Science.gov

Sample records for 3-dimensional angular velocities

  1. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  2. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  3. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  4. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  5. On the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. P.; Tavares, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Students of mechanics usually have difficulties when they learn about the rotation of a rigid body. These difficulties are rooted in the relation between angular momentum and angular velocity, because these vectors are not parallel, and we need in general to utilize a rotating frame of reference or a time dependent inertia tensor. We discuss a series of problems that introduce both difficulties.

  6. A new integrated optical angular velocity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Peluso, Francesco; Armenise, Mario N.

    2005-03-01

    Very compact and low-cost rotation sensors are strongly required for any moving systems in several applications. Integrated optical angular velocity sensors seem to be very promising in terms of low cost, compactness, light weight and high-performance. In the paper a new integrated optical angular velocity sensor having a passive resonant configuration is proposed. Preliminary results are really encouraging and demonstrate the possibility of using the sensor in gyro systems for satellite applications.

  7. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  8. A Neural Circuit for Angular Velocity Computation

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Samuel B.; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob. PMID:21228902

  9. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation.

    PubMed

    Snider, Samuel B; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob. PMID:21228902

  10. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. PMID:20371254

  11. Angular velocity and centripetal acceleration relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, the growing boom of smartphones has given rise to a considerable number of applications exploiting the functionality of the sensors incorporated in these devices. A sector that has unexpectedly taken advantage of the power of these tools is physics teaching, as reflected in several recent papers. In effect, the use of smartphones has been proposed in several physics experiments spanning mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, oscillations, and waves, among other subjects. Although mechanical experiments have received considerable attention, most of them are based on the use of the accelerometer. An aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. An additional advance in the use of these devices is given by the possibility of obtaining data using the accelerometer and the gyroscope simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to consider the relation between the centripetal acceleration and the angular velocity. Instead of using a formal laboratory setup, in this experiment a smartphone is attached to the floor of a merry-go-round, found in many playgrounds. Several experiments were performed with the roundabout rotating in both directions and with the smart-phone at different distances from the center. The coherence of the measurements is shown.

  12. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics classrooms, the direction of an angular velocity vector is taught by the right-hand rule, a mnemonic tool intended to aid memory. A setup constructed for instructional purposes may provide students with a more easily understood and concrete method to observe the direction of the angular velocity. This article attempts to demonstrate the angular velocity vector using the observable motion of a screw mounted to a remotely operated toy car.

  13. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics…

  14. Angular-velocity control approach for stance-control orthoses.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Goudreau, Louis; Yakimovich, Terris; Kofman, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Currently, stance-control knee orthoses require external control mechanisms to control knee flexion during stance and allow free knee motion during the swing phase of gait. A new angular-velocity control approach that uses a rotary-hydraulic device to resist knee flexion when the knee angular velocity passes a preset threshold is presented. This angular-velocity approach for orthotic stance control is based on the premise that knee-flexion angular velocity during a knee-collapse event, such as a stumble or fall, is greater than that during walking. The new hydraulic knee-flexion control device does not require an external control mechanism to switch from free motion to stance control mode. Functional test results demonstrated that the hydraulic angular-velocity activated knee joint provided free knee motion during walking, engaged upon knee collapse, and supported body weight while the end-user recovered to a safe body position. The joint was tested to 51.6 Nm in single loading tests and passed 200,000 repeated loading cycles with a peak load of 88 Nm per cycle. The hydraulic, angular velocity activation approach has potential to improve safety and security for people with lower extremity weakness or when recovering from joint trauma. PMID:19497821

  15. Measurement of angular velocity in the perception of rotation.

    PubMed

    Barraza, José F; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2002-09-01

    Humans are sensitive to the parameters of translational motion, namely, direction and speed. At the same time, people have special mechanisms to deal with more complex motions, such as rotations and expansions. One wonders whether people may also be sensitive to the parameters of these complex motions. Here, we report on a series of experiments that explore whether human subjects can use angular velocity to evaluate how fast a rotational motion is. In four experiments, subjects were required to perform a task of speed-of-rotation discrimination by comparing two annuli of different radii in a temporal 2AFC paradigm. Results showed that humans could rely on a sensitive measurement of angular velocity to perform this discrimination task. This was especially true when the quality of the rotational signal was high (given by the number of dots composing the annulus). When the signal quality decreased, a bias towards linear velocity of 5-80% appeared, suggesting the existence of separate mechanisms for angular and linear velocity. This bias was independent from the reference radius. Finally, we asked whether the measurement of angular velocity required a rigid rotation, that is, whether the visual system makes only one global estimate of angular velocity. For this purpose, a random-dot disk was built such that all the dots were rotating with the same tangential speed, irrespectively of radius. Results showed that subjects do not estimate a unique global angular velocity, but that they perceive a non-rigid disk, with angular velocity falling inversely proportionally with radius. PMID:12367744

  16. Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…

  17. Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Digiovanna, Jack; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Micera, Silvestro; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908

  18. Alignment of angular velocity sensors for a vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vestibular prosthetics transmit angular velocities to the nervous system via electrical stimulation. Head-fixed gyroscopes measure angular motion, but the gyroscope coordinate system will not be coincident with the sensory organs the prosthetic replaces. Here we show a simple calibration method to align gyroscope measurements with the anatomical coordinate system. We benchmarked the method with simulated movements and obtain proof-of-concept with one healthy subject. The method was robust to misalignment, required little data, and minimal processing. PMID:22329908

  19. Investigation of fluctuations in angular velocity in magnetic memory devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkis, Y. A.; Potsyus, Z. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The fluctuations in the angular velocity of individual assemblies of a precision mechanical system were analyzed. The system was composed of an electric motor and a magnetic drum which were connected by a flexible coupling. A dynamic model was constructed which took into account the absence of torsion in the rigid shafts of the electric motor drive rotor and the magnetic drum. The motion was described by Lagrange differential equations of the second kind. Curves are developed to show the nature of amplitude fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity at a specific excitation frequency. Additional curves show the amplitudes of fluctuation of the magnetic drum angular velocity compared to the quantity of damping at specific frequencies.

  20. Relaxation of the Angular Velocity of Pulsars after Glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, D. M.; Hayrapetyan, M. V.; Baghdasaryan, D.

    2014-03-01

    The rotational dynamics of superfluid neutron stars is examined in order to study the relaxation of the angular velocity of pulsars after glitches. The motion of the neutron-proton vortex system is investigated taking the sphericity of the superfluid core and vortex pinning and depinning into account. A relaxation solution is obtained for the angular rotation velocity of pulsars after glitches. In order to compare this solution with observational data for the Vela pulsar, the inverse problem of finding the initial distribution of vortices immediately after a glitch is solved.

  1. Angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pin-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin

    2013-06-01

    A hybrid material of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal changed capacitance after spinning beyond threshold angular velocity. Once the centrifugal force of nanoparticles overcomes the attractive force between liquid crystals, the nanoparticles begin to move. The order of highly viscous liquid crystals is disturbed by the nanoparticles' penetrative movement, and the dielectric constant of the liquid crystal cell changes as a result. We found that the angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal with higher working temperature and nanoparticles' density provided higher sensitivity. The obtained results are important for the continuous improvement of liquid-crystal-based inertial sensors or nano-viscometers.

  2. Quantum effects in new integrated optical angular velocity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenise, M. N.; Ciminelli, C.; de Leonardis, F.; Passaro, V. M. N.

    2004-06-01

    The paper describes the quantum effects to be considered in the model of new integrated optical angular velocity sensors. Integrated optics provides a promising approach to low-cost, light weight, and high performance devices. Some preliminary results are also reported.

  3. Joint inversion for 3-dimensional S-velocity mantle structure along the Tethyan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; van der Lee, S.; Flanagan, M. P.; Bedle, H.; Marone, F.; Matzel, E. M.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Rodgers, A. J.; Romanowicz, B.; Schmid, C.

    2007-12-01

    For purposes of studying the lateral heterogeneity as well as for ultimately predicting seismograms for the region which extends from the western Mediterranean region to the Hindu Kush, we construct a new 3-D S-velocity model by jointly inverting regional waveforms, surface wave group velocity measurements, teleseismic S arrival times, and crustal thickness estimates from receiver functions, refraction lines, and gravity surveys. We can expect better resolution for the resulting model than when using individual data set, because these data types have complementary resolving power for crust and mantle structures, vertical and lateral variations, shallow and deep mantle features, local and global structure, and are jointly inverted to image the complexity of this tectonically diverse area. We have fitted the waveforms of regional S and Rayleigh waves from over 3800 seismograms using Partitioned Waveform Inversion. We have accumulated over 3000 crustal thicknesses from receiver functions, gravity measurements, and refraction profiles. We have measured Rayleigh wave group velocities for hundreds of new paths recorded at the MIDSEA stations and combined them with thousands of existing paths transecting the region. We have over 5000 teleseismic S arrival times measured through cross correlation and 200,000 more from picks originally reported to the ISC. We scale the resulting S-velocity model to a P-velocity model using observed relations between S and P delay times as well as mineral physics. We then update the P-model using P delay times and compare the result to existing P-velocity models of the region. We discuss features of our new model, which includes oceanic structure, cratons, subducting slabs that penetrate into the lower mantle and others that do not, low-velocity mantle plumes, rifts, plateaus, and basins.

