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Sample records for 3-day food record

  1. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  2. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  3. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  4. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  5. Evidence-based development of a mobile telephone food record.

    PubMed

    Six, Bethany L; Schap, Tusarebecca E; Zhu, Fengqing M; Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Kerr, Deborah A; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-01-01

    Mobile telephones with an integrated camera can provide a unique mechanism for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on record-keepers. Objectives for this study were to test whether participant's proficiency with the mobile telephone food record improved after training and repeated use and to measure changes in perceptions regarding use of the mobile telephone food record after training and repeated use. Seventy-eight adolescents (26 males, 52 females) ages 11 to 18 years were recruited to use the mobile telephone food record for one or two meals. Proficiency with the mobile telephone food record was defined as capturing a useful image for image analysis and self-reported ease of use. Positive changes in perceptions regarding use of the mobile telephone food record were assumed to equate to potentially improved proficiency with the mobile telephone food record. Participants received instruction for using the mobile telephone food record prior to their first meal, and captured an image of their meals before and after eating. Following the first meal, participants took part in an interactive session where they received additional training on capturing images in various snacking situations and responded to questions about user preferences. Changes in the participants' abilities to capture useful images and perceptions about the usability of the mobile telephone food record were examined using McNemar, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and paired t test. After using the mobile telephone food record, the majority of participants (79%) agreed that the software was easy to use. Eleven percent of participants agreed taking images before snacking would be easy. After additional training, the percent increased significantly to 32% (P<0.0001). For taking images after snacking, there was also improvement (21% before training and 43% after; P<0.0001). Adolescents readily adopt new technologies; however, the mobile telephone food record design needs to accommodate the

  6. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents. PMID:28134757

  7. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Chloe E; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah A; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O'ahu, Hawai'i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  8. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  11. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  13. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Administration records shall be made available for public disclosure. (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d)...

  14. Estimation of energy intake in clinical practice: a comparison between a food record protocol and a precoded food record book.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Unosson, Mitra

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare energy intake estimated from a clinical food record protocol (CFRP) with that from a precoded food record book (PFRB) as reference method. Food and fluid consumption were recorded in 10 older patients using a CFRP in parallel with a PFRB during a 6-day period. The results showed that there were no significant differences in mean energy intake estimated from the CFRP as compared with that estimated from the PFRB. The correlation coefficient between the calculated daily energy intake from the CFRP and PFRB was 0.96. The differences in energy intake (kcal/day) between the CFRP and PFRB, plotted against their mean value for 10 patients, showed that results were within the limits of agreement (mean +/- 2SD) for nine patients. The differences in each day's energy intake between the two methods plotted against their mean value showed that 97% of the estimated daily energy intake was within the limits of agreement. The weighted kappa between the two methods was 0.76. The CFRP would seem to be acceptable for the estimation of mean energy intake in the hospital setting.

  15. 77 FR 10753 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Administration Records Access Authority Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Records Access Authority Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Sections 414 and 704 of the Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance provides updated... Records Access Authority Under Sections 414 and 704 of the Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act.'' The...

  16. DialBetics With a Multimedia Food Recording Tool, FoodLog

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Kayo; Aizawa, Kiyoharu; Kato, Shigeko; Fujita, Hideo; Lee, Hanae; Kobayashi, Haruka; Ogawa, Makoto; Mouri, Keisuke; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes self-management education is an essential element of diabetes care. Systems based on information and communication technology (ICT) for supporting lifestyle modification and self-management of diabetes are promising tools for helping patients better cope with diabetes. An earlier study had determined that diet improved and HbA1c declined for the patients who had used DialBetics during a 3-month randomized clinical trial. The objective of the current study was to test a more patient-friendly version of DialBetics, whose development was based on the original participants’ feedback about the previous version of DialBetics. Method: DialBetics comprises 4 modules: data transmission, evaluation, exercise input, and food recording and dietary evaluation. Food recording uses a multimedia food record, FoodLog. A 1-week pilot study was designed to determine if usability and compliance improved over the previous version, especially with the new meal-input function. Results: In the earlier 3-month, diet-evaluation study, HbA1c had declined a significant 0.4% among those who used DialBetics compared with the control group. In the current 1-week study, input of meal photos was higher than with the previous version (84.8 ± 13.2% vs 77.1% ± 35.1% in the first 2 weeks of the 3-month trial). Interviews after the 1-week study showed that 4 of the 5 participants thought the meal-input function improved; the fifth found input easier, but did not consider the result an improvement. Conclusions: DialBetics with FoodLog was shown to be an effective and convenient tool, its new meal-photo input function helping provide patients with real-time support for diet modification. PMID:25883164

  17. A thin film recording medium for use in food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, M. C.; Tamargo, T. T.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Khan, H. M.; Lewis, D. F.; Schenfele, R. D.

    A commercially-available electron recording medium has been examined in terms of response to ionizing radiation in the form of photons emitted from the radionuclides 137Cs and 60Co and accelerated electrons. Operational characteristics of the film have been evaluated using scanning visible spectrophotometry, color photometry, densitometry, and scanning densitometry. The effect of various irradiation parameters (absorbed dose, absorbed dose rate, and irradiation temperature) have been characterized over the absorbed dose range of 0.1 to 5 kGy. Principle attributes of the film appear to be dose-rate independence for a given source, a high degree of uniformity with respect to radiochromic dye coating, and reproducibility of individual film sample measurements. Methods of dosimetry system operation and potential applications are discussed, with emphasis on applications for food irradiation.

  18. 21 CFR 20.31 - Retention schedule of requests for Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention schedule of requests for Food and Drug Administration records. 20.31 Section 20.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.31 Retention schedule of requests for...

  19. 21 CFR 20.29 - Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files. 20.29 Section 20.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.29 Prohibition...

  20. How Willing Are Adolescents to Record Their Dietary Intake? The Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Paterson, Stacey; Aflague, Tanisha; Bosch Ruiz, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Delp, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing the diets of children and adolescents can be problematic. Use of technologies, such as mobile apps designed to capture food and beverages consumed at eating occasions with images taken using device-embedded cameras, may address many of the barriers to gathering accurate dietary intake data from adolescents. Objective The objectives of this study were to assess the willingness of adolescents to take images of food and beverages at their eating occasions using a novel mobile food record (mFR) and to evaluate the usability of the user confirmation component of the mFR app, referred to as the “review process.” Methods Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative protocols were used in this study. Adolescents (11-15-year olds) attending a summer camp were recruited to participate in the study. First, the participants were asked to take images of foods and beverages consumed as meals and snacks for 2 consecutive days using the mFR app running on an iPhone and the number of images taken was noted. This was followed by focus group sessions to evaluate usability, which was analyzed by content and themes. After using the mFR, a think-aloud method was used to evaluate the usability of the mFR method for reviewing system-identified foods (ie, the review process). A usability questionnaire was administered at the end of all activities. Results The mFR was accepted by the majority of the 24 boys and 17 girls (n=41) but varied according to gender and eating occasion. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to capture images of their eating occasions (Fisher exact test, P=.03). Participants were more likely to take images of their breakfasts (90%, 36/40) and lunches (90%, 72/80) and least likely to capture afternoon and evening snacks, 54% (43/80) and 40% (32/80), respectively. The major themes from the focus groups with regard to using the mFR were games, rewards, and the need to know more about why they were using the app

  1. BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet with a Mobile Food Record among Adults Participating in Dietary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Pollard, Christina M.; Norman, Richard; Wright, Janine L.; Harray, Amelia J.; Shoneye, Charlene L.; Solah, Vicky A.; Hunt, Wendy J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4-day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow-up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake. PMID:28272343

  2. New technology in dietary assessment: a review of digital methods in improving food record accuracy.

    PubMed

    Stumbo, Phyllis J

    2013-02-01

    Methods for conducting dietary assessment in the United States date back to the early twentieth century. Methods of assessment encompassed dietary records, written and spoken dietary recalls, FFQ using pencil and paper and more recently computer and internet applications. Emerging innovations involve camera and mobile telephone technology to capture food and meal images. This paper describes six projects sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health that use digital methods to improve food records and two mobile phone applications using crowdsourcing. The techniques under development show promise for improving accuracy of food records.

  3. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  4. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  5. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  6. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  7. Evaluation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies for use with a mobile telephone food record.

    PubMed

    Six, Bethany L; Schap, Tusarebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Boushey, Carol J

    2011-12-01

    The development of a mobile telephone food record (mpFR) in which image analysis and volume estimation data can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) has the potential to improve the accuracy of dietary assessment. To validate the mpFR for use with adolescents, a convenience sample of adolescents, aged 11-18 years, was recruited to eat all meals and snacks in a controlled feeding environment over a 24-hour period. Each food item matched a food code in the FNDDS 3.0. The objective of this analysis was to compare the measured energy and protein content of foods to the published values in the FNDDS. Duplicate plates of all meals and snacks were prepared, and samples of 20 foods were individually weighed, homogenized, freeze dried, and analyzed for energy with a bomb calorimeter and for protein with a Dumas nitrogen analyzer. Eleven of the twenty food items had energy values in the FNDDS within ±10% of the measured energy value. The measured energy and protein values from all foods correlated significantly with the energy (r=0.981, P<0.01) and protein (r= 0.911, P<0.01) values in the FNDDS. These results support the use of the FNDDS with the mpFR.

  8. A Mobile Phone Food Record App to Digitally Capture Dietary Intake for Adolescents in a Free-Living Environment: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, Jared; Moon, Jon; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N; Whigham, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies are emerging as valuable tools to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; thus, a food record app (FRapp) may be a useful tool to better understand adolescents’ dietary intake and eating patterns. Objective We sought to determine the amenability of adolescents, in a free-living environment with minimal parental input, to use the FRapp to record their dietary intake. Methods Eighteen community-dwelling adolescents (11-14 years) received detailed instructions to record their dietary intake for 3-7 days using the FRapp. Participants were instructed to capture before and after images of all foods and beverages consumed and to include a fiducial marker in the image. Participants were also asked to provide text descriptors including amount and type of all foods and beverages consumed. Results Eight of 18 participants were able to follow all instructions: included pre- and post-meal images, a fiducial marker, and a text descriptor and collected diet records on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. Dietary intake was recorded on average for 3.2 (SD 1.3 days; 68% weekdays and 32% weekend days) with an average of 2.2 (SD 1.1) eating events per day per participant. A total of 143 eating events were recorded, of which 109 had at least one associated image and 34 were recorded with text only. Of the 109 eating events with images, 66 included all foods, beverages and a fiducial marker and 44 included both a pre- and post-meal image. Text was included with 78 of the captured images. Of the meals recorded, 36, 33, 35, and 39 were breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and snacks, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that mobile devices equipped with an app to record dietary intake will be used by adolescents in a free-living environment; however, a minority of participants followed all directions. User-friendly mobile food record apps may increase participant amenability, increasing our understanding of

  9. Does the Medicare 3-Day Rule Increase Length of Stay?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Victor H; Ong, Alvin; Post, Zachary; Orozco, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Medicare will only cover a stay in a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after TKA if the patient stays for at least 3 days at the inpatient hospital. The 3-day stay rule was instituted in 1965, to prevent over utilization of Medicare. We retrospectively reviewed 800 consecutive TKA, identifying patients that were discharged to rehab after surgery. 322 patients were discharged to SNF after surgery (209 Medicare, 113 private insurances). The LOS was 2.3 days for privately insured patients and 3.02 for Medicare recipients (P<0.05). No difference was found with regard to age, BMI, and ASA score. The Medicare 3-day rule independently increased the LOS in patients who required inpatient rehab, leading to increased cost. We suggest that this rule must be revised.

  10. The AMPATH Nutritional Information System: Designing a Food Distribution Electronic Record System in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jason LitJeh; Yih, Yuehwern; Gichunge, Catherine; Tierney, William M.; Le, Tung H.; Zhang, Jun; Lawley, Mark A.; Petersen, Tomeka J.; Mamlin, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The AMPATH program is a leading initiative in rural Kenya providing healthcare services to combat HIV. Malnutrition and food insecurity are common among AMPATH patients and the Nutritional Information System (NIS) was designed, with cross-functional collaboration between engineering and medical communities, as a comprehensive electronic system to record and assist in effective food distribution in a region with poor infrastructure. Design The NIS was designed modularly to support the urgent need of a system for the growing food distribution program. The system manages the ordering, storage, packing, shipping, and distribution of fresh produce from AMPATH farms and dry food supplements from the World Food Programme (WFP) and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) based on nutritionists' prescriptions for food supplements. Additionally, the system also records details of food distributed to support future studies. Measurements Patients fed weekly, patient visits per month. Results With inception of the NIS, the AMPATH food distribution program was able to support 30,000 persons fed weekly, up from 2,000 persons. Patient visits per month also saw a marked increase. Conclusion The NIS' modular design and frequent, effective interactions between developers and users has positively affected the design, implementation, support, and modifications of the NIS. It demonstrates the success of collaboration between engineering and medical communities, and more importantly the feasibility for technology readily available in a modern country to contribute to healthcare delivery in developing countries like Kenya and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19717795

  11. Comparative Study of the Routine Daily Usability of FoodLog: A Smartphone-based Food Recording Tool Assisted by Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kiyoharu; Maeda, Kazuki; Ogawa, Makoto; Sato, Yohei; Kasamatsu, Mayumi; Waki, Kayo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2014-03-01

    The health care field is focusing considerable attention on dietary control, which requires that individuals record what they eat. We have developed a novel smartphone application called FoodLog, a multimedia food recording tool that allows users to take photos of their meals and to produce textual food records. Unlike conventional smartphone-based food recording tools, FoodLog allows users to employ meal photos to help them to input textual descriptions based on image retrieval. In this study, we conducted usability experiments to evaluate the routine daily use of FoodLog systems with and without image-based assistance. We produced 2 food recording tools: FoodLog with image-based assistance (FL-I) and FoodLog with text input only (FL-T). We recruited 18 university students (age = 18-24 years), all of whom performed food recording for the first time. The participants used FoodLog on a daily basis for 1 month. In the subjective evaluation, FL-I had higher average scores for questions related to ease of use, fun, frequency of browsing, and intention to continue. In particular, the latter 3 factors received significantly higher scores with FL-I than with FL-T. In the quantitative evaluation, the daily average number of meal events and food records did not differ significantly between FL-I and FL-T. A detailed analysis of the individual records showed that 1 participant produced 3 times as many records using FL-I compared with FL-T. The subjective assessment showed that our new tool, which fully exploits the use of images, is a promising method for food recording.

