Nutrient intake adequacy was compared with specific guidelines for Italians and dialysis patients. The mean daily protein intake (0.92 ± 0.36 g/kg) and energy intake (EI; 25.3 ± 7.4 kcal/kg) were inadequate according to the European best practice guidelines (EBPG). The ratio of EI to resting energy expenditure was 1.22. Inadequate intakes, compared to the EBPG, were found for calcium (525 ± 162 mg/day) and iron (8.7 ± 2.1 mg/day). Dietary fiber (14.7 ± 8.7 g/day), niacin (14.4 ± 5.2 mg/day), thiamine (0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day) and riboflavin (1.1 ± 0.4 mg/day) were also inadequate according to the Italian recommended dietary allowances (LARN). HD patients did not display different nutrient intakes between the dialysis days and the interdialytic period. Overall, the percentage of days during which nutrient recommendations were not satisfied ranged from 16 to 100% depending on the nutrient. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in HD and PD patients are largely inadequate compared to the EBPG. The weighed dietary record appears to be a useful and accurate tool for individual assessment of food intake in motivated patients. No nutrient intake differences were found between dialytic and interdialytic days in patients on HD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Environmental stress and 3-day eventing: effects of altitude.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Waldsmith, J K; Lalum, R B

    1999-07-01

    Three-day event horses are subject to various external environmental stresses including changes in ambient temperature, humidity, altitude, and test severity. Considerable research on the adverse effects of increased heat and humidity preceded the 1996 Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta, Georgia USA, but no research has been done previously on the effects of altitude on 3-day eventing. Physical and venous blood gas data were collected on horses (n = 24) competing in the High Prairie Preliminary (CCN*) and Intermediate (CCN**) 3-day events and Preliminary Horse Trials in Parker, Colorado (1900 m above sea level). Despite the increased altitude, only post exercise rectal temperature and pH were higher (P < 0.05) whereas heart rate (HR), [K+], and ionized calcium (ICa++) were lower (P < 0.05) in 3-day event horses compared to horse trial horses. All other variables (respiratory rate [RR], PCV, [Hb], PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE, and [Na+]) were not different between groups (P > 0.05). When these preliminary horse trial horses in Colorado were compared to those previously studied at preliminary horse trials at sea level in Arizona, post exercise HR and RR were higher (P < 0.05) and pH, PCO2, [tCO2], [HCO3-], BE and [iCa++] were lower (P < 0.05) at altitude. These data show that increased altitude (1900 m above sea level) was more stressful for 3-day event horses, but did not result in the severe physiological changes and inability to complete prescribed exercise tests seen in previous studies with increased heat and humidity. It is clear from these and previous data that increased heat and humidity are the more important environmental stressors in 3-day eventing.

  17. Evaluation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies for use with a mobile telephone food record.

    PubMed

    Six, Bethany L; Schap, Tusarebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Boushey, Carol J

    2011-12-01

    The development of a mobile telephone food record (mpFR) in which image analysis and volume estimation data can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) has the potential to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. To validate the mpFR for use with adolescents, a convenience sample of adolescents, aged 11-18 years, was recruited to eat all meals and snacks in a controlled feeding environment over a 24-hour period. Each food item matched a food code in the FNDDS 3.0. The objective of this analysis was to compare the measured energy and protein content of foods to the published values in the FNDDS. Duplicate plates of all meals and snacks were prepared, and samples of 20 foods were individually weighed, homogenized, freeze dried, and analyzed for energy with a bomb calorimeter and for protein with a Dumas nitrogen analyzer. Eleven of the twenty food items had energy values in the FNDDS within ±10% of the measured energy value. The measured energy and protein values from all foods correlated significantly with the energy (r=0.981, P<0.01) and protein (r= 0.911, P<0.01) values in the FNDDS. These results support the use of the FNDDS with the mpFR.

  18. Evaluation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies for use with a mobile telephone food record

    PubMed Central

    Six, Bethany L.; Schap, TusaRebecca E.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a mobile telephone food record (mpFR) in which image analysis and volume estimation data can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) has the potential to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. To validate the mpFR for use with adolescents, a convenience sample of adolescents, aged 11–18 years, was recruited to eat all meals and snacks in a controlled feeding environment over a 24-hour period. Each food item matched a food code in the FNDDS 3.0. The objective of this analysis was to compare the measured energy and protein content of foods to the published values in the FNDDS. Duplicate plates of all meals and snacks were prepared, and samples of 20 foods were individually weighed, homogenized, freeze dried, and analyzed for energy with a bomb calorimeter and for protein with a Dumas nitrogen analyzer. Eleven of the twenty food items had energy values in the FNDDS within ±10% of the measured energy value. The measured energy and protein values from all foods correlated significantly with the energy (r=0.981, P<0.01) and protein (r= 0.911, P<0.01) values in the FNDDS. These results support the use of the FNDDS with the mpFR. PMID:22389554

  19. Allowing for never and episodic consumers when correcting for error in food record measurements of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2011-10-01

    Food records, including 24-hour recalls and diet diaries, are considered to provide generally superior measures of long-term dietary intake relative to questionnaire-based methods. Despite the expense of processing food records, they are increasingly used as the main dietary measurement in nutritional epidemiology, in particular in sub-studies nested within prospective cohorts. Food records are, however, subject to excess reports of zero intake. Measurement error is a serious problem in nutritional epidemiology because of the lack of gold standard measurements and results in biased estimated diet-disease associations. In this paper, a 3-part measurement error model, which we call the never and episodic consumers (NEC) model, is outlined for food records. It allows for both real zeros, due to never consumers, and excess zeros, due to episodic consumers (EC). Repeated measurements are required for some study participants to fit the model. Simulation studies are used to compare the results from using the proposed model to correct for measurement error with the results from 3 alternative approaches: a crude approach using the mean of repeated food record measurements as the exposure, a linear regression calibration (RC) approach, and an EC model which does not allow real zeros. The crude approach results in badly attenuated odds ratio estimates, except in the unlikely situation in which a large number of repeat measurements is available for all participants. Where repeat measurements are available for all participants, the 3 correction methods perform equally well. However, when only a subset of the study population has repeat measurements, the NEC model appears to provide the best method for correcting for measurement error, with the 2 alternative correction methods, in particular the linear RC approach, resulting in greater bias and loss of coverage. The NEC model is extended to include adjustment for measurements from food frequency questionnaires, enabling better

  20. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Islam, N; Douglass, D; Dadabhoy, H; Beltran, A; Baranowski, J; Thompson, D; Cullen, K W; Subar, A F

    2014-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (firsst4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in firsst4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in US national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (e.g. questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and firsst4 incorporate 10 000+ food images, with up to eight images per food, to assist in portion size estimation. We review the formative research conducted during the development of firsst4. When completed, firsst4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute's ASA24 website.

  1. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  2. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-01-01

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C4 grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by ≈2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred ≈3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  3. Combining food records with in-depth probing interviews improves quality of dietary intake reporting in a group of South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Rozanne; Stonehouse, Welma; von Hurst, Pamela Ruth; Coad, Jane

    2012-04-01

    To investigate if the addition of an in-depth interview focused on cultural dietary practices could improve the quality of dietary data from food records among South Asian women in New Zealand. Cross-sectional data were collected from 134 South Asian women (≥20 years), living in Auckland. Dietary data were collected using four-day food records. Nutritional analysis revealed 33.6% under-reporting of energy intakes. All women were recalled for an in-depth probing interview focused on culture-specific foods and dietary practices. The interview revealed extensive use of dairy products and plant oils. The nutrient content of the food record alone and the food record plus interview were compared; median energy intakes were 6,852 kJ vs 7,246 kJ (p<0.001); under-reporting decreased by 14.2%, and total fat and protein intakes (g/day) increased (p<0.001). Estimates of poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids increased significantly (p<0.001) due to greater use of plant oils due to greater use of plant oils replacing saturated fatty acid-rich fats in food preparation. A significant increase (17%) (p<0.001) in calcium intake reflects the higher dairy intake identified with the interview. The addition of an in-depth probing interview to a four-day food record enhanced food intake reporting. Self-reported dietary assessments in immigrant population groups require quality control for accuracy. Methods to ensure high-quality dietary data are essential to assess health outcomes and to inform public health interventions, especially in immigrant populations. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-09-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m3. However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m3. Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm3 with a size range of 15-710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm3 when the reactor was stopped.

  5. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  6. Treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections with 3 days of lomefloxacin compared with treatment with 3 days of norfloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, L E; DuBois, J; Martel, A Y; Harding, G K; Shafran, S D; Conly, J M

    1993-01-01

    The bacteriologic and clinical efficacies of 3 days of lomefloxacin therapy were compared with those of 3 days of norfloxacin therapy for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. One hundred sixty-four subjects were enrolled at five Canadian centers; 84 received lomefloxacin, and 80 received norfloxacin. Escherichia coli (84%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11%) were the most common organisms isolated. Forty subjects (24%) had low quantitative counts in their pretherapy urine specimens. In the intent-to-treat analysis, 76 lomefloxacin subjects (91%) and 76 norfloxacin subjects (95%) were cured or improved at follow-up 5 to 9 days posttreatment and 73 (87%) and 71 (89%) subjects from the lomefloxacin and norfloxacin groups, respectively, were cured or improved at 4 to 6 weeks posttreatment. Bacteriologic eradication occurred in 61 of 63 lomefloxacin subjects (97%) with > or = 10(8) CFU/liter in their pretherapy specimens and 56 of 59 norfloxacin subjects (95%) at 5 to 9 days and 55 (87%) and 53 (90%) subjects from the lomefloxacin and norfloxacin groups, respectively, at 4 to 6 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome. Adverse effects which were potentially related to the study medications were reported by 26% of the subjects who received lomefloxacin and 25% of the subjects who received norfloxacin. There were no severe adverse events, and only one subject discontinued therapy. These data suggest that 3 days of therapy with either lomefloxacin or norfloxacin is effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections. PMID:8384818

  7. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  8. A Three Day Dietary Survey of Piute Preschool Children in Inyo County, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of Piute Indian children being conducted by Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, 3-day dietary-intake records of 23 Piute Indian preschool children in Inyo County, California, were analyzed according to 4 food groups. As reported, results indicated that 5 or 6 food groups should be used if intake results of vitamins C…

  9. A Three Day Dietary Survey of Piute Preschool Children in Inyo County, Calif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    As part of a longitudinal study of Piute Indian children being conducted by Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, 3-day dietary-intake records of 23 Piute Indian preschool children in Inyo County, California, were analyzed according to 4 food groups. As reported, results indicated that 5 or 6 food groups should be used if intake results of vitamins C…

  10. Plasma biochemistry in the horse during 3-day event competition.

    PubMed

    Rose, R J; Ilkiw, J E; Arnold, K S; Backhouse, J W; Sampson, D

    1980-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 16 Thoroughbred horses before, during and after the second day of a 3-day event. Plasma osmolality, concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, glucose, bilirubin, iron, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, inorganic phosphate, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were measured. Significant differences from pre-event values were found in all parameters with the greatest changes being found after the cross-country phase. Most parameters showed significant rises following exercise, except calcium and chloride, which decreased. It was deduced from the changes in biochemistry that dehydration, reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased glycogenolysis and increased lipid metabolism, were a result of this form of competitive exercise.

  11. Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. Design A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. Setting British police force employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Results The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI<25 kg/m2, those with BMI>30 kg/m2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). Conclusions A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. PMID:28377391

  12. Validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study Cohort I to assess dietary fiber intake: comparison with dietary records.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We examined the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study for estimation of dietary fiber intake by comparing the intake estimated with dietary records (DR). We developed a food composition table for dietary fiber for the food items included in the FFQ using a substitution method. The Spearman correlation coefficients were slightly higher in crude values (0.48-0.51 in men, 0.40-0.45 in women) than in energy-adjusted values (0.43-0.44 in men, 0.36-0.40 in women). The correlation coefficients of food group-specific dietary fiber (crude) were 0.26 and 0.27 for vegetables, and 0.62 and 0.49 for fruits in men and women, respectively. The mean intakes assessed with the FFQ and DR were not statistically different either for water-soluble or -insoluble fiber in both men and women. However, the fruit fiber assessed with FFQ was significantly over- and the vegetable fiber was underestimated compared with those assessed with DRs. The FFQ can be used for ranking individuals for dietary fiber intakes in epidemiologic studies, despite the difficulty in estimating mean intake.

  13. Concepts of medium-range (1 3 days) geomagnetic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleisner, Hans; Watermann, Jürgen

    To make deterministic medium-range (1 to 3 days ahead) forecasts would require prediction of the detailed near-Earth solar-wind conditions including the out-of-ecliptic interplanetary magnetic field component days ahead from remote observations of the inner heliosphere. This is, however, not feasible and will not be in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, important steps can be taken towards a more physics based approach to geomagnetic forecasting. In this report from an ongoing study within the ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project, we discuss presently used concepts and new ideas for fully automatic provision of geomagnetic activity forecasts hours to days ahead. Observations of eruptive events on the Sun are nowadays routinely used as predictors of strong (Dst < -100 nT) magnetic storms, but these predictions are still hampered by many false alarms. We here suggest to use the flux of >10 MeV solar energetic particles as a discriminator of potentially geoeffective halo coronal mass ejections, substantially reducing the false alarm rate. We also describe how low speed/high speed solar-wind stream interfaces can be automatically detected in currently available solar-wind models, and point out that, in the absence of eruptive events on the Sun, these may be used as predictors of moderate (Dst < -50 nT) magnetic storms, effectively introducing a deterministic element into the mainly probabilistic forecast schemes.

  14. Relationships of neophobia and pickiness with dietary variety, dietary quality and diabetes management adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quick, V; Lipsky, LM; Laffel, LMB; Mehta, SN; Quinn, H; Nansel, TR

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Neophobia, pickiness and diet variety are associated with diet quality and health outcomes in young children. Limited research has examined these associations among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D), a population at risk for poor health outcomes when dietary quality is inadequate. SUBJECTS/METHODS Youth (n = 252, age 13.2±2.8 years, 92% white, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 years) with T1D and their parents completed 3-day youth diet records; parents completed questionnaires regarding youth neophobia, pickiness and diabetes management adherence. Medical records provided biomedical data. Dietary quality indicators included Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), Whole Plant Food Density (WPFD) and key single nutrients. Dietary variety was operationalized as a count of 20 recommended food groups consumed. Relationships of dietary quality and diabetes management adherence with neophobia, pickiness and dietary variety as independent variables were examined using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for total energy intake, age, height and weight. RESULTS In multiple linear regression analyses, NRF9.3 and HEI-2005 were each inversely associated with neophobia and pickiness, and positively associated with dietary variety. WPF and potassium were each positively associated and saturated fat was inversely associated with dietary variety. However, in models simultaneously including neophobia, pickiness and dietary variety as independent correlates of dietary quality, only relationships with dietary variety remained significant. Diabetes management adherence was negatively associated with both neophobia and pickiness and positively associated with dietary variety. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that increasing dietary variety may contribute toward improved dietary quality among youth with T1D, despite potentially adverse influences of neophobia and pickiness. PMID:24253761

  15. Bloody Stools in a 3-Day-Old Term Infant.

    PubMed

    Bray-Aschenbrenner, Amelia; Feldenberg, L Richard; Kirby, Amelia; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Josephsen, Justin B

    2017-09-01

    A 3-day-old term, male infant presented to the emergency department for evaluation of bloody stools. The infant was born after an uncomplicated pregnancy followed by a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mother was group B Streptococcus colonized, and received antenatal penicillin prophylaxis. The infant received routine delivery room care, and was given ophthalmic erythromycin and intramuscular vitamin K. Circumcision was performed without bleeding and he was discharged from the newborn nursery and the hospital after 48 hours. On the day of presentation, he had streaky bright red blood in 4 consecutive stools. After discussion with the infant's pediatrician, the parents took him to the emergency department. The infant was afebrile, nursing well without emesis, and had made ∼10 wet diapers that day. The physical examination revealed a fussy infant with mild tachycardia, tachypnea, and scleral icterus. The complete blood count was unremarkable. Serum total bilirubin was 11.9 mg/dL, sodium 156 mmol/L, chloride 120 mmol/L, potassium 4.7 mmol/L, and bicarbonate 16 mmol/L. International normalized ratio was prolonged at 2.7, prothrombin time 26.6 seconds, partial thromboplastin time 38.9 seconds. The stool was hemeoccult positive. An obstructive radiograph series of the abdomen showed a nonobstructed gas pattern. Official radiology interpretation the following day reported possible pneumatosis intestinalis in the left and right colon. Our multidisciplinary panel will discuss the assessment of bloody stools in the term newborn, evaluation of electrolyte abnormalities, the diagnosis, and patient management. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Food and nutrient intakes assessed with dietary records for the validation study of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in JPHC Study Cohort I.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tosei; Iitoi, Yoji; Iwase, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Ishihara, Junko; Akabane, Masayuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We present here the survey methods and basic results of dietary records which were used as reference values in the present validation study of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study. A semi-weighed dietary record was kept for four seven consecutive days in each of the four seasons in 3 areas, i.e., Iwate, Akita, and Nagano, and for seven consecutive days in both winter and summer in Okinawa. The mean intakes were significantly different between areas for some nutrients and food groups. A significant seasonal difference in the mean intakes was also observed in some nutrients such as carotene and vitamin C, and in some food groups such as potatoes, vegetables, and fruits in both sexes, and alcoholic beverages in men and milks in women (p<0.001).

  17. Usual dietary intakes of selected trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, I, Se, Cr, and Mo) and biotin revealed by a survey of four-season 7-consecutive day weighed dietary records in middle-aged Japanese dietitians.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Nahomi; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Fujiwara, Nakako; Goto, Chiho; Tokudome, Yuko; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify food sources of selected trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, I, Se, Cr, Mo) and biotin in the Japanese diet and to assess usual dietary intakes based on the ratios of within-person to between-person variance. Subjects were 98 middle-aged dietitians living in central Japan who participated in a survey of four-season 7 consecutive day weighed diet records. Based on the latest Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan published in 2010, food sources of selected nutrients were located according to a contribution analysis, and computed usual dietary intakes. Dietary intakes were checked with the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Prevalence of inadequacy in a group was determined using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. The major contributors to selected trace elements and biotin were not only meat and milk, but also traditional Japanese food items, including rice, tofu and tofu products, fish, seaweed, chicken eggs, fermented soy bean seasonings, and green tea. Medians of usual intakes were estimated for Zn (men 8.9 mg, women 8.4 mg), Cu (1.32 mg, 1.21 mg), Mn (3.73 mg, 3.76 mg), I (312 μg, 413 μg), Se (97 μg, 94 μg), Cr (10 μg, 9 μg), Mo (226 μg, 184 μg), and biotin (51.7 μg, 47.6 μg). The prevalence of inadequacy of dietary intakes was high for Zn, Cu and Cr. Regarding I, the proportion above the Tolerant Upper Level was overestimated based on the crude mean value. We first identified food sources of selected trace elements and biotin in the Japanese diet, and assessed the usual intakes.

  18. Testing a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Fustinoni, Silvia; Moretto, Angelo; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Riso, Patrizia; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Hetmanski, Michel T; Fussell, Richard J; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a Cumulative Action Group, considering dietary and non-dietary sources and multiple exposure routes. To test the model a field study was carried out in Italy with operators applying tebuconazole fungicides, with measurements of dermal exposure collected. Whole urine samples were collected and analysed to provide values for the absorbed dose of tebuconazole, with duplicate diet samples collected and analysed as a measure of dietary exposures. The model provided predicted values of exposure for combined dietary and non-dietary routes of exposures which were compared to the measured absorbed dose values based on urinary analysis. The model outputs provided mean daily exposure values of 1.77 (± 1.96) µg a.s./kg BW which are comparable to measured mean values from the biomonitoring field study of 1.73 (± 1.31) µg a.s./kg BW. To supplement the limited measurement data available, comparisons against other models were also made and found to be comparable.

  19. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes.

  20. Family Partnership and Education Interventions to Reduce Dietary Sodium by Patients with Heart Failure Differ by Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Stamp, Kelly D.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Determine if family functioning influences response to family-focused interventions aimed at reducing dietary sodium by heart failure (HF) patients. Background Lowering dietary sodium by HF patients often occurs within the home and family context. Methods Secondary analysis of 117 dyads randomized to patient and family education (PFE), family partnership intervention (FPI) or usual care (UC). Dietary sodium measures were obtained from 3-day food record and 24-hour urine samples. Results In the poor family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean urine sodium than UC (p<.05) at 4 months, and FPI remained lower than UC at 8 months (p<.05). For good family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean sodium levels by 3-day food record at 4 and 8 months. Conclusion Optimizing family-focused interventions into HF clinical care maybe indicated. PMID:27174641

  1. Family partnership and education interventions to reduce dietary sodium by patients with heart failure differ by family functioning.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Clark, Patricia C; Stamp, Kelly D; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Determine if family functioning influences response to family-focused interventions aimed at reducing dietary sodium by heart failure (HF) patients. Lowering dietary sodium by HF patients often occurs within the home and family context. Secondary analysis of 117 dyads randomized to patient and family education (PFE), family partnership intervention (FPI) or usual care (UC). Dietary sodium measures were obtained from 3-day food record and 24-h urine samples. In the poor family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean urine sodium than UC (p < .05) at 4 months, and FPI remained lower than UC at 8 months (p < .05). For good family functioning groups, FPI and PFE had lower mean sodium levels by 3-day food record at 4 and 8 months compared to the UC group. Optimizing family-focused interventions into HF clinical care maybe indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  3. Self-monitoring of dietary intake by young women: online food records completed on computer or smartphone are as accurate as paper-based food records but more acceptable.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Adherence and accuracy of self-monitoring of dietary intake influences success in weight management interventions. Information technologies such as computers and smartphones have the potential to improve adherence and accuracy by reducing the burden associated with monitoring dietary intake using traditional paper-based food records. We evaluated the acceptability and accuracy of three different 7-day food record methods (online accessed via computer, online accessed via smartphone, and paper-based). Young women (N=18; aged 23.4±2.9 years; body mass index 24.0±2.2) completed the three 7-day food records in random order with 7-day washout periods between each method. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was derived from resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity level (PAL) derived from accelerometers (TEE=REE×PAL). Accuracy of the three methods was assessed by calculating absolute (energy intake [EI]-TEE) and percentage difference (EI/TEE×100) between self-reported EI and TEE. Acceptability was assessed via questionnaire. Mean±standard deviation TEE was 2,185±302 kcal/day and EI was 1,729±249 kcal/day, 1,675±287kcal/day, and 1,682±352 kcal/day for computer, smartphone, and paper records, respectively. There were no significant differences between absolute and percentage differences between EI and TEE for the three methods: computer, -510±389 kcal/day (78%); smartphone, -456±372 kcal/day (80%); and paper, -503±513 kcal/day (79%). Half of participants (n=9) preferred computer recording, 44.4% preferred smartphone, and 5.6% preferred paper-based records. Most participants (89%) least preferred the paper-based record. Because online food records completed on either computer or smartphone were as accurate as paper-based records but more acceptable to young women, they should be considered when self-monitoring of intake is recommended to young women. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  4. Adequacy of dietary intake information obtained from mailed food records differed by weight status and not education level of midlife women.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Noriko; Perry, Courtney; Reicks, Marla

    2010-01-01

    Mailed food records have been suggested as a means to acquire useful food intake data from a large number of participants with minimal effort. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether education level and weight status of midlife women affected adequacy of information about dietary intake derived from a self-administered mailed 1-day food record. Adequacy was defined as the ability to describe and record intake with sufficient detail for entry into a computerized diet analysis program without missing data. From October 2007 through March 2008, 100 women (49+/-5 years), recruited by education level, were mailed a food record booklet and a 16-page actual-size two-dimensional food model booklet with instruction to describe foods, amounts consumed, and preparation methods/recipes. Women returned the completed food record booklet by mail. Between 3 and 13 days later, a registered dietitian called the participants to review missing details, clarify amounts, and probe for omissions. Six categories of missing data included: "omission of portion size," "inaccurate portion size," "insufficient description of portion size," "insufficient description of food," "omission of ingredients," and "insufficient or no preparation method." The percentage of foods with missing data did not differ by education level; however, higher percentages of missing data regarding "insufficient description of food," were observed in obese compared to overweight women. Adequacy of information from the mailed food record was dependent on weight status but not education level. Additional study is needed to determine how to revise instructions for mailed food records in future studies according to weight status of midlife women.

  5. The isotope record of short- and long-term dietary changes in sheep tooth enamel: Implications for quantitative reconstruction of paleodiets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazzo, A.; Balasse, M.; Passey, B. H.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of paleodiet by means of sequential sampling and carbon isotope analysis in hypsodont tooth enamel requires a precise knowledge of the isotopic enrichment between dietary carbon and carbon from enamel apatite ( ɛD-E), as well as of the timing and duration of the enamel mineralization process (amelogenesis). To better constrain these parameters, we performed a series of controlled feeding experiments on sheep ranging in age from 6 to 24 months-old. Twenty-eight lambs and 14 ewes were fed isotopically distinct diets for different periods of time, and then slaughtered, allowing the timing and rate of molar growth to be determined. High resolution sampling and stable carbon isotope analysis of breath CO 2 performed on six individuals following a diet-switch showed that 70-90% of dietary carbon had turned over in less than 24 h. Sequential sampling and carbon isotopic analysis was performed on the first (M 1) and second (M 2) lower molars of four lambs as well as on the third lower molar (M 3) of 11 ewes. The changes in diet were recorded in all molars. We found that the length of enamel matrix apposition is approximately one-quarter of the final tooth length during crown extension, and that enamel maturation spans slightly less than 3 months in M 1, and 4 months in M 2 and M 3. Portions of enamel in equilibrium with dietary carbon were used to calculate ɛD-E values. Animals on grass silage diets had values similar to previous observations, whereas animal switched to pelleted corn diets had values ca. 4‰ lower, a pattern consistent with lower methane production observed for animals fed concentrate diets. The tooth enamel forward model of Passey and Cerling (2002) closely predicted the amplitude of isotope changes recorded in tooth enamel, but slightly underestimated the rate of isotope change, suggesting that the rate of accumulation of carbonate during maturation may not be constant over time. Although stable isotope profiles in tooth

  6. Digital photography improves estimates of dietary intake in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Willis, Erik A; Goetz, Jeannine R; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is challenging due to the limited cognitive abilities of this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using of digital images to improve the estimates of energy and macronutrient intake from proxy-assisted 3-day food records in adolescents with IDD. Participants used a mobile device to take photos of all food and beverages consumed over a three-day period and simultaneously completed a standard parent-assisted 3-day food record at two separate time points. A registered dietitian reviewed and recorded the differences between the standard record and the images. The proxy-assisted records and the photo-assisted records were analyzed separately. One hundred and thirty eating occasions were entered (20 participants (age = 14.9 ± 2.2 yrs, 45.0% female)). Photo-assisted records captured significantly higher estimates of energy intake per eating occasion than regular proxy-assisted records (P = 0.001) as well as significantly greater grams of fat (P = 0.011), carbohydrates (P = 0.003), and protein (P = 0.004). The use of photo-assisted diet records appears to be a feasible method to obtain substantial additional details about dietary intake that consequently may improve the overall estimates of energy and macronutrient intake when using proxy-assisted diet records in adolescents with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-Grain Intake, Reflected by Dietary Records and Biomarkers, Is Inversely Associated with Circulating Insulin and Other Cardiometabolic Markers in 8- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lind, Mads V; Astrup, Arne; Landberg, Rikard

    2017-05-01

    Background: Whole-grain consumption seems to be cardioprotective in adults, but evidence in children is limited.Objective: We investigated whether intakes of total whole grain and dietary fiber as well as specific whole grains were associated with fat mass and cardiometabolic risk profile in children.Methods: We collected cross-sectional data on parental education, puberty, diet by 7-d records, and physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure in 713 Danish children aged 8-11 y. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin, and glucose. Linear mixed models included puberty, parental education, physical activity, and intakes of energy, fruit and vegetables, saturated fat, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.Results: Median (IQR) whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes were 52 g/d (35-72 g/d) and 17 g/d (14-22 g/d), respectively. Fourteen percent of children were overweight or obese and most had low-risk cardiometabolic profiles. Dietary whole-grain and fiber intakes were not associated with fat mass index but were inversely associated with serum insulin [both P < 0.01; e.g., with 0.68 pmol/L (95% CI: 0.26, 1.10 pmol/L) lower insulin · g whole grain(-1) · MJ(-1)]. Whole-grain oat intake was inversely associated with fat mass index, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol (all P < 0.05) as well as insulin (P = 0.003), which also tended to be inversely associated with whole-grain rye intake (P = 0.11). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations. The C17-to-C21 alkylresorcinol ratio, reflecting whole-grain rye to wheat intake, was inversely associated with insulin (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Higher whole-grain intake was associated with lower serum insulin independently of fat mass in 8- to 11-y-old Danish children. Whole-grain oat

  8. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations?