  4. Local computation of angular velocity in rotational visual motion.

    PubMed

    Barraza, José F; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2003-07-01

    Retinal images evolve continuously over time owing to self-motions and to movements in the world. Such an evolving image, also known as optic flow, if arising from natural scenes can be locally decomposed in a Bayesian manner into several elementary components, including translation, expansion, and rotation. To take advantage of this decomposition, the brain has neurons tuned to these types of motions. However, these neurons typically have large receptive fields, often spanning tens of degrees of visual angle. Can neurons such as these compute elementary optic-flow components sufficiently locally to achieve a reasonable decomposition? We show that human discrimination of angular velocity is local. Local discrimination of angular velocity requires an accurate estimation of the center of rotation within the optic-flow field. Inaccuracies in estimating the center of rotation result in a predictable systematic error when one is estimating local angular velocity. Our results show that humans make the predicted errors. We discuss how the brain might estimate the elementary components of the optic flow locally by using large receptive fields. PMID:12868642

  5. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  6. Depth and latitude dependence of the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1990-01-01

    One of the design goals for the dedicated helioseismology observing state located at Mount Wilson Observatory was the measurement of the internal solar rotation using solar p-mode oscillations. In this paper, the first p-mode splittings obtained from Mount Wilson are reported and compared with those from several previously published studies. It is demonstrated that the present splittings agree quite well with composite frequency splittings obtained from the comparisons. The splittings suggest that the angular velocity in the solar equatorial plane is a function of depth below the photosphere. The latitudinal differential rotation pattern visible at the surface appears to persist at least throughout the solar convection zone.

  7. A Simple Piece of Apparatus to Aid the Understanding of the Relationship between Angular Velocity and Linear Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsal, Yasin

    2011-01-01

    One of the subjects that is confusing and difficult for students to fully comprehend is the concept of angular velocity and linear velocity. It is the relationship between linear and angular velocity that students find difficult; most students understand linear motion in isolation. In this article, we detail the design, construction and…

  8. Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.

  9. Recovering slant and angular velocity from a linear velocity field: modeling and psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Domini, Fulvio; Caudek, Corrado

    2003-07-01

    The data from two experiments, both using stimuli simulating orthographically rotating surfaces, are presented, with the primary variable of interest being whether the magnitude of the simulated gradient was from expanding vs. contracting motion. One experiment asked observers to report the apparent slant of the rotating surface, using a gauge figure. The other experiment asked observers to report the angular velocity, using a comparison rotating sphere. The results from both experiments clearly show that observers are less sensitive to expanding than to contracting optic-flow fields. These results are well predicted by a probabilistic model which derives the orientation and angular velocity of the projected surface from the properties of the optic flow computed within an extended time window. PMID:12818345

  10. A Computational Technique to Determine the Angular Displacement, Velocity and Momentum of a Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, James G.; Wilson, Barry D.

    The angular momentum of a human body derived from both the angular velocity and angular displacement, utilizing cinematographic records has not been adequately assessed, prior to this study. Miller (1970) obtained the angular momentum but only during the airborne phase of activity. The method used by Ramey (1973) involved a force platform, but…

  11. On the Extraction of Angular Velocity from Attitude Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, Richard R.; Thienel, Julie K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we research the extraction of the angular rate vector from attitude information without differentiation, in particular from quaternion measurements. We show that instead of using a Kalman filter of some kind, it is possible to obtain good rate estimates, suitable for spacecraft attitude control loop damping, using simple feedback loops, thereby eliminating the need for recurrent covariance computation performed when a Kalman filter is used. This considerably simplifies the computations required for rate estimation in gyro-less spacecraft. Some interesting qualities of the Kalman filter gain are explored, proven and utilized. We examine two kinds of feedback loops, one with varying gain that is proportional to the well known Q matrix, which is computed using the measured quaternion, and the other type of feedback loop is one with constant coefficients. The latter type includes two kinds; namely, a proportional feedback loop, and a proportional-integral feedback loop. The various schemes are examined through simulations and their performance is compared. It is shown that all schemes are adequate for extracting the angular velocity at an accuracy suitable for control loop damping.

  12. Evidence for the distribution of angular velocity inside the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A round table discussion of problems of solar and stellar spindown and theory is presented. Observational evidence of the angular momentum of the solar wind is included, emphasizing the distribution of angular velocity inside the sun and stars.

  13. Task Space Angular Velocity Blending for Real-Time Trajectory Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a method of controlling a robot manipulator moving toward a target frame F(sub 0) with a target velocity v(sub 0) including a linear target velocity v and an angular target velocity omega(sub 0) to smoothly and continuously divert the robot manipulator to a subsequent frame F(sub 1) by determining a global transition velocity v(sub 1), the global transition velocity including a linear transition velocity v(sub 1) and an angular transition velocity omega(sub 1), defining a blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) within which the global velocity of the robot manipulator is to be changed from a global target velocity v(sub 0) to the global transition velocity v(sub 1) and dividing the blend time interval 2(tau)(sub 0) into discrete time segments (delta)t. During each one of the discrete time segments delta t of the blend interval 2(tau)(sub 0), a blended global velocity v of the manipulator is computed as a blend of the global target velocity v(sub 0) and the global transition velocity v(sub 1), the blended global velocity v including a blended angular velocity omega and a blended linear velocity v, and then, the manipulator is rotated by an incremental rotation corresponding to an integration of the blended angular velocity omega over one discrete time segment (delta)t.

  14. Contribution from cosmological scalar perturbations to the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Marakulin, A. O. Sazhina, O. S.; Sazhin, M. V.

    2012-07-15

    The possibility of the influence of adiabatic scalar perturbations on the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources is considered. The multipole expansion coefficients of the angular velocity field in terms of vector spherical harmonics are calculated. We show that there is no contribution from adiabatic perturbations to the angular spectrum for a spatially flat Universe at the dusty stage, while there is a contribution only to the electric multiple coefficients at the stage of {Lambda}-term domination. The cases of long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbations are considered separately. The relationship between the multipole angular velocity spectrum and the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum is discussed.

  15. Contribution from cosmological scalar perturbations to the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakulin, A. O.; Sazhina, O. S.; Sazhin, M. V.

    2012-07-01

    The possibility of the influence of adiabatic scalar perturbations on the angular velocity spectrum of extragalactic sources is considered. The multipole expansion coefficients of the angular velocity field in terms of vector spherical harmonics are calculated. We show that there is no contribution from adiabatic perturbations to the angular spectrum for a spatially flat Universe at the dusty stage, while there is a contribution only to the electric multiple coefficients at the stage of Λ-term domination. The cases of long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbations are considered separately. The relationship between the multipole angular velocity spectrum and the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum is discussed.

  16. Angular Velocity Affects Trunk Muscle Strength and EMG Activation during Isokinetic Axial Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xia; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Method. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. Results. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Conclusion. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity. PMID:24804227

  17. On the relationship between joint angular velocity and motor cortical discharge during reaching.

    PubMed

    Reina, G A; Moran, D W; Schwartz, A B

    2001-06-01

    Single-unit activity in area M1 was recorded in awake, behaving monkeys during a three-dimensional (3D) reaching task performed in a virtual reality environment. This study compares motor cortical discharge rate to both the hand's velocity and the arm's joint angular velocities. Hand velocity is considered a parameter of extrinsic space because it is measured in the Cartesian coordinate system of the monkey's workspace. Joint angular velocity is considered a parameter of intrinsic space because it is measured relative to adjacent arm/body segments. In the initial analysis, velocity was measured as the difference in hand position or joint posture between the beginning and ending of the reach. Cortical discharge rate was taken as the mean activity between these two times. This discharge rate was compared through a regression analysis to either an extrinsic-coordinate model based on the three components of hand velocity or to an intrinsic-coordinate model based on seven joint angular velocities. The model showed that velocities about four degrees-of-freedom (elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder internal/external rotation, and shoulder adduction/abduction) were those best represented in the sampled population of recorded activity. Patterns of activity recorded across the cortical population at each point in time throughout the task were used in a second analysis to predict the temporal profiles of joint angular velocity and hand velocity. The population of cortical units from area M1 matched the hand velocity and three of the four major joint angular velocities. However, shoulder adduction/abduction could not be predicted even though individual cells showed good correlation to movement on this axis. This was also the only major degree-of-freedom not well correlated to hand velocity, suggesting that the other apparent relations between joint angular velocity and neuronal activity may be due to intrinsic-extrinsic correlations inherent in

  18. Study of the mode of angular velocity damping for a spacecraft at non-standard situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, A. A.; Sazonov, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    Non-standard situation on a spacecraft (Earth's satellite) is considered, when there are no measurements of the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to one of its body axes. Angular velocity measurements are used in controlling spacecraft's attitude motion by means of flywheels. The arising problem is to study the operation of standard control algorithms in the absence of some necessary measurements. In this work this problem is solved for the algorithm ensuring the damping of spacecraft's angular velocity. Such a damping is shown to be possible not for all initial conditions of motion. In the general case one of two possible final modes is realized, each described by stable steady-state solutions of the equations of motion. In one of them, the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to the axis, for which the measurements are absent, is nonzero. The estimates of the regions of attraction are obtained for these steady-state solutions by numerical calculations. A simple technique is suggested that allows one to eliminate the initial conditions of the angular velocity damping mode from the attraction region of an undesirable solution. Several realizations of this mode that have taken place are reconstructed. This reconstruction was carried out using approximations of telemetry values of the angular velocity components and the total angular momentum of flywheels, obtained at the non-standard situation, by solutions of the equations of spacecraft's rotational motion.

  19. Direction and movement angular velocity determining of cloudiness with panoramic images of the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galileiskii, Viktor P.; Elizarov, Alexey I.; Kokarev, Dmitrii V.; Morozov, Aleksandr M.

    2014-11-01

    This article gives a short overview to method of direction determining and visible angular velocity of movement determining of cloudiness based on set of panoramic images of cloudy sky, obtained by "Fisheye" wide-angle lens.