  12. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  13. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  14. Development and Evaluation of e-CA, an Electronic Mobile-Based Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Carrard, Isabelle; Farina, Eddy; Danuser, Brigitta; Kruseman, Maaike

    2017-01-01

    Measures that capture diet as validly and reliably as possible are cornerstones of nutritional research, and mobile-based devices offer new opportunities to improve and simplify data collection. The balance between precision and acceptability of these data collection tools remains debated, and rigorous validations are warranted. Our objective was to develop and evaluate an electronic mobile-based food record for a research setting. We developed e-CA, which includes almost 900 foods and beverages classified in 14 categories and 60 subcategories. e-CA was evaluated using three different methods: (1) usability and acceptability through a logbook and qualitative interviews; (2) dietary intake accuracy through comparison with 2 unannounced 24-h phone recalls on overlapping days; and (3) reliability and process comparison with a paper-based food record in a laboratory setting with a randomized design. e-CA proved to be intuitive and practical and was perceived as modern, trendy, and fun. Comparisons of e-CA with 24-h telephone recalls or paper-based food records in a laboratory setting with two small convenient samples showed good agreement but highlighted the well-known difficulty of estimating portion sizes and a necessary learning time to use the app. e-CA is a functional tool that has the potential to facilitate food intake measurement for research by increasing the pleasure of using the food record tool and reducing the perceived burden for the participants. It also decreases the workload, costs and the risk of transcription errors for researchers. PMID:28106767

  15. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  16. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-09-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m3. However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m3. Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm3 with a size range of 15-710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm3 when the reactor was stopped.

  17. Plasma biochemistry in the horse during 3-day event competition.

    PubMed

    Rose, R J; Ilkiw, J E; Arnold, K S; Backhouse, J W; Sampson, D

    1980-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 16 Thoroughbred horses before, during and after the second day of a 3-day event. Plasma osmolality, concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, glucose, bilirubin, iron, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, inorganic phosphate, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were measured. Significant differences from pre-event values were found in all parameters with the greatest changes being found after the cross-country phase. Most parameters showed significant rises following exercise, except calcium and chloride, which decreased. It was deduced from the changes in biochemistry that dehydration, reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased glycogenolysis and increased lipid metabolism, were a result of this form of competitive exercise.

  18. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  19. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Islam, N; Douglass, D; Dadabhoy, H; Beltran, A; Baranowski, J; Thompson, D; Cullen, K W; Subar, A F

    2014-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (firsst4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in firsst4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in US national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (e.g. questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and firsst4 incorporate 10 000+ food images, with up to eight images per food, to assist in portion size estimation. We review the formative research conducted during the development of firsst4. When completed, firsst4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute's ASA24 website.

  20. Insect-damaged fossil leaves record food web response to ancient climate change and extinction.

    PubMed

    Wilf, P

    2008-01-01

    Plants and herbivorous insects have dominated terrestrial ecosystems for over 300 million years. Uniquely in the fossil record, foliage with well-preserved insect damage offers abundant and diverse information both about producers and about ecological and sometimes taxonomic groups of consumers. These data are ideally suited to investigate food web response to environmental perturbations, and they represent an invaluable deep-time complement to neoecological studies of global change. Correlations between feeding diversity and temperature, between herbivory and leaf traits that are modulated by climate, and between insect diversity and plant diversity can all be investigated in deep time. To illustrate, I emphasize recent work on the time interval from the latest Cretaceous through the middle Eocene (67-47 million years ago (Ma)), including two significant events that affected life: the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (65.5 Ma) and its ensuing recovery; and globally warming temperatures across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (55.8 Ma). Climatic effects predicted from neoecology generally hold true in these deep-time settings. Rising temperature is associated with increased herbivory in multiple studies, a result with major predictive importance for current global warming. Diverse floras are usually associated with diverse insect damage; however, recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction reveals uncorrelated plant and insect diversity as food webs rebuilt chaotically from a drastically simplified state. Calibration studies from living forests are needed to improve interpretation of the fossil data.

  1. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug... to the public, consistent with the rights of individuals to privacy, the property rights of...

  2. Self-monitoring of dietary intake by young women: online food records completed on computer or smartphone are as accurate as paper-based food records but more acceptable.

    PubMed

    Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Adherence and accuracy of self-monitoring of dietary intake influences success in weight management interventions. Information technologies such as computers and smartphones have the potential to improve adherence and accuracy by reducing the burden associated with monitoring dietary intake using traditional paper-based food records. We evaluated the acceptability and accuracy of three different 7-day food record methods (online accessed via computer, online accessed via smartphone, and paper-based). Young women (N=18; aged 23.4±2.9 years; body mass index 24.0±2.2) completed the three 7-day food records in random order with 7-day washout periods between each method. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was derived from resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity level (PAL) derived from accelerometers (TEE=REE×PAL). Accuracy of the three methods was assessed by calculating absolute (energy intake [EI]-TEE) and percentage difference (EI/TEE×100) between self-reported EI and TEE. Acceptability was assessed via questionnaire. Mean±standard deviation TEE was 2,185±302 kcal/day and EI was 1,729±249 kcal/day, 1,675±287kcal/day, and 1,682±352 kcal/day for computer, smartphone, and paper records, respectively. There were no significant differences between absolute and percentage differences between EI and TEE for the three methods: computer, -510±389 kcal/day (78%); smartphone, -456±372 kcal/day (80%); and paper, -503±513 kcal/day (79%). Half of participants (n=9) preferred computer recording, 44.4% preferred smartphone, and 5.6% preferred paper-based records. Most participants (89%) least preferred the paper-based record. Because online food records completed on either computer or smartphone were as accurate as paper-based records but more acceptable to young women, they should be considered when self-monitoring of intake is recommended to young women.

  3. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  4. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  5. Effect of age and food intake on dietary carbon turnover recorded in sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, Antoine; Moloney, Aidan P; Monahan, Frank J; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Schmidt, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of a series of controlled feeding experiments with sheep, designed to investigate the effects of age and level of food intake on the kinetics of incorporation of the dietary carbon signal into wool. Four different groups of three sheep each, ranging in age from 6 to 78 months, were fed a C(3) diet and switched to a C(4) diet for up to 250 days. Different quantities of the same C(4) diet were provided to each group, in order to achieve different growth rates (high, low, and no growth). Wool was repeatedly shorn from each animal and processed for delta(13)C analyses. Results show that newly grown wool does not start recording the isotope composition of the new diet immediately after the diet-switch. The time-lag varies according to the age of the animal, from 6 +/- 1 days in lambs to up to 15 +/- 4 days in the older ewes. Wool from fast-growing lambs approached equilibrium faster than that from slow-growing lambs and young ewes, with old ewes being the slowest. However, 3 weeks after the diet-switch, the differences in wool delta(13)C values between the four different groups of animals were relatively small and represented less than 15% of the isotopic difference between the two diets. These results suggest that a single equation can be used to reconstruct previous diets for animals of different age, provided that the diet is similar and all individuals are in positive protein balance.

  6. Evaluation of a Web-Based Food Record for Children Using Direct Unobtrusive Lunch Observations: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Astrup, Helene; Kåsin, Britt Marlene; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2015-01-01

    Background High-quality, Web-based dietary assessment tools for children are needed to reduce cost and improve user-friendliness when studying children’s dietary practices. Objective To evaluate the first Web-based dietary assessment tool for children in Norway, the Web-based Food Record (WebFR), by comparing children’s true school lunch intake with recordings in the WebFR, using direct unobtrusive observation as the reference method. Methods A total of 117 children, 8-9 years, from Bærum, Norway, were recruited from September to December 2013. Children completed 4 days of recordings in the WebFR, with parental assistance, and were observed during school lunch in the same period by 3 observers. Interobserver reliability assessments were satisfactory. Match, omission, and intrusion rates were calculated to assess the quality of the recordings in the WebFR for different food categories, and for all foods combined. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), parental educational level, parental ethnicity or family structure were associated with having a “low match rate” (≤70%). Results Bread and milk were recorded with less bias than spreads, fruits, and vegetables. Mean (SD) for match, omission, and intrusion rates for all foods combined were 73% (27%), 27% (27%), and 19% (26%), respectively. Match rates were statistically significantly associated with parental educational level (low education 52% [32%] versus high 77% [24%], P=.008) and parental ethnicity (non-Norwegian 57% [28%] versus others 75% [26%], P=.04). Only parental ethnicity remained statistically significant in the logistic regression model, showing an adjusted odds ratio of 6.9 and a 95% confidence interval between 1.3 and 36.4. Conclusions Compared with other similar studies, our results indicate that the WebFR is in line with, or better than most of other similar tools, yet enhancements could further improve the WebFR. PMID:26680744

  7. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.

  8. Adequacy of dietary intake information obtained from mailed food records differed by weight status and not education level of midlife women.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Noriko; Perry, Courtney; Reicks, Marla

    2010-01-01

    Mailed food records have been suggested as a means to acquire useful food intake data from a large number of participants with minimal effort. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether education level and weight status of midlife women affected adequacy of information about dietary intake derived from a self-administered mailed 1-day food record. Adequacy was defined as the ability to describe and record intake with sufficient detail for entry into a computerized diet analysis program without missing data. From October 2007 through March 2008, 100 women (49+/-5 years), recruited by education level, were mailed a food record booklet and a 16-page actual-size two-dimensional food model booklet with instruction to describe foods, amounts consumed, and preparation methods/recipes. Women returned the completed food record booklet by mail. Between 3 and 13 days later, a registered dietitian called the participants to review missing details, clarify amounts, and probe for omissions. Six categories of missing data included: "omission of portion size," "inaccurate portion size," "insufficient description of portion size," "insufficient description of food," "omission of ingredients," and "insufficient or no preparation method." The percentage of foods with missing data did not differ by education level; however, higher percentages of missing data regarding "insufficient description of food," were observed in obese compared to overweight women. Adequacy of information from the mailed food record was dependent on weight status but not education level. Additional study is needed to determine how to revise instructions for mailed food records in future studies according to weight status of midlife women.

  9. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. ); Jonsson, P.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  11. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Boushey, Carol J; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B; DeLany, James P; Kerr, Deborah A

    2017-03-22

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21-65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy.

  12. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  13. Tolerability of 3-day, once-daily azithromycin suspension versus standard treatments for community-acquired paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Treadway, G; Reisman, A

    2001-11-01

    Tolerability of azithromycin oral suspension, 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days, was assessed in paediatric patients (< or = 18 years) with respiratory or skin and soft-tissue infections. Of 2425 patients evaluated, 1213 received azithromycin and 1212 received standard regimens of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefixime, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, erythromycin, or penicillin V. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving azithromycin than comparators (7.9 vs. 11.5%, P=0.003), while discontinuation rates were similar (1.0 and 1.1%, respectively). Significantly fewer gastrointestinal events were recorded for azithromycin than comparators (6.5 vs. 9.9%, P=0.002), and their duration was significantly shorter (mean 2.3 vs. 5.0 days, P=0.0001). Azithromycin paediatric oral suspension is well tolerated and associated with significantly fewer adverse events than comparators.

  14. Feasibility of Assessing Diet with a Mobile Food Record for Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bathgate, Katherine E.; Sherriff, Jill L.; Leonard, Helen; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Delp, Edward J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Technology-based methods for assessing diet in those with disability remains largely unexplored. The aim was to assess the feasibility of assessing diet with an image-based mobile food record application (mFR) in 51 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (PANDs). Adherence was also assessed with the instruction to include a fiducial marker object in the before and after eating images. The PANDs sample completed a four-day mFR and results were compared with a sample of young adults from the Connecting Health and Technology study (CHAT, n = 244). Compared to the CHAT sample, PANDs participants reported more fruit (2.2 ± 1.8 versus 1.0 ± 0.9 serves respectively) and vegetables (2.4 ± 1.3 versus 1.9 ± 1.0 serves, respectively), but no differences in energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and beverages were observed. Compared to CHAT, PANDs participants captured fewer images with the mFR (4.9 ± 2.3 versus 4.0 ± 1.5 images, respectively). Adherence to the instruction to include the fiducial marker in images was lower for PANDs compared with the CHAT sample (90.3% versus 96.5%). Due to the quality of information captured in images and the high acceptability of the fiducial marker, the mFR shows great promise as a feasible method of assessing diet in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. PMID:28335382

  15. Pineal gland: influence on gonads of male rats treated with androgen 3 days after birth.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J; Hoffman, J C; Rubin, P H

    1968-04-26

    Either blinding or the injection of 1 milligram of testosterone propionate into male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days old, results in testes and accessory organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) that are smaller than normal when the rats are 72 days old. The response to blinding is prevented by removal of the pineal gland, whereas the response to treatment with testosterone is unaffected by pinealectomy. Combination of the two treatments in 3-day- old rats causes testes to be less than one-third their normal size at 72 days of age; pinealectomy in these rats permits the reproductive organs to grow to the same size as those in the androgen-treated animals.

  16. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  17. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  18. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  19. The validation of a computer-based food record for older adults: the Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method.

    PubMed

    Timon, Claire M; Astell, Arlene J; Hwang, Faustina; Adlam, Tim D; Smith, Tom; Maclean, Lin; Spurr, Daynor; Forster, Sarah E; Williams, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-28

    Dietary assessment in older adults can be challenging. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method is a touch-screen computer-based food record that enables older adults to record their dietary intakes. The objective of the present study was to assess the relative validity of the NANA method for dietary assessment in older adults. For this purpose, three studies were conducted in which a total of ninety-four older adults (aged 65-89 years) used the NANA method of dietary assessment. On a separate occasion, participants completed a 4 d estimated food diary. Blood and 24 h urine samples were also collected from seventy-six of the volunteers for the analysis of biomarkers of nutrient intake. The results from all the three studies were combined, and nutrient intake data collected using the NANA method were compared against the 4 d estimated food diary and biomarkers of nutrient intake. Bland-Altman analysis showed a reasonable agreement between the dietary assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake; however, there were small, but significant, differences for energy and protein intake, reflecting the tendency for the NANA method to record marginally lower energy intakes. Significant positive correlations were observed between urinary urea and dietary protein intake using both the NANA and the 4 d estimated food diary methods, and between plasma ascorbic acid and dietary vitamin C intake using the NANA method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of computer-based dietary assessment in older adults, and suggest that the NANA method is comparable to the 4 d estimated food diary, and could be used as an alternative to the food diary for the short-term assessment of an individual's dietary intake.