    PubMed

    Trabal, J; Leyes, P; Fernández-Solá, J; Forga, M; Fernández-Huerta, J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 restricting patients, respectively. Patients reported different digestive symptoms, which did not improve with the use of exclusion diets. Thirteen patients had received information against the intake of certain foods through different sources. Six cases of grains restriction and 11 of dairy were compatible with a counseling-induced pattern of exclusion. There is not a homogeneous pattern of food avoidance. Dietary restrictions should be based on a proven food allergy or intolerance. Dietary counseling should be based on sound nutritional knowledge.

  9. Dietary water and sodium intake of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Katherine T; Williams, Ruth; Mitchell, Carol O; Levy, Marian C; Pope, Lucille F; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Wang, Winfred C

    2010-07-01

    Dietary fluid and sodium intake may influence the risk for vasoocclusive events in persons with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake of water and sodium in children and adolescents with SCA and identify possible factors influencing intake. We compared water (mL) and sodium (mg) intake in 21 patients with SCA, aged 5 to 18 years, to reported adequate intake for water, daily fluid requirement, upper limit for sodium, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data for sodium, and sociodemographic factors. Dietary intake from 3-day food records was evaluated retrospectively. Median water intake was significantly lower than adequate intake, and median sodium intake was significantly higher than sodium upper limit. Sociodemographic factors were not associated with dietary water or sodium intake. Our results suggest that children and adolescents with SCA would benefit from education regarding increasing fluid intake and limiting high sodium foods.

  10. Comparison of a full food-frequency questionnaire with the three-day unweighted food records in young Polish adult women: implications for dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-07-19

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21-26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: -29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: -36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the absolute

  11. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  12. Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire for Middle-Aged Urban Cancer Screenees: Comparison With 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hosoi, Satoko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of estimates of dietary intake calculated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) depends on the specific population. The 138-item FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study was initially developed for and validated in rural residents. However, the validity of estimates based on this FFQ for urban residents, whose diet and lifestyle differ from those of rural residents, has not been clarified. We examined the validity of ranking individuals according to level of dietary consumption, as estimated by this FFQ, among an urban population in Japan. Methods Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 144 participated in the study. In 2007–2008, at an average 2.7 years after cancer screening, participants were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to provide 4-day weighed diet records (4d-DRs) for use as the reference intake. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and 4d-DR estimates were calculated, after correction for intraindividual variation of 4d-DRs. Results The median (range) deattenuated CC for men and women was 0.57 (0.23 to 0.89) and 0.47 (0.08 to 0.94), respectively, across 45 nutrients and 0.51 (0.10 to 0.98) and 0.51 (−0.36 to 0.88) for 43 food groups. Conclusions Although the FFQ was developed for a rural population, it provided reasonably valid measures of consumption for many nutrients and food groups in middle-aged screenees living in urban areas in Japan. PMID:21963789

  13. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents. PMID:27698962

  14. Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Ślązak, Joanna; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland–Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility. PMID:28264423

  15. Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Ślązak, Joanna; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2017-02-27

    The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ-IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20-30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1-directly after the dietary record and FFQ2-6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice-FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland-Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility.

  16. Traveler's diarrhea in Thailand: randomized, double-blind trial comparing single-dose and 3-day azithromycin-based regimens with a 3-day levofloxacin regimen.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Sanders, John W; Pang, Lorrin W; Mason, Carl; Pitarangsi, Chittima; Baqar, Shahida; Armstrong, Adam; Hshieh, Paul; Fox, Anne; Maley, Elisabeth A; Lebron, Carlos; Faix, Dennis J; Lawler, James V; Nayak, Gautam; Lewis, Michael; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Scott, Daniel A

    2007-02-01

    Traveler's diarrhea in Thailand is frequently caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Rates of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Campylobacter organisms have exceeded 85% in recent years, and reduced fluoroquinolone efficacy has been observed. Azithromycin regimens were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind trial of azithromycin, given as a single 1-g dose or a 3-day regimen (500 mg daily), versus a 3-day regimen of levofloxacin (500 mg daily) in military field clinics in Thailand. Outcomes included clinical end points (time to the last unformed stool [TLUS] and cure rates) and microbiological end points (pathogen eradication). A total of 156 patients with acute diarrhea were enrolled in the trial. Campylobacter organisms predominated (in 64% of patients), with levofloxacin resistance noted in 50% of Campylobacter organisms and with no azithromycin resistance noted. The cure rate at 72 h after treatment initiation was highest (96%) with single-dose azithromycin, compared with the cure rates of 85% noted with 3-day azithromycin and 71% noted with levofloxacin (P=.002). Single-dose azithromycin was also associated with the shortest median TLUS (35 h; P=.03, by log-rank test). Levofloxacin's efficacy was inferior to azithromycin's efficacy, except in patients with no pathogen identified during the first 24 h of treatment or in patients with levofloxacin-susceptible Campylobacter isolates, in whom it appeared to be equal to azithromycin. The rate of microbiological eradication was significantly better with azithromycin-based regimens (96%-100%), compared with levofloxacin (38%) (P=.001); however, this finding was poorly correlated with clinical outcome. A higher rate of posttreatment nausea in the 30 min after receipt of the first dose (14% vs. <6%; P=.06) was observed as a mild, self-limited complaint associated with single-dose azithromycin. Single-dose azithromycin is recommended for empirical therapy of traveler's diarrhea acquired in Thailand and is a reasonable first

  17. BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet  with  a  Mobile  Food  Record  among  Adults  Participating in Dietary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Pollard, Christina M; Norman, Richard; Wright, Janine L; Harray, Amelia J; Shoneye, Charlene L; Solah, Vicky A; Hunt, Wendy J; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J

    2017-03-07

    Image-based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4-day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow-up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02-2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥ 14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake.

  18. Reconstruction of historical changes in northern fur seal prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific through individual-based analysis of dietary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed long-term dietary records of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to reconstruct historical changes in prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific off northeastern Japan. The nominal relationships between the occurrence frequencies of fishes or squids in fur seal stomachs and the sampling locations reflected the spatial heterogeneity of fish and squid distributions along the shelf-slope-offshore continuum off northeastern Japan, whereas changes in the temporal occurrence frequencies reflected mainly the migration and foraging patterns of the fur seals. The occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs were standardized by using generalized linear models to compensate for sampling biases in space and time. The reconstructed historical trends revealed decadal shifts in relatively high prey abundance-from mackerels in the 1970s to Japanese sardine in the 1980s and myctophids/sparkling enope squids in the 1990s-that were related to decadal shifts in the oceanographic regime. The sequential increase in mackerel and Japanese sardine abundances coincided with the annual catch trends of commercial fisheries. The index of overall prey availability calculated from the standardized occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs was fairly stable over the decades.

  19. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  20. Dietary phosphorus intake and distribution in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients with and without hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Na; Fang, Wei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Jiangzi; Lin, Aiwu; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the dietary phosphorus intake and distribution in different food categories in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, to evaluate the relationship between dietary phosphorus intake and hyperphosphatemia. It was a cross-sectional study, in which prevalent Chinese PD patients were instructed by dietitians to record 3-day diet diary. Dietary phosphorus and other nutrient contents were calculated using a food composition computer program. Renal and peritoneal phosphorus clearance (CPh) was estimated, and serum phosphorus, as well as other serological parameters, were measured at the same time. 93 PD patients [age 52.9 ± 13.0 years, PD duration 30.1 (8.0, 71.0) months] finished the 3-day diet diary. Hyperphosphatemic patients (serum phosphorus level 1.97 ± 0.28 mmol/l, n = 48) showed higher dietary phosphorus intake (771.6 ± 195.1 versus 620.8 ± 155.3 mg/day, p = 0.040) than those with normal serum phosphorus level (1.37 ± 0.21 mmol/l, n = 45), due to greater phosphorus intake from meat, snacks, beverage, food condiments and additives. Significantly lower dietary phosphorus intake (605.6 ± 122.5 mg/day) and phosphorus to protein ratio (12.7 ± 1.4 mg/g) were observed in patients with anuria who maintained serum phosphorus within normal range. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated normalized phosphorus intake, renal CPh and dietary protein intake were independently associated with serum phosphorus level. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with elevated serum phosphorus level in PD patients. The study suggests that PD patients, particularly those with anuria, shall limit the intake of meat, snacks, beverage, food condiments and additives to reduce dietary phosphorus ingestion.

  1. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  2. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  3. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  4. Treating acute urinary tract infections. An RCT of 3-day versus 7-day norfloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    Trienekens, T. A.; London, N. H.; Houben, A. W.; De Jong, R. A.; Stobberingh, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was carried out to compare two courses of treatment in women with acute urinary tract infection in general practice. The 3-day course of treatment was found to be as effective as, and cheaper than, the 7-day therapy. PMID:8471899

  5. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  6. Validity and Reproducibility of the Iodine Dietary Intake Questionnaire Assessment Conducted for Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Malowaniec, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse a designed brief iodine dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IOdine Dietary INtake Evaluation-Food Frequency Questionnaire—IODINE-FFQ), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 90 Polish women aged 20–35 years. Participants collected 3-day dietary records and filled in the IODINE-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, a Bland-Altman index of 5.5% and 4.4% was recorded, respectively for FFQ1 and FFQ2. In the analysis of reproducibility it was 6.7%, but the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 70% (weighted κ of 0.675). It was stated, that assessment of IODINE-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and reproducibility in the analysis of Bland-Alman plot. The IODINE-FFQ may be indicated as a tool for the assessment of iodine intake in the young women in Poland, however further studies should be considered in order to obtain the practical tool for public health specialists. Due to the lack of validated iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires for countries of Eastern Europe, the IODINE-FFQ may be adjusted for courtiers other than Poland including iodine-fortified products. PMID:28661461

  7. Evaluation of dietary habits and assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Greek university students.

    PubMed

    Chourdakis, Michael; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Toulis, Konstantinos A; Papazisis, George; Kouvelas, Dimitrios

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of dietary habits in regard to cardiovascular risk status in university students in Northern Greece. 215 students (101 males) (age 21.5±2.3 years) participated in the study. Dietary intake was determined by using 3-day food record (1 weekend day). Recorded energy and nutrient intakes were compared to RDA and recommendations given by the American Heart Association (AHA). Students' smoking status and familial chronic diseases were recorded. A percentage of 55.8% (males) and 45.7% (females) were physically moderately active. When compared to AHA guidelines, the students had averagely significantly higher intake of total fat, saturated fat, sodium and dietary cholesterol and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, folate, vitamin E and fiber. 95% of them failed to meet all AHA dietary recommendations, with polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio and the percentage of total fat being the top two failed parameters and sodium (10.2%) being the one less problematic. Dietary habits of Greek university students differ from what is considered as health promoting and, in the case that it they are not altered, may have an adverse effect on their CV health, despite the fact that their mean body weight is only moderately high. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Objective Assessment of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease Using a Body-Fixed Sensor Worn for 3 Days

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. Methods and Materials 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. Results The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78±0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71±0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall

  9. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  10. Tolerability of 3-day, once-daily azithromycin suspension versus standard treatments for community-acquired paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Treadway, G; Reisman, A

    2001-11-01

    Tolerability of azithromycin oral suspension, 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days, was assessed in paediatric patients (< or = 18 years) with respiratory or skin and soft-tissue infections. Of 2425 patients evaluated, 1213 received azithromycin and 1212 received standard regimens of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefixime, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, erythromycin, or penicillin V. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving azithromycin than comparators (7.9 vs. 11.5%, P=0.003), while discontinuation rates were similar (1.0 and 1.1%, respectively). Significantly fewer gastrointestinal events were recorded for azithromycin than comparators (6.5 vs. 9.9%, P=0.002), and their duration was significantly shorter (mean 2.3 vs. 5.0 days, P=0.0001). Azithromycin paediatric oral suspension is well tolerated and associated with significantly fewer adverse events than comparators.

  11. Immune and inflammation responses to a 3-day period of intensified running versus cycling.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Luo, Beibei; Dréau, Didier; Henson, Dru A; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat

    2014-07-01

    Functional overreaching has been linked to alterations in immunity and host pathogen defense, but little is known as to whether or not running and cycling evoke different responses. This study compared inflammation, muscle damage and soreness, and innate immune function responses to a 3-day period of intensified exercise in trained long distance runners (N=13, age 34.4±2.4year) and cyclists (N=22, age 36.6±1.7year, P=0.452). Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptomatology was monitored for 12weeks using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS), and subjects from both athletic groups came to the lab during week five and exercised 2.5h/day for 3days in a row at 70% VO2max. Blood samples were collected before and after the 3-day period of exercise, with recovery samples collected 1-, 14-, and 38h-post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO)], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP), and innate immunity [granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis (GR-PHAG and MO-PHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GR-OBA and MO-OBA)]. Runners compared to cyclists experienced significantly more muscle damage (CK 133% and MYO 404% higher post-3days exercise), inflammation (CRP 87%, IL-6 256%, IL 8 61%, IL-10 32%, MCP 29%), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS, 87%). The 3-day period of exercise caused significant downturns in GR-PHAG, MO-PHAG, GR-OBA, MO-OBA by 14- and 38h-recovery, but the pattern of change did not differ between groups. No group differences were measured for 12-week URTI severity (18.3±5.6 and 16.6±4.0, P=0.803) and symptom scores (33.4±12.6 and 24.7±5.8, P=0.477). These data indicate that a 3-day period of functional overreaching results in substantially more muscle damage and soreness, and systemic inflammation in runners compared to cyclists, but without group differences for 12-week URTI symptomatology and post-exercise decrements in innate immune function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. A 3-day randomized clinical trial to investigate the desensitizing properties of three dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Giovanna; Procaccini, Maurizio; Manzoli, Lamberto; Sparabombe, Scilla; Tiriduzzi, Paolo; Bambini, Fabrizio; Putignano, Angelo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relative abilities of three desensitizing dentifrices to provide rapid relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Using a double-mask, randomized design, three dentifrices: 1) containing 8% arginine and 1,450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate; 2) containing 8% strontium acetate and 1,040 ppm sodium fluoride; and 3) containing 30% microaggregation of zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were compared after 3-day treatment. Participant's DH was evaluated at baseline and after 3 days using air-blast, tactile, cold water, and subjective tests. The final sample consisted of 85 individuals: 29 received the arginine-based dentifrice (group 1), 27 the strontium acetate-based dentifrice (group 2), and 29 the dentifrice based on zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (group 3). All dentifrices were mostly effective to reduce DH: the percentage of score reduction from baseline to 3 days was >30% for all tests (except for subjective test of group 2). The comparison among the three dentifrices showed that, after 3 days, there was an improvement in air-blast (mean percentage of reduction, 39.2% in group 1, 42.0% in group 2, and 39.2% in group 3), cold water (41.5%, 51.8%, and 50%), tactile (50.3%, 40.1%, and 33.8%), and subjective (33.1%, 17.4%, and 31.4%) test scores, with differences being significant for cold water and subjective tests. For air-blast and tactile tests, there were no significant differences across groups at 3 days. Moreover, no significant differences at any test were observed in a subset of patients that were followed up to 8 weeks: all dentifrices were all highly efficacious. This study documents that the three tested dentifrices significantly reduced DH after 3-day treatment, supporting their use in clinical practice. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting the rapid relief from DH of a zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite dentifrice.

  13. Pineal gland: influence on gonads of male rats treated with androgen 3 days after birth.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J; Hoffman, J C; Rubin, P H

    1968-04-26

    Either blinding or the injection of 1 milligram of testosterone propionate into male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days old, results in testes and accessory organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) that are smaller than normal when the rats are 72 days old. The response to blinding is prevented by removal of the pineal gland, whereas the response to treatment with testosterone is unaffected by pinealectomy. Combination of the two treatments in 3-day- old rats causes testes to be less than one-third their normal size at 72 days of age; pinealectomy in these rats permits the reproductive organs to grow to the same size as those in the androgen-treated animals.

  14. Efficacy of essential oil mouthwash with and without alcohol: a 3-Day plaque accumulation model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of a new alcohol free essential oil mouthwash with respect to a control of an essential oil with alcohol mouthwash, using an in vivo plaque regrowth model of 3-days. Methods The study was designed as a double-masked, randomized, crossover clinical trial, involving 30 volunteers to compare two different essential oil containing mouthwashes, during a 3-day plaque accumulation model. After receiving a thorough professional prophylaxis at the baseline, over the next 3-days each volunteer refrained from all oral hygiene measures and had two daily rinses with 20 ml of the test mouthwash (alcohol free essential oil) or the control mouthwash (essential oil with alcohol). At the end of the each experimental period, plaque was assessed and the panelists filled out a questionnaire. Each subject underwent a 14 days washout period and there was a second allocation. Results The essential oil mouthwash with ethanol shows a better inhibitory effect of plaque regrowth in 3-days than the mouthwash test with only essential oil in the whole mouth (plaque index = 2.18 against 2.46, respectively, p < 0.05); for the lower jaw (plaque index = 2.28 against 2.57, respectively, p < 0.05); for the upper jaw (plaque index = 2.08 against 2.35, respectively, p < 0.05); for the incisors (plaque index = 1.93 against 2.27, respectively, p < 0.05); and the canines (plaque index = 1.99 against 2.47, respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The essential oil containing mouthwash without alcohol seems to have a less inhibiting effect on the plaque regrowth than the traditional alcoholic solution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01411618 PMID:22171999

  15. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  16. Cryopreservation of Bletilla striata mature seeds, 3-day germinating seeds and protocorms by droplet-vitrification.

    PubMed

    Jitsopakul, N; Thammasiri, K; Ishikawa, K

    2008-01-01

    Droplet-vitrification was studied for the cryopreservation of Bletilla striata mature seeds (0 day after sowing), 3-day germinating seeds and protocorms (6, 9 and 12 days after sowing). Mature seeds, 3-day germinating seeds and 6-day old protocorms were precultured in liquid medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose for 3 h on a shaker (110 rpm) and then dehydrated with 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose in liquid medium (loading solution) for 15 min and exposed to PVS2 solution for 60 min at 25 degree C. The plant materials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen, rewarmed rapidly and cultured on solidified ND medium supplemented with 3% sucrose for recovery. After cryopreservation, the highest germination percentage of mature seeds, 3-day germinating seeds and survival of cryopreserved 6-day old protocorms was 93%, 91% and 84%, respectively. For 9-day old protocorms, highest survival (66%) after cryopreservation was achieved after preculture with 0.5 M sucrose for 3 h on a shaker, dehydration with loading solution for 15 min, exposure to PVS2 solution for 40 min at 25 degree C, and culture on solidified ND medium supplemented with 480 mg per liter ammonium nitrate and 3% sucrose. No survival was observed in cryopreserved 12-day old protocorms.

  17. The last 3 days of life in three different care settings in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Laetitia; van Zuylen, Lia; Swart, Siebe J; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Heide, Agnes

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of dying in different care settings, such as the hospital, the nursing home, or the home-care setting. We measured the burden of symptoms, medical and nursing interventions, and aspects of communication during the last 3 days of life within each of these settings. We included 239 of 321 patients (74%) who died in one of these settings in the southwest of The Netherlands, between November 2003 and February 2005. After the patient's death, a nurse filled in a questionnaire. Pain and shortness of breath were more severe in hospital patients as compared to nursing home and home-care patients, whereas incontinence was less severe in hospital patients. Several medical interventions, such as a syringe driver, vena punctures or lab tests, radiology or ECG, antibiotics, and drainage of body fluids were more often applied during the last 3 days of life to hospital patients than to nursing home and home-care patients. This also holds for the measurement of body temperature and blood pressure. In the hospital setting, the patient and the family were more often informed about the imminence of death of the patient than elsewhere. The general practitioner and other professional caregivers were less often informed about the imminence of death of hospital patients than of other patients. We conclude that pain and shortness of breath were more severe among hospital patients, whereas incontinence was more severe among nursing home and home-care patients. Hospital patients relatively often receive medical interventions and standard controls during the last 3 days of life. In hospital, communication about impending death seems to take place more often shortly before death.

  18. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E

    2015-12-09

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282 mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2 yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype.

  19. Comparison of four media types during 3-day human IVF embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Vincent W; Wilcox, Aaron L; Peterson, C Matthew; Parker-Jones, Kirtly; Hatasaka, Harry H; Gibson, Mark; Huang, Ivan; Carrell, Douglas T

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of human tubal fluid (HTF), G1.2, Sage Cleavage and Life Global media for IVF outcome during 3-day culture of human embryos. A three-phase auto-controlled study was conducted in which IVF outcome was compared between (1) HTF and G1.2, (2) HTF and Cleavage, and (3) Cleavage and Life Global. In phase 1, no differences in embryo quality were observed between HTF and G1.2. However, embryos derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) displayed significantly improved quality when grown in HTF versus G1.2. No differences in pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in cases where embryos transferred were grown exclusively in HTF or G1.2 media. In phase 2, embryo quality was significantly improved for embryos cultured in Cleavage versus HTF media (P < 0.001). However, pregnancy, implantation and spontaneous abortion rates were similar between the two media. In phase 3, there were no differences in embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and spontaneous abortion rates between Cleavage and Life Global media. Overall, the data indicate that Life Global and Cleavage media yield similar results in a 3-day IVF culture programme. Cleavage medium is superior to HTF, as evidenced by significantly improved embryo quality (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, HTF medium is superior to G1.2 for ICSI cases.

  20. Concurrent validation of estimated activity energy expenditure using a 3-day diary and accelerometry in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, A M; Figueiredo, A J; Mota, J; Cumming, S P; Eisenmann, J C; Malina, R M; Coelho-E-Silva, M J

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of daily energy expenditure are important to studies of physical activity and energy balance. Objective measures are not always feasible and further research is needed to validate survey instruments and diaries. The study validates estimated activity energy expenditure (AEE) based on a 3-day diary protocol relative to AEE derived from uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents, 265 girls and 227 boys (12.5-16.4 years). Participants completed the diary and wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer on the same days. Height and weight were measured. Correlations between protocols were significant (P<0.001) but moderate, r=0.65 in males and r=0.69 in females. The highest correlation occurred among males on Friday, r=0.74 (P<0.01). Controlling for body mass, partial correlations between protocols decreased to 0.44 and 0.35 in males and females, respectively. About 97% of the cases fell within the limits of agreement in a Bland-Altman plot. The criterion of inclusion for the accelerometer excluded 18% of the initial sample. In summary, the 3-day diary was completed without any major problems and provided a reasonably valid alternative for assessing AEE. Concordance between methods was slightly lower for individuals with higher values of AEE. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Performance of stool cultures before and after a 3-day hospitalization: fewer cultures, better for patients and for money.

    PubMed

    Le Guern, Rémi; Loïez, Caroline; Grandbastien, Bruno; Courcol, René; Wallet, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the yield of stool culture (SC) depending on the length of hospitalization, and we characterized the patients missed by the 3-day rejection rule. SC detects bacterial enteric pathogens (Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia spp., Shigella spp.). During this 5-year study period, 13,039 SCs were requested, and 376 were positive (2.9%). The yield of SC dropped from 11.7% before 3 days of hospitalization to 0.7% after 3 days in children and 4.3% to 0.3% in adults. Finally, only 13 clinically relevant cases (0.2% of SC prescribed after 3 days) were undiagnosed by strict application of the 3-day rule. In conclusion, rejection of SC prescribed after 3 days of hospitalization allows to reduce workload by 37.8% for children and 65.7% for adults, representing a cost of €12,500 ($16,250) per year in our hospital. © 2013.

  2. Dietary intakes and eating habits of college athletes: are female college athletes following the current sports nutrition standards?

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Betts, Nancy M; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed anthropometric measurements and dietary assessment using a 3-day food record, a 24-hour recall, and a nutrition questionnaire. t tests indicated the energy and carbohydrate intakes were below the minimum recommended amount (p<.001), with only 9% of the participants meeting their energy needs. Seventy-five percent of the participants failed to consume the minimum amount of carbohydrates that is required to support training. The majority of the participants reported no regular breakfast, 36% consumed<5 meals/day, and only 16% monitored their hydration status. Effective nutrition interventions are needed to improve dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes.

  3. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  4. Does a 3-day workshop for family medicine trainees improve preventive care? A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Ward, J; Sanson-Fisher, R

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on clinical behavior of a 3-day workshop designed to increase trainees' rates of smoking cessation counseling and reminders about Pap smears in routine consultations. Randomized control trial. Accredited teaching practices of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' Training Program. Thirty-four trainees and 1,500 consecutive adult patients ages 16-65 years. Trainees randomly allocated to the experimental group participated in a 3-day interactive workshop on disease prevention during their 13-week family medicine term. Audiotapes of consultations with adults conducted by trainees at the beginning and end of the rotation were analyzed blind to compare assessment of patients' smoking status and, for women, date of last Pap smear. A questionnaire mailed to each patient after the consultation also allowed identification of smokers and women overdue for a smear. Consultations with these patients at risk were analyzed for preventive counseling. Inter- and intrarater reliability was calculated for audiotape analysis. Preworkshop rates of questions about smoking were low, occurring in 22% of consultations. While trainees allocated to the experimental workshop were more likely to ask a routine question about smoking at the end of the term than those in the control group (P = 0.01), two-thirds of smokers remained undetected irrespective of trainee group and fewer than one in five were advised to stop smoking. Reminders about Pap smears did not change as a result of training and remained low in fewer than 20% of consultations. kappa values demonstrated high reliability of audiotape analysis. This direct measurement of clinical behavior revealed that low levels of preventive care provided by trainees are resistant to skills training without reinforcement in clinical practice. In view of the importance of prevention in routine consultations, we recommend continued evaluation of more intensive educational programs. Those withstanding rigorous

  5. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  6. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  7. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection.

    PubMed

    Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard

    2012-04-30

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1 and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were identified and their location was noted. The highest number of larvae was observed in the JX sample as compared to J1 and J2 (P<0.001). Most of them were located in the profound crypt zone of the mucosa (51%) as compared to the other zones (P<0.05). The number of larvae was higher in the lumen (63%) compared to the epithelium (32%) and lamina propria (5%) (P<0.001). A significantly higher number of eosinophils were found in lamina propria of the infected group compared to the control group (P<0.001). This experiment clearly showed that only few larvae had penetrated the epithelium and were positioned in the lamina propria at 3 days post infection. It was far more common that the larvae were localized within the epithelium or in the lumen of the crypts. It is therefore suggested that at least in this early phase "mucosal phase" is a more appropriate term to be used for the A. galli larval localization as compared to the term "histotrophic phase" currently used in many textbooks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary exposure to acrylamide from potato crisps to the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Arribas-Lorenzo, G; Morales, F J

    2009-03-01

    Potato crisps are one of the food commodities that contribute most to overall dietary human exposure of acrylamide. This investigation has estimated the dietary exposure to acrylamide form potato crisps in the Spanish population. Sampling of potato crisps (n = 36) from 16 different producers were carried out in March 2008. An average level of 740 microg kg(-1) (ranging from 81 to 2622 microg kg(-1); minimum to maximum) and a median of 592 microg kg(-1) were obtained. Acrylamide levels in marketed potato crisps have been significantly reduced (nearly to 50%) compared with a previous sampling performed 4 years earlier. The observed signal value (90th percentile) was 1377 microg kg(-1) with 86% of the samples with acrylamide levels lower than 1000 microg kg(-1). Dietary exposure to acrylamide from potato crisp consumption in the total Spanish population was estimated to be 0.042 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) by using a deterministic approach based on the National consumption database. In a second study, dietary exposure (based on a 3-day food record) was determined to be 0.053 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for the adult population (17-60 years) and 0.142 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children (7-12 years). The contribution of potato crisps to the estimated dietary acrylamide exposure of the Spanish population is moderate as compared with other European Member States.

  9. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  10. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance.

  11. Treatment recommendations following 3-day masked continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rasbach, Lisa E; Atkins, Ashley E; Milaszewski, Kerry M; Keady, Joyce; Schmidt, Lisa M; Volkening, Lisa K; Laffel, Lori M

    2014-05-01

    Glycemic control remains suboptimal in youth with type 1 diabetes. Retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has demonstrated utility in fine-tuning diabetes management by detecting postprandial hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. In this study, we explored the process of 3-day masked CGM use, subsequent treatment recommendations, and impact on A1c in a clinic-based sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Over 2 years, 122 youth were referred for masked CGM. Patients/families completed a diary of blood glucose levels, insulin doses, food intake, and exercise during CGM use. A1c was assessed pre- and 2-3 months post-CGM. Treatment recommendations were formulated using data from CGM reports and diaries. Mean age was 14.3 ± 3.9 years, diabetes duration was 7.5 ± 4.7 years, and A1c was 8.5 ± 1.1% (69 ± 12 mmol/mol); 61% were pump-treated. Patients received an average of 3.1 ± 1.1 treatment recommendations following review of the CGM report. Most (80%) received reinforcement of the importance of preprandial bolusing; 37% received a recommendation regarding advanced insulin management (use of combination boluses/attend to active insulin). Receipt of the latter recommendation was related to A1c improvement ≥0.5% (OR: 4.0, P < .001). Masked CGM offers opportunities to guide advanced insulin management (by injection or pump), which may yield A1c improvements in youth with type 1 diabetes. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E.; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77–0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required. PMID:26091234

  13. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony W

    2015-06-17

    Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77-0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82-0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  14. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  15. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  16. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Pan, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Jinkou; Yuan, Baojun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kok, Frans J; Shi, Zumin

    2014-09-12

    To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing records. Four dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Overweight and obesity was determined according to the Chinese cut-offs for BMI. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Of the subjects, 26.7% had high blood pressure. Subjects with overweight and obesity were more likely to have high blood pressure than those with normal weight (PR, 95% CI: 1.60, 1.40-1.87; 2.45, 2.11-2.85, respectively). Subjects with a 'traditional' dietary pattern were more likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.001), whereas those with a 'macho' or 'sweet tooth' dietary pattern were less likely to have high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). More than half of the population had salt intakes > 9 g/d, and blood pressure increased with salt intake (P for trend <0.001). Subjects with a 'traditional' dietary pattern had the highest salt intake (12.3 g/d). A traditional dietary pattern is associated with high blood pressure among the population of Jiangsu Province, which may be mainly due to high salt intake. Moreover, high BMI is an important determinant of high blood pressure. Both issues need to be addressed by lifestyle interventions.