  20. Accuracy of visual estimates of joint angle and angular velocity using criterion movements.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Craig S; Knudson, Duane; Clayburn, Colby; Haywood, Philip

    2005-06-01

    A descriptive study to document undergraduate physical education majors' (22.8 +/- 2.4 yr. old) estimates of sagittal plane elbow angle and angular velocity of elbow flexion visually was performed. 42 subjects rated videotape replays of 30 movements organized into three speeds of movement and two criterion elbow angles. Video images of the movements were analyzed with Peak Motus to measure actual values of elbow angles and peak angular velocity. Of the subjects 85.7% had speed ratings significantly correlated with true peak elbow angular velocity in all three angular velocity conditions. Few (16.7%) subjects' ratings of elbow angle correlated significantly with actual angles. Analysis of the subjects with good ratings showed the accuracy of visual ratings was significantly related to speed, with decreasing accuracy for slower speeds of movement. The use of criterion movements did not improve the small percentage of novice observers who could accurately estimate body angles during movement. PMID:16060418

  1. Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie

    2006-01-01

    The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase. PMID:16389087

  2. Evidence for changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A round table discussion of problems of solar and stellar spindown and theory is presented. Observational evidence of the angular momentum of the solar wind is included, emphasizing changes in the angular velocity of the surface regions of the sun and stars.

  3. Measurement of irregularities in angular velocities of rotating assemblies in memory devices on magnetic carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virakas, G. I.; Matsyulevichyus, R. A.; Minkevichyus, K. P.; Potsyus, Z. Y.; Shirvinskas, B. D.

    1973-01-01

    Problems in measurement of irregularities in angular velocity of rotating assemblies in memory devices with rigid and flexible magnetic data carriers are discussed. A device and method for determination of change in angular velocities in various frequency and rotation rate ranges are examined. A schematic diagram of a photoelectric sensor for recording the signal pulses is provided. Mathematical models are developed to show the amount of error which can result from misalignment of the test equipment.

  4. Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun

    2012-06-01

    In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance. PMID:22695598

  5. The validity of an assessment of maximum angular velocity of knee extension (KE) using a gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Omuro, Kazuya; Inaba, Yasuko; Kojima, Motonaga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is more important to assess the muscular power of the lower extremities than the strength, no simplified method for doing so has been found. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the assessment of the angular velocity of KE using a gyroscope. Participants included 105 community-dwelling older people (55 women, 50 men, age ± standard deviation (SD) 75±5.3). Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between the angular velocity of KE and functional performance measurements, a self-efficacy scale and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The data from the gyroscope were significantly correlated with some physical functions such as muscle strength (r=0.304, p<0.01), and walking velocity (r=0.543, p<0.001). In addition, the joint angular velocity was significantly correlated with self-efficacy (r=0.219-0.329, p<0.01-0.05) and HRQOL (r=0.207-0.359, p<0.01-0.05). The absolute value of the correlation coefficient of angular velocity tended to be greater than that of the muscle strength for mobility functions such as walking velocity and the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. In conclusion, it was found that the assessment of the angular velocity of the knee joint using a gyroscope could be a feasible and meaningful measurement in the geriatrics field. PMID:22100108

  6. A Study of Airplane Maneuvers with Special Reference to Angular Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, J E

    1923-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of increasing our knowledge on the behavior of the airplane during various maneuvers and to obtain values of the maximum angular velocities and accelerations in flight. The method consisted in flying a JN4H airplane through various maneuvers while records were being taken of the control position, the air speed, the angular velocity and the acceleration along the Z axis. The results showed that the maximum angular velocity about the X axis of radians per second in a barrel roll. The maximum angular acceleration about the X axis of -2.10 radians per (second) to the 2nd power occurred in a spin, while the maximum about the Y axis was 1.40 radians per (second) to the 2nd power when pulling suddenly out of a dive. These results have direct application to the design of airplane parts, such as propeller shaft and instruments.

  7. Magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity filtering estimation for attitude changing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an improved real-time sequential filter (IRTSF) for magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation of spacecraft during its attitude changing (including fast and large angular attitude maneuver, rapidly spinning or uncontrolled tumble). In this new magnetometer-only attitude determination technique, both attitude dynamics equation and first time derivative of measured magnetic field vector are directly leaded into filtering equations based on the traditional single vector attitude determination method of gyroless and real-time sequential filter (RTSF) of magnetometer-only attitude estimation. The process noise model of IRTSF includes attitude kinematics and dynamics equations, and its measurement model consists of magnetic field vector and its first time derivative. The observability of IRTSF for small or large angular velocity changing spacecraft is evaluated by an improved Lie-Differentiation, and the degrees of observability of IRTSF for different initial estimation errors are analyzed by the condition number and a solved covariance matrix. Numerical simulation results indicate that: (1) the attitude and angular velocity of spacecraft can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data; (2) compared with that of RTSF, the estimation accuracies and observability degrees of attitude and angular velocity using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data are both improved; and (3) universality: the IRTSF of magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation is observable for any different initial state estimation error vector.

  8. Determination of the AES attitude from the angular velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasberg, P. E.; Pivovarov, M. L.

    1984-10-01

    A nonlinear algorithm that could be used for the AES satellite to determine its motions relative to its mass center using rate sensor data is presented. The calculations are performed relative to absolute geocentric and satellite body coordinate systems. A transfer matrix of cosines relates positions and velocities in one system to positions and velocities in the other. The orientation algorithm is obtained with a matrix kinematic equation solved by a least squares technique. Sample calculations for the Intercosmos 17 satellite, employing sun sensor and magnetometer data, show the algorithm's capabilities for generating the satellite variations in the orbital coordinate system. Yaw, roll and pitch data are obtained.

  9. Form features provide a cue to the angular velocity of rotating objects

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Christopher David; Goold, Jessica; Killebrew, Kyle; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-01-01

    As an object rotates, each location on the object moves with an instantaneous linear velocity dependent upon its distance from the center of rotation, while the object as a whole rotates with a fixed angular velocity. Does the perceived rotational speed of an object correspond to its angular velocity, linear velocities, or some combination of the two? We had observers perform relative speed judgments of different sized objects, as changing the size of an object changes the linear velocity of each location on the object’s surface, while maintaining the object’s angular velocity. We found that the larger a given object is, the faster it is perceived to rotate. However, the observed relationships between size and perceived speed cannot be accounted for simply by size-related changes in linear velocity. Further, the degree to which size influences perceived rotational speed depends on the shape of the object. Specifically, perceived rotational speeds of objects with corners or regions of high contour curvature were less affected by size. The results suggest distinct contour features, such as corners or regions of high or discontinuous contour curvature, provide cues to the angular velocity of a rotating object. PMID:23750970

  10. Form features provide a cue to the angular velocity of rotating objects.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher David; Goold, Jessica; Killebrew, Kyle; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-02-01

    As an object rotates, each location on the object moves with an instantaneous linear velocity, dependent upon its distance from the center of rotation, whereas the object as a whole rotates with a fixed angular velocity. Does the perceived rotational speed of an object correspond to its angular velocity, linear velocities, or some combination of the two? We had observers perform relative speed judgments of different-sized objects, as changing the size of an object changes the linear velocity of each location on the object's surface, while maintaining the object's angular velocity. We found that the larger a given object is, the faster it is perceived to rotate. However, the observed relationships between size and perceived speed cannot be accounted for simply by size-related changes in linear velocity. Further, the degree to which size influences perceived rotational speed depends on the shape of the object. Specifically, perceived rotational speeds of objects with corners or regions of high-contour curvature were less affected by size. The results suggest distinct contour features, such as corners or regions of high or discontinuous contour curvature, provide cues to the angular velocity of a rotating object. PMID:23750970

  11. A Methodologic Approach for Normalizing Angular Work and Velocity During Isotonic and Isokinetic Eccentric Training

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Cornu, Christophe; Guével, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Context: Resistance exercise training commonly is performed against a constant external load (isotonic) or at a constant velocity (isokinetic). Researchers comparing the effectiveness of isotonic and isokinetic resistance-training protocols need to equalize the mechanical stimulus (work and velocity) applied. Objective: To examine whether the standardization protocol could be adjusted and applied to an eccentric training program. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Controlled research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one sport science male students (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 178.0 ± 4.0 cm, mass = 74.5 ± 9.1 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 9 weeks of isotonic (n = 11) or isokinetic (n = 10) eccentric training of knee extensors that was designed so they would perform the same amount of angular work at the same mean angular velocity. Main Outcome Measure(s): Angular work and angular velocity. Results: The isotonic and isokinetic groups performed the same total amount of work (−185.2 ± 6.5 kJ and −184.4 ± 8.6 kJ, respectively) at the same angular velocity (21 ± 1°/s and 22°/s, respectively) with the same number of repetitions (8.0 and 8.0, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis showed that work (bias = 2.4%) and angular velocity (bias = 0.2%) were equalized over 9 weeks between the modes of training. Conclusions: The procedure developed allows angular work and velocity to be standardized over 9 weeks of isotonic and isokinetic eccentric training of the knee extensors. This method could be useful in future studies in which researchers compare neuromuscular adaptations induced by each type of training mode with respect to rehabilitating patients after musculoskeletal injury. PMID:22488276

  12. Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components. PMID:24072023

  13. Satellite angular velocity estimation based on star images and optical flow techniques.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components. PMID:24072023

  14. Professional tennis players' serve: correlation between segmental angular momentums and ball velocity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI. PMID:23724603

  15. Mechanisms underlying the perceived angular velocity of a rigidly rotating object.

    PubMed

    Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Tse, P U

    2006-09-01

    The perceived angular velocity of an ellipse undergoing a constant rate of rotation will vary as its aspect ratio is changed. Specifically, a "fat" ellipse with a low aspect ratio will in general be perceived to rotate more slowly than a "thin" ellipse with a higher aspect ratio. Here we investigate this illusory underestimation of angular velocity in the domain where ellipses appear to be rotating rigidly. We characterize the relationship between aspect ratio and perceived angular velocity under luminance and non-luminance-defined conditions. The data are consistent with two hypotheses concerning the construction of rotational motion percepts. The first hypothesis is that perceived angular velocity is determined by low-level component-motion (i.e., motion-energy) signals computed along the ellipse's contour. The second hypothesis is that relative maxima of positive contour curvature are treated as non-component, form-based "trackable features" (TFs) that contribute to the visual system's construction of the motion percept. Our data suggest that perceived angular velocity is driven largely by component signals, but is modulated by the motion signals of trackable features, such as corners and regions of high contour curvature. PMID:16647733