  20. The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja

    2016-12-17

    (1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population.

  1. The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E.; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. PMID:27999302

  2. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  3. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H.; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype. PMID:26647963

  4. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  5. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Anne E; Ostrom, Peggy H; Welch, Andreanna J; Fleischer, Robert C; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R; Stafford, Thomas W; Penniman, Jay F; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P; James, Helen F

    2013-05-28

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ(15)N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel.

  6. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Penniman, Jay F.; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P.; James, Helen F.

    2013-01-01

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ15N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel. PMID:23671094

  7. Conformity to the opinions of other people lasts for no more than 3 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-07-01

    When people are faced with opinions different from their own, they often revise their own opinions to match those held by other people. This is known as the social-conformity effect. Although the immediate impact of social influence on people's decision making is well established, it is unclear whether this reflects a transient capitulation to public opinion or a more enduring change in privately held views. In an experiment using a facial-attractiveness rating task, we asked participants to rate each face; after providing their rating, they were informed of the rating given by a peer group. They then rerated the same faces after 1, 3, or 7 days or 3 months. Results show that individuals' initial judgments are altered by the differing opinions of other people for no more than 3 days. Our findings suggest that because the social-conformity effect lasts several days, it reflects a short-term change in privately held views rather than a transient public compliance.

  8. Short term /1 and 3 day/ cardiovascular adjustments to suspension antiorthostasis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Antiorthostasis (AO) results in responses reflective of thoracic vessel loading. Initial findings included fluid and electrolyte shifts (diuresis and natriuresis) in AO but not in orthostatic (O) rats. This study aims at obtaining supportive evidence for cardiovascular responses, E.g., blood pressure and related parameters, in light of the original hypothesis. Tilting rats rapidly head-up from either horizontal (O) or head-down (AO) positions was used to assess cardiovascular sensitivities. O and AO rats were used after 1 or 3 days of suspension. Rats were controls (C), pre-tilted O and AO, tilted O and AO (rapid head-up 70-80 deg); post-tilted (to original postures). MAP in C rats was 108 +2 mmHg, in O, (117 + or - 1.02) and AO, (120 + or - 0.58). MAP, diastolic pressure (DP) and pulse pressure were consistently elevated in AO rats on day 3. With rapid head-up tilt, only MAP and DP showed significant increases. These changes were seen as cardiovascular responses to AO and support further use of this rat model for AO studies.

  9. Diet and nutritional status of children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Flammarion, Sophie; Santos, Clarisse; Guimber, Dominique; Jouannic, Lyne; Thumerelle, Caroline; Gottrand, Frédéric; Deschildre, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the food intakes and nutritional status of children with food allergies following an elimination diet. We conducted a cross sectional study including 96 children (mean age 4.7 ± 2.5 years) with food allergies and 95 paired controls (mean age 4.7 ± 2.7 years) without food allergies. Nutritional status was assessed using measurements of weight and height and Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Nutrient intakes assessment was based on a 3-day diet record. Children with food allergies had weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores lower than controls (0.1 versus 0.6 and 0.2 versus 0.8 respectively). Children with 3 or more food allergies were smaller than those with 2 or less food allergies (p = 0.04). A total of 62 children with food allergies and 52 controls completed usable diet records. Energy, protein and calcium intakes were similar in the two groups. Children with food allergies were smaller for their age than controls even when they received similar nutrient intakes. Nutritional evaluation is essential for the follow up of children with food allergies.

  10. Effects of 3-day bed rest on physiological responses to graded exercise in athletes and sedentary men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kaminska, E.; Cybulski, G.; Kodrzycka, A.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that short-term bed-rest (BR) deconditioning influences metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neurohormonal responses to exercise and that these effects depend on the subjects' training status, 12 sedentary men and 10 endurance- and 10 strength-trained athletes were submitted to 3-day BR. Before and after BR they performed incremental exercise test until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and stroke volume (SV) was measured at submaximal loads. Blood was taken for lactate concentration ([LA]), epinephrine concentration ([Epi]), norepinephrine concentration ([NE]), plasma renin activity (PRA), human growth hormone concentration ([hGH]), testosterone, and cortisol determination. Reduction of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after BR was greater in the endurance athletes than in the remaining groups (17 vs. 10%). Decrements in VO(2 peak) correlated positively with the initial values (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Resting and exercise respiratory exchange ratios were increased in athletes. Cardiac output was unchanged by BR in all groups, but exercise HR was increased and SV diminished in the sedentary subjects. The submaximal [LA] and [LA] thresholds were decreased in the endurance athletes from 71 to 60% VO(2 peak) (P < 0.001); they also had an earlier increase in [NE], an attenuated increase in [hGH], and accentuated PRA and cortisol elevations during exercise. These effects were insignificant in the remaining subjects. In conclusion, reduction of exercise performance and modifications in neurohormonal response to exercise after BR depend on the previous level and mode of physical training, being the most pronounced in the endurance athletes.

  11. Nutrition Quality of US School Snack Foods: A First Look at 2011-2014 Bid Records in 8 School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y. Claire; Hsiao, Amber; Chamberlin, Peter; Largay, McKenzie; Archibald, Abbie; Malone, Andrew; Stevelos, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background:As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant…

  12. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained...

  13. Effect of 3-day dry immersion on ventilatory response to hypercapnic hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Dyachenko, Alexander; Shulagin, Yury; Ermolaev, Evgeny

    . This increase was 34% and 23% respectively. Tidal volume sensitivity in tests 2 and 3 increased in comparison with test 1 (P<0.05). Points of apnea in the 2-nd test changed to increased P _{CO2} values compared with 1-st test (P<0.05} and in the tests 2 and 3 compared with the test 4 (P<0.02). Thus, the VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased. Conclusion: Ventilation reaction to hypercapnia combined with hypoxia was changed during 3-day dry immersion. The VR - P _{CO2} relationship shifted to the right and its slope increased.

  14. Physiological responses to the endurance test of a 3-day-event during hot and cool weather.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W

    1995-11-01

    Physiological data were collected during two 3-day-event competitions: one (H) held in hot and the other (CL) in cool conditions. During H, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 2.5 degrees C-35 degrees C and 74-36% respectively, while during CL, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 7.8 degrees C-8.3 degrees C and 46%-41%, respectively. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates were recorded on arrival at the event, at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, at the end of Phase D and for 30 min at 10 min intervals after each horse finished Phase D (Recovery Period). Because of the heat, the rest-pause during the Endurance Test was extended from 10 to 15 min for horses competing in H, and horses at H were aggressively cooled by repetitive bathing with ice water during the rest-pause and the 30 min Recovery Period. Heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at the end of Phase C in horses participating at H, as compared to those participating at CL. Heart rates were significantly decreased in both groups after 6 min in the rest-pause and by 10 min after the finish of Phase D. Rectal temperature were significantly higher in horses competing at H than in those competing at CL at the end of Phase C and 6 min later, and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. In both groups, rectal temperatures decreased significantly during the first 6 min in the rest-pause and at 10 and 20 min after the finish of Phase D. Fifty-five of 79 (69.6%) horses starting Phase A at H completed Phase D, as compared to 23 of 28 (82.1%) of starters at CL (P > 0.05). Of 10 horses eliminated during the rest-pause at H, 3 were lame, 1 had exertional rhabdomyolysis, 4 were exhausted and 2 were lame and exhausted. Two horses were eliminated during the rest-pause at CL:1 was lame and the other had exertional rhabdomyolysis. There was marked individual variation in horses' responses to heat at H. Heat may have limited the effectiveness of evaporative cooling in horses at H

  15. Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings.

    PubMed

    Houe, Hans; Gardner, Ian Andrew; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless, researchers should always carefully evaluate the opportunities and constraints when they decide to use secondary data. If the data in the existing databases are not sufficiently valid, researchers may have to collect their own data, but improved recording of diagnostic data may improve the usefulness of secondary diagnostic data in the future.

  16. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Aflague, Tanisha F.; Boushey, Carol J.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Ahmad, Ziad; Kerr, Deborah A.; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR) to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63) captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63) returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%); willingness to use the mFR again (87%); and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%). Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%); Time 2 (49/63, 78%); and at both times (47/63, 75%). This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD) image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR. PMID:26043037

  17. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  18. Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire for Middle-Aged Urban Cancer Screenees: Comparison With 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hosoi, Satoko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of estimates of dietary intake calculated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) depends on the specific population. The 138-item FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study was initially developed for and validated in rural residents. However, the validity of estimates based on this FFQ for urban residents, whose diet and lifestyle differ from those of rural residents, has not been clarified. We examined the validity of ranking individuals according to level of dietary consumption, as estimated by this FFQ, among an urban population in Japan. Methods Among 896 candidates randomly selected from examinees of cancer screening provided by the National Cancer Center, Japan, 144 participated in the study. In 2007–2008, at an average 2.7 years after cancer screening, participants were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to provide 4-day weighed diet records (4d-DRs) for use as the reference intake. Spearman correlation coefficients (CCs) between the FFQ and 4d-DR estimates were calculated, after correction for intraindividual variation of 4d-DRs. Results The median (range) deattenuated CC for men and women was 0.57 (0.23 to 0.89) and 0.47 (0.08 to 0.94), respectively, across 45 nutrients and 0.51 (0.10 to 0.98) and 0.51 (−0.36 to 0.88) for 43 food groups. Conclusions Although the FFQ was developed for a rural population, it provided reasonably valid measures of consumption for many nutrients and food groups in middle-aged screenees living in urban areas in Japan. PMID:21963789

  19. Human Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 Responses to Acute Hypoxic Exercise after 3 Days of Exercise Heat Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Mackenzie, Richard W. A.; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V˙O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72. PMID:25874231

  20. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P < 0.05) and was unchanged from HST1 in CON (P > 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  1. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained of... action levels. (b) Processing and production records showing adherence to scheduled processes,...

  2. 21 CFR 600.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records. 600.12 Section 600.12 Food and Drugs FOOD... PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.12 Records. (a) Maintenance of records. Records shall be... be traced by an inspector. Such records shall be legible and indelible, shall identify the...

  3. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained of... action levels. (b) Processing and production records showing adherence to scheduled processes,...

  4. 21 CFR 600.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 600.12 Section 600.12 Food and Drugs FOOD... PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.12 Records. (a) Maintenance of records. Records shall be... be traced by an inspector. Such records shall be legible and indelible, shall identify the...

  5. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEEDLW), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEEDLW was measured in a subsample (n 40). Compared with TEEDLW, both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEEDLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method (P < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  6. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  11. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    PubMed

    Mor, Siobhan M; DeMaria, Alfred; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  12. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between dietary components and development of chronic diabetic complications, the dietary evaluation should include a long period, months or years. The present manuscript aims to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a portfolio with food photos to assess the usual intake pattern of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes to be used in future studies. Methods Dietary data using 3-day weighed diet records (WDR) from 188 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were used to construct the list of usually consumed foods. Foods were initially clustered into eight groups: “cereals, tubers, roots, and derivatives”; “vegetables and legumes”; “fruits”; “beans”; “meat and eggs”; “milk and dairy products”; “oils and fats”, and “sugars and sweets”. The frequency of food intake and the relative contribution of each food item to the total energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. Portion sizes were determined according to the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of intake for each food item. Results A total of 62 food items were selected based on the 3-day WDR and another 27 foods or how they are prepared and nine beverages were included after the expert examination. Also, a portfolio with food photos of each included food item and portion sizes was made to assist the patients in identifying the consumed portion. Conclusions We developed a practical quantitative FFQ and portfolio with photos of 98 food items covering those most commonly consumed in the past 12 months, to assess the usual diet pattern of patients with type 2 diabetes in Southern Brazil. PMID:23938026

  13. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  14. Intravenous and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of a single-daily dose of disodium-fosfomycin in cattle, administered for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Ocampo, C L; Gutierrez, O L

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin in cattle were determined after administration of buffered disodium fosfomycin either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Calculated concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 34.42 and 10.18 mug/mL, respectively. The variables determined, the elimination half-life of the drug remained unchanged during the 3 days ( = 1.33 +/- 0.3 h for the i.v. route and = 2.17 +/- 0.4 h for the i.m. route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest moderated distribution out of the central compartment (V(darea) = 673 mL +/- 27 mL/kg and V(dss) = 483 +/- 11 mL/kg). Bioavailability after i.m. administration was 74.52%. Considering fosfomycin as a time-dependent antibacterial drug, plasma concentration vs. time profiles obtained in this study, suggest that clinically effective plasma concentrations of fosfomycin could be obtained for up to 8 h following i.v. administration and approximately 10 h after i.m. injection of 20 mg/kg, for susceptible bacteria. In addition to residue studies in milk and edible tissues, a series of clinical assessments, using fosfomycin at 20 mg/kg b.i.d. or t.i.d. are warranted before this antibacterial drug should be considered for use in cattle.

  15. Doxycycline supplementation allows for the culture of human ESCs/iPSCs with media changes at 3-day intervals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Oh, Boram; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Culturing human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/iPSCs) is one of the most costly and labor-intensive tissue cultures, as media containing expensive factors/cytokines should be changed every day to maintain and propagate undifferentiated hESCs/iPSCs in vitro. We recently reported that doxycycline, an anti-bacterial agent, had dramatic effects on hESC/iPSC survival and promoted self-renewal. In this study, we extended the effects of doxycycline to a more practical issue to save cost and labor in hESC/iPSC cultures. Regardless of cultured cell conditions, hESCs/iPSCs in doxycycline-supplemented media were viable and proliferating for at least 3 days without media change, while none or few viable cells were detected in the absence of doxycycline in the same conditions. Thus, hESCs/iPSCs supplemented with doxycycline can be cultured for a long period of time with media changes at 3-day intervals without altering their self-renewal and pluripotent properties, indicating that doxycycline supplementation can reduce the frequency of media changes and the amount of media required by 1/3. These findings strongly encourage the use of doxycycline to save cost and labor in culturing hESCs/iPSCs.