  17. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  18. Effect of 3-day dry immersion on ventilatory response to hypercapnic hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Dyachenko, Alexander; Shulagin, Yury; Ermolaev, Evgeny

    . This increase was 34% and 23% respectively. Tidal volume sensitivity in tests 2 and 3 increased in comparison with test 1 (P<0.05). Points of apnea in the 2-nd test changed to increased P _{CO2} values compared with 1-st test (P<0.05} and in the tests 2 and 3 compared with the test 4 (P<0.02). Thus, the VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased. Conclusion: Ventilation reaction to hypercapnia combined with hypoxia was changed during 3-day dry immersion. The VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased.

  19. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  20. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  1. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  2. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiäinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itämies, Juhani; Vähä, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelä, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-12-13

    A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  3. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-20

    Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively, were energy .56, .01

  4. Validity of Electronic Diet Recording Nutrient Estimates Compared to Dietitian Analysis of Diet Records: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. Objective To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Methods Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R 2) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. Results No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively

  5. Physiological responses to the endurance test of a 3-day-event during hot and cool weather.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W

    1995-11-01

    Physiological data were collected during two 3-day-event competitions: one (H) held in hot and the other (CL) in cool conditions. During H, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 2.5 degrees C-35 degrees C and 74-36% respectively, while during CL, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 7.8 degrees C-8.3 degrees C and 46%-41%, respectively. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates were recorded on arrival at the event, at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, at the end of Phase D and for 30 min at 10 min intervals after each horse finished Phase D (Recovery Period). Because of the heat, the rest-pause during the Endurance Test was extended from 10 to 15 min for horses competing in H, and horses at H were aggressively cooled by repetitive bathing with ice water during the rest-pause and the 30 min Recovery Period. Heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the end of Phase C in horses participating at H, as compared to those participating at CL. Heart rates were significantly decreased in both groups after 6 min in the rest-pause and by 10 min after the finish of Phase D. Rectal temperature were significantly higher in horses competing at H than in those competing at CL at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. In both groups, rectal temperatures decreased significantly during the first 6 min in the rest-pause and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. Fifty-five of 79 (69.6%) horses starting Phase A at H completed Phase D, as compared to 23 of 28 (82.1%) of starters at CL (P > 0.05). Of 10 horses eliminated during the rest-pause at H, 3 were lame, 1 had exertional rhabdomyolysis, 4 were exhausted and 2 were lame and exhausted. Two horses were eliminated during the rest-pause at CL:1 was lame and the other had exertional rhabdomyolysis. There was marked individual variation in horses' responses to heat at H. Heat may have limited the effectiveness of evaporative cooling in horses at H

  6. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  7. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  8. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  9. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (P<0.05). However, the exercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Monica H; Lillegaard, Inger T L; Karlsen, Anette; Blomhoff, Rune; Drevon, Christian A; Andersen, Lene F

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet, with special focus on the intake of fruit, vegetables and other antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative validity of the intakes of energy, food and nutrients from the FFQ. Energy intake was evaluated against independent measures of energy expenditure using the ActiReg® system (motion detection), whereas 7-days weighed food records were used to study the relative validity of food and nutrient intake. The relationship between methods was investigated using correlation analyses and cross-classification of participants. The visual agreement between the methods was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. We observed that the FFQ underestimated the energy intake by approximately 11% compared to the energy expenditure measured by the ActiReg®. The correlation coefficient between energy intake and energy expenditure was 0.54 and 32% of the participants were defined as under-reporters. Compared to the weighed food records the percentages of energy from fat and added sugar from the FFQ were underestimated, whereas the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates and protein were slightly overestimated. The intake of foods rich in antioxidants did not vary significantly between the FFQ and weighed food records, with the exceptions of berries, coffee, tea and vegetables which were overestimated. Spearman's Rank Order Correlations between FFQ and weighed food records were 0.41 for berries, 0.58 for chocolate, 0.78 for coffee, 0.61 for fruit, 0.57 for fruit and berry juices, 0.40 for nuts, 0.74 for tea, 0.38 for vegetables and 0.70 for the intake of wine. Our new FFQ provides a good estimate of the average energy intake and it obtains valid data on average intake of most antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. Our study also showed that the FFQs ability to rank participants according to intake of total antioxidants and most of the

  11. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  12. Improvement of dietary quality with the aid of a low glycemic index diet in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barakatun Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Norimah, A Karim; Gilbertson, Heather; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin

    2010-06-01

    This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Asian patients with T2DM (N  =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record. At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%). These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.

  13. Dietary fatty acids were not independently associated with lipoprotein subclasses in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Alaghehband, Fatemeh Ramezan; Lankinen, Maria; Värri, Miika; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids are known to affect serum lipoproteins; however, little is known about the associations between consumption of dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. In this study, we hypothesized that there is an association between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses and investigated the cross-sectional association of dietary fat intake with subclasses of lipoproteins in elderly women. Altogether, 547 women (aged ≥65 years) who were part of OSTPRE cohort participated. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, lifestyle, and health information obtained through self-administrated questionnaires, and lipoprotein subclasses were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To analyze the associations between fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses, we used Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with, adjustment for physical activity, body mass index, age, smoking status, and intake of lipid-lowering drugs. There were significant correlations between saturated fatty acids (SFA; % of energy) and concentrations of large, medium, and small low-density lipoproteins (LDL); total cholesterol in large, medium, and small LDL; and phospholipids in large, medium, and small LDL, after correction for multiple testing. After adjustment for covariates, the higher intake of SFA was associated with smaller size of LDL particles (P = .04, ANCOVA) and lower amount of triglycerides in small very low-density lipoproteins (P = .046, ANCOVA). However, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, high intake of SFA may be associated with the size of LDL particles, but the results do not support significant, independent associations between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of dietary counseling on nutrient intakes in gastric banding surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Rao, Sneha; Snell, Peter; Quittner, Claudia; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2013-12-01

    There is some evidence that bariatric surgery patients who undergo the purely restrictive procedures, such as the gastric banding (GB) or the vertical banded gastroplasty surgery, do not meet the dietary reference intakes for several nutrients. Whether dietary counseling improves micronutrient and macronutrient intakes was examined in GB surgery patients. Twenty-three GB surgery patients received dietary and behavioral counseling for 12 weeks to limit energy intake and improve nutrient intakes. Food intake was assessed by 3-day food record at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks. Postintervention data were available in 21 patients. At baseline, more than 50% of the subjects reported inadequate dietary intakes of 13 nutrients but overconsumption of sodium and percent energy from saturated and trans-fatty acids. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures revealed a significant reduction in energy (P = 0.0007), absolute protein (P = 0.04), cholesterol (P = 0.045), and potassium (P = 0.01) intake and an increase in vitamin K (P = 0.03) intake and percent energy from protein (P = 0.005) during the 12 weeks. The McNemar test showed a reduction in the proportion of the subjects with an inadequate intake of vitamin K (P = 0.008) but an increase in the proportion of the subjects with an inadequate intake of thiamin (P = 0.03) at 12 weeks. The proportion of the subjects who did not meet the nutrient requirements for the remaining 27 nutrients was generally high and remained unchanged. Dietary intervention improved the intake of some nutrients in the GB surgery patients. However, most nutrient intake requirements remained unmet by many subjects. These results indicate that nutritional counseling beyond 12 weeks is warranted in GB surgery patients to improve their dietary nutrient intakes.

  15. Comparison of eight microcomputer dietary analysis programs with the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference.

    PubMed

    Lee, R D; Nieman, D C; Rainwater, M

    1995-08-01

    To compare the general operating features and nutrient databases of eight microcomputer dietary analysis programs. A 3-day food record with 73 food items was entered into each program by the authors. The general operating features of the program were summarized and evaluated. The nutrient database was evaluated by comparing the nutrient analysis output with the 1993 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference (NDB), full version, release 10, for microcomputers. The programs varied in cost, number of foods and nutrients in the database, use of non-USDA data, and inputting of data for missing values. We also found differences in the quality of user manuals and help screens, ease of food entry and averaging of 3-day nutrient intake, speed of analyzing and printing results, quality and number of print/export options, and overall ease of learning and using the program. All but one of the programs were within 15% of the USDA NDB for energy, protein, total fat, and total carbohydrates. However, there was some difference in the number of other nutrients and food components varying more than 15% from the USDA NDB. These differences occurred because of variations in the number of food items included in each programs' database and the number of missing nutrient values in the database. Our results demonstrate the importance of carefully choosing a microcomputer dietary analysis program that is suitable to the user's specific and predetermined needs.

  16. Comparison of weighed food record procedures for the reference methods in two validation studies of food frequency questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuri; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Shinozawa, Yurie; Imaeda, Nahomi; Goto, Chiho; Wakai, Kenji; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Junta; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Mikami, Haruo; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Naito, Mariko; Okamoto, Naoko; Kondo, Fumi; Hosono, Satoyo; Miyagawa, Naoko; Ozaki, Etsuko; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Ohnaka, Keizo; Nanri, Hinako; Tsunematsu-Nakahata, Noriko; Kayama, Takamasa; Kurihara, Ayako; Kojima, Shiomi; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-07-01

    Although open-ended dietary assessment methods, such as weighed food records (WFRs), are generally considered to be comparable, differences between procedures may influence outcome when WFRs are conducted independently. In this paper, we assess the procedures of WFRs in two studies to describe their dietary assessment procedures and compare the subsequent outcomes. WFRs of 12 days (3 days for four seasons) were conducted as reference methods for intake data, in accordance with the study protocol, among a subsample of participants of two large cohort studies. We compared the WFR procedures descriptively. We also compared some dietary intake variables, such as the frequency of foods and dishes and contributing foods, to determine whether there were differences in the portion size distribution and intra- and inter-individual variation in nutrient intakes caused by the difference in procedures. General procedures of the dietary records were conducted in accordance with the National Health and Nutrition Survey and were the same for both studies. Differences were seen in 1) selection of multiple days (non-consecutive days versus consecutive days); and 2) survey sheet recording method (individual versus family participation). However, the foods contributing to intake of energy and selected nutrients, the portion size distribution, and intra- and inter-individual variation in nutrient intakes were similar between the two studies. Our comparison of WFR procedures in two independent studies revealed several differences. Notwithstanding these procedural differences, however, the subsequent outcomes were similar. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening measure for assessing dietary fat intake among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, J J; Sallis, J F; Rupp, J

    2001-12-01

    Clinical preventive guidelines recommend that health care providers counsel adolescents on nutrition. Brief, accurate, and reproducible dietary assessments are needed. The purpose of the current pair of studies was to develop a dietary fat screening measure for use with adolescents. Two measures were developed-a 21-item and a 4-category measure. The measures differed in the level at which fat consumption was assessed (food item vs food group). Study 1 (N = 231, age M = 15 years, 57% female, 41% Euro-American) evaluated reliability. Study 2 (N = 59, age M = 14 years, 63% female, 37% Euro-American) evaluated construct validity and correct classification rates. Internal consistencies (alpha > 0.70) and test-retest reliabilities (ICC > 0.60) were adequate for both measures. Neither measure correlated with total fat assessed by a 3-day food record (P > 0.05). The 21-item measure correlated significantly with percentage of calories from fat (r = 0.36, P <.01). Correct classification rate (71%) and sensitivity (81%) of the 21-item measure were good. Specificity (47%) was lower, indicating some subjects with a low-fat diet were misclassified by the screening measure. The 21-item measure is quick to complete and score, is inexpensive to reproduce, and has demonstrated reliability and validity. The measure could be clinically useful, but further improvements should be attempted to improve specificity. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science.

  18. Dietary and demographic correlates of serum ß-glucuronidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Li, Lin; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    Background β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides, may increase cancer risk; however, little is known about factors associated with human β-glucuronidase. Objective To examine whether dietary and demographic factors were associated with serum β-glucuronidase activity. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study among 279 healthy men and women, aged 20-40 years. Diet, categorized by botanical families and nutrient intakes, was assessed from 3-day food records and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographic factors were directly measured or self-reported. Adjusted mean β-glucuronidase activity across categories of exposure variables were calculated by multiple linear regression. Results Higher β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with being male, older age (≥30 years), non-Caucasian, overweight (≥ 25 kg/m2), and higher intakes of gamma-tocopherol. Conversely, lower β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with higher intakes of calcium, iron, and magnesium. A suggestive decrease in β-glucuronidase activity was observed for the botanical families, Cruciferae, Rutaceae, Compositae, Roseaceae, and Umbelliferae, but tests for trend were not statistically significant. Conclusions Several dietary and nondietary factors were associated with β-glucuronidase activity, however confirmation of these associations are needed. PMID:20099195

  19. Unplanned 3-day re-attendance rate at Emergency Department (ED) and hospital's bed occupancy rate (BOR).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Heng, Bee Hoon; Tay, Seow Yian; Tan, Kelvin Brian

    2015-12-01

    Unplanned re-attendance at the Emergency Department (ED) is often monitored as a quality indicator of the care accorded to patients during their index ED visit. High bed occupancy rate (BOR) has been considered as a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy. Most hospitals in Singapore operate under BORs above 85 %. This study aims to explore factors associated with the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and, in particular, if higher BOR is associated with higher 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate. This was a multicenter retrospective study using time series data. Three acute tertiary hospitals were selected from all six adult public hospitals in Singapore based on data availability. Daily data from year 2008 to 2013 were collected from the study hospitals' information systems. These included: ED visit date, day of week, month, year, public holiday, daily hospital BOR, daily bed waiting time (BWT) at ED (both median and 95th percentile), daily ED admission rate, and 3-day ED re-attendance rate. The primary outcome of the study was unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate from all reasons. Both univariate analysis and generalized linear regression were respectively applied to study the crude and adjusted association between the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and its potential associated factors. All analyses were conducted using SPSS 18 (PASW 18, IBM). The average age of patients who visited ED was 35 years old (SD = 2), 37 years old (SD = 2), and 40 years old (SD = 2) in hospitals A, B, and C respectively. The average 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate was 4.9 % (SE = 0.47 %) in hospital A, 3.9 % (SE = 0.35 %) in hospital B, and 4.4 % (SE = 0.30 %) in hospital C. After controlling for other covariates, the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rates were significantly associated with hospital, time trend, day of week, daily average BOR, and ED admission rate. Strong day-of-week effect on early ED re-attendance rate was

  20. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  1. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  2. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.

  3. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  4. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  6. Comparison of ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6.

    PubMed

    Du, Tong; Chen, Hong; Fu, Rong; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Yun; Mol, Ben W; Kuang, Yanping; Lyu, Qifeng

    2017-07-01

    To compare ectopic pregnancy risk among transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Retrospective cohort study. Academic tertiary-care medical center. A total of 10,736 pregnancies after 23,730 frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection from March 2003 to May 2015. The ectopic pregnancy rate was compared among pregnancies resulting from transfers of embryos vitrified on day 3, day 5, and day 6. Generalized estimation equation regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ectopic pregnancy and selected patient and treatment characteristics. We studied this association in both the group that achieved pregnancy and the group that underwent an FET cycle. Odds of ectopic pregnancy. The overall rate of ectopic pregnancy was 2.8% (304/10,736). Ectopic pregnancy rates after day-3, day-5, and day-6 vitrified embryo transfers were 3.1% (287/9,224), 2.0% (11/562), and 0.6% (6/950), respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the risks of ectopic pregnancy in day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers were both significantly higher than in day-6 vitrified embryo transfers. The associations were similar when we did calculations per cycle. In women undergoing FET, day-6 vitrified embryo transfer is associated with a significantly lower risk of ectopic pregnancy than both day-3 and day-5 vitrified embryo transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary tofu intake and long-term risk of death from stroke in a general population.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ho N; Miyagawa, Naoko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Yoshita, Katsushi; Arai, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Abbott, Robert D; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-03

    Although dietary soy intake is linked with health benefits, a relation with stroke has not been established. The present study examined the association between the intake of tofu, the richest source of dietary soy, with stroke mortality in a general population cohort of Japanese men and women. Data comprise 9244 Japanese enrolled in the National Nutrition Survey of Japan in 1980. Participants were free of cardiovascular disease and followed for 24 years. Dietary intake was estimated from 3-day weighed food records. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios across levels of tofu intake. During follow-up, there were 417 deaths due to stroke (88 cerebral hemorrhage [CH], 245 cerebral infarction [CI], and 84 of other subtypes). Among all men, and in women aged 65 years or more, tofu intake was unrelated to each form of stroke. For young women (<65 years of age), a significantly lower risk of CH in the top versus bottom quartile of tofu intake was observed (Multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.85). In this large prospective study with long follow-up of Japanese men and women, consumption of tofu was unrelated to the risk of stroke except for CH in women <65 years of age. Whether the association in younger women is real or due to chance alone warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Graiyna

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits arising from antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are well recognised and their recommended dietary intake for the general population have been established. However, there is still a need for assessing antioxidant vitamin intake in different population groups. To assess intake of antioxidant vitamins: A, C, E and beta-carotene, and to identify their major sources in the diets of healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 182 adults; both men and women from polish population. Antioxidant vitamin dietary intake was assessed by individual 3-day records. Data were analysed using updated "Polish Food Composition Tables" and 'Dieta 5' Software. The average daily intake of antioxidant vitamins was: 1076 mg for vitamin A (including 46% of retinol and 55% of beta-carotene), 107 mg for vitamin C and 9 mg for vitamin E. Higher dietary intake of these vitamins was observed in men compared to women. The average intake ofantioxidant vitamins was found to be in recommended range, however, significant differences were observed between the lowest and the highest intake. They were related to differences in the consumption of food products recognized as major sources of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene in study population.

  9. Relationship between dietary copper intake and indices of copper status in men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.; Reiser, S.; Canary, J. )

    1989-02-09

    Dietary copper (Cu) intake, red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and plasma Cu were determined in 18 men, 18 premenopausal (PRE) and 18 postmenopausal (POST) women. Follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone were measured to verify menopausal status in women. SOD levels were significantly different in men, PRE and POST women and were used to divide subjects into adequate (350-700 U/mI) and inadequate (<350 U/ml) Cu status. Dietary Cu intake including supplements was highest for men (2.53 mg/day) as compared to PRE (1.35 mg/day) and POST (1.86 mg/day) women. There was an inverse correlation between dietary Cu intake and SOD levels. Plasma Cu levels were significantly higher in women (102.8 {mu}g/dl PRE, 108.95 POST {mu}g/dl) compared to men (88.34 {mu}g/dl). Cp levels showed a positive correlation with plasma Cu but did not show a sex effect. The present Cu intake levels were calculated from diet records using a food Cu data base. These results are in the process of being verified by direct analysis of Cu level in a 3 day food composite. The results indicate that Cu intake alone is not a good predictor of Cu status as determine by SOD levels.

  10. Dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Escudero Alvarez, E; González Sánchez, P

    2006-05-01

    Currently and after 30 years of research, dietary fibre is part of what is considered a healthy diet. There is no single definition yet comprising the different components of dietary fibre and its functions. The main factors of fibre are complex carbohydrates and lignin, although new products may be included in the future within the concept of fibre. Dietary fibres reach the large bowel and are attacked by colonic microflora, yielding short chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane as fermentation products. Short chain fatty acids represent a way of recovering energy and they are also implicated in other beneficial functions for the human organism. Although there are no yet conclusive data on recommendations of different types of fibre, it is still appropriate to indicate a diet providing 20-35 g/day of fibre from different sources. There is a consensus to recommend a mixture of fibres or fibre like soybean polysaccharide for constipation. There are few conclusive data, still, on the benefit of fibre on prevention of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, a fibre-rich diet is recommended from early years of life since it is often associated to a lifestyle that in the long term helps controlling other risk factors.

  11. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  12. Intravenous and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of a single-daily dose of disodium-fosfomycin in cattle, administered for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Ocampo, C L; Gutierrez, O L

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin in cattle were determined after administration of buffered disodium fosfomycin either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Calculated concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 34.42 and 10.18 mug/mL, respectively. The variables determined, the elimination half-life of the drug remained unchanged during the 3 days ( = 1.33 +/- 0.3 h for the i.v. route and = 2.17 +/- 0.4 h for the i.m. route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest moderated distribution out of the central compartment (V(darea) = 673 mL +/- 27 mL/kg and V(dss) = 483 +/- 11 mL/kg). Bioavailability after i.m. administration was 74.52%. Considering fosfomycin as a time-dependent antibacterial drug, plasma concentration vs. time profiles obtained in this study, suggest that clinically effective plasma concentrations of fosfomycin could be obtained for up to 8 h following i.v. administration and approximately 10 h after i.m. injection of 20 mg/kg, for susceptible bacteria. In addition to residue studies in milk and edible tissues, a series of clinical assessments, using fosfomycin at 20 mg/kg b.i.d. or t.i.d. are warranted before this antibacterial drug should be considered for use in cattle.

  13. Doxycycline supplementation allows for the culture of human ESCs/iPSCs with media changes at 3-day intervals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Oh, Boram; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Culturing human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/iPSCs) is one of the most costly and labor-intensive tissue cultures, as media containing expensive factors/cytokines should be changed every day to maintain and propagate undifferentiated hESCs/iPSCs in vitro. We recently reported that doxycycline, an anti-bacterial agent, had dramatic effects on hESC/iPSC survival and promoted self-renewal. In this study, we extended the effects of doxycycline to a more practical issue to save cost and labor in hESC/iPSC cultures. Regardless of cultured cell conditions, hESCs/iPSCs in doxycycline-supplemented media were viable and proliferating for at least 3 days without media change, while none or few viable cells were detected in the absence of doxycycline in the same conditions. Thus, hESCs/iPSCs supplemented with doxycycline can be cultured for a long period of time with media changes at 3-day intervals without altering their self-renewal and pluripotent properties, indicating that doxycycline supplementation can reduce the frequency of media changes and the amount of media required by 1/3. These findings strongly encourage the use of doxycycline to save cost and labor in culturing hESCs/iPSCs.

  14. Comparison of relative validity of food group intakes estimated by comprehensive and brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaires against 16 d dietary records in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2011-07-01

    To compare the relative validity of food group intakes derived from a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type DHQ (BDHQ) developed for the assessment of Japanese diets during the previous month using semi-weighed dietary records (DR) as a reference method. Between November 2002 and September 2003, a 4 d DR (covering four non-consecutive days), a DHQ (150-item semi-quantitative questionnaire) and a BDHQ (fifty-eight-item fixed-portion-type questionnaire) were completed four times (once per season) at 3-month intervals. Three areas in Japan: Osaka, Nagano and Tottori. Ninety-two Japanese women aged 31-69 years and ninety-two Japanese men aged 32-76 years. Median food group intakes were estimated well for approximately half of the food groups. No statistically significant differences were noted between a 16 d DR and the first DHQ (DHQ1) or between the DR and the first BDHQ (BDHQ1) in fifteen (44 %) and fifteen (52 %) food items for women and in fourteen (41 %) and sixteen (55 %) food items for men, respectively, indicating that both questionnaires estimated median values reasonably well. Median Spearman's correlation coefficients with the DR were 0·43 (range: -0·09 to 0·77) for DHQ1 and 0·44 (range: 0·14 to 0·82) for BDHQ1 in women, with respective values of 0·44 (range: 0·08 to 0·87) and 0·48 (range: 0·22 to 0·83) in men, indicating reasonable ranking ability. Similar results were observed for mean values of the four DHQ and BDHQ. In terms of food intake estimates, both the DHQ and the BDHQ showed reasonable validity.

  15. Dietary patterns of Australian children aged 14 and 24 months, and associations with socio-demographic factors and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Bell, L K; Golley, R K; Daniels, L; Magarey, A M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown, in predominantly European populations, that dietary patterns are evident early in life. However, little is known about early-life dietary patterns in Australian children. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of Australian toddlers and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics and adiposity. Principal component analysis was applied to 3 days (1 × 24-h recall and 2 × 24-h record) data of 14 (n=552)- and 24 (n=493)-month-old children from two Australian studies, NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI). Associations with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Two patterns were identified at both ages. At 14 months, the first pattern was characterised by fruit, grains, vegetables, cheese and nuts/seeds ('14-month core foods') and the second pattern was characterised by white bread, milk, spreads, juice and ice-cream ('basic combination'). Similarly, at 24 months the '24-month core foods' pattern included fruit, vegetables, dairy, nuts/seeds, meat and water, whereas the 'non-core foods' included white bread, spreads, sweetened beverages, snacks, chocolate and processed meat. Lower maternal age and earlier breastfeeding cessation were associated with higher 'basic combination' and 'non-core foods' pattern scores, whereas earlier and later solid introduction were associated with higher 'basic combination' and '24-month core foods' pattern scores, respectively. Patterns were not associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Dietary patterns reflecting core and non-core food intake are identifiable in Australian toddlers. These findings support the need to intervene early with parents to promote healthy eating in children and can inform future investigations on the effects of early diet on long-term health.

  16. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3 days healing in rabbit Achilles tendon rupture model after early kinesitherapy.

    PubMed

    Jialili, Ainuer; Jielile, Jiasharete; Abudoureyimu, Shajidan; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Redati, Darebai; Bai, Jing-Ping; Bin, Liang; Duisabai, Sailike; Aishan, Jiangaguli; Kasimu, Haxiaobieke

    2011-04-01

    Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT) rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n equal to 16) received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n equal to 16) received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C). The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, pro-alpha-1 type 1 collagen

  17. Anti-plaque and antimicrobial efficiency of different oral rinses in a 3-day plaque accumulation model.

    PubMed

    Cantore, S; Ballini, A; Mori, G; Dibello, V; Marrelli, M; Mirgaldi, R; De Vito, D; Tatullo, M

    2016-01-01

    The idea of incorporating a mouthrinse with normal tooth brushing could be a useful adjunct to oral hygiene. Despite the principle nature of the toothpaste vehicle, most alcohol-based chemical plaque-control agents have been evaluated and later formulated in the mouthrinse vehicle. The current study was aimed to investigate the persistence of antimicrobial action and plaque inhibitory properties of a new alcohol-free mouthrinse when compared with positive control, chlorhexidine 0.12% and placebo control, physiologic saline solution mouthrinses. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by saliva samples collected during the 3 days of usage. The results of this study indicate that this new oral rinse has an equivalent plaque inhibitory action to chlorhexidine, and the plaque inhibitory action of the rinse appears to be derived from a persistence of antimicrobial action in the mouth. Furthermore, no side effects were reported during the study, and the additional benefit of no alcohol presence in the rinse solution.

  18. Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in a 3 Star horse trial and 3-day-event.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F M; Geiser, D R; White, S L; Williamson, L H; Maykuth, P L; Green, E M

    1995-11-01

    Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in the Endurance Test (Phase T and D) of an advanced Horse Trial (HT, n = 22) and the Endurance Test (Phases A-D) of an advanced (CCI) 3-day-event (TD, n = 11) over a similar course on the same day were studied. Environmental conditions during the event were cool (5.5-11.1 degrees C). Blood samples were collected from the horses in each group the evening prior to the Endurance Test, within 60 s after, and 10 min after, completion of Phase D (cross-country jumping). The following were determined in the blood samples and compared between the 2 groups of horses: packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein [TP], serum albumin [ALB], plasma lactate [lactate], serum total calcium [TCa], plasma ionised calcium [Ca+2], serum inorganic phosphate [PO4], plasma pH, plasma sodium [Na], plasma potassium [K], serum chloride [Cl], serum urea nitrogen [SUN], serum creatinine [Cr] and serum glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. The PCV and [Cr] were higher in the TD group and approached significance (P = 0.063 and P = 0.057, respectively). The [TP], [ALB], [Na], glucose concentration and CK, and AST were significantly higher and [Cl] and [PO4] were significantly lower in the TD group after exercise when compared to the HT group. It was deduced from these data that the horses competing in the 3-day-event experienced greater fluid and electrolyte losses, reduced glomerular filtration, higher glycogenolysis and had greater leakage of enzymes from working muscles during competition than horses competing in the horse trial.