  16. Mechanical and biomechanical analysis of a linear piston design for angular-velocity-based orthotic control.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Samadi, Reza; Goudreau, Louis; Kofman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A linear piston hydraulic angular-velocity-based control knee joint was designed for people with knee-extensor weakness to engage knee-flexion resistance when knee-flexion angular velocity reaches a preset threshold, such as during a stumble, but to otherwise allow free knee motion. During mechanical testing at the lowest angular-velocity threshold, the device engaged within 2 degrees knee flexion and resisted moment loads of over 150 Nm. The device completed 400,000 loading cycles without mechanical failure or wear that would affect function. Gait patterns of nondisabled participants were similar to normal at walking speeds that produced below-threshold knee angular velocities. Fast walking speeds, employed purposely to attain the angular-velocity threshold and cause knee-flexion resistance, reduced maximum knee flexion by approximately 25 degrees but did not lead to unsafe gait patterns in foot ground clearance during swing. In knee collapse tests, the device successfully engaged knee-flexion resistance and stopped knee flexion with peak knee moments of up to 235.6 Nm. The outcomes from this study support the potential for the linear piston hydraulic knee joint in knee and knee-ankle-foot orthoses for people with lower-limb weakness. PMID:23516082

  17. Ultrashort Laguerre-Gaussian pulses with angular and group velocity dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Zeylikovich, I; Sztul, H I; Kartazaev, V; Le, T; Alfano, R R

    2007-07-15

    Coherent optical vortices are generated from ultrashort 6.4 fs pulses. Our results demonstrate angular dispersion compensation of ultrashort 6.4 fs Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulses as well as what is believed to be the first direct autocorrelation measurement of 80 fs LG amplified pulses. A reflective-mirror-based 4f-compressor is proposed to compensate the angular and group velocity dispersion of the ultrashort LG pulses. PMID:17632631

  18. Misperceptions of angular velocities influence the perception of rigidity in the kinetic depth effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domini, F.; Caudek, C.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Accuracy in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion was investigated for orthographic projections of three-dimension rotating objects. In 3 experiments the hypothesis that magnitudes of angular velocity are misperceived in the kinetic depth effect was tested, and in 4 other experiments the hypothesis that misperceiving angular velocities leads to misperceiving rigidity was tested. The principal findings were (a) the magnitude of perceived angular velocity is derived heuristically as a function of a property of the first-order optic flow called deformation and (b) perceptual performance in discriminating rigid from nonrigid motion is accurate in cases when the variability of the deformations of the individual triplets of points of the stimulus displays favors this interpretation and not accurate in other cases.

  19. Single-axis gyroscopic motion with uncertain angular velocity about spin axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A differential game approach is presented for studying the response of a gyro by treating the controlled angular velocity about the input axis as the evader, and the bounded but uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis as the pursuer. When the uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis desires to force the gyro to saturation a differential game problem with two terminal surfaces results, whereas when the evader desires to attain the equilibrium state the usual game with single terminal manifold arises. A barrier, delineating the capture zone (CZ) in which the gyro can attain saturation and the escape zone (EZ) in which the evader avoids saturation is obtained. The CZ is further delineated into two subregions such that the states in each subregion can be forced on a definite target manifold. The application of the game theoretic approach to Control Moment Gyro is briefly discussed.

  20. Joint Angular Velocity in Spastic Gait and the Influence of Muscle-Tendon Lengthening*

    PubMed Central

    GRANATA, KEVIN P.; ABEL, MARK F.; DAMIANO, DIANE L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Joint angular velocity (the rate of flexion and extension of a joint) is related to the dynamics of muscle activation and force generation during walking. Therefore, the goal of this research was to examine the joint angular velocity in normal and spastic gait and changes resulting from muscle-tendon lengthening (recession and tenotomy) in patients who have spastic cerebral palsy. Methods The gait patterns of forty patients who had been diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age, 8.3 years; range, 3.7 to 14.8 years) and of seventy-three age-matched, normally developing subjects were evaluated with three-dimensional motion analysis and electromyography. The patients who had cerebral palsy were evaluated before muscle-tendon lengthening and nine months after treatment. Results The gait patterns of the patients who had cerebral palsy were characterized by increased flexion of the knee in the stance phase, premature plantar flexion of the ankle, and reduced joint angular velocities compared with the patterns of the normally developing subjects. Even though muscle-tendon lengthening altered sagittal joint angles in gait, the joint angular velocities were generally unchanged at the hip and knee. Only the ankle demonstrated modified angular velocities, including reduced dorsiflexion velocity at foot-strike and improved dorsiflexion velocity through midstance, after treatment. Electromyographic changes included reduced amplitude of the gastrocnemius-soleus during the loading phase and decreased knee coactivity (the ratio of quadriceps and hamstring activation) at toe-off. Principal component analyses showed that, compared with joint-angle data, joint angular velocity was better able to discriminate between the gait patterns of the normal and cerebral palsy groups. Conclusions This study showed that muscle-tendon lengthening corrects biomechanical alignment as reflected by changes in sagittal joint angles. However, joint angular velocity and

  1. Resolving Two Dimensional Angular Velocity within a Rotary Tumbler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel; Helminiak, David; Cariapa, Vikram; Borg, John

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a horizontally oriented cylindrical tumbler, filled at variable depth with cylindrical media, was rotated at various constant speeds. A monoplane layer of media was photographed with a high-speed camera and images were post processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithms in order to resolve both the translational and rotational flow fields. Although the translational velocity fields have been well characterized, contemporary resources enabled the ability to expand upon and refine data regarding rotational characteristics of particles within a rotary tumbler. The results indicate that particles rotate according to intermittent no-slip interactions between the particles and solid body rotation. Particles within the bed, not confined to solid body rotation, exhibited behavior indicative of gearing between particles; each reacting to the tangential component of contact forming rotation chains. Furthermore, it was observed that solid body interactions corresponded to areas of confined motion, as areas of high interaction dissuaded no-slip rotation, while areas of developing flow tended towards no-slip rotation. Special thanks to: NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Program as well as Marquette University OPUS College of Engineering.

  2. Relationship of spasticity to knee angular velocity and motion during gait in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Diane L; Laws, Edward; Carmines, Dave V; Abel, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of spasticity in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles on gait parameters including temporal spatial measures, knee position, excursion and angular velocity in 25 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) as compared to 17 age-matched peers. While subjects were instructed to relax, an isokinetic device alternately flexed and extended the left knee at one of the three constant velocities 30 degrees/s, 60 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s, while surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes over the biceps femoris and the rectus femoris recorded muscle activity. Patients then participated in 3D gait analysis at a self-selected speed. Results showed that, those with CP who exhibited heightened stretch responses (spasticity) in both muscles, had significantly slower knee angular velocities during the swing phase of gait as compared to those with and without CP who did not exhibit stretch responses at the joint and the tested speeds. The measured amount (torque) of the resistance to passive flexion or extension was not related to gait parameters in subjects with CP; however, the rate of change in resistance torque per unit angle change (stiffness) at the fastest test speed of 120 degrees/s showed weak to moderate relationships with knee angular velocity and motion during gait. For the subset of seven patients with CP who subsequently underwent a selective dorsal rhizotomy, knee angular extension and flexion velocity increased post-operatively, suggesting some degree of causality between spasticity and movement speed. PMID:16311188

  3. Angular tuning and velocity sensitivity in different neuron classes within layer 4 of rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Hyun; Simons, Daniel J

    2004-01-01

    Local circuitry within layer IV whisker-related barrels is preferentially sensitive to thalamic population firing synchrony, and neurons respond most vigorously to stimuli, such as high-velocity whisker deflections, that evoke it. Field potential recordings suggest that thalamic barreloid neurons having similar angular preferences fire synchronously. To examine whether angular tuning of cortical neurons might also be affected by thalamic firing synchrony, we characterized responses of layer IV units to whisker deflections that varied in angular direction and velocity. Barrel regular-spike units (RSUs) became more tuned for deflection angle with slower whisker movements. Deflection amplitude had no affect. Barrel fast-spike units (FSUs) were poorly tuned for deflection angle, and their responses remained constant with different deflection velocity. The dependence of angular tuning on deflection velocity among barrel RSUs appears to reflect the same underlying response dynamics that determine their velocity sensitivity and receptive field focus. Unexpectedly, septal RSUs and FSUs are largely similar to their barrel counterparts despite available evidence suggesting that they receive different afferent inputs and are embedded within different local circuits. PMID:14507984

  4. Effect of postural changes on 3D joint angular velocity during starting block phase.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Jean; Dumas, Raphaël; Cheze, Laurence; Ontanon, Guy; Miller, Christian; Mazure-Bonnefoy, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the effect of posture during sprint start. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of horizontal distance between the blocks during sprint start on three dimensional (3D) joint angular velocity. Nine trained sprinters started using three different starting positions (bunched, medium and elongated). They were equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, and an opto-electronic Motion Analysis system was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, norm of the joint angular velocity (NJAV), 3D Euler angular velocity (EAV) and pushing time on the blocks were calculated. The results demonstrated that the decrease of the block spacing induces an opposite effect on the angular velocity of joints of the lower and the upper limbs. The NJAV of the upper limbs is greater in the bunched start, whereas the NJAV of the lower limbs is smaller. The modifications of NJAV were due to a combination of the movement of the joints in the different degrees of freedom. The medium start seems to be the best compromise because it leads, in a short pushing time, to a combination of optimal joint velocities for upper and lower segments. PMID:23062070