  16. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  17. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  18. 21 CFR 120.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records. 120.12 Section 120.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (g) Records maintained on computers. The maintenance of computerized records, in accordance with...

  19. 21 CFR 123.9 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records. 123.9 Section 123.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... § 123.28(c). (f) Records maintained on computers. The maintenance of records on computers is...

  20. 21 CFR 106.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 106.100 Section 106.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Records and Reports § 106.100 Records. (a)...

  1. 77 FR 67820 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; Food and Drug Administration User Fee System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... implementing regulations. The records kept in this system relate to fees assessed under the Freedom of... records fall under GRS 20, Items 2a(4) (hard copy input records), 12 and 16 (Output records and reports... Act Coordinator, Division of Freedom of Information, 12420 Parklawn Dr., ELEM-1036, Rockville,...

  2. 21 CFR 120.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 120.12 Section 120.12 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.12 Records. (a) Required records. Each processor shall maintain the following records documenting the processor's...

  3. 21 CFR 120.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 120.12 Section 120.12 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.12 Records. (a) Required records. Each processor shall maintain the following records documenting the processor's...

  4. 21 CFR 120.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 120.12 Section 120.12 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.12 Records. (a) Required records. Each processor shall maintain the following records documenting the processor's...

  5. Comparative validity and repeatability of a single question, a twenty-eight-item FFQ and estimated food records to assess takeaway meal intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amelia S; McCook, Rochelle; Petocz, Peter; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    A single question (SQ) and a twenty-eight-item FFQ to measure takeaway meal intake were compared with two 7-d estimated food records (EFR; reference method). Test methods were completed after the reference period and repeated 6-8 d later for repeatability. The SQ asked about intake of high-SFA takeaway meals. FFQ items included low- and high-SFA meals. Test methods were compared with EFR for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, using a goal of ≤1 high-SFA weekly takeaway meals. Bland-Altman analyses were used to check agreement between measurement approaches, the κ coefficient was used to summarise the observed level of agreement, and Spearman's correlation was used to assess the degree to which instruments ranked individuals. Young adults were recruited from two universities, and 109 participants (61 % female) completed the study. The mean age was 24·4 (sd 4·9) years, and the mean BMI was 23·5 (sd 3·7) kg/m2. The SQ and the FFQ had a sensitivity of 97 and 83 % and a specificity of 46 and 92 %, respectively. Both methods exhibited moderate correlation for measuring total and high-SFA takeaway meal intakes (r s ranging from 0·64 to 0·80). Neither instrument could measure precise, absolute intake at the group or individual level. Test methods ranged from fair (κ w =0·24) to moderate agreement (κ w =0·59). The repeatability for all was acceptable. The FFQ identified excessive high-SFA takeaway meal intake and measured individuals' category for total and high-SFA takeaway intakes. Both methods are suitable for ranking individuals for total or high-SFA takeaway meal intakes.

  6. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy.

  7. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs.

  8. 21 CFR 812.140 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 812.140 Section 812.140 Food and Drugs... INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE EXEMPTIONS Records and Reports § 812.140 Records. (a) Investigator records. A participating investigator shall maintain the following accurate, complete, and current records relating to the...

  9. 21 CFR 812.140 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 812.140 Section 812.140 Food and Drugs... INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE EXEMPTIONS Records and Reports § 812.140 Records. (a) Investigator records. A participating investigator shall maintain the following accurate, complete, and current records relating to the...

  10. 21 CFR 21.33 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical records. 21.33 Section 21.33 Food and... PRIVACY Requirements for Specific Categories of Records § 21.33 Medical records. (a) In general, an individual is entitled to have access to any medical records about himself in Privacy Act Record...

  11. 21 CFR 21.33 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical records. 21.33 Section 21.33 Food and... PRIVACY Requirements for Specific Categories of Records § 21.33 Medical records. (a) In general, an individual is entitled to have access to any medical records about himself in Privacy Act Record...

  12. Cloud Based Surveys to Assess Patient Perceptions of Health Care: 1000 Respondents in 3 days for US $300

    PubMed Central

    Bardos, Jonah; Friedenthal, Jenna; Spiegelman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients’ perspectives of health care. Methods A national online survey posted to Amazon's MTurk consisted of 33 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Continuous attributes were compared using t tests. Results We obtained 1084 responses for a total cost of US $298.10 in less than 3 days with 300 responses in under 6 hours. Of those, 44.74% (485/1084) were male and 54.80% (594/1084) female, representing 49 out of 50 states and aged 18 to 69 years. Conclusions Amazon’s MTurk is a potentially useful survey method for attaining information regarding public opinions and/or knowledge with the distinct advantage of cost, speed, and a wide and relatively good representation of the general population, in a confidential setting for respondents. PMID:27554915

  13. 21 CFR 225.102 - Master record file and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master record file and production records. 225.102....102 Master record file and production records. (a) The Master Record File provides the complete... record of drug components. (b) The Master Record File and production records shall comply with...

  14. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  15. 21 CFR 123.9 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 123.9 Section 123.9 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.9 Records. (a) General requirements. All records required by this part shall include: (1) The name and location of the processor or importer;...

  16. 21 CFR 123.9 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 123.9 Section 123.9 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.9 Records. (a) General requirements. All records required by this part shall include: (1) The name and location of the processor or importer;...

  17. 21 CFR 226.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 226.110 Section 226.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Distribution records. Complete records shall be maintained for each shipment of Type A medicated article(s)...

  18. Early structural and functional signature of 3-day human skeletal muscle disuse using the dry immersion model.

    PubMed

    Demangel, Rémi; Treffel, Loïc; Py, Guillaume; Brioche, Thomas; Pagano, Allan F; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Pessemesse, Laurence; Candau, Robin; Gharib, Claude; Chopard, Angèle; Millet, Catherine

    2017-03-22

    Microgravity and hypoactivity are associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. The decrease of muscle mass is an exponential decay with major changes in the first days. The purpose of the study was to dissect out the effects of a short-term 3-day dry immersion (DI) on human quadriceps muscle function and structure. The DI model, by suppressing all support zones, accurately reproduces the effects of microgravity. Twelve healthy volunteers (32 ± 5 yrs) completed 3 days of DI. Muscle function was investigated through maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests and muscle viscoelasticity. Structural experiments were performed using MRI analysis and invasive experiments on muscle fibres. Our results indicated a significant 9.1% decrease of the normalized MVC constant (P = 0.048). Contraction and relaxation modelization kinetics reported modifications related to the torque generation (kACT  = -29%; P = 0.014) and to the relaxation phase (kREL  = +34%; P = 0.040) after 3 days of DI. Muscle viscoelasticity was also altered. From day one, the rectus femoris stiffness and tone decreased, respectively, by 7.3% (P = 0.002) and 10.2% (P = 0.002). On the other hand, rectus femoris elasticity increased by 31.5% (P = 0.004) after 3 days of DI. At the cellular level, 3 days of DI translated into a significant atrophy of type I muscle fibres (-10.6% ± 12.1, P = 0.027) and an increase proportion of hybrid, type I/IIX fibre co-expression. Finally, we reported an increase (6-fold; P = 0.002) of NCAM+ muscle fibres, showing an early denervation process. This was the first experiment performed in Europe investigating human short-term DI-induced muscle adaptations. This study contributes to deciphering the early changes and biomarkers of skeletal muscle deconditioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolactin induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurone differentiation in Snell dwarf mice if administered beginning at 3 days of age.

    PubMed

    Khodr, C E; Hurley, D L; Phelps, C J

    2009-06-01

    The hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones secrete dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion. TIDA neurone numbers are deficient in Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice, which lack prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin therapy initiated before 21 days maintains normal-sized TIDA neurone numbers in df/df mice and, when initiated as early as 7 days, maintains the maximum TIDA neurone numbers observed in dw/dw development, which are decreased compared to those in normal mice. The present study investigated the effect of prolactin dose and species on TIDA neurone development. Snell dwarf and normal mice were treated with saline, 5 microg of ovine prolactin (oPRL), 50 microg of oPRL, or 50 microg of recombinant mouse prolactin (rmPRL) beginning at 3 days of age. Brains were analysed at 45 days using catecholamine histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase or bromodeoxyuridine. Normal mice had greater (P

  20. Validation of a dietary vitamin D questionnaire using multiple diet records and the block 98 health habits and history questionnaire in healthy postmenopausal women in northern California.

    PubMed

    Hacker-Thompson, Andrea; Schloetter, Monique; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in older women and can negatively impact bone status. A simple method by which clinicians and researchers can evaluate a patient's vitamin D dietary intake could help identify individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study was done to validate a short dietary vitamin D questionnaire. Postmenopausal women (n=122), with a mean age of 63.9 ± 7.8 years, completed a Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire (BVDQ), the Block Health History and Habits Questionnaire 1998 (BHHHQ98), a 3-day food record, and an evaluation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, and Bland-Altman analyses to compare the performance of the BVDQ to the BHHHQ98 and to the diet record. As assessed by the BVDQ, vitamin D intake averaged 178.7 ± 112.3 IU per day, correlating well with the Block HHHQ98 (r=0.51, P<0.001) and the 3-day food record (r=0.43, P<0.001). Compared with the food record, both the BVDQ and the BHHHQ98 overestimated dietary vitamin D intake by less than 100 IU/day. The two questionnaires performed nearly identically at all levels of vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to vitamin D intake as measured by either the BVDQ or the BHHHQ98, but did correlate weakly with vitamin D intake from the 3-day diet record (r=0.20, P=0.04). The Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire correlated well with the longer and more intense dietary assessment methods, making it a simple and accurate instrument for assessing vitamin D intake.

  1. Validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study Cohort I to assess dietary fiber intake: comparison with dietary records.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We examined the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study for estimation of dietary fiber intake by comparing the intake estimated with dietary records (DR). We developed a food composition table for dietary fiber for the food items included in the FFQ using a substitution method. The Spearman correlation coefficients were slightly higher in crude values (0.48-0.51 in men, 0.40-0.45 in women) than in energy-adjusted values (0.43-0.44 in men, 0.36-0.40 in women). The correlation coefficients of food group-specific dietary fiber (crude) were 0.26 and 0.27 for vegetables, and 0.62 and 0.49 for fruits in men and women, respectively. The mean intakes assessed with the FFQ and DR were not statistically different either for water-soluble or -insoluble fiber in both men and women. However, the fruit fiber assessed with FFQ was significantly over- and the vegetable fiber was underestimated compared with those assessed with DRs. The FFQ can be used for ranking individuals for dietary fiber intakes in epidemiologic studies, despite the difficulty in estimating mean intake.

  2. 21 CFR 606.160 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records. 606.160 Section 606.160 Food and Drugs... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.160 Records. (a)(1) Records shall be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step in the...

  3. 21 CFR 606.160 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 606.160 Section 606.160 Food and Drugs... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.160 Records. (a)(1) Records shall be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step in the...

  4. 21 CFR 606.160 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 606.160 Section 606.160 Food and Drugs... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.160 Records. (a)(1) Records shall be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step in the...

  5. 21 CFR 106.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 106.100 Section 106.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Records and Reports § 106.100 Records. (a) Every manufacturer of infant formula shall maintain the records specified in this regulation in order to permit...

  6. 21 CFR 106.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 106.100 Section 106.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES (Eff. until 7-10-14) Records and Reports § 106.100 Records. (a) Every manufacturer of infant formula shall maintain the records specified in this...

  7. 21 CFR 211.196 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 211.196 Section 211.196 Food... Distribution records. Distribution records shall contain the name and strength of the product and description... number of the drug product. For compressed medical gas products, distribution records are not required...

  8. 21 CFR 225.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 225.110 Section 225.110 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records and Reports § 225.110 Distribution records. (a) Distribution records permit the manufacturer to relate complaints to specific batches...

  9. 21 CFR 56.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false IRB records. 56.115 Section 56.115 Food and Drugs... BOARDS Records and Reports § 56.115 IRB records. (a) An institution, or where appropriate an IRB, shall... discussion of controverted issues and their resolution. (3) Records of continuing review activities....

  10. 21 CFR 21.33 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical records. 21.33 Section 21.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF... maintained by the Food and Drug Administration. (b) The Food and Drug Administration may apply the...

  11. 21 CFR 21.33 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical records. 21.33 Section 21.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF... maintained by the Food and Drug Administration. (b) The Food and Drug Administration may apply the...

  12. The relationship between child and parent food hedonics and parent and child food group intake in children with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Osterholt, Kathrin M; Hart, Chantelle N; Jelalian, Elissa; Wing, Rena R; Goldfield, Gary S

    2011-03-01

    Many factors influence children's dietary intake, including children's and parents' food hedonics (liking), and parent intake. This secondary data analysis studied the relationship between child and parent liking, and parent intake and child intake of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, snack foods, and sweetened beverages in 4- to 9-year-old overweight/obese (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children presenting for obesity treatment (September 2005 to September 2007) in Providence, RI. One hundred thirty-five parent-child pairs, with complete baseline dietary (3-day food record) and food group hedonic data were included. Hedonic ratings were mean ratings using a 5-point Likert scale (lower scores represented greater liking of a food group). Children were aged 7.2±1.6 years, 63.0% girls, 12.6% African American, and 17.8% Hispanic, with a mean body mass index z score of 2.3±0.6. Total servings consumed by children over 3 days were: fruits 2.7±3.2, vegetables 3.4±2.5, low-fat dairy 2.4±2.1, snack foods 5.9±4.2, and sweetened beverages 2.7±3.1. After demographic and anthropometric variables were controlled, parent intake was positively related (P<0.05) to child intake of all food groups except sweetened beverages. Child liking was only significantly (P<0.05) related to child intake of vegetables. In young children with obesity/overweight, parent intake was consistently related to child intake. Changing parent intake may be important in helping to change the dietary intake of young children with overweight/obesity.