  19. Efficacy of 3 days/wk resistance training on myofiber hypertrophy and myogenic mechanisms in young vs. older adults.

    PubMed

    Kosek, David J; Kim, Jeong-Su; Petrella, John K; Cross, James M; Bamman, Marcas M

    2006-08-01

    Resistance training (RT) has shown the most promise in reducing/reversing effects of sarcopenia, although the optimum regime specific for older adults remains unclear. We hypothesized myofiber hypertrophy resulting from frequent (3 days/wk, 16 wk) RT would be impaired in older (O; 60-75 yr; 12 women, 13 men), sarcopenic adults compared with young (Y; 20-35 yr; 11 women, 13 men) due to slowed repair/regeneration processes. Myofiber-type distribution and cross-sectional area (CSA) were determined at 0 and 16 wk. Transcript and protein levels of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) were assessed as markers of regeneration at 0 and 24 h postexercise, and after 16 wk. Only Y increased type I CSA 18% (P < 0.001). O showed smaller type IIa (-16%) and type IIx (-24%) myofibers before training (P < 0.05), with differences most notable in women. Both age groups increased type IIa (O, 16%; Y, 25%) and mean type II (O, 23%; Y, 32%) size (P < 0.05). Growth was generally most favorable in young men. Percent change scores on fiber size revealed an age x gender interaction for type I fibers (P < 0.05) as growth among Y (25%) exceeded that of O (4%) men. Myogenin and myogenic differentiation factor D (MyoD) mRNAs increased (P < 0.05) in Y and O, whereas myogenic factor (myf)-5 mRNA increased in Y only (P < 0.05). Myf-6 protein increased (P < 0.05) in both Y and O. The results generally support our hypothesis as 3 days/wk training led to more robust hypertrophy in Y vs. O, particularly among men. However, this differential hypertrophy adaptation was not explained by age variation in MRF expression.

  20. Adolescent dietary intakes predict cardiometabolic risk clustering.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha R; Bradlee, M Loring; Daniels, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively examine the relation between adolescent dietary intake and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) clustering at the end of adolescence. Data from the NHLBI Growth and Health Study on 1369 girls enrolled at ages 9-10 in 1987-1988 and followed for 10 years were used to estimate the relative risk of having multiple (≥2 or ≥3) risk factors in late adolescence associated with usual food intake patterns from 9 to 17 years of age. Mean food intakes were derived from multiple 3-day diet records and CMR factors included larger waist circumference, insulin resistance, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressures. Of 1369 subjects, 18.4 % girls had 3-6 prevalent risk factors by the end of adolescence and 35.0 % had at least two. Higher intakes of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, dairy, and grains were independently associated with having fewer risk factors as were eating patterns characterized by higher combined intakes of these food groups. After adjusting for age, race, socio-economic status, height, physical activity, and television watching, girls with high intakes of dairy and fruits and non-starchy vegetables (vs. those with lower intakes of both) were nearly 50 % less likely to have three or more CMR factors in late adolescence; girls with higher intakes of grains plus fruits and non-starchy vegetables were nearly 60 % less likely. These results suggest that healthy food consumption patterns during adolescence may prevent accumulation of cardiometabolic risk.

  1. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy.

  2. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  3. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Long, JoAnn D; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Martin, Hope; Rogers, Toby J; Boswell, Carol; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R

    2010-12-01

    Diets high in fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with a decrease in chronic diseases. Dietary factors are linked to 4 of the 10 leading noncommunicable causes of death: cardiovascular disease, some cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Accurately measuring dietary patterns has many challenges. Dietary intake measurement has traditionally relied on self-report instruments such as 24-hour recall, food record, and food frequency questionnaires to record consumption history. These methods have inherent limitations in detecting small but important changes in fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. Promising advances in technology have made more sophisticated techniques for recording dietary intake possible. Computers and Web-based programs, handheld personal digital assistants with cameras and telephone cards, smart phones, cameras, and video recorders options may reduce the burden of recording what has been consumed. Furthermore, technology-based methods of dietary assessment may provide a higher degree of reliability and validity in visually determining fruit and vegetable consumption, and additional study is warranted. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based methods for dietary assessment, which included fruit and vegetable consumption. One hundred and eighty-seven articles published between 1998 and 2008 were initially identified. Fifteen met the study inclusion criteria and were evaluated by an interdisciplinary team using the Stetler Strength of Evidence Scale. Six technology-based methods for dietary assessment were identified. Findings from validity and reliability testing of technology-based methods are encouraging and need replication. Clinically important features offered through technology may reduce reporting burden and offer behavioral feedback to users. Methodologically sound, empirical research into using technology-based application for dietary assessment in a variety of

  4. Effects of TLR agonists on maturation and function of 3-day dendritic cells from AML patients in complete remission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active dendritic cell (DC) immunization protocols are rapidly gaining interest as therapeutic options in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we present for the first time a GMP-compliant 3-day protocol for generation of monocyte-derived DCs using different synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in intensively pretreated patients with AML. Methods Four different maturation cocktails were compared for their impact on cell recovery, phenotype, cytokine secretion, migration, and lymphocyte activation in 20 AML patients and 25 healthy controls. Results Maturation cocktails containing the TLR7/8 agonists R848 or CL075, with and without the addition of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), induced DCs that had a positive costimulatory profile, secreted high levels of IL-12(p70), showed chemotaxis to CCR7 ligands, had the ability to activate NK cells, and efficiently stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this approach translates into biologically improved DCs, not only in healthy controls but also in AML patients. This data supports the clinical application of TLR-matured DCs in patients with AML for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:21910911

  5. Cloud Based Surveys to Assess Patient Perceptions of Health Care: 1000 Respondents in 3 days for US $300

    PubMed Central

    Bardos, Jonah; Friedenthal, Jenna; Spiegelman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients’ perspectives of health care. Methods A national online survey posted to Amazon's MTurk consisted of 33 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Continuous attributes were compared using t tests. Results We obtained 1084 responses for a total cost of US $298.10 in less than 3 days with 300 responses in under 6 hours. Of those, 44.74% (485/1084) were male and 54.80% (594/1084) female, representing 49 out of 50 states and aged 18 to 69 years. Conclusions Amazon’s MTurk is a potentially useful survey method for attaining information regarding public opinions and/or knowledge with the distinct advantage of cost, speed, and a wide and relatively good representation of the general population, in a confidential setting for respondents. PMID:27554915

  6. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  7. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary cholesterol, total fat and different types of fat intakes among Malay adults.

    PubMed

    Eng, Jui Yee; Moy, Foong Ming

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Malaysia. Evidence shows that dietary fat intake is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies assessing the association of fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular diseases in Malaysia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing total fat and different types of fat among Malay adults in Malaysia. A 100 food item FFQ focused on dietary cholesterol, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat intake for the past one month was developed and validated against 3-day dietary record (DR) among 151 Malay participants. Validity was assessed through the reliability and agreement of two methods. Intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients were used to assess reliability; while regression analysis and classification into categories were used to assess agreement of the two methods. The mean nutrient intakes tended to be higher in FFQ compared to DR. The developed FFQ showed excellent reliability with ICC coefficients ranging from 0.92-0.98. Regression analysis demonstrated an acceptable agreement between FFQ and DR for total fat and different types of fat intakes. There were a relatively high proportion of subjects being correctly classified (into same or adjacent category) and only a small number of grossly misclassification for total energy, fat, dietary cholesterol, saturated fat and unsaturated fat occurred. This FFQ is valid in assessing absolute total energy, total fat and types of fat intakes among Malay adults.

  8. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid, Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Intake, Inflammation, and Survival in Long-term Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Nazanin; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Sim, John J.; Feroze, Usama; Murali, Sameer B.; Bross, Rachelle; Benner, Debbie; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among long-term hemodialysis patients is high, mostly attributed to cardiovascular events, and may be related to chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory benefits of higher dietary omega-3, compared to omega-6, poly-unsaturated fatty acids may modulate the inflammatory processes and reduce death risk. Study design Prospective cohort study using linear and Cox proportional regressions. Setting and Participants 145 hemodialysis patients from 8 DaVita dialysis clinics in Southern California during 2001-2007 Predictors Intake of dietary omega-3 and ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 using 3-day food record supplemented by dietary interview. Outcomes One-year change in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and 6-year survival. Results Patients were 53±14 years old (mean±SD) and included 43% women and 42% African-Americans. Median (25th-75 percentile) of dietary omega-3 intake, ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 intake, baseline serum CRP, and change in CRP over one year were 1.1(0.8-1.6) g/day, 9.3(7.6-11.3), 3.1(0.8-6.8) mg/L, and +0.2(−0.4 to +0.8) mg/L, respectively. In regression models adjusted for case-mix, dietary calorie and fat intake, body mass index and history of hypertension, each 1-unit higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 intake was associated with 0.55 mg/L increase in serum CRP (p=0.03). In fully adjusted model, the death hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for the 1st(1.7-<7.6) 2nd(7.6-<9.3), 3rd(9.3-<11.3) and 4th(11.3-17.4) quartiles of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio were 0.39(0.14-1.18), 0.30(0.09-0.99), 0.67(0.25-1.79) and 1.00(reference), respectively (p-for-trend=0.06). Limitations Three-day food record may underestimate actual dietary fat intake at individual level. Conclusions Higher dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio appears associated with both worsening inflammation over time and a trend towards higher death risk in hemodialysis patients. Additional studies including interventional trials are needed to examine

  9. Relationship between number of metabolic syndrome components and dietary factors in middle-aged and elderly Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Rei; Imai, Tomoko; Kato, Yuki; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerosis and is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The role of diet in the etiology of MetS is poorly understood, especially among Asian subjects. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between diet and the number of MetS components among Japanese men (n=609) and women (n=631). Mean (s.d.) age and body mass index were 57.1 (12.1) years and 22.8 (2.8) kg m(-2) for men and 55.5 (12.0) years and 22.0 (3.0) kg m(-2) for women, respectively. Diet was assessed by a 3-day dietary record that included photographs: 16 nutrients, 11 food groups, and energy % of protein and dietary fat were selected as a dietary index. The definition of MetS was based on modified National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, and the number of clustering MetS components was calculated by adding the presence of each five MetS components. A total of 61 men (10.0%) and 46 women (7.3%) were determined to have MetS. After adjusting for age, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status and physical activity, a lower intake of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber in men, and lower intake of calcium, milk and dairy products and higher intake of cereal in women were related to the number of MetS components. These results suggest that some dietary factors were related to the number of MetS components among community-dwelling Japanese men and women.

  10. Low Adherence to Dietary Guidelines in Spain, Especially in the Overweight/Obese Population: The ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the dietary intake of the Spanish population according to ponderal status and body fat distribution. Data were obtained from ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample (1013 men, 996 women) of the Spanish population (18-64 years). The final fieldwork was carried out from mid-September to November (three months) 2013. A 3-day dietary record provided information about food and beverage consumption. Height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) calculated. The Spanish population had a low consumption of fruits and vegetables, cereals, whole cereals, and dairy and high consumption of meat products. Individuals with overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and abdominal adiposity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) showed lower compliance with dietary guidelines. In the male group, adjusting by age, inadequate consumption of cereals (<4 servings/day) and vegetables and fruit (<5 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.187-2.447, p = 0.001, for cereals and OR = 3.816, 95% CI, 1.947-7.480, p = 0.001, for vegetables and fruits) and abdominal adiposity (OR = 2.081, 95% CI, 1.419-3.053, p = 0.000 and OR = 4.289, 95% CI, 2.108-8.726, p = 0.001, respectively). Nutritional campaigns should be conducted to improve the dietary habits of the Spanish population in general, especially men, who have poorer ponderal status and abdominal adiposity, due to their lower adherence to dietary guidelines.

  11. Simvastatin pre-treatment improves survival and mitochondrial function in a 3-day fluid-resuscitated rat model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jerome; Hargreaves, Iain; Brealey, David; Neergheen, Viruna; Backman, Janne T; Lindig, Sandro; Bläss, Marcus; Bauer, Michael; McAuley, Daniel F; Singer, Mervyn

    2017-04-25

    Statins may offer protective effects in sepsis through anti-inflammatory, mitochondrial protection and other actions. We thus evaluated the effects of simvastatin on survival, organ and mitochondrial function, tissue and plasma ubiquinone levels and liver transcriptomics in a 3-day rat model of sepsis. Comparisons of rat plasma simvastatin and ubiquinone levels were made against levels sampled in blood from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) enrolled into a trial of statin therapy. Animals received simvastatin by gavage either pre- or post-induction of faecal peritonitis. Control septic animals received vehicle alone. Seventy-two-hour survival was significantly greater in statin pre-treated animals (43.7%) compared with their statin post-treated (12.5%) and control septic (25%) counterparts (P<0.05). Sepsis-induced biochemical derangements in liver and kidney improved with statin therapy, particularly when given pre-insult. Both simvastatin pre- and post-treatment prevented the fall in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in muscle fibres taken from septic animals at 24 h. This beneficial effect was paralleled by recovery of genes related to fatty acid metabolism. Simvastatin pre-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in myocardial ubiquinone. Patients with ALI had a marked variation in plasma simvastatin acid levels; however, their ubiquinone/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ratio did not differ regardless of whether they were receiving statin or placebo. In summary, despite protective effects seen with statin treatment given both pre- and post-insult, survival benefit was only seen with pre-treatment, reflecting experiences in patient studies. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Similar rebleeding rate in 3-day and 7-day intravenous ceftriaxone prophylaxis for patients with acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Huang, Chung-Tsui; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2016-07-01

    Although prophylactic antibiotics have been recommended for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the duration of its use remains an inconclusive issue. We designed this study to investigate the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. We enrolled those patients suffering from acute esophageal variceal bleeding and receiving band ligation. They were randomly allocated to two groups to receive prophylactic antibiotics; Group I: receiving intravenous ceftriaxone 500 mg every 12 hours for 3 days, and Group II: same regimen for 7 days. We used rebleeding rate within 14 days as the primary end point and also evaluated the survival rate within 28 days and the amount of transfusion during admission. There were 38 patients in Group I and 33 patients in Group II that completed the study course for analysis. Overall, there was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between these two groups. There were three patients both in Group I and Group II who developed rebleeding within 14 days (8% vs. 9%, p > 0.99). There was also no difference between Group I and Group II in transfusion amount (2.71 ± 2.84 units vs. 3.18 ± 4.07, p = 0.839) and survival rate in 28 days (100 vs. 97%, p = 0.465). Our small scale study demonstrated that there was no difference in the rebleeding rate between 3-day and 7-day ceftriaxone prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. There was also no difference in 28 day survival rate between these two groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (P<0.0001) resulting in a 4-day cumulative carbohydrate, fat and protein balances of -183+/-368, 342+/-480 and 65+/-267 kcal, respectively. Cumulative energy balance (224+/-362 kcal per 4 days) did not influence ad libitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  15. Observed dietary intake in adults with intellectual disability living in the community

    PubMed Central

    Adolfsson, Päivi; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson; Fjellström, Christina; Lewin, Barbro; Andersson, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge is lacking about dietary habits among people with intellectual disability (ID) living in community residences under new living conditions. Objective To describe the dietary habits of individuals with ID living in community residences, focusing on intake of food, energy and nutrients as well as meal patterns. Design Assisted food records and physical activity records over a 3-day observation period for 32 subjects. Results Great variation was observed in daily energy intake (4.9–14 MJ) dispersed across several meals, with on average 26% of the energy coming from in-between-meal consumption. Main energy sources were milk products, bread, meat products, buns and cakes. The daily intake of fruit and vegetables (320±221 g) as well as dietary fiber (21±9.6 g) was generally low. For four vitamins and two minerals, 19–34% of subjects showed an intake below average requirement (AR). The physical activity level (PAL) was low for all individuals (1.4±0.1). Conclusion A regular meal pattern with a relatively high proportion of energy from in-between-meal eating occasions and a low intake of especially fruits were typical of this group of people with ID. However, the total intake of energy and other food items varied a great deal between individuals. Thus, every adult with ID has to be treated as an individual with specific needs. A need for more knowledge about food in general and particularly how fruit and vegetables could be included in cooking as well as encouraged to be eaten as in-between-meals seems imperative in the new living conditions for adults with ID. PMID:19109653

  16. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children.

  17. Efficacy of dietary modification following the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation on lipid profiles among hyperlipidemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Thiengwiboonwong, Suruchsawadee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Temcharoen, Paradee; Pandii, Wongdyan; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee

    2013-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia has adverse effects on atherosclerosis, causing it to develop into cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia has been increasing among those in the working-age group and may be caused by inappropriate dietary patterns. Dietary modification should form the basis of lipid management. Evaluate the effects of a dietary modification following the NCEP-ATP III recommendation on lipid profiles among hyperlipidemia subjects. The design was a quasi-experimental study, with a pre-test/post-test two-group design. Each group consisted of 31 hyperlipidemia subjects aged 30 to 59 years old with total cholesterol (TC) greater than or equal to 240 mg/dl or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than or equal to 130 mg/dl. The present study was conducted between January and June 2009. The research procedure included 6-week nutrition counseling and a 2-week follow-up for 12 weeks. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire and a 3-day food record. Dietary and biological assessments were compared before and after the experiment. Statistical analysis was performed using means, standard deviations, independent and paired t-tests, Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intervention group had a significant reduction of TC and LDL-C at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Moreover this group had a significantly higher percentage reduction of TC and LDL-C than the control group (8.5% vs. 3.0%, and 10.8% vs. 2.4%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Distributions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the intervention group were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs):MUFAs:polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 12.0:13.4:6.3% in the intervention group and 12.3:9.2:5.6% in the control group. Neither group was able to reduce SFAs intake to < 7% as recommended. Neither the recommended one-third of vegetable protein nor two-thirds of complex

  18. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Wijndaele, Katrien; Matton, Lynn; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine; Delecluse, Christophe; Duquet, William

    2007-09-21

    Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH) between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day) were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. This study supports the evidence that carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre intake are closely related to

  19. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Wijndaele, Katrien; Matton, Lynn; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine; Delecluse, Christophe; Duquet, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH) between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day) were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that carbohydrate, fat, protein

  20. Dietary vitamin D intake is not associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone in elderly subjects, whereas the calcium-to-phosphate ratio affects parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Alexandra; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2013-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) are affected by vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate intake in 140 independently living elderly subjects from Germany (99 women and 41 men; age, 66-96 years). We hypothesized that habitual dietary intakes of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate are not associated with 25(OH)D3 or iPTH and that body mass index confounds these associations. Serum 25(OH)D3 and iPTH were measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Dietary intake was determined using a 3-day estimated dietary record. The median dietary intake levels of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate were 3 μg/d, 999 mg/d, and 1250 mg/d, respectively. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that dietary vitamin D and calcium did not affect 25(OH)D3 or iPTH; however, supplemental intakes of vitamin D and calcium were associated with 25(OH)D3 after adjustment for age, sex, body composition, sun exposure, physical activity, and smoking. In addition, phosphate intake and the calcium-to-phosphate ratio were associated with iPTH after multiple adjustments. In a subgroup analysis, calcium and vitamin D supplements, as well as phosphate intake, were associated with 25(OH)D3 and/or iPTH in normal-weight subjects only. Our results indicate that habitual dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes have no independent effects on 25(OH)D3 or iPTH in elderly subjects without vitamin D deficiency, whereas phosphate intake and the calcium-to-phosphate ratio affect iPTH. However, vitamin D and calcium supplements may increase 25(OH)D3 and decrease iPTH, even during the summer, but the impact of supplements may depend on body mass index. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Libuda, Lars; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Buyken, Anette E

    2009-03-15

    The authors prospectively examined whether change in dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fiber intake, or whole-grain intake during puberty is associated with concurrent change in percentage of body fat (%BF) or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height)(2). Linear mixed-effects regression analyses were performed in 215 participants from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study (Dortmund, Germany) who possessed weighed 3-day dietary records and anthropometric data at puberty onset (defined by age at takeoff) and over the subsequent 4 years (1988-2007). Neither changes in dietary GI, GL, fiber intake, nor whole-grain intake were associated with concurrent changes in %BF throughout puberty (change in %BF: -0.03 (standard error (SE), 0.11) per standard deviation (SD) increase in GI (P = 0.8); -0.01 (SE, 0.11) per SD increase in GL (P = 0.9); 0.02 (SE, 0.14) per SD increase in fiber intake (P = 0.9); and 0.09 (SE, 0.13) per SD increase in whole-grain intake (P = 0.5)). Similarly, no concurrent associations were observed between these dietary factors and BMI SD scores. Associations of dietary GI with %BF and BMI SD score differed between overweight and normal-weight adolescents (for concurrent association, P for interaction was 0.03 for %BF and 0.08 for BMI SD score). Dietary GI, GL, and fiber and whole-grain intakes in healthy, free-living adolescents do not appear to be relevant to the development of %BF or BMI during puberty.

  2. Early structural and functional signature of 3-day human skeletal muscle disuse using the dry immersion model.

    PubMed

    Demangel, Rémi; Treffel, Loïc; Py, Guillaume; Brioche, Thomas; Pagano, Allan F; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Pessemesse, Laurence; Candau, Robin; Gharib, Claude; Chopard, Angèle; Millet, Catherine

    2017-03-22

    Microgravity and hypoactivity are associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. The decrease of muscle mass is an exponential decay with major changes in the first days. The purpose of the study was to dissect out the effects of a short-term 3-day dry immersion (DI) on human quadriceps muscle function and structure. The DI model, by suppressing all support zones, accurately reproduces the effects of microgravity. Twelve healthy volunteers (32 ± 5 yrs) completed 3 days of DI. Muscle function was investigated through maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests and muscle viscoelasticity. Structural experiments were performed using MRI analysis and invasive experiments on muscle fibres. Our results indicated a significant 9.1% decrease of the normalized MVC constant (P = 0.048). Contraction and relaxation modelization kinetics reported modifications related to the torque generation (kACT  = -29%; P = 0.014) and to the relaxation phase (kREL  = +34%; P = 0.040) after 3 days of DI. Muscle viscoelasticity was also altered. From day one, the rectus femoris stiffness and tone decreased, respectively, by 7.3% (P = 0.002) and 10.2% (P = 0.002). On the other hand, rectus femoris elasticity increased by 31.5% (P = 0.004) after 3 days of DI. At the cellular level, 3 days of DI translated into a significant atrophy of type I muscle fibres (-10.6% ± 12.1, P = 0.027) and an increase proportion of hybrid, type I/IIX fibre co-expression. Finally, we reported an increase (6-fold; P = 0.002) of NCAM+ muscle fibres, showing an early denervation process. This was the first experiment performed in Europe investigating human short-term DI-induced muscle adaptations. This study contributes to deciphering the early changes and biomarkers of skeletal muscle deconditioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Prolactin induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurone differentiation in Snell dwarf mice if administered beginning at 3 days of age.

    PubMed

    Khodr, C E; Hurley, D L; Phelps, C J

    2009-06-01

    The hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones secrete dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion. TIDA neurone numbers are deficient in Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice, which lack prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin therapy initiated before 21 days maintains normal-sized TIDA neurone numbers in df/df mice and, when initiated as early as 7 days, maintains the maximum TIDA neurone numbers observed in dw/dw development, which are decreased compared to those in normal mice. The present study investigated the effect of prolactin dose and species on TIDA neurone development. Snell dwarf and normal mice were treated with saline, 5 microg of ovine prolactin (oPRL), 50 microg of oPRL, or 50 microg of recombinant mouse prolactin (rmPRL) beginning at 3 days of age. Brains were analysed at 45 days using catecholamine histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase or bromodeoxyuridine. Normal mice had greater (P

  4. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  5. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  6. Energy and nutrient intakes and adherence to dietary guidelines among Finnish adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Mikkilä, Vera; Mäkimattila, Sari; Forsblom, Carol; Freese, Riitta; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes are instructed to eat a healthy, balanced diet. Implementation of diet is an under-studied phenomenon. We aimed to describe the nutrient intake of a large sample of adult Finnish patients with type 1 diabetes and assess whether they meet the recommendations. Cross-sectional data from a total of 817 patients are presented. Data on food intake were collected with a 3-day food record completed twice with a 2-3-month interval. Compliance with dietary guidance was self-reported. Patients frequently reported a diet low in carbohydrates and fibre but high in fat. Only 28% restricted saturated fatty acid to less than 10% of their daily energy intake. One-fourth of the patients reported higher than recommended sucrose intake. Salt recommendations were frequently exceeded. Of the micronutrients, the recommendations for vitamin A, vitamin D, folate, and iron were most frequently unmet. Although self-reported compliance was associated with a higher frequency of meeting the recommendations for some of the macronutrients, the actual frequencies were modest. In general, those compliant were observed to consume more vitamin and mineral-dense food. Dietary intake among patients with type 1 diabetes does not, for many nutrients, meet the recommendations.

  7. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-05-06

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  8. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  9. Earlier Metabolizable Energy Intake Level Influences Heat Production during a Following 3-Day Fast in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Ning, D.; Guo, Y. M.; Wang, Y. W.; Peng, Y. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate energy requirements for maintenance in laying hens by using indirect calorimetry and energy balance. A total of 576 28-wk-old Nongda-3 laying hens with dwarf gene were randomly allocated into four ME intake levels (86.57, 124.45, 166.63 and 197.20 kcal/kg body weight (BW)0.75 per d) with four replicates each. After a 4 d adaptation period, 36 hens from one replicate were maintained in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 3 d during the feeding period and subsequent 3 d fast. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was partitioned between heat increment (HI), HP associated with activity, fasting HP (FHP) and retained energy (RE). The equilibrium FHP may provide an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). Results showed that HP, HI and RE in the fed state increased with ME intake level (p<0.05). Based on the regression of HP on ME intake, the estimated ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) was 113.09 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d when ME intake equals HP. The FHP was decreased day by day with the lowest value on the third day of starvation. Except for lowest ME intake level, the FHP increased with ME intake level on the first day of starvation (p<0.05). The FHP at the two higher ME intake levels were greater than that at the two lower ME intake levels (p<0.05) but no difference was found between the two lower ME intake levels. Linear regression of HP from the fed state to zero ME intake yielded a value of 71.02 kcal/kg BW0·75 per d, which is higher than the extrapolated FHP at zero ME intake (60.78, 65.23 and 62.14 kcal/kg BW0.75 per d for the first, second and third day of fasting, respectively). Fasting time, lighting schedules, calculation methods and duration of adaptation of hens to changes in ME intake level should be properly established when using indirect calorimetry technique to estimate dietary NE content, MEm and NEm for laying hens. PMID:25049823

  10. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was <6 g/kg/day and below 30% of energy, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were below, and protein (in men) intakes were higher than, the current recommendations for strength athletes, with no consideration for exploration of macronutrient quality or distribution over the day. Energy

  11. Records Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be found when needed, the identification and retention of permanent records are facilitated, and permanent and temporary records are physically segregated, or for electronic records, segregable.

  12. Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    USAARL Report No. 2006-08 Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program by... Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air PE 622787 Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program PR 879 TA P WU DA361539 6. AUTHOR(S) Clarence E...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Microvision Spectrum SD2500 HMD, a monocular, full-color scanning laser display, display, was evaluated for optical image

  13. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Akira; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na–K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population. Setting Prospective cohort study. Participants In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24 years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30–79 years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model. Primary outcome measures Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes. Results A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176 926 person-years. Na–K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na–K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na–K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population

  14. Association between dietary lead intake and 10-year mortality among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Orsini, Nicola; Zhou, Yonglin; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Jianghong; Taylor, Anne W

    2017-05-01

    Blood lead level is associated with increased risk of mortality, but dietary lead exposure and mortality, particularly with cancer, has not been studied in the general population. The objective of the study was to assess the association between lead intake and 10-year mortality among 2832 Chinese adults. Food intake was measured by 3-day weighed food record in 2002. We documented 184 deaths (63 cancer deaths and 70 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths) during 27,742 person-years of follow-up. Dietary lead intake was positively associated with cancer and all-cause mortality. Across quartiles of lead intake, hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer mortality were 1.00, 0.80 (0.33-1.92), 1.52 (0.65-3.56), and 3.00 (1.06-8.44) (p for trend 0.028). HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.28 (0.83-1.98), 1.24 (0.78-1.97), and 2.24 (1.28-3.94) (p for trend 0.011). Each 30 μg/day increase of lead intake was associated with 25% (95% CI 3-52%) increase of all-cause mortality. There was an interaction between lead intake and hypertension in relation to CVD mortality (p for interaction 0.003): HRs conferred by every 30 μg/day of lead intake were 1.57 (0.98-2.52) and 1.06 (0.81-1.39) among those with or without hypertension. Dietary lead intake was positively related to cancer and all-cause mortality.

  15. Effect of a dietary intervention on growth and energy expenditure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I; Dougherty, Kelly A; Latham, Norma E; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-09-01

    The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. 63 children (57% males, age 10.6 ± 2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109 ± 8% predicted at baseline and 107 ± 9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean ± SE] -31 ± 12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (-49 ± 16 kcals, p < 0.01). Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.