  5. Effect of Range and Angular Velocity of Passive Movement on Somatosensory Evoked Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    To clarify characteristics of each human somatosensory evoked field (SEF) component following passive movement (PM), PM1, PM2, and PM3, using high spatiotemporal resolution 306-channel magnetoencephalography and varying PM range and angular velocity. We recorded SEFs following PM under three conditions [normal range-normal velocity (NN), small range-normal velocity (SN), and small range-slow velocity (SS)] with changing movement range and angular velocity in 12 participants and calculated the amplitude, equivalent current dipole (ECD) location, and the ECD strength for each component. All components were observed in six participants, whereas only PM1 and PM3 in the other six. Clear response deflections at the ipsilateral hemisphere to PM side were observed in seven participants. PM1 amplitude was larger under NN and SN conditions, and mean ECD location for PM1 was at primary motor area. PM3 amplitude was larger under SN condition and mean ECD location for PM3 under SS condition was at primary somatosensory area. PM1 amplitude was dependent on the angular velocity of PM, suggesting that PM1 reflects afferent input from muscle spindle, whereas PM3 amplitude was dependent on the duration. The ECD for PM3 was located in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting that PM3 reflects cutaneous input. We confirmed the hypothesis for locally distinct generators and characteristics of each SEF component. PMID:27075772

  6. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  7. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  8. Nonlinear free vibrations of centrifugally stiffened uniform beams at high angular velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Duigou, L.; Cadou, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the bending nonlinear free vibrations of a centrifugally stiffened beam with uniform cross-section and constant angular velocity. The nonlinear intrinsic equations of motion used here are geometrically exact and specific to beams exhibiting large amplitude displacements and rotations associated with small strains. Based on the Timoshenko beam model, these equations are derived from Hamilton's principle, in which the warping is considered. All coupling terms are considered including Coriolis terms. The studied beams are isotropic with clamped-free boundary conditions. By combining the Galerkin method with the harmonic balance method, the equations of motion are converted into a quadratic function treated with a continuation method: the Asymptotic Numerical Method, where the generalized displacement vector is presented as a series expansion. While analysing the effect of the angular velocity, we determine the amplitude versus frequency variations which are plotted as backbone curves. Considering the first lagging and flapping modes, the changes in beam behaviour from hardening to softening are investigated and identified as a function of the angular velocity and the effect of shear. Particular attention is paid to high angular velocities for both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams and the natural frequencies so obtained are compared with the results available in the literature.

  9. Investigation of Microopto-eletromechanical Angular Velocity and Acceleration Transducers based on Optical Tunneling Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busurin, V. I.; Lwin, Naing Htoo; Tuan, Pham Anh

    In this paper the possibility of microopto-electromechanical (MOEM) angular velocity and acceleration transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) is considered. The generalized model of MOEM transducers with various types of sensing elements (SE) is developed, transfer functions are investigated, and the errors with various design parameters of transducers are estimated.

  10. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  11. Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.

  12. Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.

  13. Habituation of self-motion perception following unidirectional angular velocity steps.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Terlevic, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether the perceived angular velocity following velocity steps of 80°/s in the dark decreased with the repetition of the stimulation in the same direction. The perceptual response to velocity steps in the opposite direction was also compared before and after this unidirectional habituation training. Participants indicated their perceived angular velocity by clicking on a wireless mouse every time they felt that they had rotated by 90°. The prehabituation perceptual response decayed exponentially with a time constant of 23.9 s. After 100 velocity steps in the same direction, this time constant was 12.9 s. The time constant after velocity steps in the opposite direction was 13.4 s, indicating that the habituation of the sensation of rotation is not direction specific. The peak velocity of the perceptual response was not affected by the habituation training. The differences between the habituation characteristics of self-motion perception and eye movements confirm that different velocity storage mechanisms mediate ocular and perceptual responses. PMID:27391426

  14. Rotational Doppler velocimetry to probe the angular velocity of spinning microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. B.; Lee, M. P.; Speirits, F. C.; Barnett, S. M.; Simpson, S. H.; Lavery, M. P. J.; Padgett, M. J.; Gibson, G. M.

    2014-07-01

    Laser Doppler velocimetry is a technique used to measure linear velocity, ranging from that of exhaust gases to blood flow. A rotational analog of laser Doppler velocimetry was recently demonstrated, using a rotationally symmetric interference pattern to probe the angular velocity of a spinning object. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a diffraction-limited structured illumination pattern to measure the angular velocity of a micron-sized particle trapped and spinning at tens of Hz in an optical trap. The technique requires no detailed knowledge of the shape of the particle, or the distribution of scatterers within it, and is independent of the particle's chirality, transparency, and birefringence. The particle is also subjected to Brownian motion, which complicates the signal by affecting the rotation rate and the rotation axis. By careful consideration of these influences, we show how the measurement is robust to both, representing a technique with which to probe the rotational motion of microscale particles.

  15. Influence of angular velocity on vastus lateralis and rectus femoris oxygenation dynamics during knee extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Denis, Romain; Wilkinson, Jennifer; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in angular velocity would alter vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) oxygenation status during maximal isokinetic knee extension exercises. Eleven recreationally active male participants randomly performed ten maximal knee extensions at 30, 60, 120 and 240° s(-1). Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) were acquired from the VL and RF muscles by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) was recorded throughout the tests. Peak torque and VO(2p) significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). Interestingly, RF and VL TOI significantly increased as a function of velocity (P<0·05), whereas [tHb] significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). A greater number of muscle fibre recruited at slow velocity, where the torque and VO(2p) were the highest, might explain the lower VL and RF TOI observed herein. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [tHb] changes) during isokinetic knee extension exercises performed at slow angular velocity might have been induced by a higher intramuscular pressure during the contraction phases as well as a greater microcirculatory vasodilatation during relaxation phases. Implementing slow-velocity isokinetic exercises in rehabilitation or other training programmes could delay the short-term anoxia generated by such exercises and result in muscle metabolism enhancement. PMID:21771253

  16. The relationship between consistency of propulsive cycles and maximum angular velocity during wheelchair racing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali

    2008-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing. PMID:18843158

  17. Gait event detection using linear accelerometers or angular velocity transducers in able-bodied and spinal-cord injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Jan M; Allum, John H J; Middleton, James W; Barriskill, Andrew; Condie, Peter; Purcell, Brendan; Li, Raymond Che Tin

    2006-12-01

    We report on three different methods of gait event detection (toe-off and heel strike) using miniature linear accelerometers and angular velocity transducers in comparison to using standard pressure-sensitive foot switches. Detection was performed with normal and spinal-cord injured subjects. The detection of end contact (EC), normally toe-off, and initial contact (IC) normally, heel strike was based on either foot linear accelerations or foot sagittal angular velocity or shank sagittal angular velocity. The results showed that all three methods were as accurate as foot switches in estimating times of IC and EC for normal gait patterns. In spinal-cord injured subjects, shank angular velocity was significantly less accurate (p<0.02). We conclude that detection based on foot linear accelerations or foot angular velocity can correctly identify the timing of IC and EC events in both normal and spinal-cord injured subjects. PMID:16500102

  18. Test-retest reliability of lower limb isokinetic endurance in COPD: A comparison of angular velocities

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fernanda; Lépine, Pierre-Alexis; Garceau-Bolduc, Corine; Coats, Valérie; Allard, Étienne; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the test-retest reliability of quadriceps isokinetic endurance testing at two knee angular velocities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods After one familiarization session, 14 patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean age 65±4 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 55%±18% predicted) performed two quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests on two separate occasions within a 5–7-day interval. Quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests consisted of 30 maximal knee extensions at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second, performed in random order. Test-retest reliability was assessed for peak torque, muscle endurance, work slope, work fatigue index, and changes in FEV1 for dyspnea and leg fatigue from rest to the end of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement were calculated. Results High test-retest reliability was identified for peak torque and muscle total work at both velocities. Work fatigue index was considered reliable at 90° per second but not at 180° per second. A lower reliability was identified for dyspnea and leg fatigue scores at both angular velocities. Conclusion Despite a limited sample size, our findings support the use of a 30-maximal repetition isokinetic muscle testing procedure at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Endurance measurement (total isokinetic work) at 90° per second was highly reliable, with a minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of 10%. Peak torque and fatigue index could also be assessed reliably at 90° per second. Evaluation of dyspnea and leg fatigue using the modified Borg scale of perceived exertion was poorly reliable and its clinical usefulness is questionable. These results should be useful in the design and interpretation of future interventions aimed at improving muscle

  19. Isoresistive dynamometer measurement of trunk muscle velocity at different angular phases of flexion and extension.

    PubMed

    Surakka, J; Alanen, E; Aunola, S; Karppi, S L

    2001-07-01

    Isoresistive trunk muscle dynamometer is a potentially useful piece of equipment in evaluation of trunk muscle velocity, but to date, studies analysing the possibilities and limitations of such measurements are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse the trunk muscle velocity in repetitive flexion and extension movements at three different angular phases, using an isoresistive trunk muscle dynamometer, and to assess the reliability of the measurements. The study population consisted of 120 healthy, sedentary men and women who volunteered for the study. The measurements were carried out before and after a 22-week training intervention programme. The results show that the peak velocities of the phases between 15 and 35 degrees in flexion and 20-0 degrees in extension (i.e. the second phases) correlated highly (r=0.99 in flexion and in extension) with the peak velocity of the whole movement ranging from -5 to 55 degrees in flexion and 40 to -20 degrees in extension. Correlations were high, both before and after the intervention. The LISREL model analysis showed high reliability of measurement for the second angular phases (in flexion and extension). According to the model, the correlation between the first and second measurement (with a 22-week training intervention in between) was 0.78 in flexion and 0.81 in extension. In conclusion, the angular phases from 15 to 35 degrees in flexion and from 20 to 0 degrees in extension represent the peak velocity of the whole movement. Negative residual correlations between the first and last angular phases in the LISREL model reflect the way of performing the movement: the faster the start the slower the end, and vice versa. PMID:11442583

  20. Analyzing angular distributions for two-step dissociation mechanisms in velocity map imaging.

    PubMed

    Straus, Daniel B; Butler, Lynne M; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J