  13. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P < 0.05), but not the percent of high quality foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P < 0.01). HbA1C displayed both an indirect (cortisol-mediated) effect (P < 0.05) and direct effect on low quality food choice (P < 0.05). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  14. Stomach temperature records reveal nursing behaviour and transition to solid food consumption in an unweaned mammal, the harbour seal pup (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Caroline C; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O; Arnould, John P Y; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0-40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0-13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species.

  15. Stomach Temperature Records Reveal Nursing Behaviour and Transition to Solid Food Consumption in an Unweaned Mammal, the Harbour Seal Pup (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Caroline C.; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0–40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0–13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species. PMID:24587327

  16. Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    USAARL Report No. 2006-08 Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program by... Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air PE 622787 Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program PR 879 TA P WU DA361539 6. AUTHOR(S) Clarence E...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Microvision Spectrum SD2500 HMD, a monocular, full-color scanning laser display, display, was evaluated for optical image

  17. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  18. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

  19. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  20. The KOJACH food frequency questionnaire for Chaoshan, China: development and description.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Takezaki, Toshiro; Song, Feng-Yan; Yu, Ping; Lin, Xu-Kai; Yang, He-Lin; Deng, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Lv, Lai-Wen; Huang, Xin-En; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a data-based Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQFFQ) covering both urban and rural areas in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong Province, China, for the investigation of relationships between food intake and lifestyle-related diseases among middle-aged Chinese. We recruited 417 subjects from the general population and performed an assessment of the diet, using a 3-day weighed dietary record survey. We employed contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) to select food items covering up to a 90% contribution and a 0.90 R2, respectively. The total number of food items consumed was 523 (443 in the urban and 417 in the rural population) and the intake of 29 nutrients was calculated according to the actual consumption by foods/recipes. The CA selected 233, 194 and 183 foods/recipes for the combined, the urban and the rural areas, respectively, and then 196, 157 and 160 were chosen by the MRA. Finally, 125 foods/recipes were selected for the final questionnaire. The frequencies were classified into eight categories and standard portion sizes were also calculated. For adoption of the area-specific SQFFQ, Validity and reproducibility tests are now planned to determine how the combined SQFFQ performs in actual assessment of disease risk and benefit.

  1. 21 CFR 20.34 - Search for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Search for records. 20.34 Section 20.34 Food and... General Policy § 20.34 Search for records. (a) In responding to a request for records, the Food and Drug Administration shall make reasonable efforts to search for records kept in electronic form or format, except...

  2. 21 CFR 20.34 - Search for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Search for records. 20.34 Section 20.34 Food and... General Policy § 20.34 Search for records. (a) In responding to a request for records, the Food and Drug Administration shall make reasonable efforts to search for records kept in electronic form or format, except...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2800 - Medical magnetic tape recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical magnetic tape recorder. 870.2800 Section 870.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... magnetic tape recorder. (a) Identification. A medical magnetic tape recorder is a device used to record...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2800 - Medical magnetic tape recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical magnetic tape recorder. 870.2800 Section 870.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... magnetic tape recorder. (a) Identification. A medical magnetic tape recorder is a device used to record...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2800 - Medical magnetic tape recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical magnetic tape recorder. 870.2800 Section 870.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... magnetic tape recorder. (a) Identification. A medical magnetic tape recorder is a device used to record...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2800 - Medical magnetic tape recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical magnetic tape recorder. 870.2800 Section 870.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... magnetic tape recorder. (a) Identification. A medical magnetic tape recorder is a device used to record...

  7. 21 CFR 21.71 - Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Systems; accounting required. 21.71 Section 21.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Record Systems to Persons Other Than the Subject Individual § 21.71 Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required. (a) Except as provided in § 21.70, a record about an individual...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.270 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 1271.270 Section 1271.270 Food and Drugs... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.270 Records. (a) General. You must maintain records concurrently with the performance of each step required in this subpart and subpart C of this...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.270 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 1271.270 Section 1271.270 Food and Drugs... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.270 Records. (a) General. You must maintain records concurrently with the performance of each step required in this subpart and subpart C of this...

  10. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  11. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  12. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  13. Chemicals identified in feral and food animals: a data base. First annual report, October 1981. Volume I. Records 1-532

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, M.V.; Faust, R.A.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1981-12-01

    This data file is a companion to Chemicals Identified in Human Biological Media, A Data Base, and follows basically the same format. The data base on human burden is in its third year of publication. This is the first annual report for the feral and food animal file. Data were obtained primarily from the open literature through manual searches (retrospective to 1979) of the journals listed in Appendix A. The data base now contains information on 60 different substances. Chemicals are listed by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers and preferred names in Appendix B. For the user's convenience, cross-referenced chemical lists of CAS preferred and common names are provided in Appendix C. The animals, tissues, and body fluids found to be contaminated by these chemicals are listed in Appendix D. The data base is published annually in tabular format with indices and chemical listings that allow specific searching. A limited number of custom computer searches of the data base are available in special cases when the published format does not allow for retrieval of needed information.

  14. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect...

  15. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect...

  16. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records retention. 107.280 Section 107.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect...

  17. Sources of error and nutritional adequacy of the food guide pyramid.

    PubMed

    Tavelli, S; Beerman, K; Shultz, J E; Heiss, C

    1998-09-01

    The authors assessed the accuracy of college students' use of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) in their diets and evaluated sources of error and nutritional adequacy of the pyramid. Students enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition class (N = 346) completed 3-day dietary records that were analyzed, using computer software, to determine individual recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values and the extent to which the students' diets met those values. The students' most common error in using the FGP was underestimating serving sizes. Only 8% of the students consumed the minimum recommended number of servings for all food groups, but diets that satisfied FGP recommendations also tended to satisfy RDA requirements. Less than 2% of the students who met the minimal number of FGP servings did not satisfy their RDA values, but less than 45% of the survey participants, regardless of gender or residence, met the recommended intake for dietary fiber. The FGP was judged to be a good indicator of dietary adequacy.

  18. 21 CFR 21.71 - Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required. 21.71 Section 21.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the U.S. Government, or to...

  19. 21 CFR 21.71 - Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required. 21.71 Section 21.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the U.S. Government, or to...

  20. 21 CFR 21.71 - Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required. 21.71 Section 21.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the U.S. Government, or to...

  1. 21 CFR 21.71 - Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure of records in Privacy Act Record Systems; accounting required. 21.71 Section 21.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the U.S. Government, or to...

  2. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  3. Intervertebral Disc Swelling Demonstrated by 3D and Water Content Magnetic Resonance Analyses after a 3-Day Dry Immersion Simulating Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Mkhitaryan, Karen; Gellee, Stéphane; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight and simulation studies. Disc herniation is quadrupled after space flight. Purpose: The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results in intervertebral disc (IVD) swelling. Study Design: The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine and their clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI). The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy before and after DI. Methods: All the experiment was financially supported by CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales i.e., French Space Agency). Results: We observed an increase in spine height of 1.5 ± 0.4 cm and a decrease in curvature, particularly for the lumbar region with a decrease of −4 ± 2.5°. We found a significant increase in IVD volume of +8 ± 9% at T12-L1 and +11 ± 9% at L5-S1. This phenomenon is likely associated with the increase in disc intervertebral water content (IWC), 17 ± 27%. During the 3 days in DI, 92% of the subjects developed back pain in the lumbar region below the diaphragmatic muscle. This clinical observation may be linked to the morphological changes of the spine. Conclusions: The morphological changes observed and, specifically, the disc swelling caused by increased IWC may contribute to understanding disc herniation after microgravity exposure. Our results confirmed the efficiency of the 3-day DI model to reproduce quickly the effects of microgravity on spine morphology. Our findings raise the question of the subject selection in spatial studies, especially studies about spine morphology and reconditioning programs after space flight. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disc herniation and may serve as the basis to develop countermeasures for astronauts and to prevent IVD herniation and back pain on Earth. PMID

  4. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  5. 21 CFR 21.30 - Records of contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of contractors. 21.30 Section 21.30 Food... PRIVACY Requirements for Specific Categories of Records § 21.30 Records of contractors. (a) Systems of... contractors to accomplish Food and Drug Administration functions, from which information is retrieved...

  6. 21 CFR 20.22 - Partial disclosure of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial disclosure of records. 20.22 Section 20.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.22 Partial disclosure of records. (a) If a record contains both...

  7. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  8. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  9. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  11. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  12. 21 CFR 820.181 - Device master record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device master record. 820.181 Section 820.181 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.181 Device master record. Each manufacturer shall...

  13. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer...

  14. 21 CFR 820.184 - Device history record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device history record. 820.184 Section 820.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.184 Device history record. Each manufacturer...

  15. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  16. 9 CFR 418.4 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records. 418.4 Section 418.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Records. All records, including records documenting procedures required by this part, must be...

  17. Comparison of clinical efficacy between 3-day combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation treatment and 10-day amoxicillin treatment in children with pharyngolaryngitis or tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Haruo; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Inoue, Nobue; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Himi, Kyoko; Kurosaki, Tomomichi

    2013-02-01

    The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.

  18. Comparative trial of 3 days of azithromycin versus 10 days of clarithromycin in the treatment of children with acute otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, A; Loaiza, C; Rodriguez, F; Herrera, M L; Mohs, E

    1997-02-01

    The authors compared the efficacy, safety and tolerance of azithromycin and clarithromycin in pediatric patients with acute otitis media. A randomized, open clinical trial was performed comparing azithromycin and clarithromycin in children aged 6 months to 12 years of age with acute otitis media with effusion. Patients were allocated to azithromycin at 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 days or to clarithromycin at 15 mg/kg day divided into two equal doses for 10 days. Clinical examinations and tympanometric evaluations were performed at baseline, day 3-5, day 10-14, day 28-30 and day 50-60. Tympanocentesis fluid cultures were collected at enrollment and urine and blood samples were obtained at baseline and day 10-14. Of 100 patients enrolled, 97 were considered evaluable. The most common middle ear pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (60%), Haemophilus influenzae (15%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13%). Fifty patients (100%) treated with azithromycin and 45 (95.7%) patients treated with clarithromycin had a satisfactory clinical response. Rates of persistence of middle ear effusion and possible drug related side effects were comparable. Based on the efficacy and safety results, azithromycin for 3 days and clarithromycin for 10 days are considered to represent an attractive alternative for the treatment of children with acute otitis media.

  19. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... transmission Campylobacter 2 to 5 days Meat and poultry. Contamination occurs during processing if animal feces contact ... 1 to 3 days Raw or contaminated meat, poultry, milk or egg yolks. Survives inadequate cooking. Can ...

  20. 21 CFR 1401.5 - How to request records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How to request records. 1401.5 Section 1401.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.5 How to request records. (a) Each request must reasonably describe the record(s) sought including the type...

  1. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY...

  2. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY...

  3. Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Astrid; Prigent, Julie; Lombard, Catherine; Rosseels, Valérie; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Breckpot, Karine; Najimi, Mustapha; Deblandre, Gisèle; Sokal, Etienne M

    2017-02-16

    There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2Rγ-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.

  4. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  5. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary...

  6. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  7. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  9. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  10. Are effects of MTHFR (C677T) genotype on BMD confined to women with low folate and riboflavin intake? Analysis of food records from the Danish osteoporosis prevention study.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo; Stilgren, Lis; Bladbjerg, Else Marie; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Brixen, Kim; Mosekilde, Leif

    2005-03-01

    We have previously found BMD and fracture risk to be significantly associated with the MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism in healthy postmenopausal women in the first years after menopause. Since then, other cohort studies have suggested that sufficient intake of riboflavin and/or folate may have the potential to prevent development of low BMD in women with the TT genotype. This could to some extent explain why this polymorphism is associated with low BMD or fracture in some study populations and not in others. It would also indicate that fractures associated with the TT genotype could be preventable by vitamin B supplementation. We have, therefore, reviewed baseline food record data from our original study to determine if BMD and fracture associations with the MTHFR genotype depended on the intake of folate, riboflavin, or other members of the vitamin B complex, associated with homocysteine metabolism. We analyzed genotype, BMD, and dietary records from 1700 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the DOPS study. For the assessment of fracture risk, we used longitudinal observations from 854 women in the control group who remained compliant with their initial allocation of no treatment. Riboflavin intake was significantly correlated with femoral neck (FN) BMD in women with the TT genotype (r = 0.24, P < 0.01). FN and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were only associated with the MTHFR genotype in the lowest quartile of riboflavin intake. At the FN, similar threshold effects were shown for folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Among these vitamin B complex members, stepwise regression analysis identified riboflavin as the only significant predictor of FN BMD in the TT genotype. In conclusion, we confirm reports that BMD in the MTHFR TT genotype is only significantly reduced in the lowest quartile of riboflavin, B12, B6, and folate intake, at least at the time of menopause. Vitamin B supplementation would only be expected to benefit BMD in about 2% of the population, i

  11. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  12. Resonance enhancement in the accelerator transmutation of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M. S.; Danon, Y.

    1995-09-15

    The suggestion that the transmutation of actinide waste into fission products might best be done with thermalized spallation neutrons and odd-odd target materials such as {sup 238}Np has been studied. During the 1993 LAMPF/PSR cycle, we measured the fission cross section of 1.3-day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1-day {sup 238}Np from 0.01 eV to 40 keV at the LANSCE facility, and have carried out a preliminary resonance analysis of the observed structure and of the thermal region, with a 1/v representation above a few eV. In the present study, we calculate the reaction rates of these two species and {sup 247}Cm in a 'resonance reactor', an accelerator-driven assembly whose slowing-down properties are well known. Our model is a 1.8 m{sup 3} block of lead with a helium-cooled tungsten target in the center, i.e., the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Source (RINS). We include the effects of adding moderator outside an idealized lead slowing-down assembly, giving resonance enhancement factors for {sup 232}Pa and {sup 238}Np, and present parameters for the accelerator required to drive such an assembly to accomplish actinide burnup of these species.