  18. Dietary glycaemic carbohydrate in relation to the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: comparison of different metabolic syndrome definitions.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, T A; Lyons-Wall, P; Bremner, A P; Ambrosini, G L; Huang, R C; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Blair, E; Oddy, W H

    2010-07-01

    High dietary glycaemic carbohydrate, as measured by the dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load has been associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in adults, but limited research exists for younger populations. We aimed to evaluate associations between dietary glycaemic carbohydrate and insulin resistance or the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by three different criteria in a population-based adolescent cohort. Diet was assessed using 3 day food records in 769 adolescents aged 13-15 years participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The metabolic syndrome was identified using age-specific adolescent definitions from the International Diabetes Federation, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and a population-derived 'high-risk' metabolic cluster algorithm. Presence of a high waist circumference was mandatory only in the International Diabetes Federation definition. Insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the Adult Treatment Panel III was 3.6 and 4.0%, respectively; 25.9% of subjects were classified into the high-risk cluster. Significantly increased odds of International Diabetes Federation-defined metabolic syndrome were independently associated with a 20 unit glycaemic load increase (odds ratio 2.18; 95% confidence interval 1.26-3.78) and a 30 g carbohydrate increase (odds ratio 3.86; 95% confidence interval 1.80-8.28). No significant associations were observed when using the Adult Treatment Panel III, or the cluster-defined metabolic syndrome, or with HOMA-IR. This study supports the concept that high dietary glycaemic carbohydrate is associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. However, relationships vary according to the definition of the metabolic syndrome used, with waist circumference a potentially

  19. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  20. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  1. Personal Dietary Assessment Using Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J; Kerr, Deborah A; Ebert, David S; Delp, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  2. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  3. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  4. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66-96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m(2)). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects.

  5. Dietary saturated fat and fibre and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among type 1 diabetic patients: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, D A J M; Toeller, M; Chaturvedi, N; Fuller, J H; Soedamah-Muthu, S S

    2012-08-01

    Low adherence to recommendations for dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fibre intake in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may heighten their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We examined the relationship of SFA and total, soluble and insoluble fibre with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. A prospective cohort analysis was performed in 2,108 European type 1 diabetic patients aged 15-60 years who were free of CVD at baseline and enrolled in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (51% male). Diet was assessed from a standardised 3 day dietary record. HR were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 148 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal CVD and 46 all-cause deaths were documented. No statistically significant association was found between SFA and CVD and all-cause mortality. Total dietary fibre, per 5 g/day, was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.55, 0.95). This association was stronger for soluble fibre (per 5 g/day, HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14, 0.80) compared with insoluble fibre (per 5 g/day; HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.45, 0.97). Similar results were found for the association with CVD. This study suggests that reported dietary SFA is not significantly associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. On the contrary, higher dietary fibre consumption, especially soluble fibre, within the range commonly consumed by type 1 diabetic patients, may contribute to the prevention of CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients.

  6. Efficacy of a 3-day oral regimen of quinine in an area of northern Nigeria with low-grade resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine.

    PubMed

    Adagu, S I; Okoyeh, J N; Lege-Oguntoye, L; Ogala, W N; Ogunrinde, G O; Faji, J T; Sani, A H

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy in vivo of a 3-day oral regimen of quinine (30 mg/kg/day) was assessed in 34 children with falciparum malaria in an area of northern Nigeria with previously documented low-grade parasite resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR). By day 4, all 34 children were free of parasites. Mean parasite clearance time and fever clearance time were 2.7 and 1.7 days, respectively. However, on day 14, 5 (14.7%) children were again parasitaemic and 4 of them were clinically ill. They were again treated successfully with a standard course of oral chloroquine. No adverse drug effects were recorded. Of the 34 children, 9 parasite isolates were successfully cultured in vitro. EC50 and EC99 were 14.0 and 126.0 pmol per well respectively, indicating decreased parasite sensitivity but no resistance in vitro. In conclusion, the 3-day course of quinine was found to be an effective alternative to standard chloroquine treatment in the study area.

  7. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while

  9. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J; Van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-11-25

    Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of

  10. Assessing dietary variety in children: development and validation of a predictive equation.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Grace A; Horner, Stacie L; Liang, Juan; Couch, Sarah C; Levin, Linda S

    2009-04-01

    Research indicates that the length of time needed to describe dietary diversity is approximately 2 weeks. This is the first study conducted to develop a dietary variety measurement tool that is sensitive to the effect of time on dietary variety without the burden of gathering data for 2 weeks. To determine whether 3 days of 24-hour dietary recall logs collected during a 15-day period would predict food variety as well as 15 consecutive days. The study also determined which set of 3 days (consecutive vs interval days) within a 15-day period would better predict 15-day food variety. Prospective survey of the dietary practices of children. Seventy-two children aged 9 to 12 years attending fourth and fifth grades in a public elementary school in a Midwestern town in the fall of 2005. Predicted 15-day cumulative dietary variety score from 3 consecutive days and 3 interval days of dietary data. Two prediction models were obtained from multiple linear regression analyses in which natural log-transformed (log(e)) 15-day variety scores were regressed on log(e) 3-day variety scores (consecutive and interval days). The ability of each model to predict the 15-day cumulative variety score was assessed by comparisons of mean bias, mean-squared error, coefficient of determination (R(2)), and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Three days of dietary data accurately estimated dietary variety over time for this sample of 9- to 12-year-old children using the predictive equation generated in this study. Three interval days predicted 15-day food variety more precisely than 3 consecutive days. The predictive equation is accurate in estimating food variety over time for this population and, if validated in independent samples, could be applied to similar populations.

  11. [Dietary habits and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Bergovec, Mijo; Ruzić, Alen; Persić, Viktor

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. They are the main cause of death in industrialized countries, while the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in less developed countries. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Obesity has been recorded in 10%-25% of the population, indicating that poor or inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy dietary habits including place and way of taking meals, number of daily meals and excessive salt intake from processed foods also contribute to body mass gain. In the present study, dietary habits were assessed in cardiovascular patients versus control group by use of Dietary Habits Questionnaire. Study results showed a statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of inappropriate eating habits in cardiovascular patients (lower number of daily meals, more often skipping breakfast and having dinner) than in control group. In conclusion, many lifestyle and individual behavior modifications are needed in most patients with or at a high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Susceptibility of the developing rat gustatory system to the physiological effects of dietary sodium deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D L

    1987-01-01

    1. Multifibre responses were recorded from the chorda tympani nerve in rats fed either a NaCl-deficient diet or a NaCl-replete diet from 3 days post-conception to at least 28 days post-natal. Responses were also recorded in rats fed the NaCl-deficient diet during early development and then fed the NaCl-replete diet for 1-20 days beginning at 28 days post-natal, and in rats fed the NaCl-deficient diet only as adults. The epithelial sodium transport blocker, amiloride, was used to study the physiological effects of the diet on taste receptor membrane function and to characterize the events involved in recovery of function. 2. Responses to lingual application of sodium salts increased with increasing stimulus concentration; however, response magnitudes were reduced in rats fed the NaCl-deficient diet during early development compared to controls. Responses to non-sodium salts and non-salt stimuli were similar to controls. Amiloride was ineffective in suppressing taste responses to NaCl in deprived rats but effectively suppressed responses in controls by at least 50%. After early-deprived rats were fed a NaCl-replete diet, responses to sodium salts recovered to control levels within 15 days. There was a concomitant decrease in amiloride sensitivity during this period. 3. Rats fed the NaCl-deficient diet from early gestation through adulthood had responses similar to younger deprived rats in that sodium responses were lower than controls. However, rats deprived only as adults were similar to controls. 4. The peripheral gustatory system in developing rats is susceptible to the sodium content of the diet and is 'plastic' in that early effects can be reversed by restricting dietary sodium. Once dietary manipulations are instituted past a sensitive period, however, functional taste responses seem unaffected. PMID:3446802

  13. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-02

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  14. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyla L.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Howie, Erin K.; Straker, Leon M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  15. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. Objectives This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. Patients and Methods A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. Results In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with

  16. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-09-01

    Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with obesity (P < 0.05). Intake of a Western dietary

  17. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  18. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  19. A 3-day delay in synovial fluid crystal identification did not hinder the reliable detection of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals.

    PubMed

    Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Gehrisch, Siegmund; Panzner, Ines; Winzer, Maria; Range, Ursula; Bornstein, Stefan R; Siegert, Gabriele; Wunderlich, Carsten; Aringer, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Arthrocentesis is an essential emergency step in managing patients with acute arthritis. To identify a bacterial infection, Gram staining is performed promptly. However, crystal analysis may not be immediately performed in many facilities. Being considered not to be stable over time, synovial fluid (SF) is sometimes discarded instead of being stored for crystal identification. The aim of this study was to assess the detectability of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in SF over a period of 3 days. Consecutive SF samples from 75 joints were analyzed for MSU, CPP crystals, and pH. Two independent observers evaluated the samples by regular light and polarization microscopy immediately after arthrocentesis and after 1, 2, and 3 days at room temperature or at 4°C. Of 75 samples, 27 contained crystals (16 MSU, 6 CPP, 5 both); semiquantitative counts of both MSU and CPP crystals did not change significantly after 3 days. There was no new formation of crystals in any of the crystal-negative samples, which was independent of the storage temperature. Synovial fluid pH was not predictive of crystals and did not change over time. Although immediate workup for microbiology, including Gram stain and culture, is indispensable and well established, crystal analysis may at times not be immediately performed. Our study suggests that when crystal identification cannot be done immediately, it can be safely performed up to 3 days after arthrocentesis when SF is stored at 4°C or even at stable room temperature (20°C).

  20. Effects of different frequencies (2-3 days/week) of aquatic therapy program in adults with chronic low back pain. A non-randomized comparison trial.

    PubMed

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Angel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Gatto-Cardia, Maria Claudia; Artero, Enrique G

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of an aquatic therapy program with different frequencies (2 vs 3 days per week) in chronic low back pain. [corrected] Non-randomized comparison trial. Sport and spa community health club. Fifty-four adults with chronic low back pain (48.9 ± 10.0 years). Eight-week aquatic therapy program. Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), and quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey 36), body composition (weight, body mass index, body fat mass, body fat percentage, and skeletal muscle mass), and health-related fitness (sit and reach, handgrip strength, curl-up, Rockport 1-mile test). Both experimental groups presented significant improvements in low back pain and disability (P < 0.001) compared with control group. The 3 days/week group showed significantly greater benefits at VAS flexion and disability (P < 0.001) than the 2 days/week group. Regarding quality of life, both intervention groups presented significant differences for Physical Role (P < 0.05), Bodily Pain (P < 0.001), General Health (P = 0.012), and Standardized Physical Component (P < 0.001) compared with control group. Both experimental groups significantly improved all health-related fitness parameters (P < 0.01). The 3 days/week group showed significantly greater benefits at curl-up and heart rate (P < 0.001) than the 2 days/week group. No significant changes between treatment groups and control were found in body composition. Eight weeks of aquatic therapy program decrease levels of back pain and disability, increase quality of life, and improve health-related fitness in adults with chronic low back pain without effects in body composition. A dose-response effect was observed in some parameters, with greater benefits when exercising 3 days per week compared with 2 days. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between heavy and light drinking group. With regard to the dietary quality evaluation of the subjects, the nutrient densities (ND) of carbohydrate, niacin, vitamin C, and zinc in the heavy drinking group were significantly lower than those of the light drinking group. Therefore, continuous nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  2. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  3. Technology-Assisted Dietary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system. PMID:22128303

  4. Use of technology in children's dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Boushey, C J; Kerr, D A; Wright, J; Lutes, K D; Ebert, D S; Delp, E J

    2009-02-01

    Information on dietary intake provides some of the most valuable insights for mounting intervention programmes for the prevention of chronic diseases. With the growing concern about adolescent overweight, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and they have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. We used qualitative and quantitative techniques among adolescents to assess their preferences for dietary assessment methods. Dietary assessment methods using technology, for example, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or a disposable camera, were preferred over the pen and paper food record. There was a strong preference for using methods that incorporate technology such as capturing images of food. This suggests that for adolescents, dietary methods that incorporate technology may improve cooperation and accuracy. Current computing technology includes higher resolution images, improved memory capacity and faster processors that allow small mobile devices to process information not previously possible. Our goal is to develop, implement and evaluate a mobile device (for example, PDA, mobile phone) food record that will translate to an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. This mobile computing device will include digital images, a nutrient database and image analysis for identification and quantification of food consumption. Mobile computing devices provide a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on record keepers. Images of food can be marked with a variety of input methods that link the item for image processing and analysis to estimate the amount of food. Images before and after the foods are eaten can estimate the amount of food consumed. The initial stages and potential of this project will be described.

  5. Determination of dietary habits as a risk factor of cardiovascular heart disease in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Altan, Tuğçe; Dinçer, Derya; Aran, Esra; Kaya, Hülya Gülper; Yüksek, Oya

    2005-03-01

    To investigate dietary habits and evaluate these with regard to cardiovascular risk status in Turkish adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 300 adolescents, 135 males and 165 females aged between 12 and 19, were included in the study. Dietary intake was determined by using 3-day food records (including 1 weekend day). Adolescents' smoking habits and familial chronic diseases were recorded. The values obtained for energy and nutrient intakes were compared with RDA and DRI and recommendations given by AHA. The mean energy intakes of male and female subjects were 1964 +/- 723 kcal and 1804 +/- 486 kcal respectively. According to NHANES III, age-standardized (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) prevalence of overweight indicated that 20.7% among male and 17.5% among female adolescents were at risk for becoming overweight. The prevalence of premature CHD family history was found to be 9.6% for males and 11.5 % for females. The prevalence of current smoking was found to be 22.2 % for males and 18.2 % for females. In addition, 29.6% of the males and 37.6% of the females were physically inactive (p < 0.05); however, male adolescents (48.2%) were significantly more likely than female adolescents (52.1 %) to report sufficient moderate physical activity (p < 0.05). The dietary fiber intake was slightly below the recommended intake of 10 g per 1000 kcal. Compared to the AHA averages, these adolescents had significantly higher intake of total fat, saturated fat, sodium and dietary cholesterol and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat and dietary fiber. The Turkish adolescents also had higher amounts of energy from fat. The mean percentage of energy from fat was 34.2 +/- 6% TE for males and 35.2 +/- 6.8 % TE for females; saturated fat was 11.8 +/- 6.8 % TE for males and 12.1 +/- 8.9 for females. The intake of fat and saturated fat was higher than the AHA recommendations. The polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio was 0.4 +/- 0.2 and reflected a

  6. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  7. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  8. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  9. Probiotics and dietary counselling targeting maternal dietary fat intake modifies breast milk fatty acids and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Ulla; Isolauri, Erika; Laakso, Päivi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2012-03-01

    Breast milk fatty acids possess immunomodulatory properties, and new intervention strategies beyond supplementation of maternal diet with single oils are called for. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention during pregnancy and breastfeeding on breast milk fatty acid and cytokine composition. Pregnant women were randomised into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotic) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). Dietary intervention included dietary counselling and provision of rapeseed oil-based food products. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy and 1 month postpartum. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) and 1 month after delivery for fatty acid and cytokine analysis (n = 125). Dietary intervention improved the quality of fat in the diet. In breast milk, the proportion of α-linolenic acid and total n-3 fatty acids was higher in both dietary intervention groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). In the diet/probiotic group, the γ-linolenic acid content was higher compared with the diet/placebo group (p < 0.05). The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-2 were higher in both dietary intervention groups compared with controls, and furthermore, long-chain n-3 fatty acids were associated with several cytokines in colostrum samples. The present intervention demonstrated the possibility of modifying breast milk immunomodulatory factors by dietary means.

  10. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  11. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  12. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2016-12-12

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  13. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy.

  14. The long-term effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The SODIUM-HF (Study of Dietary Intervention Under 100 mmol in Heart Failure): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; McAlister, Finlay A; Zheng, Yinggan; Sharma, Sangita; Armstrong, Paul W; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial comparing a low-sodium to a moderate-sodium diet in heart failure (HF) patients. Patients with HF (New York Heart Association classes II-III) were randomized to low (1500 mg/d) or moderate-sodium (2300 mg/d) diet. Dietary intake was evaluated using 3-day food records. The end points were changes in quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) scores and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels from baseline to 6 months of follow-up presented as medians [25th, 75th percentiles]. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (19/group). After 6 months, median sodium intake declined from 2137 to 1398 mg/d in the low-sodium and from 2678 to 1461 mg/d in the moderate-sodium diet group. Median BNP levels in the low-sodium diet group declined (216-71 pg/mL, P = .006), whereas in the moderate-sodium diet group, there was no change in BNP (171-188 pg/mL, P = .7; P = .17 between groups). For 6 months, median KCCQ clinical score increased in both groups (63-75 [P = .006] in the low-sodium diet group and 66-73 [P = .07] in the moderate-sodium group; P = .4 between groups). At 6 months, a post hoc analysis based on the dietary sodium intake achieved (> or ≤ 1,500 mg/d) in all patients showed an association between a sodium intake ≤ 1,500 mg/d and improvement in BNP levels and KCCQ scores. A dietary intervention restricting sodium intake was feasible, and achievement of this sodium goal was associated with lower BNP levels and improved quality of life in patients with HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Addition of 3-day aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma receiving 5-day cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Raafat; Abbas, Noha; Shohdy, Kyrillus S; Ismail, Mohamed; Fawzy, Radwa; Salem, Dalal S; Safwat, Ezzat

    2017-09-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant are currently emerging as powerful prophylactic agents for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Therefore, it is important to adjust the anti-emetic regimens based on personal risk factors of the patient, duration of the chemotherapy regimen and cost-effectiveness. To determine the efficacy of the 3-day aprepitant along with ondansetron and dexamethasone in controlling CINV in patients with large B cell lymphoma receiving multiday-cisplatin regimen chemotherapy. This is a pilot prospective cross-over trial. Patients were allocated to either aprepitant 125mg on day 1 and 80mg on days 2 & 3 or placebo in the first 2 cycles, with crossover to the opposite treatment in the 3rd and 4th cycles. The primary end point was complete response (CR) of both acute (days 1-5) and delayed (days 6-8) CINV. CR means neither to develop emetic episodes nor to use rescue anti-emetics medication. Twelve of the 15 patients recruited for the study were fully evaluable and completed 4 cycles of ESHAP regimen with a total of 48 cycles given. In the cycles with aprepitant and those without the CR were 83.3% and 0% respectively (p<0.05). Patients receiving aprepitant in the first 2 cycles recorded less nausea in subsequent cycles that were given without aprepitant. This was not statistically significant. This triple anti-emetic regimen showed efficacy in controlling the multi-day cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to compare between 3-day and 7-day aprepitant for multi-day cisplatin regimens. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Intervertebral Disc Swelling Demonstrated by 3D and Water Content Magnetic Resonance Analyses after a 3-Day Dry Immersion Simulating Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Mkhitaryan, Karen; Gellee, Stéphane; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight and simulation studies. Disc herniation is quadrupled after space flight. Purpose: The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results in intervertebral disc (IVD) swelling. Study Design: The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine and their clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI). The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy before and after DI. Methods: All the experiment was financially supported by CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales i.e., French Space Agency). Results: We observed an increase in spine height of 1.5 ± 0.4 cm and a decrease in curvature, particularly for the lumbar region with a decrease of −4 ± 2.5°. We found a significant increase in IVD volume of +8 ± 9% at T12-L1 and +11 ± 9% at L5-S1. This phenomenon is likely associated with the increase in disc intervertebral water content (IWC), 17 ± 27%. During the 3 days in DI, 92% of the subjects developed back pain in the lumbar region below the diaphragmatic muscle. This clinical observation may be linked to the morphological changes of the spine. Conclusions: The morphological changes observed and, specifically, the disc swelling caused by increased IWC may contribute to understanding disc herniation after microgravity exposure. Our results confirmed the efficiency of the 3-day DI model to reproduce quickly the effects of microgravity on spine morphology. Our findings raise the question of the subject selection in spatial studies, especially studies about spine morphology and reconditioning programs after space flight. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disc herniation and may serve as the basis to develop countermeasures for astronauts and to prevent IVD herniation and back pain on Earth. PMID

  17. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ygil, Karin H; Andersen, Rikke; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Thorsen, Anne-Vibeke; Tetens, Inge; Wu, Huaxing; Landberg, Rikard

    2016-02-01

    Whole-grain (WG) intake is important for human health, but accurate intake estimation is challenging. Use of a biomarker for WG intake provides a possible way to validate dietary assessment methods. Our aim was to validate WG intake from 2 diets reported by children, using plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school meal × 3 mo crossover trial. Reported WG intake and plasma AR concentrations were compared when children ate their usual bread-based lunch (UBL) and when served a hot lunch meal (HLM). Correlations and cross-classification were used to rank subjects according to intake. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between subjects' measurements at baseline and after the UBL were used to assess reproducibility. Correlations between reported WG wheat + rye intake and plasma AR were 0.40 and 0.37 (P < 0.001) for the UBL and the HLM diets, and 78% and 77% were classified in the same or adjacent quartiles for the UBL and HLM diets, respectively. The ICC over 3 mo was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.55) for plasma total ARs and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.70) for reported WG intake. Correlations were higher when using the AR C17:0 homolog as a biomarker, reflecting rye intake instead of plasma total ARs [UBL: r = 0.47; HLM: r = 0.43, P < 0.001; ICC = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.59)]. Self-reported WG wheat + rye intake among children showed moderate correlations with plasma AR concentrations. Substantial intraindividual variation was found in WG intake and plasma AR concentrations. The AR homolog C17:0 may be used as a biomarker for WG intake when the WG intake primarily comes from rye as in the present study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01457794. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Prevalence of the Equol-Producer Phenotype and Its Relationship with Dietary Isoflavone and Serum Lipids in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Qin, Liqiang; Liu, Aiping; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Ueno, Tomomi; Li, Xuetuo; Wang, Peiyu

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes have beneficial effects on a range of health outcomes. We investigated the prevalence of equol producers and the relationship of equol phenotype with habitual isoflavone consumption and serum lipid concentrations in 200 Chinese adults in Beijing. Methods After the baseline survey and dietary records, 200 healthy adults in Beijing were challenged with a soy-isoflavone supplement for 3 days; 24-hour urine samples were collected before and after the challenge. Isoflavones and their metabolites in urine were measured to determine equol phenotype. Serum lipids, uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Results Only 26.8% of the participants excreted equol when on a regular diet, as compared with 60.4% after the challenge. After the challenge, urinary isoflavonoid excretion increased in all participants, while equol excretion increased only in equol producers. Isoflavone intake was correlated with urinary isoflavone (range r = 0.49–0.58, P < 0.01). As compared with nonproducers, equol producers were less likely to consume cereals (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids and isoflavone intake. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by equol phenotype. Conclusions Urinary equol excretion was detected in about 25% of participants under their usual dietary conditions. Their potential to produce equol was increased after the challenge. Urinary isoflavone levels may serve as a useful biomarker for isoflavone intake in populations. We observed an association between equol phenotype and cereal intake. Our findings also suggest that dietary isoflavone intake has no significant effect on serum lipids in healthy participants, regardless of equol phenotype. PMID:20671375

  19. Dietary intakes of iron and zinc assessed in a selected group of the elderly: are they adequate?

    PubMed

    Madej, Dawid; Borowska, Katarzyna; Bylinowska, Justyna; Szybalska, Aleksandra; Pietruszka, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that the elderly consume a nutritionally inadequate diet that includes deficiencies in macro- and microelements; iron and zinc being significant examples of the former. To assess the adequacy of dietary iron and zinc intakes in the elderly. The study was conducted on n = 102 elderly persons, participating in the PolSenior Project, aged over 65, of which 44 were women and 58 men. Consumption data were collected by using 3 day dietary record from which a usual intakes of energy, macroelements (iron and zinc) were calculated. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut point and z-scores methods were used to determine probabilities of whether iron and zinc uptake was adequate per subject. By using the EAR cut-point method it was stated that iron intake was inadequate for 5% of respondents, whereas 44% showed deficits in zinc (34% women and 52% men). The z-scores demonstrated that 3% of subjects had high probabilities of deficiencies in iron and 52% in zinc. Indeed, very high zinc deficiencies were observed in 20% of cases. The insufficient energy intake observed among respondents contributes to a high risk of zinc deficiency necessary to ensure health in the elderly. In most cases, the low risk of iron deficiency shows that there is no need to increase this nutrient uptake in the examined group of elderly. The study highlights the need for educating the elderly, especially focused on improving zinc intake without changing iron intake. It can be done through appropriate dietary choices so as to include products such as dairy products, wheat bran, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, beans, lentils and nuts.

  20. In vitro Production of IL-6 and IFN-γ is Influenced by Dietary Variables and Predicts Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Incidence and Severity Respectively in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Huicui; Lee, Yujin; Ba, Zhaoyong; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Furumoto, Emily J.; Roberts, Robert F.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Rogers, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of immune responses in healthy adults following dietary or lifestyle interventions is challenging due to significant inter-individual variability. Thus, gaining a better understanding of host factors that contribute to the heterogeneity in immunity is necessary. To address this question, healthy adults [n = 36, 18–40 years old, body mass index (BMI) 20–35 kg/m2] were recruited. Dietary intake was obtained via 3-day dietary recall records, physical activity level was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood. Expression of activation markers on unstimulated immune subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion was assessed following in vitro stimulation with anti-CD3 or lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of cold or flu symptoms were obtained from self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) questionnaires. The relationship between activation marker expression on T cells and T-cell effector functions; and in vitro cytokine secretion and URTI was determined by linear or logistic regression. CD69 and CD25 expression on unstimulated T cells was significantly associated with T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 secretion. Incidence and severity of cold or flu symptoms was significantly associated with in vitro interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma secretion, respectively. Furthermore, host factors (e.g., age, BMI, physical activity, and diet) contributed significantly to the relationship between activation marker expression and T-cell effector function, and cytokine secretion and cold and flu status. In conclusion, these results suggest that lifestyle and dietary factors are important variables that contribute to immune responses and should be included in human clinical trials that assess immune endpoints. PMID:25788896

  1. A review of methods to measure dietary sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Brooke

    2006-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of heart failure, it is imperative to investigate reasons for dietary sodium nonadherence and to develop evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. However, one of the biggest obstacles in studying adherence to a low sodium diet is the imprecision in measurement of dietary sodium intake. The purpose of this article is to critically review current methods used to measure dietary sodium intake. Specifically, 24-hour urine, single- and multiple-day food records, and 24-hour dietary recalls are compared and contrasted. The reliability and validity of these methods are discussed. When choosing a method to measure dietary sodium, it is important also to consider other strengths and weaknesses of each method. The "best" method to be used in research may depend not only on the above information, but also on the research question as well as characteristics of the population under study.

  2. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  3. Comparison of clinical efficacy between 3-day combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation treatment and 10-day amoxicillin treatment in children with pharyngolaryngitis or tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Haruo; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Inoue, Nobue; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Himi, Kyoko; Kurosaki, Tomomichi

    2013-02-01

    The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.

  4. Comparative trial of 3 days of azithromycin versus 10 days of clarithromycin in the treatment of children with acute otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, A; Loaiza, C; Rodriguez, F; Herrera, M L; Mohs, E

    1997-02-01

    The authors compared the efficacy, safety and tolerance of azithromycin and clarithromycin in pediatric patients with acute otitis media. A randomized, open clinical trial was performed comparing azithromycin and clarithromycin in children aged 6 months to 12 years of age with acute otitis media with effusion. Patients were allocated to azithromycin at 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days or to clarithromycin at 15 mg/kg day divided into two equal doses for 10 days. Clinical examinations and tympanometric evaluations were performed at baseline, day 3-5, day 10-14, day 28-30 and day 50-60. Tympanocentesis fluid cultures were collected at enrollment and urine and blood samples were obtained at baseline and day 10-14. Of 100 patients enrolled, 97 were considered evaluable. The most common middle ear pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (60%), Haemophilus influenzae (15%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Fifty patients (100%) treated with azithromycin and 45 (95.7%) patients treated with clarithromycin had a satisfactory clinical response. Rates of persistence of middle ear effusion and possible drug related side effects were comparable. Based on the efficacy and safety results, azithromycin for 3 days and clarithromycin for 10 days are considered to represent an attractive alternative for the treatment of children with acute otitis media.

  5. Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium.

  6. Food preferences and dietary intakes of Filipino adolescents in metro Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Magbuhat, Rizza Marie T; Borazon, Elaine Q; Villarino, Blanca J

    2011-04-01

    This study examined differences in food preferences and dietary intake among male and female Filipino adolescents of different nutritional status as measured by body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty 13-17-year olds from various schools and communities in Metro Manila, The Philippines were selected through quota sampling with BMI, sex and age as criteria. Data on mean dietary intake and food preference were collected using pretested instruments--a 3-day food record and a food preference questionnaire, respectively. Resulting values were analysed using one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Pearson's product-moment and Spearman's correlation using SAS Enterprise Guide version 2. Preference for cereals prepared with added sugar or fat (p=0.21, p=.0240), and low fat meat (p=0.18, p=0.420) were found to be positively correlated with BMI, while preference for fruits that are high in vitamin A (p=-0.18, p=0.430) was negatively correlated with the said variable. Overweight respondents gave lower and significantly different preference scores to donut (p=.02780), banana cue (p=.0489) and mayonnaise (p=.0291). Respondents of different nutritional status also had statistically different intakes of fibre, calcium and phosphorus, corresponding with the positive correlation of fibre (p=0.25231, p=0.0054), calcium (p=0.2529, p=0.0134) and phosphorus (p=0.25887, p=0.0043) intake with BMI. With respect to sex, male respondents gave statistically higher preference for French fries (p=.0370), tofu (p=.0005), garlic (p=.0190) and mussels (p=.0023). Also, males have significantly higher intakes of energy and carbohydrate than female respondents. Results suggest that food preferences should be considered in the nutritional care management of malnourished adolescents.