    2013-08-15

    Increasingly, velocity map imaging is becoming the method of choice to study photoinduced molecular dissociation processes. This paper introduces an algorithm to analyze the measured net speed, P(vnet), and angular, β(vnet), distributions of the products from a two-step dissociation mechanism, where the first step but not the second is induced by absorption of linearly polarized laser light. Typically, this might be the photodissociation of a C-X bond (X = halogen or other atom) to produce an atom and a momentum-matched radical that has enough internal energy to subsequently dissociate (without the absorption of an additional photon). It is this second step, the dissociation of the unstable radicals, that one wishes to study, but the measured net velocity of the final products is the vector sum of the velocity imparted to the radical in the primary photodissociation (which is determined by taking data on the momentum-matched atomic cophotofragment) and the additional velocity vector imparted in the subsequent dissociation of the unstable radical. The algorithm allows one to determine, from the forward-convolution fitting of the net velocity distribution, the distribution of velocity vectors imparted in the second step of the mechanism. One can thus deduce the secondary velocity distribution, characterized by a speed distribution P(v1,2°) and an angular distribution I(θ2°), where θ2° is the angle between the dissociating radical's velocity vector and the additional velocity vector imparted to the product detected from the subsequent dissociation of the radical. PMID:23464815

  1. Feasibility study on an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J. W.; Koo, K. Y.; Jung, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes and investigates its feasibility. This study basically intends to enhance the performance of the existing modal flexibility-based methods by replacing accelerations measured from accelerometers with angular velocities measured from gyroscopes. In order to verify the superiority of a gyroscope in damage detection, numerical studies were performed by changing optional parameters such as damage location, severity, and measurement noise. From parametric studies, it was shown that the damage detection results using gyroscopes are more sensitive to damage and more robust to noise generated from the curvature estimation than those using accelerometers. Experimental validations were also carried out to investigate the feasibility of a gyroscope in damage detection. From the results, it was shown that the gyroscope-based damage detection method can successfully identify damage location. In conclusion, it was numerically and experimentally verified that a new damage detection approach using gyroscopes could improve damage detection ability significantly.

  2. Angular velocity of gravitational radiation from precessing binaries and the corotating frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This paper defines an angular velocity for time-dependent functions on the sphere and applies it to gravitational waveforms from compact binaries. Because it is geometrically meaningful and has a clear physical motivation, the angular velocity is uniquely useful in helping to solve an important—and largely ignored—problem in models of compact binaries: the inverse problem of deducing the physical parameters of a system from the gravitational waves alone. It is also used to define the corotating frame of the waveform. When decomposed in this frame, the waveform has no rotational dynamics and is therefore as slowly evolving as possible. The resulting simplifications lead to straightforward methods for accurately comparing waveforms and constructing hybrids. As formulated in this paper, the methods can be applied robustly to both precessing and nonprecessing waveforms, providing a clear, comprehensive, and consistent framework for waveform analysis. Explicit implementations of all these methods are provided in accompanying computer code.

  3. A submicron device to rectify a square-wave angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Moradian, A; Miri, M F

    2011-02-01

    We study a system composed of two thick dielectric disks separated by a thin layer of an electrolyte solution. Initially both plates have the same surface charge distribution. The surface charge distribution has no rotational symmetry. We show that the top plate experiences a torque [Formula: see text]([Formula: see text]) if it rotates about its axis by an angle [Formula: see text] . The torque can be controlled by varying the electrolyte concentration, the separation and the surface charge density of the plates. For a specific example of charged rods attached to the plates, we find [Formula: see text]([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] sin(4[Formula: see text]) . We also study the dynamics of the system. We consider the case where the angular velocity of the bottom disk is a square-wave signal. We find that the average angular velocity of the top disk is not zero. PMID:21337018

  4. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, J; Talbot, J; Viot, P

    2007-05-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-Gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model to that of a planar rotator with a free center and discuss the prospects for experimental confirmation of these results. PMID:17677054

  5. Eye velocity asymmetry, ocular orientation, and convergence induced by angular rotation in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Jun; MacDougall, Hamish G; Simpson, John I; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    We studied ocular asymmetries and orienting responses induced by angular rotation in rabbits with binocular video recordings. Slow phase velocities were significantly larger in the eye moving temporonasally than nasotemporally. The eyes also converged and pitched down during rotation, which increased and refocused binocular overlap in the visual fields. Eye position also shifted into the slow phase direction. Vergence and pitch outlasted the induced nystagmus, suggesting that they were generated by a separate vestibulo-oculomotor subsystem(s). Thus, mechanisms in the rabbit increase compensatory eye velocity in the eye that leads into the direction of rotation and enhance binocular vision. PMID:16337668

  6. Characterization of thigh and shank segment angular velocity during jump landing tasks commonly used to evaluate risk for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:22938373

  7. The effects of leg angular velocity on mean power frequency and amplitude of the mechanomyographic signal.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, K T; Housh, T J; Weir, J P; Johnson, G O; Evetovich, T K; Smith, D B

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of leg angular velocity on the mean power frequency (MPF) and amplitude of the mechanomyographic (MMG) signal during maximal concentric (CON) isokinetic muscle actions. Sixteen adult subjects performed maximal CON leg extensions on a calibrated Cybex 6000 dynamometer at leg angular velocities of 60 and 300 degrees.s-1. MMG was detected by a piezoelectric crystal contact sensor placed over the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. The results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) velocity-related decrease in peak torque (PT) and increase in MMG amplitude from 60 to 300 degrees.s-1. There was, however, no velocity-related change (p > 0.05) in MMG MPF. These findings did not support our hypothesis that increases across velocity in MMG amplitude were due to decreases in muscle stiffness as a result of a shift in the contribution of slow and fast-twitch muscle fibers to PT production. Future research should examine the potential influence of actin-myosin cycling rate as well as limb movement on the MPF and amplitude of the MMG signal. PMID:10782358

  8. A neuromusculoskeletal model to simulate the constant angular velocity elbow extension test of spasticity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Terry K K; Mak, Arthur F T

    2006-01-01

    We developed a neuromusculoskeletal model to simulate the stretch reflex torque induced during a constant angular velocity elbow extension by tuning a set of physiologically-based parameters. Our model extended past modeling efforts in the investigation of elbow spasticity by incorporating explicit musculotendon, muscle spindle, and motoneuron pool models in each prime elbow flexor. We analyzed the effects of changes in motoneuron pool and muscle spindle properties as well as muscle mechanical properties on the biomechanical behavior of the elbow joint observed during a constant angular velocity elbow extension. Results indicated that both motoneuron pool thresholds and gains could be substantially different among muscles. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that spindle static gain and motoneuron pool threshold were the most sensitive parameters that could affect the stretch reflex responses of the elbow flexors during a constant angular velocity elbow extension, followed by motoneuron pool gain, and spindle dynamic gain. It is hoped that the model will contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of spasticity after validation by more elaborate experiments, and will facilitate the future development of more specific treatment of spasticity. PMID:15908257

  9. Measuring the Direction and Angular Velocity of a Black Hole Accretion Disk via Lagged Interferometric Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Loeb, Abraham; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Chael, Andrew A.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.

    2015-11-01

    We show that interferometry can be applied to study irregular, rapidly rotating structures, as are expected in the turbulent accretion flow near a black hole. Specifically, we analyze the lagged covariance between interferometric baselines of similar lengths but slightly different orientations. For a flow viewed close to face-on, we demonstrate that the peak in the lagged covariance indicates the direction and angular velocity of the emission pattern from the flow. Even for moderately inclined flows, the covariance robustly estimates the flow direction, although the estimated angular velocity can be significantly biased. Importantly, measuring the direction of the flow as clockwise or counterclockwise on the sky breaks a degeneracy in accretion disk inclinations when analyzing time-averaged images alone. We explore the potential efficacy of our technique using three-dimensional, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and we highlight several baseline pairs for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) that are well-suited to this application. These results indicate that the EHT may be capable of estimating the direction and angular velocity of the emitting material near Sgr A*, and they suggest that a rotating flow may even be utilized to improve imaging capabilities.

  10. Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Zazulak, Bohdanna T

    2008-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.634, p<0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8+/-2.2% at 30 degrees /s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4+/-1.1% at 360 degrees /s, p<0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R=0.065, p=0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5+/-8.8% at 30 degrees /s; 51.0+/-5.7% at 360 degrees /s, p=0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities. PMID:17875402

  11. Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Our purpose was to determine if females demonstrate decreased hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque (H/Q) ratios compared to males and if H/Q ratios increase with increased isokinetic velocity in both sexes. Maturation disproportionately increases hamstrings peak torque at high velocity in males, but not females. Therefore, we hypothesised that mature females would demonstrate decreased H/Q ratios compared to males and the difference in H/Q ratio between sexes would increase as isokinetic velocity increased. Studies that analysed the H/Q ratio with gravity corrected isokinetic strength testing reported between 1967 and 2004 were included in our review and analysis. Keywords were hamstrings/quadriceps, isokinetics, peak torque and gravity corrected. Medline and Smart databases were searched combined with cross-checked bibliographic reference lists of the publications to determine studies to be included. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 1568 subjects (1145 male, 423 female). Males demonstrated a significant correlation between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.634, p < 0.0001), and a significant difference in the isokinetic H/Q ratio at the lowest angular velocity (47.8 ± 2.2% at 30°/s) compared to the highest velocity (81.4 ± 1.1% at 360°/s, p < 0.001). In contrast, females did not demonstrate a significant relationship between H/Q ratio and isokinetic velocity (R = 0.065, p = 0.77) or a change in relative hamstrings strength as the speed increased (49.5 ± 8.8% at 30°/s; 51.0 ± 5.7% at 360°/s, p = 0.84). Gender differences in isokinetic H/Q ratios were not observed at slower angular velocities. However, at high knee flexion/extension angular velocities, approaching those that occur during sports activities, significant gender differences were observed in the H/Q ratio. Females, unlike males, do not increase hamstrings to quadriceps torque ratios at velocities that approach those of functional activities. PMID:17875402

  12. The evolution of rotating stars. III - Predicted surface rotation velocities for stars which conserve total angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1979-01-01