  13. Decrease of Na, K-ATPase Electrogenic Contribution and Resting Membrane Potential of Rat Soleus after 3 Days of Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoi, I. I.; Kravtsova, V. V.; Drabkina, T. M.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    The Na,K-ATPase activity is critically important for excitability, electrogenesis and contractility of skeletal muscle expressing ? and ? isoforms of the enzyme [6, 9]. It is well known that disuse induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) leads to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle; the muscle undergoes a number of dramatic remodeling events. In particular, changes in ion channel expression in response to muscle unweighting were observed [1, 8]. Decrease of resting membrane potential (RMP), electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase and membrane resistance during 7-28 days of HU was shown [8, 10]. The intrinsic mechanisms involved in the process have not been revealed until present. At the same time, the understanding of these mechanisms could be crucial for the disclosing the mechanisms underlying the resting Ca2+ accumulation in the cytoplasm of the unloaded muscle [3, 7]. In the present study, the effect of early (3 days) HU-induced disuse of slow-twitch soleus muscle on membrane electrogenesis as well as on electrogenic contribution of Na,K-ATPase isoforms was investigated.

  14. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS.

  15. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  16. 9 CFR 417.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records. 417.5 Section 417.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... identity, or slaughter production lot. Each of these records shall include the date the record was made....

  17. 21 CFR 226.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Records and Reports § 226.110 Distribution records. Complete records shall be maintained for each shipment of Type A medicated article(s)...

  18. 21 CFR 226.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Records and Reports § 226.110 Distribution records. Complete records shall be maintained for each shipment of Type A medicated article(s)...

  19. 21 CFR 226.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Records and Reports § 226.110 Distribution records. Complete records shall be maintained for each shipment of Type A medicated article(s)...

  20. 21 CFR 226.110 - Distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Records and Reports § 226.110 Distribution records. Complete records shall be maintained for each shipment of Type A medicated article(s)...

  1. [Evaluation of nitrites and nitrates food intake in the students' group].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Pankowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the intake of nitrites and nitrates in daily food rations of the students' group in 2008 using 3-day dietary food records method and literature mean values of nitrates and nitrites in food products. Intakes of these compounds were calculated and compared to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The average intake of nitrites was 1.7 mg NaNO2/per person/day (28.0% of ADI), nitrates 77.3 mg NaNO3/per person/day that means 25.4% of ADI. The largest nitrites food intake was noticed for meat products supplied 56.5% of nitrites and cereals (20%). Whereas vegetables and their products supplied 76.1% of nitrates: potatoes 17.1%, cabbage 15.5%, beetroots 13.7%. Calculated nitrites intake for men was 2.4 higher than for women. There were no significant differences of nitrates intake between men and women groups.

  2. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  3. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  4. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  5. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  6. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records §...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2810 - Paper chart recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paper chart recorder. 870.2810 Section 870.2810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... record of the signal from, for example, a physiological amplifier, signal conditioner, or computer....

  8. 21 CFR 870.2810 - Paper chart recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paper chart recorder. 870.2810 Section 870.2810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... record of the signal from, for example, a physiological amplifier, signal conditioner, or computer....

  9. 21 CFR 20.24 - Preparation of new records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preparation of new records. 20.24 Section 20.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.24 Preparation of new records. (a) The Freedom of Information Act and...

  10. 21 CFR 20.24 - Preparation of new records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preparation of new records. 20.24 Section 20.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.24 Preparation of new records. (a) The Freedom of Information Act and...

  11. 21 CFR 20.24 - Preparation of new records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of new records. 20.24 Section 20.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.24 Preparation of new records. (a) The Freedom of Information Act and...

  12. 21 CFR 20.24 - Preparation of new records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preparation of new records. 20.24 Section 20.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.24 Preparation of new records. (a) The Freedom of Information Act and...

  13. 21 CFR 20.24 - Preparation of new records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preparation of new records. 20.24 Section 20.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.24 Preparation of new records. (a) The Freedom of Information Act and...

  14. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188 Section 211.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... production and control of each batch. These records shall include: (a) An accurate reproduction of...

  15. 21 CFR 20.21 - Uniform access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.21 Uniform access to records. Any record of the Food and Drug Administration that is disclosed in an authorized manner to any member of the public is available for disclosure...

  16. 21 CFR 20.23 - Request for existing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.23 Request for existing records. (a) Any written request to the Food and Drug Administration for existing records not prepared for routine distribution to the public shall be deemed to be...

  17. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised...

  18. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised...

  19. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised...

  20. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho

    2016-01-01

    Background The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Methods A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. Results The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p < 0.0001). Similarly, high correlations for EPA and DHA in serum phospholipid composition were also observed in both early and late pregnancy (correlation coefficients ranged 0.27 to 0.34, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. PMID:28135195

  1. 21 CFR 1316.46 - Inspection of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of record. 1316.46 Section 1316.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.46 Inspection of record. (a) The record bearing on...

  2. 21 CFR 1316.34 - Records of proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of proceeding. 1316.34 Section 1316.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Enforcement Proceedings § 1316.34 Records of proceeding. A formal record,...

  3. 21 CFR 80.39 - Records of distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records of distribution. 80.39 Section 80.39 Food... CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.39 Records of distribution. (a) The person to whom a certificate is issued shall keep complete records showing the disposal of all the color additive from the batch...

  4. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 20.107 - Food and Drug Administration manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration manuals. 20.107 Section 20.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.107 Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD... approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This requirement does not apply to studies...

  8. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD... approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This requirement does not apply to studies...

  9. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD... approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This requirement does not apply to studies...

  10. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD... approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This requirement does not apply to studies...

  11. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD... approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This requirement does not apply to studies...

  12. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... end of the holding period; nature of container. (6) Food preservation methods wherein critical factors... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 21.30 - Records of contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records of contractors. 21.30 Section 21.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF... contractors to accomplish Food and Drug Administration functions, from which information is retrieved...

  14. 21 CFR 21.30 - Records of contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records of contractors. 21.30 Section 21.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF... contractors to accomplish Food and Drug Administration functions, from which information is retrieved...

  15. Effect of 3-Day Bed Rest on the Basal Sympathetic Activity and Responsiveness of this System to Physiological Stimuli In Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, Jerzy; Adrian, Jacek; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, P. Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of three days of bed rest (BR) on basal plasma epinephrine [E] and norepinephrine [NE] and the catecholamine responses to various physiological stimuli, and (2) to find out whether previous physical activity modifies effects of BR. In the first series, 29 young men (11 sedentary students, 8 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test in supine position and to active orthostatic test before and after 3 days of BR. Plasma [E] and [NE] were measured after overnight fast (basal condition), at 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion (70 a), and at the 8th min of unsupported standing. In the second series, other 22 subjects (12 sedentary students, 10 endurance and 10 strength trained athletes) were submitted to 2 min cold pressor test (CPT) and exercise. Plasma E and NE were determined in the supine position after overnight fast and at 60th and 120th s of hand cooling. Then, after breakfast followed by 2-3 hour sitting, the subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise with workload increasing until volitional exhaustion. Plasma [E] and [NE] were determined at the end of each load. Plasma catecholamines were determined made radioenzymatically. After BR, basal plasma [NE] was decreased in endurance and strength athletes (p<0.01) but not in sedentary subjects. In neither group BR affected the basal [E]. Responses of both catecholamines to glucose load were diminished after BR in all three groups (p<0.05) but the effect was most pronounced in the endurance athletes. All subjects tolerated well 8-min standing although their heart rate response was increased after BR. Plasma catecholamine responses standing were not significantly affected by BR in either group but the plasma [NE] and [E] during standing were lowered after BR in endurance athletes (p<0.01). BR did not affect blood pressure and catecholamine responses to CPT. The pre- and post-exercise plasma catecholamines

  16. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  17. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...

  18. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...

  19. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  20. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  1. 75 FR 21264 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Management Information System Records System location: Software Engineering Center, Functional Processing... Management Information System will be used to automate the Army's Food Service Program. The system... should address written inquiries to Army Food Management Information System, Supervisor, 401 First...

  2. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  3. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  4. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  5. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  6. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN..., microfiche, or other accurate reproductions of the original records), or as electronic records. (c)...

  7. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  8. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  11. 21 CFR 11.70 - Signature/record linking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.70 Signature/record linking. Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their...

  12. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer shall maintain a quality system record (QSR). The QSR shall include, or refer to the location of, procedures...

  13. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer shall maintain a quality system record (QSR). The QSR shall include, or refer to the location of, procedures...

  14. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer shall maintain a quality system record (QSR). The QSR shall include, or refer to the location of, procedures...

  15. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer shall maintain a quality system record (QSR). The QSR shall include, or refer to the location of, procedures...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2800 - Medical magnetic tape recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical magnetic tape recorder. 870.2800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2800 Medical magnetic tape recorder. (a) Identification. A medical magnetic tape recorder is a device used to record...

  17. 21 CFR 820.184 - Device history record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device history record. 820.184 Section 820.184...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.184 Device history record. Each manufacturer shall maintain device history records (DHR's). Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures...

  18. 21 CFR 820.184 - Device history record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Device history record. 820.184 Section 820.184...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.184 Device history record. Each manufacturer shall maintain device history records (DHR's). Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures...

  19. 21 CFR 820.184 - Device history record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device history record. 820.184 Section 820.184...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.184 Device history record. Each manufacturer shall maintain device history records (DHR's). Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures...

  20. 21 CFR 820.184 - Device history record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device history record. 820.184 Section 820.184...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.184 Device history record. Each manufacturer shall maintain device history records (DHR's). Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures...

  1. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corrective action plans. (c) QC review records consist of Forms FNS-380, Worksheet for Supplemental Nutrition... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corrective action plans. (c) QC review records consist of Forms FNS-380, Worksheet for Supplemental Nutrition... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corrective action plans. (c) QC review records consist of Forms FNS-380, Worksheet for Supplemental Nutrition... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  5. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  7. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...

  8. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  9. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  10. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  11. 21 CFR 111.123 - What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? 111.123... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING... manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control...

  12. 21 CFR 111.123 - What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? 111.123... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING... manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control...

  13. 21 CFR 111.123 - What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? 111.123... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING... manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control...

  14. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS Records § 212.110 How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? (a) Record availability. Records must be maintained at the PET drug production facility or another...

  15. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... These eight foods are: Milk Eggs Peanuts Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts) Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder) Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp) Soy Wheat U.S. food labels take ... the type of tree nut (almond, walnut) or the type of crustacean shellfish ( ...

  16. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    PubMed

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction.

  17. 21 CFR 1316.65 - Report and record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report and record. 1316.65 Section 1316.65 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.65 Report and record. (a) As soon as practicable...

  18. 21 CFR 806.30 - FDA access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FDA access to records. 806.30 Section 806.30 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICES; REPORTS OF CORRECTIONS AND REMOVALS Reports and Records § 806.30 FDA access to... designated by FDA and under section 704(e) of the act, permit such officer or employee at all...

  19. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  20. Nutrient Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. I-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…

  1. Food-deprivation-induced phase shifts in Sminthopsis macroura froggatti.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G J; O'Reilly, H M; Armstrong, S M

    1989-01-01

    Past research has shown that there is a circadian oscillator in laboratory rats that is entrained by restricted feeding schedules. However, in laboratory rats at least, the light-dark (LD) cycle is the dominant zeitgeber in the entrainment of wheel-running activity rhythms. Given that dasyurid marsupials are predominantly carnivorous, the episodic intake of food in the wild and the high nutritive content of that food suggest that food may be an important zeitgeber in these species. Twelve Sminthopsis macroura froggatti were presented with a daily meal at 0900 hr under an LD 12:12 cycle with lights-on at 0600 hr for 37 days. Activity in anticipation of the meal was observed in most animals. Following this, all animals were exposed to periods of 12-18 days ad lib. food interspersed with 3-day periods of deprivation--a technique used previously to demonstrate persistent meal-associated rhythms. The meal-associated activity rhythms previously observed in rats during the 3-day deprivation period were not seen, but the 3-day deprivation period produced large phase-shifts in the activity rhythms of several S.m. froggatti. It is concluded that meal feeding does not dominate the LD cycle in entraining dasyurid marsupials, but that the frequent observation of phase shifts suggests a different and, perhaps, stronger role for food intake in biological rhythmicity than has been observed previously in laboratory rats.

  2. 9 CFR 320.1 - Records required to be kept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records required to be kept. 320.1 Section 320.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... carcasses, of any such animals, for use as human food or animal food; (2) Any person that engages in...

  3. 9 CFR 381.175 - Records required to be kept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records required to be kept. 381.175 Section 381.175 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... carcasses, of any poultry, for commerce, for use as human food or animal food; (2) Any person that...

  4. 9 CFR 381.175 - Records required to be kept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records required to be kept. 381.175 Section 381.175 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... carcasses, of any poultry, for commerce, for use as human food or animal food; (2) Any person that...

  5. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS §...

  6. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS §...

  7. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS §...

  8. 78 FR 39184 - Privacy Act, Exempt Record System; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... 39184-39186] [FR Doc No: 2013-15599] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug..., Exempt Record System; Implementation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) of the Department of...

  9. 21 CFR 312.57 - Recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping and record retention. 312.57 Section 312.57 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Responsibilities of Sponsors and...

  10. 7 CFR 225.8 - Records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM State Agency Provisions § 225.8 Records and reports... final report on the Summer Food Service Program Operations (FNS-418) for each month no more than 90...

  11. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health.

  12. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals, produce, and chips. When buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration ... your cart. Separate any raw meat, fish, or poultry from vegetables, fruit, and other foods you'll ...

  13. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  14. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... than others. Unsaturated fats , which are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and fish, are often called "good fats." ... these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they ...

  15. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  16. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  17. Future food.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  18. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  19. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  20. The Snacking Habits of Adolescents: Is Snack Food Necessary to Meet Dietary Recommendations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Susan; Reeves, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of snack foods in the diets of adolescents in relation to recommendations. Design: A quantitative study whereby the food intakes of 28 adolescents aged 11-14 years were recorded for three consecutive days. Setting: A secondary school in South West London. Methods: Food intake was recorded using food diaries and…

  1. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources

  2. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  3. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany.