  7. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements.

  8. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health.

    PubMed

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  9. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  10. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  11. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  12. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  13. Investigation of anthropometric, biochemical and dietary parameters of obese children with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Karabouta, Zaharoula; Pantoleon, Athina; Rousso, Israel

    2012-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children has been recognized as a major health burden. The high prevalence of NAFLD is probably due to the contemporary epidemics of obesity, unhealthy dietary pattern, and sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake parameters of obese Greek children with and without NAFLD. Eighty two obese children aged 8-15 (45 boys/37 girls) participated in the study. Ultrasonography (US) was used to diagnose NAFLD in all participated subjects. Liver indexes were measured in all children. A 3-day dietary was recorded for all subjects. Data for continuous variables is expressed as mean values±standard deviation. Thirty-five out of eighty two subjects (42.6%) had NAFLD. Body Mass Index levels (P<0.001) and Waist Circumference (P<0.046) levels were statistically higher in the children with severe NAFLD (37.2kg/m(2)±6.2 and 102.9cm±14) compared to children with mild NAFLD (26.6kg/m(2)±3.3 and 86.1cm±9.9) and absent of fatty liver (25.3kg/m(2)±3.6 and 85.2cm±11.2), respectively. Total carbohydrates intakes were significantly higher in subjects with NAFLD (288.8g±70.6) compared to children without NAFLD (244.5g±67.5), (P<0.001). Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) intake was proportionally increased to the degree of hepatic steatosis, while n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) consumption was inversely related with NAFLD. In multiple regression analysis of factors associated with NAFLD, HOMA-IR (OR: 1.260, 95%CI: 1.110-1.470, P<0.001) and n-3FA (OR:1.921, 95%CI:1.132-2.187, P<0.001) were the most significant ones. Our results showed that IR, high dietary intakes of CHO and SFA and a low dietary consumption of fiber and n-3 FA were positively associated with the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  14. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  16. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  17. Dietary fructose in relation to blood pressure and serum uric acid in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Bobridge, K S; Haines, G L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L J; Oddy, W H; Sherriff, J; O'Sullivan, T A

    2013-04-01

    Evidence that fructose intake may modify blood pressure is generally limited to adult populations. This study examined cross-sectional associations between dietary intake of fructose, serum uric acid and blood pressure in 814 adolescents aged 13-15 years participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Energy-adjusted fructose intake was derived from 3-day food records, serum uric acid concentration was assessed using fasting blood and resting blood pressure was determined using repeated oscillometric readings. In multivariate linear regression models, we did not see a significant association between fructose and blood pressure in boys or girls. In boys, fructose intake was independently associated with serum uric acid (P<0.01), and serum uric acid was independently associated with systolic blood pressure (P<0.01) and mean arterial pressure (P<0.001). Although there are independent associations, there is no direct relationship between fructose intake and blood pressure. Our data suggest that gender may influence these relationships in adolescence, with significant associations observed more frequently in boys than girls.

  18. Preschoolers’ Dietary Behaviours: Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    TUCKER, PATRICIA; IRWIN, JENNIFER D.; HE, MEIZI; BOUCK, L. MICHELLE SANGSTER; POLLETT, GRAHAM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preschoolers’ dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Results Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Conclusions Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers’ parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents’ keen interest in their preschoolers’ eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted. PMID:16759432

  19. Food neophobia in childhood affects dietary variety.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, G A; Couch, S C; Gribble, L S; Pabst, S M; Frank, R

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether children with food neophobia (unwillingness to try new foods) have more restrictive diets than children without neophobia. Seventy children were classified into 3 groups based on scores obtained on the Food Neophobia Scale: neophobic group, score greater than 41; neophilic group, score less than 27; and average group, score of 28 to 40. Dietary data were collected and analyzed for 3 days selected randomly. The dependent variables measured were energy and nutrient intakes, servings of each Food Guide Pyramid group, and Health Eating Index (HEI) scores. chi 2, 1-way analysis of covariance, and Scheffé multiple comparisons tests were conducted. The 3 groups were similar with respect to the number of children meeting two thirds of the RDA/DRI for energy and most nutrients. The exception was vitamin E: fewer neophobic children met two thirds of the recommended value for this nutrient than average and neophilic children. The overall HEI score was significantly lower for the neophobic group compared with the average and neophilic groups. The HEI index showed that children with neophobia had a higher intake of saturated fat and less food variety than children without food neophobia. Dietitians should emphasize increased food variety for children within the context of a healthful diet. Research should be conducted to determine the effects of dietary variety on quality of diet and health of children.

  20. Efficacy of a commercial dentifrice containing 2% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate for dentin hypersensitivity: a 3-day clinical study in adults in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchun; Hu, Deyu

    2012-03-01

    Studies of dentifrices containing strontium chloride or potassium nitrate have documented the clinical efficacy of these formulations for dentin hypersensitivity (DH), but few studies have evaluated dentifrices containing both active ingredients. The objective of this study was to compare the effects on DH of a dentifrice containing 2% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate in a silica base (experimental dentifrice) with those of a dentifrice containing the same silica base without any active ingredient (control dentifrice). Male and female patients aged 20 to 65 years with DH were eligible to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in China. Patients were assigned to receive the experimental or control dentifrice. At baseline, immediately after topical dentifrice use, and after 3 days, patients received an oral examination of their hard and soft tissues, followed by an evaluation of DH that used the Yeaple Probe to measure tactile hypersensitivity and the Schiff Cold Air Scale to measure the perception of pain from an air blast stimulus. Adverse events (in particular, discomfort while brushing or alteration in taste) in the oral hard or soft tissues were monitored throughout the study. A total of 81 patients were enrolled (40 in the experimental group; 41 in the control group), of whom 79 (55 women; 24 men) completed the study. After topical use, the experimental group had a significantly higher mean (SD) tactile hypersensitivity score (19.47 [14.69] vs 14.27 [5.76]; P = 0.047) and a significantly lower mean air blast hypersensitivity score (1.93 [0.51] vs 2.22 [0.60]; P = 0.026) than did the control group. After 3 days, the experimental group had a significantly higher mean tactile hypersensitivity score (19.87 [14.95] vs 14.51 [6.00]; P = 0.045) and a significantly lower air blast hypersensitivity score (1.80 [0.56] and 2.13 [0.60]; P = 0.014) than the control group. After topical use and after 3 days, the experimental group

  1. Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Astrid; Prigent, Julie; Lombard, Catherine; Rosseels, Valérie; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Breckpot, Karine; Najimi, Mustapha; Deblandre, Gisèle; Sokal, Etienne M

    2017-02-16

    There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2Rγ-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.

  2. Visual function and vision-related quality of life after macular hole surgery with short-duration, 3-day face-down positioning.

    PubMed

    Rayat, Jaspreet; Almeida, David R P; Belliveau, Michel; Wong, Jonathan; Gale, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the relationship of vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and visual function in patients undergoing macular-hole (MH) repair with and without cataract surgery and short-duration, 3-day prone posturing. Previous communications have assessed VRQOL in European and Japanese populations, but this is the first study to investigate VRQOL after MH surgery in a Canadian population. Prospective interventional case series. We studied 20 consecutive eyes in 19 patients with stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular holes. Of those, 15 received combined cataract and MH surgery, and 5 received MH repair alone. Patients completed the self-administered National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire before and after surgery. All patients received full ocular examinations pre- and postsurgery. Along with the questionnaire scores, we examined macular-hole closure rates, complications, postoperative visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Macular-hole closure was achieved in 20 of 20 eyes (100%). Mean postoperative logMAR decreased (i.e., improved) by -0.303 (95% CI, -0.501-- -0.105, p = 0.0047). The Visual Function Questionnaire composite score rose from 82.019 ± 12.612 SD to 88.499 ± 7.963 SD (p = 0.012). Subscale scores, including general vision, near activities, mental health, role difficulties, and dependency were all significantly improved (p < 0.05). No complications or intraocular pressure increases were observed. Macular-hole surgery followed by short-duration, 3-day face-down positioning significantly improved VRQOL and visual acuity in a group of Canadian patients. The use of VRQOL tools alongside anatomic outcomes provide a more comprehensive overview of patients' experiences and satisfaction after surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  4. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  5. Video recording.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Sato, S; Long, R L

    1985-01-01

    Two video techniques are commonly used for biomedical monitoring. The simplest technique uses 2 or 3 video cameras with a special-effects generator. The more advanced method uses one video camera with a reformatter, a special-effects generator and a time-code generator. The main components of a video recording system are the camera, tape recorder, monitor, special-effects generator, reformatter, audio system and time-code generator. Video recordings can be edited electronically, but the quality of the copies is dependent on the type of editing equipment and the technical expertise available. Video recording has helped to improve the diagnosis and treatment of seizures and has been widely used in clinical epilepsy research. Video monitoring is now generally available in large medical centers for the diagnosis of difficult patients.

  6. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  7. Physician-patient communication about dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Paterniti, Debora A; Good, Jeffrey S; Coulter, Ian D; Galliher, James M; Kravitz, Richard L; Karlamangla, Arun S; Wenger, Neil S

    2013-06-01

    Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, CA (2009-2010), geographically diverse practice settings across the United States (2004-2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998-1999). Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: (1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; (2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; (3) potential risks for 17.3%; (4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and (5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Ruhe, Bas; Visser, Bertanne

    2011-12-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these different mechanisms to extension of life span, we study the effect of caloric restriction on longevity and fecundity in two species of sugar-feeding parasitoid wasps. They have a simple diet that consists of carbohydrates only, and they do not resorb eggs, which rules out the proposed alternative explanations for beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Two caloric restriction treatments were applied: first, dietary dilution to investigate the effect of carbohydrate concentration in the diet; and second, intermittent feeding to examine the effect of feeding frequency on longevity and fecundity. Only the dietary dilution treatment showed an effect of caloric restriction with the highest longevity recorded at 80% sucrose (w/v). No effect of dietary regime was found on fecundity. We also measured the weight increase of the parasitoids after feeding to obtain an estimate of consumption. A constant quantity of the sugar solution was consumed in all dietary dilution treatments, hence caloric intake was proportional to sucrose concentrations. Although the present study does not disqualify the relevance of nutrient composition in other species, our data unequivocally demonstrate that caloric restriction alone is sufficient to extend life span and invalidate alternative explanations.

  9. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  11. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  12. Comparison between sensor-augmented insulin therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections in everyday life: 3-day analysis of glucose patterns and sensor accuracy in children.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scipione, Mirella; Balsamo, Claudia; Maltoni, Giulio; Rollo, Alessandra; Molinari, Emanuela; Mangoni, Lorenza; Cicognani, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Sensor-augmented continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy is superior to CSII therapy alone, but little is known on the effectiveness of sensor-augmented multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy. We compared during everyday life mean glucose control and several variability indexes recorded for 3 days by a real-time glucose sensor (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) in two groups of children treated with either CSII or MDI. Fifty-five consecutive subjects were examined: 17 receiving CSII and 38 receiving MDI basal-bolus therapy (age range, 7-22 years). All subjects wore the sensor for 4 days, and 3 days were used for statistical analysis. Mean glucose and SD, coefficient of variation (CV), mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD), continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA) at 2 and 4 h, blood glucose (BG) rate, area under the curve (AUC) above 180 mg/dL and below 70 mg/dL, Low BG Index (LBGI), and High BG Index (HBGI) were calculated. Patients receiving CSII administered more daily boluses than patients receiving MDI (5.2±1.5 vs. 3.2±0.3, respectively; P=0.001). Mean glucose was lower in the CSII group. AUC above 180 mg/dL and HBGI were higher in the MDI group. CV, CONGA at 2 h, CONGA at 2 h during the day, and HBGI were worse in the MDI group, whereas MODD, LBGI, BG rate, and MAGE were similar. A positive correlation (r=0.95; P<0.05) was found between the paired sensor-meter values. For the glucose values <70 mg/dL, sensitivity was 40%, and specificity was 99%. In our pediatric patients during everyday life sensor-augmented CSII therapy seemed more effective than sensor-augmented MDI therapy, in terms both of glucose mean values and of intraday variability. Mild hypoglycemic episodes and indexes of low BG values were similar in the two groups, although the latter results may be inaccurate because of low sensor sensitivity at low glucose value.

  13. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production record? 111.255 Section 111.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... batch of a dietary supplement; (b) Your batch production record must include complete information...

  14. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS.

  15. Insulin sensitivity is independent of lipid binding protein trafficking at the plasma membrane in human skeletal muscle: effect of a 3-day, high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas B; Serup, Annette K; Karstoft, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette; Kiens, Bente; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced regulation of lipid binding proteins in human skeletal muscle and the impact hereof on insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a 3-day hypercaloric and high-fat diet regime. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the diet intervention, and giant sarcolemmal vesicles were prepared. The high-fat diet induced decreased insulin sensitivity, but this was not associated with a relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. However, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm mRNA, but not the proteins, were upregulated by increased fatty acid availability. This suggests a time dependency in the upregulation of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein during high availability of plasma fatty acids. Furthermore, we did not detect FATP1 and FATP4 protein in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from human skeletal muscle. In conclusion, this study shows that a short-term lipid-load increases mRNA content of key lipid handling proteins in human muscle. However, decreased insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet is not accompanied with relocation of FAT/CD36 or FABPpm protein to the sarcolemma. Finally, FATP1 and FATP4 protein was located intracellularly but not at the sarcolemma in humans. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  17. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.; Danon, Y.

    1994-08-01

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a ``resonance reactor,`` an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3}-block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e, the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  18. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  19. Dietary intakes of urban, high body mass index, African American children: family and child dietary attributes predict child intakes.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index > 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention intervention. Dietary intakes were collected by 3-day food diary to assess total energy, percent fat, discretionary fat, added sugar, whole grains, vegetables, fruit, meat, and dairy. Questionnaires on nutrition and dietary attributes administered to children and parents were used to develop 5 diet-related indices: child knowledge, child preferences, child snack habits, child beverage habits, and family food habits. A higher child nutrition knowledge score was significantly related to a lower starchy vegetable intake. Higher scores on the child snack habits index were significantly related to higher intakes of fruit, total fruits and vegetables, total fruits and nonstarchy vegetables, and to lower intakes of added sugars. A higher score on the family food habits index was significantly related to lower intakes of total energy and discretionary fat. Targeting both child and family food and nutrition attributes may be used to promote more healthful eating among urban, low-income, overweight African American children. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  1. The validity of dietary assessment in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Little, P.; Barnett, J.; Margetts, B.; Kinmonth, A. L.; Gabbay, J.; Thompson, R.; Warm, D.; Warwick, H.; Wooton, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a range of dietary assessment instruments in general practice. METHODS: Using a randomised block design, brief assessment instruments and more complex conventional dietary assessment tools were compared with an accepted "relative" standard--a seven day weighed dietary record. The standard was checked using biomarkers, and by performing test-retest reliability in additional subjects (n = 29). OUTCOMES: Agreement with weighed record. Percentage agreement with weighed record, rank correlation from scatter plot, rank correlation from Bland-Altman plot. Reliability of the weighed record. SETTING: Practice nurse treatment room in a single suburban general practice. SUBJECTS: Patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (n = 61) or age/sex stratified general population group (n = 50). RESULTS: Brief self completion dietary assessment tools based on food groups caten during a week show reasonable agreement with the relative standard. For % energy from fat and saturated fat, non-starch polysaccharide, grams of fruit and vegetables and starchy foods consumed the range of agreement with the standard was: median % difference -6% to 12%, rank correlation 0.5 to 0.6. This agreement is of a similar order to the reliability of the weighed record, as good as or better than test standard agreement for more time consuming instruments, and compares favourably with research instruments validated in other settings. Under-reporting of energy intake was common (40%) and more likely if subjects were obese (body mass idex (BMI) > or = 30 60% under-reported; BMI < 30 29%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Under-reporting of absolute energy intake is common, particularly among obese patients. Simple self assessment tools based on food groups, designed for practice nurse dietary assessment, show acceptable agreement with a standard, and suggest such tools are sufficiently accurate for clinical work, research, and possibly population dietary monitoring.   PMID:10396494

  2. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  3. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  4. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  5. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  6. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  7. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  8. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  9. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  10. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  13. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Thorsdottir, Inga; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-03-13

    Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and

  14. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  15. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p < .001] and 361 ± 27 kcal vs. 819 ± 48 kcal, respectively, for female subjects [p < .001]). Blood thiamin concentration decreased significantly during the intensive-training period compared with the preparation period (41 ± 6 ng/ml decreased to 36 ± 3 ng/ml for male subjects [p = .048], and 38 ± 10 ng/ml decreased to 31 ± 5 ng/ml for female subjects [p = .004]); however, the concentration of riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

  16. Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Christina M; Stimming, Madlen; Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012. 3-day weighed dietary records from the German DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe the fish and meat variety and to compare the vegetable variety in commercial and homemade meals using a vegetable variety score (VegVS). The online data base 'Nutrichild' served to describe the food variety on the market. The vegetable variety was low in homemade as well as in commercial meals without any differences in total variety at 6 and 9months of age. At 12months of age infants fed with commercial meals got a higher vegetable variety than those fed with homemade meals. In homemade and commercial meals most often carrot was used, whereas other vegetables were far below this frequency. In both meals, poultry and beef were most often used whereas fish meals were rarely offered. The market survey showed the same low vegetable variety and low fish offer as the results of the DONALD study. The data show that it is necessary to promote the advantages of a vegetable variety and fish consumption in Germany, already in early infancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overweight adolescents eat what? And when? Analysis of consumption patterns to guide dietary message development for intervention.

    PubMed

    Smith, K L; Straker, L M; Kerr, D A; Smith, A J

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about overweight adolescent dietary consumption patterns, with challenges to collecting meaningful data making it difficult to develop targeted obesity interventions. The present study aimed to examine the timing and consumption of fruit, vegetables and junk food by time of the day and day of the week. Overweight adolescents (n = 61), aged 12-16 years, completed 3-day food records. Negative binomial and binary logistic regression using generalised estimating equations were used to compare the amount and likelihood of the consumption of each food group between time periods. Overweight adolescent girls were more likely to eat fruit on weekdays than weekends [odds ratio (OR) = 5.0. P < 0.001], as were boys (OR = 2.5, P = 0.034). Adolescents consumed more fruit at school than other meals [girls: incident rate ratio (IRR) = 7.5, P < 0.001; boys: IRR = 4.0, P = 0.050]. Weekday dinner was the meal where girls were most likely to consume vegetables (OR = 3.0, P = 0.009) and when boys consumed the most vegetables (IRR = 30.9, P = 0.006). Fast food consumption was most likely for girls at dinner on the weekend (OR = 9.6, P = 0.042), whereas fast food intake for boys increased overall on the weekend (IRR = 3.6, P = 0.001). Intake of 'other junk' (e.g. crisps) peaked during school hours for girls (IRR = 7.2, P < 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption increased for boys on the weekend (IRR = 3.3, P = 0.001). Overall, trends in fruit intake showed opposing times for high and low consumption compared to vegetable intake. These results represent the next step in using time of day and day of week consumption patterns to develop targeted, evidence-based dietary messages for interventions in overweight adolescents. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid is associated with lower blood pressure in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Yuya; Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Sahashi, Yukari; Watanabe, Kaori; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2011-11-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, and its level is regulated by three vitamins; vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid. Until now, the association between the intake of these vitamins and blood pressure has been examined only in adult populations. We purposed to examine the association between dietary intake of these three vitamins and blood pressure of young children. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Japanese preschools in 2006. Blood pressure was measured among 418 children aged 3-6 years. Diets including vitamins were assessed by a 3-day dietary record. We compared the blood pressure levels among the four groups defined according to quartile of energy-adjusted vitamin intake by using analysis of covariance after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index. The mean systolic blood pressure was 6.6 mm Hg lower and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 5.7 mm Hg lower in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile of vitamin B12 intake (P for trend was <0.001 and 0.006, respectively). The mean systolic blood pressure was 4.1 mm Hg lower in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile of folic acid intake (P for trend = 0.004). Vitamin B6 intake was not significantly associated with blood pressure. The data suggest that high intakes of folic acid and vitamin B12 are associated with lower levels of blood pressure among preschool children.

  19. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  20. Dietary studies in the joint US-Russian space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic experiments in the joint US-Russian space program involve analysis of food records, which include weighed foods, stable-isotope turnover, and biochemical samples collected before, during, and after the flights. This article describes the methods of monitoring dietary intake for this program.

  1. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  2. [Dietary modification in hypertensives].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Kloock, B; König, D

    2006-11-23

    Successful treatment of hypertension requires a holistic approach. In this connection, focusing on a healthy lifestyle, eating, drinking and consumption behavior and, finally, the quality of foodstuffs and the exercise habits of the patient represents an essential supplement to the classical forms of pharmaceutical treatment. The major dietary-physiological factors have been shown to be weight reduction, the monitoring of salt consumption, appropriate intake of fiber, a preference for vegetables, and a reduction of immoderate alcohol consumption.

  3. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  4. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  5. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Oritavancin in Plasma and Skin Blister Fluid following Administration of a 200-Milligram Dose for 3 Days or a Single 800-Milligram Dose

    PubMed Central

    Fetterly, Gerald J.; Ong, Christine M.; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Loutit, Jeffrey S.; Porter, Steven B.; Morello, Lisa G.; Ambrose, Paul G.; Nicolau, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Oritavancin is a novel glycopeptide currently being developed for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by multidrug resistant gram-positive pathogens. The disposition of oritavancin in skin structures was investigated using a cantharide-induced blister fluid model. Seventeen healthy male subjects received oritavancin, but only 16 subjects were evaluated after one subject discontinued study drug. Each subject (eight per dose group) received 200 mg of oritavancin once a day for 3 days (group A) or 800 mg as one single dose (group B). Group A plasma samples and exudates from blister fluid were collected on days 3, 4, 7, 9, and 12 and on days 3, 4, 7, and 9, respectively. Group B samples and exudates were collected on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay and, subsequently, pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Differences between treatment groups in ratios for area under the concentration-time curve for blister fluid and plasma (AUCblister fluid/AUCplasma ratios) were evaluated using a t test (α = 0.05). Mean maximum concentration of drug in plasma or blister fluid was approximately 8-fold and 11-fold higher in plasma than in blister fluid following the 200- or 800-mg doses of oritavancin, respectively. Mean AUCblister fluid/AUCplasma ratios at 24 h were 0.190 (standard deviation [SD], 0.052) and 0.182 (SD, 0.062) for groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.791). To place these results in a clinical context, mean drug concentrations in blister fluid exceed the oritavancin MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited of Staphylococcus aureus (2 μg/ml) by approximately 2- to 5.5-fold at 12 h and 1.5- to 3-fold at 24 h following administration of both dosing regimens. These results support the potential use of oritavancin for the treatment of cSSSI. PMID:15616289

  7. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  8. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials focused on this problem, there is not ample evidence to confidently recommend dietary changes. Despite this, numerous recent and past experiences support modification of diet as having a primary role in the prevention of nephrolithiasis. In particular, it is recommended to limit animal protein and salt intake, to consume milk and derivatives in amounts corresponding to calcium intake of about 1200 mg/day and to assume fiber (40 g/day), vegetables and fruit daily avoiding foods with high oxalate content. Furthermore, vitamin C intake not exceeding 1500 mg/day plays a protective role as well as avoiding vitamin B6 deficiency and abstaining, if possible, from vitamin D supplements. Lastly, it is recommended to drink enough water to bring the urinary volume up to at least 2 L/day and, as much as possible, to use fresh or frozen products rather than prepacked or precooked foods which are often too rich in sodium chloride. PMID:22460996

  9. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  10. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: <0·30 ng/mL) were measured initially and after changing the diet. Twelve dogs were presented with a median age of five years. The median plasma thyroxine concentration was 156·1 (range of 79·7 to 391·9) nmol/L; in six dogs, thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration was measured and was <0·03 ng/mL in five dogs and 0·05 ng/mL in one dog. Six dogs showed clinical signs such as weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  12. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  13. Dietary evaluation of patients with smell and/or taste disorders.

    PubMed

    Mattes, R D; Cowart, B J; Schiavo, M A; Arnold, C; Garrison, B; Kare, M R; Lowry, L D

    1990-02-01

    The impact of smell and taste disorders on dietary habits and nutritional status has received limited research attention. This paper reports findings obtained from questionnaires and diet records completed by 40 healthy subjects and 118 patients with chemosensory dysfunction. Chemosensory disorders were frequently associated with decreases in food acceptability. Although dietary responses to these dysfunctions varied greatly, patients with distorted or phantom smell and/or taste sensations tended to report weight loss whereas those with simple sensory loss were more likely to report weight gain. Indices derived from diet records did not indicate that either group of patients was at substantial nutritional risk, but food frequency responses and estimates of body mass index were consistent with patient reports of changes in dietary patterns and weight. In addition, marked weight change and aberrant dietary practices were noted in individual patients. Thus, there were indications that chemosensory dysfunction may be associated with nutritionally important dietary alterations.

  14. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Liu, Simin; Solomon, Caren G; Hu, Frank B

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to examine whether pregravid dietary fiber consumptions from cereal, fruit, and vegetable sources and dietary glycemic load were related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. This study was a prospective cohort study among 13,110 eligible women in the Nurses' Health Study II. GDM was self-reported and validated by medical record review in a subsample. We documented 758 incident GDM cases during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, prepregnancy BMI, and other covariates, dietary total fiber and cereal and fruit fiber were strongly associated with GDM risk. Each 10-g/day increment in total fiber intake was associated with 26% (95% CI 9-49) reduction in risk; each 5-g/day increment in cereal or fruit fiber was associated with a 23% (9-36) or 26% (5-42) reduction, respectively. Dietary glycemic load was positively related to GDM risk. Multivariate relative risk for highest versus lowest quintiles was 1.61 (1.02-2.53) (P for trend 0.03). The combination of high-glycemic load and low-cereal fiber diet was associated with 2.15-fold (1.04-4.29) increased risk compared with the reciprocal diet. These findings suggested that prepregnancy diet might be associated with women's GDM risk. In particular, diet with low fiber and high glycemic load was associated with an increased risk. Future clinical and metabolic studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  17. Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lem, Kristina Y; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Norby, Bo; Steiner, Jörg M

    2008-11-01

    To estimate associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs. Design-Retrospective case-control study. 198 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis and 187 control dogs with a diagnosis of renal failure without clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Information on signalment, weight, body condition, dietary intake, medical history, diagnostic tests performed, concurrent diseases, treatments, duration of hospitalization, and discharge status was extracted from medical records. Information on dietary intake, signalment, weight, and medical, surgical, and environmental history was collected through a telephone questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of information extracted from the medical record, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 4.3) increased the odds of pancreatitis. On the basis of information gathered through the telephone questionnaire, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 6.1), ingesting table scraps the week before diagnosis (OR, 2.2) or throughout life (OR, 2.2), and getting into the trash (OR, 13.2) increased the odds of pancreatitis. Multivariable modeling indicated that reporting exposure to > or = 1 dietary factor during the telephone questionnaire (OR, 2.6), being overweight (OR, 1.3) or neutered (OR, 3.6), previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 21.1), and the interaction between neuter status and previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 0.1) were associated with the odds of pancreatitis. Results suggested that dietary factors, being neutered, and previous surgery other than neutering increased the odds of pancreatitis in dogs.

  18. The correlates of dietary intake among HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Spiegelman, D; Rimm, E; Gorbach, S L

    2001-12-01

    Dietary adequacy, as distinct from weight loss, has not been examined thoroughly in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected individuals. An analysis was undertaken to determine the correlates of inadequate dietary intake among HIV-infected adults. In a cross-sectional study of 463 men and 170 women (aged 21-70 y) with HIV infection, dietary adequacy was evaluated by using 3-d diet records. Among nondieting males, whites had higher energy intakes than did nonwhites. Injection drug users consumed less energy than did nonusers. Among nondieting females, only the absence of nausea and vomiting was marginally associated with higher energy intakes. Inadequate energy intake, which occurred in 38% of this population, was independently associated with female sex among nondieters. A significant proportion of the study cohort (52%) was consuming less than the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A. Inadequate protein intake, found in 11% of the study population, occurred more often in females, those without a caregiving adult in the household, and individuals with reduced appetite. A considerable proportion of the participants (23%) reported that they were dieting to lose weight. Dietary inadequacy was strongly correlated with being in the sociodemographic groups that are at heightened risk of adverse clinical outcomes. It may be worthwhile to study dietary intake as a potential determinant of the clinical outcomes of HIV infection.