    Predicted surface rotation velocities for Population I stars at 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1.5 solar masses are presented. The surface velocities were computed for angular momentum with no radial redistribution, complete redistribution, and partial redistribution as predicted by consideration of circulation currents in rotating stars. Near the main sequence, rotational effects can reduce the moment of inertia of a star, so nonrotating models underestimate the expected velocities for evolving stars. On the red giant branch, angular momentum redistribution reduces the surface velocity by a factor of 2 or more, relative to the velocity expected for no radial redistribution. This removes the discrepancy between predicted and observed rotation rates for the K giants and makes it unlikely that these stars lose significant amounts of angular momentum by stellar winds. Calculations indicate that improved observations of the red giants in the Hyades cluster can be used to determine how angular momentum is redistributed by convection

  13. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons from the LMN of freely moving rats. The majority of cells discharged as a function of one of three types of spatial correlates: (1) directional heading, (2) head pitch, or (3) angular head velocity (AHV). LMN HD cells exhibited higher peak firing rates and greater range of directional firing than that of ADN and PoS HD cells. LMN HD cells were modulated by angular head velocity, turning direction, and anticipated the rat’s future HD by a greater amount of time (~95 msec) than that previously reported for ADN HD cells (~25 msec). Most head pitch cells discharged when the rostrocaudal axis of the rat’s head was orthogonal to the horizontal plane. Head pitch cell firing was independent of the rat’s location, directional heading, and its body orientation (i.e., the cell discharged whenever the rat pointed its head up, whether standing on all four limbs or rearing). AHV cells were categorized as fast or slow AHV cells depending on whether their firing rate increased or decreased in proportion to angular head velocity. These data demonstrate that LMN neurons code direction and angular motion of the head in both horizontal and vertical planes and support the hypothesis that the LMN play an important role in processing both egocentric and allocentric spatial information. PMID:9787007

  14. Variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin-Sen

    2016-04-01

    The variation of the instantaneous rotational angular velocity of the rigid Earth in the lunar-solar gravitational field is studied. The formula is derived for variation of the instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid oblate Earth using the potential function from Euler's dynamic equations. The theoretical results show that under the influence of the gravitational field of the Moon and the Sun the Earth instantaneous angular velocity varies with periodic terms, but without secular variations. Amplitudes of the periodic terms and their periods are calculated and discussed.

  15. Constant angular velocity of the wrist during the lifting of a sphere.

    PubMed

    Chappell, P H; Metcalf, C D; Burridge, J H; Yule, V T; Pickering, R M

    2010-05-01

    The primary objective of the experiments was to investigate the wrist motion of a person while they were carrying out a prehensile task from a clinical hand function test. A six-camera movement system was used to observe the wrist motion of 10 participants. A very light sphere and a heavy sphere were used in the experiments to study any mass effects. While seated at a table, a participant moved a sphere over a small obstacle using their dominant hand. The participants were observed to move their wrist at a constant angular velocity. This phenomenon has not been reported previously. Theoretically, the muscles of the wrist provide an impulse of force at the start of the rotation while the forearm maintains a constant vertical force on a sphere. Light-heavy mean differences for the velocities, absolute velocities, angles and times taken showed no significant differences (p = 0.05). PMID:20233128

  16. Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows us to study dark matter haloes spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass (109-1014) h-1 M⊙ and spatial scales of (0.5-1.0) h-1 Mpc to define the cosmic web. The strongest alignment is measured for halo shape along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive haloes >1012 h-1 M⊙ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector, i.e. perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for haloes more massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙ both in the tidal and velocity shear fields where the preferences is to be parallel to the middle eigenvector; perpendicular to filaments and parallel to walls. Finally, the peculiar velocities show a strong alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector for all halo masses; haloes move along filaments and walls. The same alignment is present with the velocity shear, albeit weaker and only for haloes less massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙. Our results show that the two different algorithms used to define the cosmic web describe different physical aspects of non-linear collapse and should be used in a complementary way to understand the cosmic web influence on galaxy evolution.

  17. Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Edwin H.

    2012-12-01

    Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than \\lambda _0/D (where \\lambda _0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions.

  18. Fast two-position initial alignment for SINS using velocity plus angular rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guobin

    2015-10-01

    An improved two-position initial alignment model for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed. In addition to the velocity, angular rates are incorporated as measurements. The measurement equations in full three channels are derived in both navigation and body frames and the latter of which is found to be preferred. The cross-correlation between the process and the measurement noises is analyzed and addressed in the Kalman filter. The incorporation of the angular rates, without introducing additional device or external signal, speeds up the convergence of estimating the attitudes, especially the heading. In the simulation study, different algorithms are tested with different initial errors, and the advantages of the proposed method compared to the conventional one are validated by the simulation results.

  19. Angular and Linear Velocity Estimation for a Re-Entry Vehicle Using Six Distributed Accelerometers: Theory, Simulation and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G

    2003-04-28

    This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the presence of

  20. Inference of stress and texture from angular dependence of ultrasonic plate mode velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. B.; Smith, J. F.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory for the angular dependence of the ultrasonic wave velocity in a symmetry plane of an orthorhombic, stressed material is presented. The two waves having polarizations in this plane are shown to have velocities which can be estimated from measurements of the SH sub 0 and S sub 0 guided modes of a thin plate: the relationship being exact for the SH sub 0 mode and requiring a 10% correction for the S sub 0 mode at long wavelength. It is then shown how stress and texture can be independently inferred from various features of the angular dependence of these two velocities. From the SH sub 0 data, the ability to determine the directions and differences in magnitudes of principal stresses is described and supported by experimental data on several materials. From a combination of the SH sub 0 and S sub 0 data, a procedure is proposed for determining the coefficients W sub 400, W sub 420 and W sub 440 of an expansion of the crystallite orientation distribution function in terms of generalized Legendre functions. Possible applications in process control are indicated.

  1. On the magnetic field required for driving the observed angular-velocity variations in the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, H. M.; Chitre, S. M.; Gough, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A putative temporally varying circulation-free magnetic-field configuration is inferred in an equatorial segment of the solar convection zone from the helioseismologically inferred angular-velocity variation, assuming that the predominant dynamics is an angular acceleration produced by the azimuthal Maxwell stress exerted by a field whose surface values are consistent with photospheric line-of-sight measurements.

  2. A New Open-Loop Fiber Optic Gyro Error Compensation Method Based on Angular Velocity Error Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing

    2015-01-01

    With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.2%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity. PMID:25734642

  3. A new open-loop fiber optic gyro error compensation method based on angular velocity error modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Yixin; Wang, Zhanqing

    2015-01-01

    With the open-loop fiber optic gyro (OFOG) model, output voltage and angular velocity can effectively compensate OFOG errors. However, the model cannot reflect the characteristics of OFOG errors well when it comes to pretty large dynamic angular velocities. This paper puts forward a modeling scheme with OFOG output voltage u and temperature T as the input variables and angular velocity error Δω as the output variable. Firstly, the angular velocity error Δω is extracted from OFOG output signals, and then the output voltage u, temperature T and angular velocity error Δω are used as the learning samples to train a Radial-Basis-Function (RBF) neural network model. Then the nonlinear mapping model over T, u and Δω is established and thus Δω can be calculated automatically to compensate OFOG errors according to T and u. The results of the experiments show that the established model can be used to compensate the nonlinear OFOG errors. The maximum, the minimum and the mean square error of OFOG angular velocity are decreased by 97.0%, 97.1% and 96.5% relative to their initial values, respectively. Compared with the direct modeling of gyro angular velocity, which we researched before, the experimental results of the compensating method proposed in this paper are further reduced by 1.6%, 1.4% and 1.42%, respectively, so the performance of this method is better than that of the direct modeling for gyro angular velocity. PMID:25734642

  4. Effect of angular velocity on sensors based on morphology dependent resonances.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amir R; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an analysis to investigate the morphology dependent optical resonances shift (MDR) of a rotating spherical resonator. The spinning resonator experiences an elastic deformation due to the centrifugal force acting on it, leading to a shift in its MDR. Experiments are also carried out to demonstrate the MDR shifts of a spinning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microsphere. The experimental results agree well with the analytical prediction. These studies demonstrated that spinning sensor based on MDR may experience sufficient shift in the optical resonances, therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Also the results show that angular velocity sensors could be designed using this principle. PMID:24759108

  5. Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain

    1987-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.

  6. Effect of Angular Velocity on Sensors Based on Morphology Dependent Resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amir R.; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an analysis to investigate the morphology dependent optical resonances shift (MDR) of a rotating spherical resonator. The spinning resonator experiences an elastic deformation due to the centrifugal force acting on it, leading to a shift in its MDR. Experiments are also carried out to demonstrate the MDR shifts of a spinning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microsphere. The experimental results agree well with the analytical prediction. These studies demonstrated that spinning sensor based on MDR may experience sufficient shift in the optical resonances, therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Also the results show that angular velocity sensors could be designed using this principle. PMID:24759108

  7. Effects of Variations of Parallel Angular Velocity and Vorticity on the Oscillations of Compressible Homogeneous Rotating Ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, T. T.; Pung, S. Y.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier work on the oscillations of an ellipsoid is extended to investigate the behaviour of a nonequilibrium compressible homogeneous rotating gaseous ellipsoid, with the components of the velocity field as linear functions of the coordinates, and with parallel angular velocity and uniform vorticity. The dynamical behaviour of the ellipsoid is obtained by numerically integrating the relevant differential equations for different values of the initial angular velocity and vorticity. This behaviour is displayed by the (a 1,a 2) and (a 1,a 3) phase plots, where thea i's (i = 1, 2, 3) are the semi-diameters, and by the graphs ofa 1,a 2,a 3, the volume, and the angular velocity as functions of time. The dynamical behaviour of the nonequilibrium ellipsoid depends on the deviation of the angular momentum from its equilibrium value; for larger deviations, the oscillations are more nonperiodic with larger amplitudes. An initially ellipsoidal configuration always remains ellipsoidal, but it cannot become spheroidal about its rotation axis, though it may become spheroidal instantaneously about either one of the other two principal axes. For an ellipsoid approaching axisymmetry about its axis of rotation, the angular velocity can suddenly increase by a large amount. Thus if an astrophysical object can be modelled by a nonequilibrium ellipsoid, it may occasionally undergo sudden large increases of angular velocity.