  4. Comparison of vertebral δ13C and δ15N records with organism-based isoscapes to identify fish migration, site fidelity and food-web preferences of fishes in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radabaugh, K. R.; Wallace, A. A.; Huelster, S. A.; Hollander, D. J.; Peebles, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geographic variation in stable isotopic composition of dissolved and particulate nitrogen and carbon enables the use of stable isotopes as endogenous markers to track the origin and migration of motile marine species. Variation in river discharge, the light environment, and biological activity result in δ13C and δ15N spatial heterogeneity within coastal marine food webs. SEAMAP (Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program) groundfish surveys at more than 130 locations were used to acquire samples from >1,600 samples of fish muscle and primary producers for bulk δ13C and δ15N analysis, allowing the creation of isoscapes for the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). The δ15N isoscapes exhibited strong latitudinal and longitudinal isotopic gradients for all fish species examined, with high interannual and seasonal stability. δ15N was 3-4 % higher in the northwest region of the study compared to the southeast for both Syacium papillosum (dusky flounder) and Synodus foetens (inshore lizardfish). Low individual variability in δ15N values revealed strong site fidelities for these trawl-caught fishes. δ13C isoscapes exhibited depth gradients with greater seasonal and interannual variability. This study assesses the utility of combining isotopic analyses of fish vertebrae with organism-based isoscapes to investigate the migration routes of individual fishes. Unlike muscle isotopes that provide an integrated perspective of recent spatial and temporal environmental variation (at a scale dependent on muscle turnover rates), analysis of δ13C and δ15N along the growth radii of fish vertebrae enables chronological reconstruction of individual histories. When corrected for trophic level and metabolic fractionation, comparison of isotopic life history to the established isoscapes may enable reconstruction of migration routes and changing food-web positions of commercial and recreational fisheries species.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  7. 21 CFR 870.2810 - Paper chart recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paper chart recorder. 870.2810 Section 870.2810...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2810 Paper chart recorder. (a) Identification. A paper chart recorder is a device used to print on paper, and create a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2810 - Paper chart recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paper chart recorder. 870.2810 Section 870.2810...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2810 Paper chart recorder. (a) Identification. A paper chart recorder is a device used to print on paper, and create a...

  9. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  10. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  11. 9 CFR 320.1 - Records required to be kept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... such animals that died otherwise than by slaughter. (b) The required records are: (1) Records, such as... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records required to be kept. 320.1 Section 320.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2810 - Paper chart recorder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paper chart recorder. 870.2810 Section 870.2810...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2810 Paper chart recorder. (a) Identification. A paper chart recorder is a device used to print on paper, and create a...

  13. 21 CFR 1304.23 - Records for chemical analysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records for chemical analysts. 1304.23 Section... REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.23 Records for chemical analysts. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by § 1301.22(b) of this chapter) to conduct chemical analysis with controlled substances...

  14. 21 CFR 1304.23 - Records for chemical analysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records for chemical analysts. 1304.23 Section... REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.23 Records for chemical analysts. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by § 1301.22(b) of this chapter) to conduct chemical analysis with controlled substances...

  15. 21 CFR 1304.23 - Records for chemical analysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records for chemical analysts. 1304.23 Section... REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.23 Records for chemical analysts. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by § 1301.22(b) of this chapter) to conduct chemical analysis with controlled substances...

  16. 21 CFR 1304.23 - Records for chemical analysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records for chemical analysts. 1304.23 Section... REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.23 Records for chemical analysts. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by § 1301.22(b) of this chapter) to conduct chemical analysis with controlled substances...

  17. 21 CFR 1304.23 - Records for chemical analysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records for chemical analysts. 1304.23 Section... REGISTRANTS Continuing Records § 1304.23 Records for chemical analysts. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by § 1301.22(b) of this chapter) to conduct chemical analysis with controlled substances...

  18. 21 CFR 54.6 - Recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... full or part-time employees of the applicant, as follows: (1) Complete records showing any financial... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping and record retention. 54.6 Section... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE BY CLINICAL INVESTIGATORS § 54.6 Recordkeeping and record retention. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 211.186 - Master production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master production and control records. 211.186... Reports § 211.186 Master production and control records. (a) To assure uniformity from batch to batch, master production and control records for each drug product, including each batch size thereof, shall...

  20. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190...

  1. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190...

  2. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190...

  3. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190...

  4. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190...

  5. 21 CFR 20.27 - Submission of records marked as confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submission of records marked as confidential. 20.27 Section 20.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.27 Submission of records marked as confidential....

  6. 21 CFR 606.165 - Distribution and receipt; procedures and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution and receipt; procedures and records. 606.165 Section 606.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.165 Distribution...

  7. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  8. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... than half the calories are from fat, the fat content must be reduced by 50% or more. Sugar terms: Sugar-free: Less than 1/2 gram of sugar per serving. Reduced ... to a similar food. Fat terms: Fat-free: Less than 1/2 gram ...

  9. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... during growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during ... to RSS Follow us ... MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The same sort of thing happens with any allergy, whether it's a medicine (like penicillin), pollen in the air (from grasses, weeds, and trees), or a food, like peanuts. So the thing itself isn't harmful, but the way your body reacts to it ... a Reaction Like? If a kid with peanut allergy would have eaten that peanut-topped brownie, here's ...

  11. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for…

  12. Strengthening Behavioral Interventions for Weight Loss: A Randomized Trial of Food Provision and Monetary Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Randomly assigned 202 overweight men and women to no treatment, standard behavioral treatment (SBT), SBT plus food provision, SBT plus incentives, or SBT plus food provision and incentives. Found that food provision significantly enhanced weight loss. Food provision also enhanced attendance, completion of food records, quality of diet, and…

  13. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  14. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  15. 21 CFR 111.210 - What must the master manufacturing record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must the master manufacturing record include... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...: Requirements for the Master Manufacturing Record § 111.210 What must the master manufacturing record...

  16. 21 CFR 111.210 - What must the master manufacturing record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the master manufacturing record include... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...: Requirements for the Master Manufacturing Record § 111.210 What must the master manufacturing record...

  17. 21 CFR 111.210 - What must the master manufacturing record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What must the master manufacturing record include... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...: Requirements for the Master Manufacturing Record § 111.210 What must the master manufacturing record...

  18. 21 CFR 111.210 - What must the master manufacturing record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the master manufacturing record include... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...: Requirements for the Master Manufacturing Record § 111.210 What must the master manufacturing record...

  19. 21 CFR 111.210 - What must the master manufacturing record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must the master manufacturing record include... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...: Requirements for the Master Manufacturing Record § 111.210 What must the master manufacturing record...

  20. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  1. 21 CFR 111.475 - Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep? 111.475 Section 111.475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  2. 21 CFR 111.23 - Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep? 111.23 Section 111.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  3. 21 CFR 111.35 - Under this subpart D, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart D, what records must you make and keep? 111.35 Section 111.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  4. 21 CFR 111.535 - Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep? 111.535 Section 111.535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  5. 21 CFR 111.14 - Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep? 111.14 Section 111.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  6. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  7. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  8. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  9. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  10. 21 CFR 111.95 - Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart E, what records must you make and keep? 111.95 Section 111.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  11. 21 CFR 111.140 - Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart F, what records must you make and keep? 111.140 Section 111.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  12. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  13. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  14. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  15. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  16. 21 CFR 111.180 - Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under this subpart G, what records must you make and keep? 111.180 Section 111.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  17. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the batch record include? 111.260 Section 111.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING,...

  18. 21 CFR 111.255 - What is the requirement to establish a batch production record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the requirement to establish a batch production record? 111.255 Section 111.255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  19. 21 CFR 111.430 - Under this subpart L, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart L, what records must you make and keep? 111.430 Section 111.430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  20. 21 CFR 111.14 - Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep? 111.14 Section 111.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  1. 21 CFR 111.535 - Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep? 111.535 Section 111.535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  2. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes, but many health care providers now keep electronic records. You might hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for ...

  3. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  4. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  5. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... corrective action plans. (c) QC review records consist of Forms FNS-380, Worksheet for Quality Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Control Review Schedule, FNS-380-1, FNS-245, Negative Quality Control...

  6. [Food toxicology].

    PubMed

    Würzner, H P

    1984-02-01

    The complex problems of food toxicology and especially of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis require continuing efforts for a better understanding of the mechanisms, risk evaluation and prevention. Essential progress was the recognition of mutation. In vitro tests now provide reproducible results within a short time. Risk evaluation remains a difficult problem, since is has not been possible yet to establish thresholds values for genotoxic substances. However, threshold levels for carcinogen promoters gain increasing importance as demonstrated for 3 representative classes of substances: mycotoxines , nitrosamines and pesticides.

  7. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food.

    PubMed

    Päßler, Sebastian; Wolff, Matthias; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken.

  8. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  9. The Impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Fruit, Vegetable and Junk Food Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Waitlist Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M.; Howie, Erin K.; Smith, Kyla L.; Fenner, Ashley A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Olds, Tim S.; Abbott, Rebecca A.; Smith, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932 PMID:25375109

  10. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Your Medical Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Your Medical Records A ... Records? en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  11. Spoken Records. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Helen

    Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…

  12. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  13. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  14. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  15. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  16. 77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records by Persons Who Manufacture, Process, Pack, Transport... by Persons Who Manufacture, Process, Pack, Transport, Distribute, Receive, Hold, or Import Food... of records by persons who manufacture, process, pack, transport, distribute, receive, hold, or...

  17. 21 CFR 1401.5 - How to request records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How to request records. 1401.5 Section 1401.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.5 How to... National Drug Control Policy, Office of Legal Counsel, Washington, DC 20503. The applicable fax number...

  18. 21 CFR 1401.5 - How to request records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How to request records. 1401.5 Section 1401.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.5 How to... National Drug Control Policy, Office of Legal Counsel, Washington, DC 20503. The applicable fax number...

  19. 21 CFR 1401.5 - How to request records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How to request records. 1401.5 Section 1401.5 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.5 How to... National Drug Control Policy, Office of Legal Counsel, Washington, DC 20503. The applicable fax number...

  20. Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Bryan B; Bross, Rachelle; Morrison, Gillian; Zadeh, Kalantar; Kopple, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies suggest that maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients report dietary energy intakes (EI) that are lower than what is actually ingested. Data supporting this conclusion have several important limitations. The present study introduces a novel approach of assessing underreporting of EI in MHD patients. Design Comparisons of EI of free-living MHD patients determined from food records to their measured energy needs. Setting Metabolic research ward. Subjects 13 clinically stable MHD patients with unchanging weights whose EI was assessed by dietitian-interview-assisted 3-day food records. Intervention EI was compared to 1) patients’ resting energy expenditure (REE), measured by indirect calorimetry, and estimated total energy expenditure (TEE), and 2) patients’ dietary energy requirements (DER) measured while patients underwent nitrogen balance studies and consumed a constant energy diet in a research ward for a mean duration of 89.5 days. DER was calculated as the actual EI during the research study corrected for changes in body fat and lean body mass measured by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Main Outcome Measure Underreporting of energy intake was determined by an EI:REE ratio <1.27 and an EI:TEE ratio or EI:DEE ratio <1.0. Results Seven of the 13 MHD patients studied were male. Patient’s ages were 47.7±SD 9.7 years; BMI averaged 25.4±2.8 kg/m2, and dialysis vintage was 53.3±37.1 months. The EI:REE ratio (1.03±0.23) was significantly less than the cut-off value for under-reporting of 1.27 (p=0.001); 12 of 13 patients had EI:REE ratios <1.27. The mean EI:TEE ratio was significantly less than the cut-off value of 1.0 (0.73±0.17, p<0.0001), and 12 MHD patients had EI:TEE ratios <1.0. The EI:DER ratio was also less than 1.0 (0.83±0.25, p=0.012), and 10 MHD had EI:DER ratios <1.0. Conclusion Dietitian interview-assisted diet records by MHD patients substantially underestimate the patient’s dietary energy intake. PMID:25682334

  1. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy.

  2. The past and future of food stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Human societies rely on food reserves and the importation of agricultural goods as means to cope with crop failures and associated food shortage. While food trade has been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years, food reserves remain poorly quantified. It is unclear how food stocks are changing and whether they are declining. In this study we use food stock records for 92 products to reconstruct 50 years of aggregated food reserves, expressed in caloric equivalent (kcal), at the regional and global scales. A detailed statistical analysis demonstrates that the overall regional and global per-capita food stocks are stationary, challenging a widespread impression that food reserves are shrinking. We develop a statistically-sound stochastic representation of stock dynamics and take the stock-halving probability as a measure of the natural variability of the process. We find that there is a 20% probability that the global per-capita stocks will be halved by 2050. There are, however, some strong regional differences: Western Europe and the region encompassing North Africa and the Middle East have smaller halving probabilities and smaller per-capita stocks, while North America and Oceania have greater halving probabilities and greater per-capita stocks than the global average. Africa exhibits low per-capita stocks and relatively high probability of stock halving by 2050, which reflects a state of higher food insecurity in this continent.

  3. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 20.108 - Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and other departments, agencies, and organizations. 20.108 Section 20.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Specific Categories of Records § 20.108 Agreements between the Food and Drug Administration and...

  9. 21 CFR 111.610 - What records must be made available to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What records must be made available to FDA? 111... records must be made available to FDA? (a) You must have all records required under this part, or copies of such records, readily available during the retention period for inspection and copying by FDA...

  10. 21 CFR 226.102 - Master-formula and batch-production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master-formula and batch-production records. 226... Records and Reports § 226.102 Master-formula and batch-production records. (a) For each Type A medicated article(s) master-formula records shall be prepared, endorsed, and dated by a competent and...

  11. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  12. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  13. 21 CFR 821.60 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Records and Inspections § 821.60 Retention of records... each tracked device they manufacture or distribute. The useful life of a device is the time a device...

  14. 9 CFR 590.200 - Records and related requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records and related requirements. 590.200 Section 590.200 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... shell eggs need only to maintain records indicating the amount of eggs received, date received, and...

  15. 21 CFR 21.43 - Access to requested records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF PRIVACY Procedures for Notification of and Access to Records in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.43... person between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. at the office of the FDA Privacy Act Coordinator, at the Division of... location or time upon which the Food and Drug Administration and the individual agree. Arrangement for...