  19. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-10

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  1. Dietary Intake by Dutch 1- to 3-Year-Old Children at Childcare and at Home

    PubMed Central

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; Raaijmakers, Lieke G. M.; Gerards, Sanne M. P. L.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N = 1016) of Dutch toddlers (1–3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children’s intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children’s dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. PMID:24406847

  2. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  3. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.

  4. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Elizabeth A.; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J.; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure. PMID:24644241

  5. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  6. Dietary bioavailability of Cu adsorbed to colloidal hydrous ferric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The dietary bioavailability of copper (Cu) adsorbed to synthetic colloidal hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was evaluated from the assimilation of 65Cu by two benthic grazers, a gastropod and a larval mayfly. HFO was synthesized, labeled with 65Cu to achieve a Cu/Fe ratio comparable to that determined in naturally formed HFO, and then aged. The labeled colloids were mixed with a food source (the diatom Nitzschia palea) to yield dietary 65Cu concentrations ranging from 211 to 2204 nmol/g (dry weight). Animals were pulse fed the contaminated diet and assimilation of 65Cu from HFO was determined following 1–3 days of depuration. Mass transfer of 65Cu from HFO to the diatom was less than 1%, indicating that HFO was the source of 65Cu to the grazers. Estimates of assimilation efficiency indicated that the majority of Cu ingested as HFO was assimilated (values >70%), implying that colloidal HFO potentially represents a source of dietary Cu to benthic grazers, especially where there is active formation and infiltration of these particles into benthic substrates.

  7. Dietary fat dose dependently increases spontaneous caloric intake in rat.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Zoe S

    2003-07-01

    To characterize the dose-response relationship between dietary fat to carbohydrate ratio and spontaneous caloric intake. Male Long-Evans rats consumed milk-based liquid diets that differed in fat content (17% to 60% of kilocalories) but had equivalent protein content and energy density. In Experiment 1, rats consumed one of the diets (n = 9/diet group) as the sole source of nutrition for 16 days. In Experiment 2, diets were offered as an option to nutritionally complete chow for 4 days followed by a 3-day chow-only washout in a randomized within-subjects design (n = 30). In Experiment 3, nine rats received isocaloric intragastric infusions of diet overnight, with chow available ad libitum. At least two no-infusion days separated the different diet infusions, which were given in random order. Food intake was measured daily Dietary fat dose dependently increased total daily kilocalories in each of the three paradigms. These data imply that the postingestive effects of carbohydrate and fat differentially engage the physiological substrates that regulate daily caloric intake. These findings reiterate the importance of investigating macronutrient-specific controls of feeding, rather than prematurely concluding that dietary attributes that covary with fat content (e.g., caloric density and palatability) drive the overeating associated with a high-fat diet.

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with dietary recommendations but have limited relationship to BMI in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-10-01

    Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health-promoting benefits. The objectives of the present study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression and if the pattern would be associated with lower BMI and current Dietary Reference Intakes. The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes. Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, USA. Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with laboratory-measured weight and height and up to 4 d of dietary records (n 418). A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian-based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian-based dietary pattern were almost six times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fibre. Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort's dietary patterns needs to continue.

  9. Dietary patterns are associated with dietary recommendations but have limited relationship to body mass index in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health promoting benefits. The objectives of this study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression (RRR) and if the pattern would be associated with lower body mass index (BMI) and current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes. Setting Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, United States. Subjects Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with lab-measured weight and height and up to 4 days of dietary records (n=418). Results A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with a lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian based dietary pattern were almost 6 times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fiber. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort’s dietary patterns needs to continue. PMID:22348238

  10. The effects of patient participation-based dietary intervention on nutritional and functional status for patients with gastrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsun; Suh, Eunyoung E; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing gastrectomy because of stomach cancer often face weight loss in the perioperational period, which can lead to malnutrition and negative treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop a patient participation-based dietary intervention (PPDI) and evaluate its effects on patient outcomes. This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in which the patients were recruited in a cancer center in South Korea. The participants (N = 56), who underwent gastrectomy with stomach cancer stage I to III, were randomly assigned into either the experimental or the control group. The PPDI, which was given on the day before the hospital discharge, comprised 2 face-to-face and 2 telephone interventions. The outcome variables included body weight, body mass index, muscle mass, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, Dietary Symptom Scale, Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-General, Karnofsky Performance Status, Adherence to Dietary Guidelines Scale, Scale of Dietary Knowledge, Patient Satisfaction Scale, and a 3-day food diary. Participants in the PPDI intervention demonstrated significant (P < .05) reductions in adverse dietary symptoms and significant improvements (P < .05) in functional status, performance status, dietary intake, adherence to dietary guidelines, dietary knowledge, and satisfaction with the intervention as compared with the control group over time. The PPDI was an effective dietary intervention for patients undergoing a gastrectomy for gastric cancer and deserves additional study in other populations of patients. Incorporating patients' perspectives into a dietary intervention after gastrectomy for gastric cancer may contribute to improved patient outcomes and quality care.

  11. Fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period in male rats induces metabolic abnormalities in the liver and is associated with impaired glucose tolerance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Misa; Honma, Kazue; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that nutritional status during developmental periods is associated with subsequent development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study, we examined whether malnutrition by fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period induces subsequent development of metabolic abnormalities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period. They are subsequently fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) or low-fat, high-starch (LF) diet for 14 weeks from 17 weeks of age, and the liver and blood samples were collected for measuring mRNA and protein levels of metabolic genes and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin, respectively. Fasting for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed the LF diet in adulthood. Liver triglycerides in rats fed the HF diet in adulthood increased to 140 % in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period compared with those non-fasted. Furthermore, liver expression of FBP1 and ACCα genes in adult rats fed the LF diet increased to 125 and 145 %, respectively, in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period compared to non-fasted rats. PEPCK1 protein expression levels in rats fed the LF diet were higher in rats fasted for 3 days during the suckling-weaning transient period than in non-fasted rats. Fasting for 3 days in rats during the suckling-weaning transient period enhances metabolic abnormalities in animals fed a HF or LF diet in adulthood by confounding metabolism of lipid and sugar in the liver.

  12. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  13. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  15. Dietary and non-dietary correlates of gastrointestinal distress during the cycle and run of a triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether pre-race dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress during the cycle and run of a 70.3-mile triathlon. Fifty three participants recorded dietary details the day before and morning of the triathlon and retrospectively reported GI symptoms from the cycle and run. Occurrence and severity of nausea, regurgitation and fullness were combined into an upper GI (UGI) category, while lower abdominal cramps, flatulence and urge to defecate were combined into a lower GI (LGI) category. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine whether UGI and LGI were associated with: (1) pre-race diet (kilocalories, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, protein, caffeine); and (2) non-dietary factors (age, body mass index, experience, weight change, GI distress history, finishing time). Of non-dietary factors, only a history of GI distress showed significant associations with GI symptoms during the triathlon (ρ = .32-.36; P < .05). Morning kilocalorie (ρ = .28, P = .04) and carbohydrate (ρ = .36, P < .01) intakes were modestly, positively associated with UGI during the cycle, while morning caffeine intake (ρ = .30, P = .03) showed a modest positive association with LGI during the run. The associations between diet and GI distress variables remained significant after adjusting for non-dietary factors. Competitors of 70.3-mile triathlons should carefully weigh the benefits of higher race-morning energy, carbohydrate and caffeine intakes against their potential to increase GI distress.

  16. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  17. Urinary excretion of dietary contaminants in horses.

    PubMed

    Respondek, F; Lallemand, A; Julliand, V; Bonnaire, Y

    2006-08-01

    Presence of drugs is completely prohibited in post racing urine samples by most of racing and competition authorities, even if environmental contamination might occur. To assess the daily dose of several contaminants absorbed through the diet that would result in detectable concentrations in urine. Caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, atropine, scopolamine, bufotenine, DMT or morphine were administered orally to 6 horses, in different dosages, for 3 days before their urine was sampled for regular anti-doping tests. Theobromine, theophylline, bufotenine and morphine daily intake >10 mg, 2 mg, 10 mg and 200 microg, respectively, by a performance horse, were found to result in detectable urinary concentrations. At the 2 tested doses, atropine (5 and 15 mg) and dimethyltryptamine (3 and 10 mg) were not detected in urine. For caffeine and scopolamine, even the lowest dosage tested (5 mg/horse/day and 2 mg/horse/day respectively) induced detectable concentrations of the molecule in urine. Horses fed dietary contaminants, even at level much below the effective dosage, may be positive to antidoping urine analysis. Further research is needed to gain more confident results on a daily safe intake for caffeine and scopolamine. Selection of feed materials appears to be of great importance to prevent non voluntary positive result to anti-doping tests.

  18. Hormetic Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer, and inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging findings suggest that several dietary phytochemicals also benefit the nervous system and, when consumed regularly, may reduce the risk of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The evidence supporting health benefits of vegetables and fruits provide a rationale for identification of the specific phytochemicals responsible, and for investigation of their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. One general mechanism of action of phytochemicals that is emerging from recent studies is that they activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways. From an evolutionary perspective, the noxious properties of such phytochemicals play an important role in dissuading insects and other pests from eating the plants. However at the relatively small doses ingested by humans that consume the plants, the phytochemicals are not toxic and instead induce mild cellular stress responses. This phenomenon has been widely observed in biology and medicine, and has been described as ‘preconditioning’ or ‘hormesis’. Hormetic pathways activated by phytochemicals may involve kinases and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors and other cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin – FOXO pathway, the NF-κB pathway and the Nrf-2 –ARE pathway. In this article we describe the hormesis hypothesis of phytochemical actions with a focus on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as a prototypical example of a neuroprotective mechanism of action of specific dietary phytochemicals. PMID:18543123

  19. A pilot study on the effects of magnesium supplementation with high and low habitual dietary magnesium intake on resting and recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kass, Lindsy S; Skinner, Philip; Poeira, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d(-1) magnesium oxide supplementation (MO) or a control group (CG) for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01) and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01). Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006) and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02). Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance. Key pointsMagnesium supplementation will have an effect on resting and recovery systolic blood pressure with aerobic exercise

  20. Dietary control of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiguang; Cai, Ling; Tu, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Organisms must be able to rapidly alter gene expression in response to changes in their nutrient environment. This review summarizes evidence that epigenetic modifications of chromatin depend on particular metabolites of intermediary metabolism, enabling the facile regulation of gene expression in tune with metabolic state. Nutritional or dietary control of chromatin is an often-overlooked, yet fundamental regulatory mechanism directly linked to human physiology. Nutrient-sensitive epigenetic marks are dynamic, suggesting rapid turnover, and may have functions beyond the regulation of gene transcription, including pH regulation and as carbon sources in cancer cells. PMID:26094239

  1. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  2. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  3. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  4. Use of technology in children’s dietary assessment

    PubMed Central

    Boushey, CJ; Kerr, DA; Wright, J; Lutes, KD; Ebert, DS; Delp, EJ

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on dietary intake provides some of the most valuable insights for mounting intervention programmes for the prevention of chronic diseases. With the growing concern about adolescent overweight, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and they have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Subjects/Methods We used qualitative and quantitative techniques among adolescents to assess their preferences for dietary assessment methods. Results Dietary assessment methods using technology, for example, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or a disposable camera, were preferred over the pen and paper food record. Conclusions There was a strong preference for using methods that incorporate technology such as capturing images of food. This suggests that for adolescents, dietary methods that incorporate technology may improve cooperation and accuracy. Current computing technology includes higher resolution images, improved memory capacity and faster processors that allow small mobile devices to process information not previously possible. Our goal is to develop, implement and evaluate a mobile device (for example, PDA, mobile phone) food record that will translate to an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. This mobile computing device will include digital images, a nutrient database and image analysis for identification and quantification of food consumption. Mobile computing devices provide a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on record keepers. Images of food can be marked with a variety of input methods that link the item for image processing and analysis to estimate the amount of food. Images before and after the foods are eaten can estimate the amount of food consumed. The initial stages and potential of this project will be described. PMID:19190645

  5. Dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome) specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  6. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  7. Dietary Approaches to Prevent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Lydia A.; Green, Torrance; Harrison, Teresa N.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors and the interactions of these factors. A substantial body of evidence from animal studies, epidemiologic studies, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that certain dietary patterns and individual dietary elements play a prominent role in the development of hypertension. Changes in diet can lower blood pressure, prevent the development of hypertension, and reduce the risk of hypertension-related complications. Dietary strategies for the prevention of hypertension include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing potassium intake, and adopting an overall dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet or a Mediterranean diet. In order to reduce the burden of blood pressure-related complications, efforts that focus on environmental and individual behavioral changes that encourage and promote healthier food choices are warranted. PMID:24091874

  8. Dietary intake and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Abnet, Christian C; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Though dietary factors are implicated in chronic disease risk, assessment of dietary intake has limitations, including problems with recall of complex food intake patterns over a long period of time. Diet and nutrient biomarkers may provide objective measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, as well as an integrated measure of intake, absorption and metabolism. Thus, the search for an unbiased biomarker of dietary intake and nutritional status is an important aspect of nutritional epidemiology. This chapter reviews types of biomarkers related to dietary intake and nutritional status, such as exposure biomarkers of diet and nutritional status, intermediate endpoints, and susceptibility. Novel biomarkers, such as biomarkers of physical fitness, oxidative DNA damage and tissue concentrations are also discussed.

  9. Nutritional status and dietary intake of children with acute leukaemia during induction or consolidation chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, S Y; Poh, B K; Nadrah, M H; Jannah, N A; Rahman, J; Ismail, M N

    2013-07-01

    The assessment of nutritional status among paediatric patients is important for the planning and execution of nutritional strategies that strive to optimise the quality of life and growth among sick children. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake among children with acute leukaemia. This cross-sectional study included 53 paediatric patients aged 3-12 years old, who were diagnosed with either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or acute myelogenous leukaemia and were undergoing chemotherapy treatments (induction or consolidation phase). Patients were matched for sex, age (±6 months) and ethnicity with healthy children as controls. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm muscle area and fat area were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Anthropometric variables were generally higher among patients compared to controls, although the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of overnutrition among patients according to body mass index-for-age, waist circumference-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference-for-age and triceps skinfold-for-age were 24.5%, 29.1%, 17.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Mean energy [5732 ± 1958 kJ (1370 ± 468 kcal) versus 6945 ± 1970 kJ (1660 ± 471 kcal), P < 0.01], protein (50.0 ± 19.7 g versus 62.3 ± 22.3 g, P < 0.01) and fat (43.6 ± 18.9 g versus 58.3 ± 16.7, P < 0.001) intakes of patients were significantly lower than controls. The prevalence of being overweight and obesity in children with acute leukaemia was higher despite lower energy intake compared to controls. Studies assessing physical activity, the complex interaction and the effects of treatment drugs are warranted to better manage malnutrition among paediatric patients. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association

  10. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year. PMID:26253749

  11. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  12. Dietary pattern analysis for the evaluation of dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2008-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines for the promotion of overall good health and the prevention of disease often play an important role in setting nutritional policy and in the education of the public about healthy food choices. Although much has been written about adherence to such guidelines, until recently there was no evidence on whether adherence to specific dietary guidelines is associated with better health. As an outcome variable for such analyses, we have used the incidence of major chronic disease, which includes incidence of any major cardiovascular disease, cancer, or death from any cause excluding violence. We have evaluated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans using a scoring system called the Healthy Eating Index developed by the Department of Agriculture to quantify adherence to these guidelines. We found that adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk in a population of over 100,000 US adult men and women. We also assessed whether an alternate index, which took into account the type of fat and quality of carbohydrate, would better predict risk. In contrast with the original Healthy Eating Index, adherence to the alternative index predicted lower rates of major chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease, suggesting that the Dietary Guidelines were not offering optimal dietary guidance. These analyses suggest that dietary guidelines should be evaluated for their ability to predict the occurrence of major illness, and that such analyses can help refine these guidelines.

  13. Dietary patterns of men in ALSPAC: associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, nutrient intake and comparison with women's dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Northstone, K; Emmett, P M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain distinct dietary patterns using principal components analysis (PCA) in men taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and to determine the associations with (a) the patterns derived in the study women (the men's partners), (b) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and (c) estimated nutrient intakes. A total of 4681 men taking part in a population-based cohort study recorded their current frequency of food consumption through questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using PCA, and scores were calculated for each pattern. A wide variety of social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were also collected through self-completion questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were established: 'health conscious', 'traditional', 'processed/confectionery' and 'semi-vegetarian'. There were relatively strong correlations and levels of agreement between the 'health conscious' and 'vegetarian' style patterns in men and women (P<0.001). Strong associations were evident between several socio-demographic variables and the dietary patterns, similar to those earlier reported in women. Finally, nutrient intakes were plausibly associated with dietary pattern scores. Distinct dietary patterns in men have been identified using PCA that are similar, but not identical to those obtained in their partners at the same time point. Researchers should always consider stratifying by gender when examining dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating the associations between parental and child dietary patterns.

  14. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  15. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  16. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  17. [Dietary changes in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mayans, J A; García Campos, M; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Mata Rivera, N; Zárate Mondragón, F; Mason Cordero, T; Villarreal Espinosa, A

    2003-06-01

    Although the Mexican population has traditionally been malnourished, the prevalence of obesity in children and adults has increased by almost 50 % in the last 10 years. Recent studies show substantial changes in the nutritional status of Mexicans, especially in the pediatric population. Among the factors associated with the development of obesity are overeating, sedentariness, and genetics. The apparent economic development in Mexico, as well as the influence of dietary patterns from other countries, have contributed to modifying lifestyle. Despite measures taken by the health system, iron- and zinc-deficiency anemia continue to be prevalent. The present review aims to describe the changes that have taken place in Mexico in the last few decades leading to a generation of short and obese children, as well as to determine the associated factors in order to promote healthier eating patterns among the Mexican population.

  18. Association between Cardiometabolic Profile and Dietary Characteristics among Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Véronique; Leroux, Catherine; Desjardins, Katherine; Savard, Valérie; Lemieux, Simone; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Strychar, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern has been associated with several cardiometabolic benefits, yet no study has assessed the potential benefits of this diet in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of the present study was to examine the association between cardiometabolic profile and alignment of the diet with 1) Canadian nutrient recommendations for T1DM in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, dietary fiber, and sodium and 2) a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern among adults with T1DM. This is a cross-sectional analysis including 118 adults with T1DM recruited between 2011 and 2013 in Montreal, Canada. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), waist circumference, truncal fat percentage (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, and lipid profile values were measured. Insulin sensitivity was estimated (estimated glucose disposal rate). A 3-day food record was completed and physical activity was measured with a motion sensor. Differences for the cardiometabolic profile between groups with a diet meeting the Canadian nutrient recommendations for T1DM (percentage of energy from fat, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, as well as grams of dietary fiber and milligrams of sodium) or not were examined with general linear models. A Mediterranean diet score was calculated (range=0 to 44) and Pearson correlations between this score and cardiometabolic variables were computed. Significance was set at P≤0.05. Participants' mean ± standard deviation age was 44.3±12.3 years, glycated hemoglobin was 8.0%±1.1%, and Mediterranean diet score was 20.2±5.0. Having a diet that meets at least three nutritional recommendations was associated with a lower truncal fat percentage (28.0% vs 32.2%; P=0.01) only. In contrast, the Mediterranean diet score was inversely correlated with body mass index (r=-0.30, P=0.002), waist circumference (r=-0.31, P=0.002), truncal fat percentage (r=-0.38, P<0.001), systolic (r=-0.20, P=0.03) and

  19. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data12

    PubMed Central

    Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Laurence S; Tooze, Janet A; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Boushey, Carol; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Guenther, Patricia M; Tarasuk, Valerie; Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy compared with other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: 1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; 2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; 3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; 4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; 5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; 6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and 7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies. PMID:26468491

  20. Dietary self-efficacy: determinant of compliance behaviours and biochemical outcomes in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zrinyi, Miklos; Juhasz, Maria; Balla, Jozsef; Katona, Eva; Ben, Thomas; Kakuk, Gyorgy; Pall, Denes

    2003-09-01

    Despite the diversity of proposed theories, researchers are still unable to fully explain dietary compliance behaviours of dialysis patients. Dietary self-efficacy, a concept less studied in dialysis, has been linked to positive compliance outcomes in the chronic illness literature. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to determine how dietary self-efficacy is related to selected biochemical markers and self-reported behavioural outcomes in haemodialysis patients. 107 subjects participated in a cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires assessed dietary self-efficacy, compliance attitudes and behaviours, and staff-patient relationships. Laboratory outcomes were retrospectively obtained from patients' medical records and averaged for the previous 6 months. Of the behavioural measures, only dietary self-efficacy was associated with laboratory outcomes. Dietary self-efficacy was also positively related to staff-patient relationships and to patients' self-reported assessment of compliance behaviours. Women had greater dietary self-efficacy than men. The number of family members living with the respondent was inversely related to dietary self-efficacy. Results indicated that dietary self-efficacy determined both behaviours and laboratory outcomes. Patients with greater dietary self-efficacy had lower serum potassium and weight gain, showed favourable compliance attitudes and behaviours toward prescribed regimens and fostered better relationships with staff. Based on these findings we recommend an experimental approach to clarify whether maximizing dietary self-efficacy efforts is without psychological burden to patients and whether the positive effect of increased dietary self-efficacy is maintained in long-term dialysis patients.

  1. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  2. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR(Quartile4vs.Quartile1) = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66-2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data.

  3. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  4. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Moloney, M

    2000-11-01

    Numerous dietary treatments that purport to promote something unique for stimulating weight loss have been published. These treatments include fad diets, diets formulated by various commercial slimming clubs, very-low-energy diets (VLCD) and conventional diets. Fad diets may possibly reduce some weight short-term; however, there is no scientific basis to their long-term use. Commercial slimming clubs may be suitable for some individuals but they need to be properly assessed professionally. There are specific guidelines for the use of VLCD, which are only appropriate for short-term use. There is scientific evidence to suggest that conventional diets can produce both short- and long-term weight loss. A successful weight-loss programme depends on a multidisciplinary team approach. Management strategies should be devised for addressing issues such as goals, monitoring, follow-up, relapse and evaluation. Initial assessments should include medical, laboratory and anthropometric data, fitness level and dietary and behavioural attitudes. These results will form the basis of the treatment plan. Frequent visits to the clinic are fundamental in promoting continuing weight loss during the long-term maintenance stage of treatment. The visits should be made worthwhile for the patient. Realistic and attainable goals for diet, exercise and behaviour modification should be made. The diet should have a novel approach and be tailored to the needs of the patient. It should be adequate nutritionally, low in energy and fat. The overall aim should be to promote lifelong changes in lifestyle, improvement in quality of life and health risks.

  5. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with those...

  6. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Records and Recordkeeping... years beyond the date of distribution of the last batch of dietary supplements associated with those...

  7. Parental perceptions and dietary adherence in children with seafood allergy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ian E; Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2011-11-01

    Allergy to seafood (fish, mollusc and crustacean) is increasing and is now a leading cause of food anaphylaxis, but there is only limited data on the impact of seafood allergy on affected children and their families. We assessed dietary adherence and perceptions of seafood allergy amongst the parents of 94 children presenting to a specialist allergy clinic with proven seafood allergy, by means of a postal questionnaire and cross-referencing the data obtained to clinical records. One-quarter of parents were unable to correctly recall the dietary advice provided. Nonetheless 89% of parents implemented a safe diet, but over half followed a more stringent elimination than that recommended. One-fifth of the children had subsequent allergic reactions to seafood after diagnosis, and these were generally a result of accidental rather than intentional exposure or cross-contamination. Provision of an adrenaline auto-injector device was associated with increased adherence to dietary advice. Oral food challenges had a beneficial effect on parental perceptions and were helpful to parents in managing their child's allergy. Seafood allergy has a significant adverse effect on anxiety and stress in the families of affected children. Parental recall of dietary advice is variable and many tend to impose more stringent dietary avoidance than that recommended. Despite this, subsequent accidental reactions are common. Thus, the avoidance of seafood in children may be more difficult than often presumed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Markers of lutein and zeaxanthin status in two age groups of men and women: dietary intake, serum concentrations, lipid profile and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in retina (macular pigment). Their nutritional status can be assessed using dietary or biochemical markers and both have been associated with macular pigment optical density. We proposed to assess dietary and status markers of lutein and zeaxanthin in a group of healthy Spanish volunteers, considering the potential influence of age, gender and serum lipids to investigate the predictors of the macular pigment optical density. Methods Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, dietary intake and macular pigment optical density were determined in 108 healthy men and women (20–35 and 45–65 years), using high-performance liquid chromatography, 3-day food records and heterochromic flicker photometry, respectively. Mann–Whitney U-test, Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used for the statistical study. Results Serum concentrations and dietary intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively) were higher in older vs younger subjects, whereas macular pigment optical density was lower (p = 0.038). The highest correlation coefficients between intake and serum were for fruit and serum lutein (ρ = 0.452, p < 0.0001) and for fruit and lutein + zeaxanthin (ρ = 0.431, p < 0.0001) in the younger group. Macular pigment optical density correlated with serum xanthophylls (ρ = 0.223, p = 0.02) and fruit and vegetable intake (ρ = 0.350, p = 0.0002), showing highest correlations when lutein and zeaxanthin were expressed in relation to serum lipids in older subjects (ρ = 0.262, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis identified age and serum lutein as major predictors of macular pigment optical density (total sample), and a coefficient of determination of 29.7% for the model including lutein + zeaxathin/cholesterol + triglycerides, sex and fruit + vegetables in the older group. Conclusions The

  9. Differences in postoperative morbidity rates, including infection and dry socket, and differences in the healing process after mandibular third molar surgery in patients receiving 1-day or 3-day prophylaxis with lenampicillin.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Takashi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Muraoka, Shigetada; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis for mandibular third molar surgery from the viewpoint of the duration of administration. A comparative study was conducted on postoperative infection, dry socket, and the healing process in 178 healthy patients receiving 1-day or 3-day prophylaxis with lenampicillin (LAPC; 1.5 g/day). Postoperative infection developed in only 1 (1.1%) of the 91 patients in the 3-day group, while there was no patient with infection in the 87 patients in the 1-day group. Dry socket developed in 8.0% of the 87 patients in the 1-day group and in 7.7% of the 91 patients in the 3-day group. However, the incidence of these complications, in relation to the degree of impaction of the molars, did not significantly differ between the 1-day and 3-day groups. Scores indicating clinical symptoms for the 7 days after surgery also reflected no significant difference between the groups, irrespective of the degree of impaction. These results suggest that 1-day therapy with LAPC in our regimen may at least be recommended as a prophylaxis for mandibular third molar surgery in medically healthy patients.

  10. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  11. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Poole, S A; Hart, C N; Jelalian, E; Raynor, H A

    2016-04-01

    Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4-9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food) . After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOW(food+bev) and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGH(food+bev) and HIGHfood , with higher scores indicating greater quality. Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S. A.; Hart, C. N.; Jelalian, E.; Raynor, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Objective Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4–9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Method Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Results Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food). After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOWfood+bev and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGHfood+bev and HIGHfood, with higher scores indicating greater quality. Conclusions Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. PMID:25914331

  13. Infantile scurvy: an old diagnosis revisited with a modern dietary twist.

    PubMed

    Burk, Cynthia J; Molodow, Rona

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is necessary for the formation of collagen, reducing free radicals, and aiding in iron absorption. Scurvy, a disease of dietary ascorbic acid deficiency, is uncommon today. Indeed, implementation of dietary recommendations largely eradicated infantile scurvy in the US in the early 1900s. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 2-year-old Caucasian girl who presented with refusal to walk secondary to pain in her lower extremities, generalized irritability, sleep disturbance, and malaise. The girl's parents described feeding the patient an organic diet recommended by the Church of Scientology that included a boiled mixture of organic whole milk, barley, and corn syrup devoid of fruits and vegetables. Physical examination revealed pale, bloated skin with edematous, violaceous gums and loosening of a few of her teeth. Dermatologic findings included xerosis, multiple scattered ecchymoses of the extremities, and perifollicular hemorrhage. Laboratory and radiographic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of scurvy. The patient showed dramatic improvement after only 3 days of treatment with oral ascorbic acid and significant dietary modification. In this case report, we revisit the old diagnosis of scurvy with a modern dietary twist secondary to religious practices. This case highlights the importance of taking a detailed dietary history when evaluating diseases involving the skin.

  14. Suppressive effects on delayed type hypersensitivity by fasting and dietary restriction in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Harunobu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Tokunaga, Rikio; Takeuchi, Hiroichi

    2004-02-02

    Dietary restriction improves declining physiologic functions, prevents or lessens the severity of neoplasms and autoimmune diseases, and attenuates various inflammatory reactions. In the present study, we compared the effect on allergic dermatitis from repeated short-term fasting (every 3 days), and from moderate dietary restriction receiving 60% of the amount of food consumed by an ad libitum feeding group. In addition, we attempted to verify the involvement of corticosteroids and oxidative stress during nutritional deprivation. The overall food intake in mice undergoing moderate dietary restriction was less than that in mice undergoing repeated fasting. Nonetheless, moderate dietary restriction and repeated fasting showed similar suppressive effects on dermatitis. Furthermore, both the restricted-diet and fasted mice showed less oxidative stress than the mice fed ad libitum. In RU486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist)-injected mice, no suppressive effect of fasting on dermatitis was seen. In conclusion, repeated fasting and moderate dietary restriction suppressed dermatitis in similar ways. Hypercorticism and reduced oxidative stress is associated with the suppression of dermatitis.

  15. Relationships between food consumption and dietary intake among healthy volunteers and implications for meeting dietary goals.

    PubMed

    Engle, A; Hebert, J R; Reddy, B S

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative food frequency questionnaires and 5-day food records were used to explore relationships between food consumption and nutrient intake among 65 healthy volunteers who were willing to participate in a dietary fiber intervention study. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the nutrient intake and the frequency of consumption of each food item, as well as the amount consumed per month. Percentage of calories from fat was related to frequency of consumption and amount of consumption, respectively, of bacon (r = .48, .49), frankfurters and sausage (r = .45, .45), and french fries and fried potatoes (r = .43, .39). Frequency and amount, respectively, of consumption of fruits were most highly correlated with intake of vitamin A (r = .45, .46), vitamin C (r = .44, .48), and dietary fiber (r = .43, .43). We conclude that specific food consumption amounts and/or frequency of eating foods such as legumes, fruits, and whole-grain or bran-rich cereals should be recommended to assist individuals in meeting dietary goals.

  16. Effect of dietary fat type on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Baba, Kento; Miyahara, Hideo; Shimizu, Naomi; Tabata, Kuniko; Kino, Takako; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fat plays an important role in higher brain functions. We aimed to assess the short and long term intake of three different types of dietary fat (soybean oil, lard, and fish oil) on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice. For the short term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery for anxiety and depression was carried out for a 3-day feeding period. For the long term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery began after the 4-week feeding period. During the short term intake, the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze was the longest in the fish oil fed group, followed by the soybean oil and lard-fed groups. The elevated plus-maze is a common animal model to assess anxiety, in which an increased time spent in the open arms indicates an anxiolytic effect. The difference between the fish oil-fed group and lard-fed group was statistically significant (p < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the soybean oil-fed group and the other two groups. Similar results were observed after a 4-week feeding period. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the three groups in behavior tests to evaluate depression. Thus, the dietary fat types appeared to influence anxiety but not depression in mice, both in short term (3 days) and long term (4 weeks) feeding.

  17. Nutrition education by a registered dietitian improves dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of a NCAA female volleyball team.

    PubMed

    Valliant, Melinda W; Emplaincourt, Heather Pittman; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-06-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes.

  18. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  19. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-06-15

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD.

  20. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD. PMID:16987404

  1. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  2. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  3. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  4. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    PubMed

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  5. Dietary manipulation of mouse metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feige, Jérôme N; Lagouge, Marie; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The maintenance of metabolic homeostasis relies on the balanced intake of nutrients from food. Consequently, diet composition strongly impacts whole-body physiology. Dietary formulations with strong nutrient imbalances can lead to metabolic disorders, with lipids and simple sugars playing a prominent role. This unit describes how diet formulation can be modified to generate mouse models of human metabolic pathologies, and it details methodological procedures linked to dietary manipulations, including caloric restriction and introduction of a test compound.

  6. Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Cimino; Vincenzo, Favilla; Tommaso, Castelli; Giuseppe, Sortino; Marco, Russo; Ivana, Caldarella; Giorgio, Russo; Massimo, Madonia; Giuseppe, Morgia

    2012-01-01

    Dietary patterns play a role on prostatic diseases in association with genetic, behavioral, occupational and environmental ones. Data from reviewed literature provide evidences of a possible relationship between dietary habits and the incidence of prostate disorders, even if it is not enough to justify a widespread adoption of new dietary habits. In this review the role of dietary patterns, including the use of supplements, in the prevention and treatment of the most frequent and known prostatic diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) was analyzed. A limited number of well designed trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow disease progression. Although conclusive evidences are limited, the current data suggest that a diet low in total calories and fat, high in vegetables and fruits and that body weight control could be possibly effective in preventing prostatic diseases. On the other hand care must be taken to ensure that over-consumption of dietary supplements does not occur because it may be harmful.

  7. Suprathreshold measures of taste perception in children - Association with dietary quality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; O'Brien, Sinead A; Scannell, Amalia G M; Markey, Anne; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-02-21

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in the Western world, and is affected by a multitude of interacting factors. Recent evidence suggests that taste perception may differ between obese and normal weight children. Evidence also suggests that perception of sweet and bitter taste is linked to differential food liking of various foods. To date, most studies have focused on single food items or food groups, rather than an overall view of dietary quality, and mainly on bitterness. Thus it is unclear whether taste perception is associated with dietary quality in children. Our objective was to examine the link between taste perception, dietary quality and body weight in Irish school children, in conjunction with other known influences of body weight. Taste perception was measured using the gLMS for bitter, salty and sweet stimuli. Detailed dietary intake data were collected from 525 children aged 7-13 via a 3-day diet history. Energy misreporters were identified and excluded from the dietary analyses, leaving n = 483 children. Dietary quality was assessed using Healthy Eating Index. Salivary DNA was collected and analyzed for variations in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38. Sex differences were observed whereby intensity perception of sweetness was lower in the overweight/obese males, while no association was observed for sweet taste in the females. Despite the differences in weight status, taste perception was not associated with differences in overall dietary quality, measured via HEI score, in this cohort. Prospective cohort studies in children are necessary to better understand the association between taste intensity, food intake and weight over time.

  8. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  9. Assessing parents' attitudes towards ketogenic dietary therapies.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Natasha E; MacDonald, Lindsay; Champion, Helena; Cross, J Helen; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Horne, Rob

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to assess and quantify parental beliefs regarding ketogenic dietary therapies (KDTs). We also aimed to determine whether beliefs were related to response to KDTs. Adapted versions of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire were completed by parents of children following KDTs for epilepsy. Demographic and clinical data were collected from hospital records. Ketogenic dietary therapy response was defined as ≥50% seizure reduction compared to baseline. Many parents had a positive perception of KDTs and were convinced of the necessity of KDTs for their children, although beliefs were wide-ranging. Over half of parents reported concerns about the potential long-term effects of KDTs. Parental beliefs about KDTs were significantly correlated with patient response. This was an attempt to quantify parents' beliefs regarding the use of KDTs for their child's epilepsy. The questionnaire may be used to identify individuals with a less positive attitude towards KDTs and who may be less likely to report a favorable response to KDTs. It is unknown whether people who have positive beliefs about KDTs engage in less nonadherent behavior or whether beliefs regarding KDTs simply reflect outcomes. The evidence behind the long-term side effects of KDTs should be emphasized when counseling patients and their families.

  10. Dietary lipids and cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C

    2006-05-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.

  11. Dietary habits and hearing.

    PubMed

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: Study groups from three age cohorts of 70-75 year-olds were investigated to search for possible correlations between dietary habits and auditory function. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A total number of 524 people (275 women, 249 men) were recruited from three age cohorts. The study sample was representative of the general population. All participants answered a diet history and were tested with pure-tone audiometry. Eleven categories of food consumption were related to pure-tone averages of low-mid frequency hearing, and high frequency hearing. Two consistent correlations between diet and hearing were observed. One was a correlation between good hearing and a high consumption of fish in the male group. The other was a correlation between poor high frequency hearing and a high consumption of food rich in low molecular carbohydrates in both genders; a larger effect size was seen in females. The study indicates that diet is important for aural health in aging. According to this study fish is beneficial to hearing, whereas consumption of "junk food", rich in low molecular carbohydrates, is detrimental. Other correlations, e.g. between high consumption of antioxidants, were not demonstrated here, but cannot be excluded.

  12. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  13. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  14. Dietary Fiber, Kidney Function, Inflammation, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Cederholm, Tommy; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70–71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991–1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Results Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). Conclusions High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also

  15. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M; Cederholm, Tommy; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-12-05

    In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney

  16. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications...

  17. Dietary assessment and self-monitoring with nutrition applications for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice.

  18. [Dietary supplements--evaluation of patient inquiries at a drug information service].

    PubMed

    Goltz, L; Schröder, J; Kirch, W

    2012-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a product group of foods, which are meant to supplement the general nutrition with micronutrients and other substances. They are widely used in Germany. We evaluated the frequency of their use and of information requirements concerning dietary supplements in patients who contacted the independent drug information service at TU Dresden. All inquiries from 2008 to 2010 were evaluated regarding information requirement about dietary supplements, the kind of products used and characteristics of patients using supplements. Sociodemographic characteristics, kind and number of drugs and dietary supplements as well as underlying diseases were recorded from the inquiring patients. 23.3 % of persons looking for advice used dietary supplements. The most frequently used product groups included vitamins and minerals (52.5 %) as well as plant extracts (14.0 %). Information requirements were especially high for plant extracts and for products containing glucosamine/chondroitin and lutein/zeaxanthin. Users of dietary supplements were exposed to a higher number of different products than non-users. Information requirements were primarily detected for products without clearly proven benefits or for supplements which are advertised to relieve certain diseases or symptoms although the product characteristics do not support such utilization. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among patients which already receive multiple medications substantiates the necessity to include dietary supplements in assessments of drug interactions and to scrutinize indications for supplement use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery.

  20. Development of a new instrument for evaluating individuals' dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hong; Kogashiwa, Michiko; Kira, Shohei

    2006-10-01

    With the aim of developing a new dietary instrument for assessing an individual's usual intakes, we evaluated a hand-held personal digital assistant with camera and mobile telephone card, called Wellnavi (Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Twenty-eight college students majoring in food and nutrition in Okayama University of Japan voluntarily participated in this study. Applying a cross-sectional study design, participants were asked to keep 1-day weighed food records. Digital images of all recorded foods were obtained simultaneously and sent to registered dietitians by a mobile telephone card. The following day, a 24-hour recall was obtained. These procedures were repeated after 6 months. Participants' opinions about the three methods were determined using a questionnaire. Differences in estimated median nutrient intake among the three methods were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. Relationships among the nutrient estimates by each method were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. We found no significant differences between the Wellnavi method when compared with food records for most nutrients, except zinc, manganese, vitamin E, saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and dietary fiber. The median correlation coefficients for the nutrient estimates were 0.66 between the Wellnavi method and the food records. The survey showed that 57.1% of subjects considered the Wellnavi method the least burdensome of the three methods and the least time consuming (16 minutes) to record daily diet. About half of participants indicated that they would be willing to use the Wellnavi for 1 month to record their diet. This study suggests that a hand-held digital assistant may be a valid and convenient instrument for evaluating dietary intake.

  1. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (p<0.05), beta-carotene (p<0.01), vitamin C (p<0.05), folic acid (p<0.05) and fiber (p<0.05) of depression patients were significantly lower compared to control group. The average total dietary habit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (p<0.01). The average dietary habit scores of "eating meals at regular times" (p<0.05), "eating adequate amount of meals" (p<0.05), "having meals with diverse foods" (p<0.05), "avoiding eating spicy foods" (p<0.01) and "eating protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs, beans more than 2 times a day" (p<0.05) were significantly lower in depression patients compare to control group. The average scores of total life stress (p<0.001) and all stress categories of depression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have

  2. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  3. Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise.

    PubMed

    Larsen, F J; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J O; Ekblom, B

    2007-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases, plays a role in adaptation to physical exercise by modulating blood flow, muscular contraction and glucose uptake and in the control of cellular respiration. Recent studies show that NO can be formed in vivo also from the reduction of inorganic nitrate (NO(3) (-)) and nitrite (NO(2) (-)). The diet constitutes a major source of nitrate, and vegetables are particularly rich in this anion. The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary nitrate had any effect on metabolic and circulatory parameters during exercise. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested the effect of dietary nitrate on physiological and metabolic parameters during exercise. Nine healthy young well-trained men performed submaximal and maximal work tests on a cycle ergometer after two separate 3-day periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol kg(-1) day-1) or an equal amount of sodium chloride (placebo). The oxygen cost at submaximal exercise was reduced after nitrate supplementation compared with placebo. On an average Vo(2) decreased from 2.98 +/- 0.57 during CON to 2.82 +/- 0.58 L min(-1) during NIT (P < 0.02) over the four lowest submaximal work rates. Gross efficiency increased from 19.7 +/- 1.6 during CON to 21.1 +/- 1.3% during NIT (P < 0.01) over the four lowest work rates. There was no difference in heart rate, lactate [Hla], ventilation (VE), VE/Vo(2) or respiratory exchange ratio between nitrate and placebo during any of the submaximal work rates. We conclude that dietary nitrate supplementation, in an amount achievable through a diet rich in vegetables, results in a lower oxygen demand during submaximal work. This highly surprising effect occurred without an accompanying increase in lactate concentration, indicating that the energy production had become more efficient. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified but a likely first step is the in vivo reduction of

  4. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  6. [Assessment of dietary intake and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in adults].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Karen; Pizarro, Fernando; Atalah, Eduardo; Galgani, José E

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with elevated sodium and low potassium intakes. The determination of sodium and potassium intake by dietary records is inaccurate, being its measurement from 24-h urine collection the reference method. To determine urinary sodium and potassium excretion in adults. To compare dietary sodium and potassium intake and their excretion from an isolated urine sample against the reference method. Seventy healthy adults aged 35 ± 8 years with a body mass index 25 ± 2 kg/m² (36 women) were studied. Urine was collected over 24 h, including an isolated urine sample taken in fasting conditions. Additionally, three 24-h dietary records were performed. Reported sodium and potassium intake was 2,720 ± 567 and 1,068 ± 433 mg/day, respectively. In turn, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium was 4,770 ± 1,532 and 1,852 ± 559 mg/day, respectively. These latter values were significantly higher than those obtained by dietary records. Furthermore, the urinary sodium and potassium excretion estimated from an isolated urine sample was 4,839 ± 1,355 and 1,845 ± 494 mg/day, respectively. These values were similar to those obtained with a 24 h urine collection. Dietary records underestimated electrolyte intake when compared with the reference method. Using an isolated urine sample to estimate electrolyte intake may be a reliable alternative.

  7. Responsiveness of 6 to 14 generations of birds to dietary dieldrin toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The lethal dietary toxicity of dieldrin was estimated repeatedly during 8 years of testing young bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Toxicities, quantified as 8-day LC50 values (5 days on toxic diet, followed by 3 days of untreated feed), were estimated at least 18 times per species. Average dietary LC50 values (ppm) and their 95% confidence limits for 14-day-old quail and 10-day-old pheasants and mallards were: bobwhite, 38 (34?42); Japanese quail, 61 (58?64); ring-necked pheasant, 56 (53?59); and mallard, 179 (163?195). No time-related changes were detected in LC50 values for any of the species.

  8. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  9. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  10. [Nutrigenomics--bioactive dietary components].

    PubMed

    Gętek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Fizia, Katarzyna; Białek-Dratwa, Agnieszka; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa

    2013-04-05

    Nutrigenomics analyzes relations between diet and genes, and identifies mechanisms in which food and nutrition affect health and lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases (R. Chadwick, 2004). Bioactive dietary components are signal molecules that carry information from the external environment and affect in terms of quantity and quality in the process of gene expression. The biological effect of bioactive dietary components depends on various of physiological processes that can occur within a few genes. Polymorphism of genes can change their function and physiological response of the body for nutrients. Bioactive dietary components work on at least two levels of the expression of genes as factors regulating chromatin structure and as factors directly regulate the activity of nuclear receptors. The processes of synthesis and DNA repair are regulated by some of vitamins, macro-and micro-elements. They provide, among others, cofactors of enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA methylation and its repair. DNA methylation profile may change under the influence of diet, single nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors. Bioactive dietary components may directly affect the process of gene expression by acting as ligands for nuclear receptors. Sensitive to dietary group of nuclear receptors are sensory receptors. This group includes, among others receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated), responsible for energy metabolism and receptors LXR (liver X receptor), FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and RXR, which is responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol.

  11. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Blumenthal, J A

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing 'whole' diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed.

  12. Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Zara; McKeever, Tricia

    2011-03-16

    There is a wide geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and observational studies have suggested that dietary sodium may play a role. To assess the effect of dietary sodium manipulation on asthma control. We carried out a search using the Cochrane Airways Group asthma register. We searched the bibliographies of included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for additional studies. We carried out the most recent search in November 2010. We considered only RCTs that involved dietary sodium reduction or increased sodium intake in patients with asthma. Both review authors assessed study and extracted data. We conducted data analyses in RevMan 5 using mean differences and random effects. We identified a total of nine studies in relation to sodium manipulation and asthma, of which five were in people with asthma (318 participants), and four in people with exercise-induced asthma (63 participants). There were no significant benefits of salt restriction on the control of asthma. There was some evidence from the exercise-induced asthma studies that a low sodium diet may improve lung function after exercise and possibly baseline lung function, but this is based on findings from a very small numbers of participants. This review did not find any evidence that dietary sodium reduction significantly improves asthma control. Although dietary sodium reduction may result in improvements in lung function in exercise-induced asthma, the clinical significance of this effect is unclear.

  13. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  14. Gender difference in blood pressure responses to dietary sodium intervention in the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Chen, Jing; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Chen, Ji-chun; Duan, Xiufang; Huang, Jian-feng; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Kelly, Tanika N; Bazzano, Lydia A; Whelton, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    To examine factors related to blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions. We conducted a dietary feeding study that included a 7-day low-salt intervention (51.3 mmol sodium/day), a 7-day high-salt intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day), and a 7-day high-salt and potassium-supplementation (60 mmol potassium/day) intervention among 1906 study participants in rural China. The BP was measured nine times during the 3-day baseline observation and during the last 3 days of each intervention phase using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. The BP responses to low-sodium intervention were significantly greater in women than in men: -8.1 [95% confidence interval (-8.6 to -7.6)] versus -7.0 (-7.5 to -6.6) mmHg for systolic and -4.5 (-4.9 to -4.1) versus -3.4 (-3.8 to -3.0) mmHg for diastolic. Likewise, BP responses to high-sodium interventions were significantly greater in women than in men: 6.4 (5.9-6.8) versus 5.2 (4.8-5.7) mmHg for systolic and 3.1 (2.7-3.5) versus 1.7 (1.4-2.1) mmHg for diastolic (all P < 0.001). In addition, systolic BP responses to sodium interventions increased with age, and both systolic and diastolic BP responses to sodium interventions increased with baseline BP levels. BP responses to potassium supplementation also increased with baseline BP levels. These results suggest that female gender, older age, and hypertension increase the sensitivity to dietary sodium intervention. Furthermore, low dietary sodium intake may be more effective in reducing BP among these subgroups.

  15. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  16. AN IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR DIETARY ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing concern about chronic diseases and other health problems related to diet including obesity and cancer. Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of chronic diseases. Measuring accurate dietary intake is considered to be an open research problem in the nutrition and health fields. In this paper, we describe a novel mobile telephone food record that provides a measure of daily food and nutrient intake. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food that is consumed at a meal. Images obtained before and after foods are eaten are used to estimate the amount and type of food consumed. The mobile device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces the burden on respondents that are obtained using more classical approaches for dietary assessment. We describe our approach to image analysis that includes the segmentation of food items, features used to identify foods, a method for automatic portion estimation, and our overall system architecture for collecting the food intake information. PMID:22025261

  17. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  18. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  19. The association of dietary vitamin C intake with periodontitis among Korean adults: Results from KNHANES Ⅳ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoo; Shin, Myung-Seop; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Yoo-Been; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2017-01-01

    The association of dietary vitamin C (vit C) on periodontitis requires more valid evidence from large representative samples to enable sufficient adjustments. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary vit C intake and periodontitis after controlling for various confounders in the representative Korean adult population. A total of 10,930 Korean adults (≥19 years) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set were included in this cross-sectional study. Periodontitis was defined as community periodontal index score of 3 or 4. Dietary vit C intake was estimated from a 24-hour dietary record, and categorized into adequate and inadequate according to the Korean Estimated Average Requirement value. Potential confounders included age, sex, income, frequency of tooth brushing, use of floss, dental visit, drinking, smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. A multivariable logistic regression analysis and stratified analysis were applied. Those with inadequate dietary vit C intake were more likely by 1.16 times to have periodontitis than those with adequate dietary vit C intake (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.29). Lowest and middle-low quartile of dietary vit C intake, compared to highest quartile of dietary vit C intake, showed significant association (aOR = 1.28 and 1.22 respectively), which was in a biological-gradient relationship (trend-p <0.05). Our data showed that inadequate dietary vit C intake was independently associated with periodontitis among Korean adults. Hence, adequate intake of dietary vitamin C could be substantially important on the promotion of periodontal health among Korean adults.

  20. Dietary energy density: a mediator of depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity or independent predictor of abdominal obesity?

    PubMed

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C; Frediani, Jennifer K; Higgins, Melinda K

    2012-12-01

    In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; and waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates that most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted.

  1. Zinc biofortification of rice in China: a simulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J; Shi, Zumin

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely "traditional", "macho", "sweet tooth", and "healthy". Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the "traditional" pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the "sweet tooth" pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more "traditional" food pattern, but less for subjects with a "sweet tooth" food pattern.

  2. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J.; Shi, Zumin

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern. PMID:22822450

  3. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes, but many health care providers now keep electronic records. You might hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for ...

  4. SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The appendices for the SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual include a sample food diary, backgorund information on the water concentration data used in SHEDS-Dietary, a food list, food definitions and sample code.

  5. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166625.html Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol Eating them can reduce ... and Human Services. More Health News on Cholesterol Dietary Fats Heart Diseases--Prevention Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  6. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  7. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0

  8. Body composition, dietary composition, and components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults after a 12-week trial on dietary treatments focused on portion control, energy density, or glycemic index

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the rise in obesity and associated chronic diseases, it is critical to determine optimal weight management approaches that will also improve dietary composition and chronic disease risk factors. Few studies have examined all these weight, diet, and disease risk variables in subjects participating in recommended multi-disciplinary weight loss programs using different dietary strategies. Methods This study compared effects of three dietary approaches to weight loss on body composition, dietary composition and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a 12-week trial, sedentary but otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults (19 M & 138 F; 38.7 ± 6.7 y; BMI 31.8 ± 2.2) who were attending weekly group sessions for weight loss followed either portion control, low energy density, or low glycemic index diet plans. At baseline and 12 weeks, measures included anthropometrics, body composition, 3-day food diaries, blood pressure, total lipid profile, HOMA, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose and insulin. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results All groups significantly reduced body weight and showed significant improvements in body composition (p < 0.001), and components of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.027 to 0.002), although HDL decreased (p < 0.001). Dietary energy, %fat and %saturated fat decreased while protein intake increased significantly (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences among the three groups in any variable related to body composition, dietary composition, or MetS components. Conclusion Different dietary approaches based on portion control, low energy density, or low glycemic index produced similar, significant short-term improvements in body composition, diet compositin, and MetS components in overweight and obese adults undergoing weekly weight loss meetings. This may allow for flexibility in options for dietary counseling based on patient preference. PMID

  9. Dietary survey of diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, A F; Court, S; McCowen, C; Parkin, J M

    1986-01-01

    This study of 168 diabetic children from Tyneside and Teeside aimed to record what the children actually ate and to compare this with both their prescribed diet and current recommendations. The amounts of energy consumed were similar to those expected of non-diabetic children, but the components of the diabetic children's diets were different, consisting of more fat and fibre, but less sugars and carbohydrates. They ate more carbohydrate than prescribed but less than current recommendations as there was a shortfall between the amount prescribed and that suggested in the recommendations. Diabetic control was related to the amount of fibre consumed and to compliance with the prescribed diet, but not to the proportion of energy taken as carbohydrate. The insulin dose was slightly lower in those children eating more fibre. PMID:3006604

  10. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply...

  11. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children.

  12. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  13. Relationships among parent and youth healthful eating attitudes and youth dietary intake in a cross-sectional study of youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Constructs based on Social Cognitive Theory have shown utility in understanding dietary behavior; however, little research has examined these relations in youth and parents concurrently. Unique demands of dietary management among families of youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) suggest the importance of investigation in this population. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate youth and parent measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and barriers for healthful eating, and parent modeling of healthful eating, in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Methods Youth (n=252) ages 8–18 years with diabetes duration ≥1 year and parents completed self-report measures of healthful eating attitudes including self-efficacy, perceived barriers, positive and negative outcome expectations; youth reported parent modeling of healthful eating. Youth dietary intake from 3-day diet records was used to calculate the Healthy Eating Index 2005 and the Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 index, measures of overall diet quality. The relations among parent and youth healthful eating attitudes, parent modeling, and youth diet quality were examined using structural equation modeling. Results Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the measures were acceptable. The structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit (CFI/TLI=0.94/0.94; RMSEA=0.03), and items loaded the hypothesized factors. Parent modeling β^=.27,p=.02 and attitudes toward healthful eating (latent variable comprised of self-efficacy, barriers, outcome expectations) β^=.16,p=.04 had direct effects on youth diet quality. Parent modeling had a direct effect on youth attitudes β^=.49,p<.001; parent attitudes had an indirect effect on youth attitudes through parent modeling β^=.12,p,<.001. Youth attitudes were not associated with youth diet quality. Overall, the model accounted for 20% of the variance in child diet quality. Conclusions Parent diet-related behaviors

  14. Is the Internet a reliable source for dietary recommendations for stone formers?

    PubMed

    Traver, Michael A; Passman, Corey M; LeRoy, Timothy; Passmore, Leah; Assimos, Dean G

    2009-04-01

    Kidney stone formation is influenced by environmental factors, especially diet. Certain dietary modifications, including increased fluid intake, reduced animal protein and sodium consumption, and normal calcium intake, reduce the risk of stone activity. Patients frequently use the Internet for information regarding disease processes. We undertook this study to determine the quality of dietary stone information available in this communication domain. The Google search engine was used to survey 458 consecutive sites related to kidney stones and dietary information. The presence or absence of the four aforementioned dietary recommendations was recorded. The sites were analyzed for correctness, information on all four domains present and correct; inaccuracy, something mentioned about all four areas but > or =1 recommendation error(s); deficiency, information on < or =3 or domains and no recommendation errors; deficiency and inaccuracy, information on < or =3 areas and > or =1 recommendation error(s). [Table: see text] There were 10 errors regarding calcium intake and 2 pertaining to protein consumption. The quality of information varied with the reporting source. Internet-based information regarding four important dietary modifications for kidney stone formers is frequently incomplete. Dietary inaccuracy, while uncommon in this communication domain, is mostly centered on the misconception that calcium restriction is beneficial. The quality of dietary information may depend on the Internet information source.

  15. A changing landscape: web-based methods for dietary assessment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kate E

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents' dietary intake is an important determinant of health and well-being and is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. The complexity of the adolescent diet makes its assessment prone to error, which has prompted researchers and clinicians to turn to technology to reduce this error. Previous reviews have been conducted regarding the use of technology in dietary assessment for adults; however, there are no known reviews for adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe the practical considerations for web-based dietary assessment methods and to evaluate recent evidence on their validity and implications. There are numerous web-based dietary assessment methods that are available, valid, and reliable for use in the adolescent population. Web-based methods include both native and web-based applications (or 'apps'), and have been developed for use as food records, 24-h dietary recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. Web-based methods provide an efficient, cost-effective and practical solution to assess dietary intake; they are less burdensome to respondents and reduce errors and bias. Furthermore, adolescents are technologically savvy and often prefer the use of technology. Web-based methods should be considered when assessing adolescents' dietary intake.

  16. Dietary cholesterol concentration affects synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphology of rabbit hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Desheng; Zheng, Wen

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies have shown dietary cholesterol can enhance learning but retard memory which may be partly due to increased cholesterol levels in hippocampus and reduced afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude of hippocampal CA1 neurons. This study explored the dose-dependent effect of dietary cholesterol on synaptic plasticity of rabbit hippocampal CA1 neurons and spine morphology, the postsynaptic structures responsible for synaptic plasticity. Field potential recordings revealed a low concentration of dietary cholesterol increased long-term potentiation (LTP) expression while high concentrations produced a pronounced reduction in LTP expression. Dietary cholesterol facilitated basal synaptic transmission but did not influence presynaptic function. DiI staining showed dietary cholesterol induced alterations in dendrite spine morphology characterized by increased mushroom spine density and decreased thin spine density, two kinds of dendritic spines that may be linked to memory consolidation and learning acquisition. Dietary cholesterol also modulated the geometric measures of mushroom spines. Therefore, dietary cholesterol dose-dependently modulated both synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphologies of hippocampal CA1 neurons that could mediate learning and memory changes previously seen to result from feeding a cholesterol diet.

  17. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnell, Emily K.; Huggins, Catherine E.; Huggins, Chris T.; McCaffrey, Tracy A.; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. PMID:28245625

  18. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Bonnell, Emily K; Huggins, Catherine E; Huggins, Chris T; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P

    2017-02-26

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  19. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public...) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.78 Dietary services. (a) Meal requirements. (1) Except as... meals that meet the participant's daily nutritional and special dietary needs. Each meal must meet the...

  20. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly running...

  1. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly running...

  2. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary practices. 548.20 Section 548.20... religious dietary practice within the constraints of budget limitations and the security and orderly running...

  3. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document is intended primarily for use by