  16. 21 CFR 21.43 - Access to requested records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PRIVACY Procedures for Notification of and Access to Records in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.43... person between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. at the office of the FDA Privacy Act Coordinator, at the Division of... location or time upon which the Food and Drug Administration and the individual agree. Arrangement for...

  17. 21 CFR 21.43 - Access to requested records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PRIVACY Procedures for Notification of and Access to Records in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.43... person between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. at the office of the FDA Privacy Act Coordinator, at the Division of... location or time upon which the Food and Drug Administration and the individual agree. Arrangement for...

  18. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  19. Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity

  20. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences.

  1. Personal Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... chart there, too. These charts are your medical records. They may be on paper or electronic. To ... good idea to keep your own personal health record. What kind of information would you put in ...

  2. Best Children's Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    This annotated discography lists 45 recordings for children from birth to 14 years, including recordings of stories, songs, ballet, and foreign language songs. Distributors' addresses and phone numbers are provided. (EA)

  3. Mood Food

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  4. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  5. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  6. Sodium and Food Sources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  7. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  8. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  9. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo Load Top Searches Cumin E.Coli Salmonella Listeria Ground Turkey Botulism Tuna Stay Connected Our Partners About FoodSafety.gov ...

  10. Public Records 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  11. Recorder Resources, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Herbert D.; VanHaaren, Peg

    2006-01-01

    This article provides teaching tips and materials related to recorder lesson. Teaching Recorder in the Music Classroom, by Fred Kersten, compiles more current recorder information than any other resource. In planning instruction, the major determining factor seems to be Rote or Note. This allows instructors to take familiar repertoire that…

  12. Your Child's Immunization Record

    MedlinePlus

    Your Child’s Immunization Record It’s important to keep up-to-date records of all your child’s immunizations, beginning at birth and continuing through ... receives a vaccination by filling in the date. Record of Immunizations Date Given: Where Given: Reaction: Hepatitis ...

  13. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  14. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  15. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  16. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  17. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs.

  18. Resilience and reactivity of global food security.

    PubMed

    Suweis, Samir; Carr, Joel A; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-06-02

    The escalating food demand by a growing and increasingly affluent global population is placing unprecedented pressure on the limited land and water resources of the planet, underpinning concerns over global food security and its sensitivity to shocks arising from environmental fluctuations, trade policies, and market volatility. Here, we use country-specific demographic records along with food production and trade data for the past 25 y to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the relationship between population dynamics and food availability. We develop a framework for the assessment of the resilience and the reactivity of the coupled population-food system and suggest that over the past two decades both its sensitivity to external perturbations and susceptibility to instability have increased.

  19. Measuring food environments: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Food and nutrition environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. Familiarity with previous efforts to measure food and nutrition environments can help researchers and practitioners build on past accomplishments. This article describes sources of food-environment data, discusses how they have been used, and places the definition and measurement of food and nutrition environments in historical context. Review articles, agency websites, and peer-reviewed articles were the main sources of information. The review is organized around three main types of data sources identified as historic traditions: government, industry, and research. Types of data include archives, business monitoring records, surveys, observational assessments, and self-report surveys. Future development of clear, adaptable measures of food and nutrition environments will build on lessons of the past and will update and improve on past tools.

  20. Resilience and reactivity of global food security

    PubMed Central

    Suweis, Samir; Carr, Joel A.; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The escalating food demand by a growing and increasingly affluent global population is placing unprecedented pressure on the limited land and water resources of the planet, underpinning concerns over global food security and its sensitivity to shocks arising from environmental fluctuations, trade policies, and market volatility. Here, we use country-specific demographic records along with food production and trade data for the past 25 y to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the relationship between population dynamics and food availability. We develop a framework for the assessment of the resilience and the reactivity of the coupled population–food system and suggest that over the past two decades both its sensitivity to external perturbations and susceptibility to instability have increased. PMID:25964361

  1. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  2. Materialism and food security.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  3. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  4. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  5. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  6. 21 CFR 606.165 - Distribution and receipt; procedures and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Distribution and receipt; procedures and records. 606.165 Section 606.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS...

  7. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  8. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  10. 21 CFR 212.110 - How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How must I maintain records of my production of PET drugs? 212.110 Section 212.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. 20.64 Section 20.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...; (2) Would deprive a person to a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication; (3)...

  12. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. 20.64 Section 20.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...; (2) Would deprive a person to a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication; (3)...

  13. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  14. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  15. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  16. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  17. 21 CFR 111.205 - What is the requirement to establish a master manufacturing record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing record? 111.205 Section 111.205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process...

  18. 21 CFR 830.360 - Records to be maintained by the labeler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records to be maintained by the labeler. 830.360 Section 830.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bear a UDI on their label, and the particular version or model associated with each device...

  19. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  4. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  5. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  6. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  7. [The new microbiological hazards in food].

    PubMed

    Sciezyńska, Halina; Maćkiw, Elzbieta; Maka, Łukasz; Pawłowska, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    of viruses may be equipment in food plant, production line, packaging and man. Most food-borne are caused by noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. An increased number of food-borne viral outbreaks are recorded in several countries. Reasons for this include the improved diagnostic methods that have enhanced detection of some virus groups, and the increased marketing of fresh and frozen foods that has led to a worldwide availability of high risk food. Viruses may contaminate food either through contamination at source, principally through sewage pollution of the environment, or in association with food

  8. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  9. Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... or misfiled or somehow damaged. For example, paper medical records for thousands of patients were destroyed by ... A federal law called the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ( ...

  10. New and safe treatment of food impacted in the esophagus: a single center experience of 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Muhammad; Yaqub, Sheraz; Lie, Erik S; Dahl, Vegard; Olsbø, Frode; Røkke, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Large food bits can get stuck in the esophagus and must be removed by endoscopy. In some cases, this can be difficult or unsafe. We describe a new and safe treatment for such patients. Materials and Methods. 100 consecutive patients were referred to Akershus University Hospital with impacted food in the esophagus. In 36 patients (36%), the food passed spontaneously. In 59 (92%) of the remaining 64 patients, the food was removed by endoscopic intervention. In the last five patients, endoscopic removal was judged difficult or unsafe. These patients received the new treatment: one capsule Creon 10000 IU dissolved in 30 mL of Coca-Cola administered by a nasooesophageal tube four times daily for 2-3 days. Results. Of the 59 patients treated with endoscopic procedure, complications occurred in four (7%): three bleedings and one perforation of the esophagus. In five patients treated with Coca-Cola and Creon, the food had either passed or was soft after 2-3 days and could easily be removed. Conclusion. The treatment of choice of impacted food in the esophagus is endoscopic removal. In cases where this is difficult, we recommend treatment with Coca-Cola and Creon for 2-3 days before complications occur.

  11. The Ph.D. Now Comes with Food Stamps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    A record number of people are depending on federally financed food assistance. Food-stamp use increased from an average monthly caseload of 17 million in 2000 to 44 million people in 2011, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Web site. Last year, one in six people--almost 50 million Americans, or 15 percent of the population--received…

  12. The Evolving Scholarly Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Brian; Childress, Eric; Erway, Ricky; Faniel, Ixchel; Malpas, Constance; Schaffner, Jennifer; van der Werf, Titia

    2014-01-01

    The ways and means of scholarly inquiry are experiencing fundamental change, with consequences for scholarly communication and ultimately, the scholarly record. The boundaries of the scholarly record are both expanding and blurring, driven by changes in research practices, as well as changing perceptions of the long-term value of certain forms of…

  13. Privacy and Library Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  14. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  15. Children's Books and Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books and audiotape recordings for children from infancy through the early elementary grades. The bibliography includes recordings of music and storytelling; books that tell fairy tales and old favorite stories; and books about such topics as mother-child relationships and pets. (BB)

  16. Record Keeping Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  17. Lightning-Transient Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grumm, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Battery-powered system operates for more than one year. Recorder digitizes and records up to 146 current samples at selected intervals during lightning stroke. System continues to store time tags of lightning strokes even if transient current memory is full.

  18. Food reinforcement during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kai Ling

    2017-01-01

    The motivation to eat, as operationalized by measuring how hard someone will work for food, is cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Persons high in food reinforcement consume more calories, and energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and obesity. Research has shown avid sucking for milk in early infancy predicts later adiposity, and the relationship between food reinforcement and excess body weight has been observed in infants as young as 9 months of age. New methodological developments in studying food reinforcement in infants and young children provide the first opportunity to study the origin of food reinforcement. This review seeks to provide background on the measurement of food reinforcement, and to present, for the first time, prenatal and postnatal predictors of infant food reinforcement. Lastly, potential mechanisms for an increasing trajectory of food reinforcement throughout development are proposed. PMID:27373207

  19. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  20. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  1. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  2. Biotechnology and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M

    2002-01-01

    The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet. Although the size and complexity of the food sector ensures that no single player can control the process from seed production through farming and processing to final products marketed in a retail outlet, checks and balances are in place to ensure that transgenic foods will provide a convenient, wholesome, tasty, safe, affordable food source. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of companies developing the genetically modified food to provide relevant data to regulatory agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and Food and Drug Administration, to confirm that the transgenic product is reasonably safe for the consumer, as zero risk from allergen sensitization is nonexistent.

  3. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  4. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  5. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  6. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  7. Precipitation Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. R.; Prat, O.; Vasquez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Five precipitation CDRs are now or soon will be transitioned to NOAA's CDR program. These include the PERSIANN data set, which is a 30-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation based on retrievals from satellite microwave data using artificial neural networks. The AMSU-A/B/Hydrobundle is an 11-year record of precipitable water, cloud water, ice water, and other variables. CMORPH (the NOAA Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation measured from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. GPCP (the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and a 17-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The NEXRAD Reanalysis is a 10-year record of high resolution NEXRAD radar based adjusted CONUS-wide hourly and daily precipitation. This study provides an assessment of the existing and transitioned long term precipitation CDRs and includes the verification of the five precipitation CDRs using various methods including comparison with in-situ data sets and trend analysis. As all of the precipitation related CDRs are transitioned, long term analyses can be performed. Comparisons at varying scales (hourly, daily and longer) of the precipitation CDRs with in-situ data sets are provided as well as a first look at what could be an ensemble long term precipitation data record.

  8. 21 CFR 111.375 - Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart K, what records must you make... System: Requirements for Manufacturing Operations § 111.375 Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep records required under this subpart K in accordance...

  9. 21 CFR 20.51 - Referral to primary source of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to primary source of records. 20.51... PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.51 Referral to primary source of records. Upon receipt of a... primary source of the record or document....

  10. 21 CFR 111.475 - Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under this subpart M, what records must you make....475 Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep records required under this subpart M in accordance with subpart P of this part. (b) You must make and keep...

  11. 21 CFR 111.475 - Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart M, what records must you make....475 Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep records required under this subpart M in accordance with subpart P of this part. (b) You must make and keep...

  12. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under this subpart O, what records must you make... Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep the records required under this subpart O in accordance with subpart P of this part. (b) You must make and keep...

  13. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart O, what records must you make... Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep the records required under this subpart O in accordance with subpart P of this part. (b) You must make and keep...

  14. 21 CFR 111.325 - Under this subpart J, what records must you make and keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart J, what records must you make... System: Requirements for Laboratory Operations § 111.325 Under this subpart J, what records must you make and keep? (a) You must make and keep records required under this subpart J in accordance with...

  15. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  16. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  17. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  18. [Assessing food acceptance in scholar children; qualitative visual record versus food waste analysis].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Periago Castón, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martínez-Lacuesta, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los comedores escolares cuentan con normativa de gestión y supervisión de menús, sin embargo no se ha valorado si son consumidos en su totalidad. Objetivo: Valorar la aceptación de alimentos mediante pesado de restos y validación de una metodología visual para su estimación en comedores escolares de Murcia. Metodología: Participaron escolares de segundo y tercer ciclo de educación primaria, de 8-12 años. La estimación de restos se realizó mediante pesado de alimentos de 765 bandejas. La valoración visual (300 bandejas) se realizó con escala categórica: 1 = 0-25%; 2 = 26-50%; 3 = 51- 75% y 4 = 76-100%, por dos dietistas y se valoró la fiabilidad con respecto al pesado de alimentos. La concordancia entre ambos métodos fue evaluada en dos muestras estratificadas por la presencia/ausencia de cocina en la escuela. Resultados: Los primeros platos con más restos fueron pasta, arroz y purés de verduras siendo mayor en aquellos colegios sin cocina en el centro (p < 0,05). También los segundos platos a base de legumbres, ave y pescado y ensaladas de guarnición. Las frutas y el total de restos son superiores en colegios sin cocina (p < 0,05). La concordancia entre evaluadoras fue alta en platos a base de carnes y en ensaladas, y considerable en legumbres, precocinados, tortilla de huevo, pasta, pescado y arroz. Conclusiones: Los restos son elevados y existieron diferencias en la aceptación de ciertos alimentos acorde al tipo de menú ofertado. La escala visual es una herramienta confiable para medir la aceptación de forma indirecta, pero necesita capacitación y entrenamiento del personal implicado.

  19. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  20. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  1. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea. PMID:25671075

  2. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  3. Food For Thought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. This lesson emphasizes inquiry and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the uniq...

  4. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  5. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  6. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... been measuring total arsenic concentrations in foods, including rice and juices, through its Total Diet Study program ... found in certain food and beverage products, including rice, fruit juices and juice concentrates. How does arsenic ...

  7. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  8. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

  9. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... your local health food store or natural foods market. Look near the lettuce for packages of greens ... 5 cm, in length). Check your local farmer's market as well. Microgreen growing kits can be ordered ...

  10. Food guide plate

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOODS: CHOOSE LEAN PROTEINS Protein foods include meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, ... beef, pork, or lamb 1 oz (28 grams) poultry; such as turkey or chicken 1 large egg ...

  11. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  12. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  13. Traveling with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  14. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  15. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  16. Genetically engineered foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the environment. Food Sources Cotton, corn, and soybeans are the main GE crops grown in the ... drinks Corn starch used in soups and sauces Soybean, corn, and canola oils used in snack foods, ...

  17. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  18. Food, Eating and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search ...

  19. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  20. Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does your doc scribble notes onto sheets of paper and then slide them into an ever-expanding ... for errors. Security. There's always the chance that paper records can get lost or misfiled or somehow ...