  8. Laminar flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body at moderate angular velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, J. I.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2013-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body of length-to-diameter ratio L/D=2, focusing on the evolution of the forces and flow regimes that appear depending on the values of the two governing parameters, namely the Reynolds number, Re=ρw∞D/μ, and the dimensionless angular velocity, Ω=ωD/(2w∞), where ρ, μ and w∞ are the free-stream density, viscosity and velocity, respectively, and ω is the angular velocity of the body. The parametric study covers the range 0≤Ω≤0.4 for Re<450, corresponding to laminar flow and moderate rotation velocities. It is shown that the (Re,Ω) parameter plane can be divided into four regions, corresponding to the destabilization of several instability modes. In the range 0≤Ω≲0.2, three different flow regimes take place as Re increases keeping constant Ω: axisymmetric, frozen and spiral flow regimes respectively; the latter leading to a swirling configuration of vortices curling up around the axis, caused by a combination of the frozen mode and the vortex shedding. However, at Ω≃0.2, a new frozen spiral mode takes place for large enough values of Re, where two counter-rotating vortices spiral around the axis, as a result of a lock-in process of the vortex shedding associated to the unsteady spiral regime, being this mode the single unstable one existent for Ω≥0.225. An exhaustive study of the dependence of the drag and lift forces on Ω and Re is also presented.

  9. Theoretical investigation of indium phosphide buried ring resonators for new angular velocity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-02-01

    Here, we report the guidelines to be followed to optimize the design of a new angular velocity sensor based on an indium phosphide (InP) ring resonator. Optical properties of InP ring resonators have been investigated together with some significant physical effects for improving the sensor sensitivity. Three-dimensional algorithms have been utilized for the theoretical estimation of the waveguide loss. An optimized waveguide with propagation loss <0.3 dB/cm and a ring resonator with a quality factor of 1.5×106 have been designed. Performance of angular velocity sensors based on InP low-loss ring resonators has been estimated and discussed. Resolution of 10 deg/h and bias drift in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 deg/h have been evaluated for a fully integrated optical gyro including an InGaAsP/InP optical cavity having a footprint less than 24 cm2.

  10. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame. PMID:24381284

  11. Initial measurements of the angular velocity of walking humans using an active millimeter-wave correlation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilevu, Kojo S.; Kammerman, Kelly L.; Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    The design of a 29.5 GHz experimental active interferometer for the measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans is presented in this paper, as well as initial measurements of walking humans. Measurement of the angular motion of moving objects is a desirable function in remote security sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of arrival estimation algorithms. Recently, the authors presented a new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry. The method measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency shift imparted on the signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. The experimental system consists of a transmitter and two separate receivers with two widely spaced antennas. The received signals in each of the two channels are downconverted and digitized, and post-processed offline. Initial results of a walking person passing through the interferometer beam pattern are presented, which verify the expected operation of the receiver derived from the initial theory.

  12. Vortex breakdown in a slowly varying tube impulsively rotated about its axis with constant angular velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, D. A.

    2003-11-01

    For time t¯<0 viscous fluid is in slow flow through a long straight axially symmetric tube whose radius, ā(x¯), varies slowly with axial distance, x¯. When t¯=0 the tube is impulsively rotated about its axis with angular velocity, Ω¯, at which angular speed it is thereafter maintained. When Re=Wa/ν=O(1) and ɛ=W¯ā02/νL¯→0, λ=Ωa/W→∞ with Γ=ɛλ2 finite, MacDonald [Phys. Fluids 12, 3168 (2000)] has shown that during the transition from zero angular velocity to solid body rotation the flow in the tube is strikingly different for a diverging and a converging tube, when Γ is sufficiently large. Here, ɛ is the Blasius parameter for slowly varying tubes and ā0 and W denote a reference radius and velocity, respectively. When the tube is diverging, a bubble of recirculating fluid, centered on the axis can occur. This bubble satisfies the definitions of vortex breakdown. When the tube is converging, a toroid of recirculating fluid can occur adjacent to the wall of the tube. Streamlines for each of these cases have been presented [D. A. MacDonald, Phys. Fluids 12, 3168 (2000)]. In this article we shall determine Γ0, the lowest value of Γ for which the toroid will occur, and t¯0, the corresponding instant of time at which it first appears in converging tubes. The wall shear stress is shown to become of large magnitude and graphs of its behavior with x¯/L, where L is a representative length in the axial direction, are presented, when νt¯/ā02=0.1, for representative wall profiles. It is found that incipient flow reversal at the walls of the converging tube ā=(ā0/2)[3-tanh(x¯/L)] occurs at x¯/L=-0.5750, and the critical swirl and the time of occurrence are determined. A figure showing the wall stress against axial distance is also presented for a typical diverging tube when t≡t¯ν/ā02=0.1.

  13. Effect of angular velocity on soleus and medial gastrocnemius H-reflex during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Robbe, Alice; Pousson, Michel; Martin, Alain

    2009-10-01

    At rest, the H-reflex is lower during lengthening than shortening actions. During passive lengthening, both soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) H-reflex amplitudes decrease with increasing angular velocity. This study was designed to investigate whether H-reflex amplitude is affected by angular velocity during concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Experiments were performed on nine healthy men. At a constant angular velocity of 60 degrees /s and 20 degrees /s, maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during concentric and eccentric MVC (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). Regardless of the muscle, H(max)/M(max) was lower during lengthening than shortening actions and the H(sup)/M(sup) ratio was higher than H(max)/M(max) during lengthening actions. Whereas no action type and angular velocity effects on the MG H(sup)/M(sup) were found, the SOL H(sup)/M(sup) was lower during eccentric than concentric MVC and this depression was increased with higher angular velocity. Our findings indicate that the depression of the H-reflex amplitude during eccentric compared to concentric MVC depends mainly on the amount of inhibition induced by lengthening action. In conclusion, H-reflex should be evoked during both passive and active dynamic trials to evaluate the plasticity of the spinal loop. PMID:18555699

  14. Calibration of the head direction network: a role for symmetric angular head velocity cells.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Peter; Wyeth, Gordon; Wiles, Janet

    2010-06-01

    Continuous attractor networks require calibration. Computational models of the head direction (HD) system of the rat usually assume that the connections that maintain HD neuron activity are pre-wired and static. Ongoing activity in these models relies on precise continuous attractor dynamics. It is currently unknown how such connections could be so precisely wired, and how accurate calibration is maintained in the face of ongoing noise and perturbation. Our adaptive attractor model of the HD system that uses symmetric angular head velocity (AHV) cells as a training signal shows that the HD system can learn to support stable firing patterns from poorly-performing, unstable starting conditions. The proposed calibration mechanism suggests a requirement for symmetric AHV cells, the existence of which has previously been unexplained, and predicts that symmetric and asymmetric AHV cells should be distinctly different (in morphology, synaptic targets and/or methods of action on postsynaptic HD cells) due to their distinctly different functions. PMID:20354898

  15. A nonlinear estimator for reconstructing the angular velocity of a spacecraft without rate gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.; Lightsey, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    A scheme for estimating the angular velocity of a spacecraft without rate gyros is presented. It is based upon a nonlinear estimator whose inputs are measured inertial vectors and their calculated time derivatives relative to vehicle axes. It works for all spacecraft attitudes and requires no knowledge of attitude. It can use measurements from a variety of onboard sensors like Sun sensors, star trackers, or magnetometers, and in concert. It can also use look angle measurements from onboard tracking antennas for tracking and data relay satellites or global positioning system satellites. In this paper, it is applied to a Sun point scheme on the Hubble Space Telescope assuming all or most of its onboard rate gyros have failed. Simulation results are presented for verification.

  16. Angular velocity variations and stability of spatially explicit prey-predator systems.

    PubMed

    Abta, Refael; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2007-05-01

    The linear instability of Lotka-Volterra orbits in the homogenous manifold of a two-patch system is analyzed. The origin of these orbits instability in the absence of prey migration is revealed to be the dependence of the angular velocity on the azimuthal angle; in particular, the system desynchronizes at the exit from the slow part of the trajectory. Using this insight, an analogous model of a two coupled oscillator is presented and shown to yield the same type of linear instability. This enables one to incorporate the linear instability within a recently presented general framework that allows for comparison of all known stabilization mechanisms and for simple classification of observed oscillations. PMID:17677105

  17. Three-dimensional organization of otolith-ocular reflexes in rhesus monkeys. II. Inertial detection of angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The dynamic contribution of otolith signals to three-dimensional angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) was studied during off-vertical axis rotations in rhesus monkeys. In an attempt to separate response components to head velocity from those to head position relative to gravity during low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, large oscillation amplitudes were chosen such that peak-to-peak head displacements exceeded 360 degrees. Because the waveforms of head position and velocity differed in shape and frequency content, the particular head position and angular velocity sensitivity of otolith-ocular responses could be independently assessed. 2. During both constant velocity rotation and low-frequency sinusoidal oscillations, the otolith system generated two different types of oculomotor responses: 1) modulation of three-dimensional eye position and/or eye velocity as a function of head position relative to gravity, as presented in the preceding paper, and 2) slow-phase eye velocity as a function of head angular velocity. These two types of otolith-ocular responses have been analyzed separately. In this paper we focus on the angular velocity responses of the otolith system. 3. During constant velocity off-vertical axis rotations, a steady-state nystagmus was elicited that was maintained throughout rotation. During low-frequency sinusoidal off-vertical axis oscillations, dynamic otolith stimulation resulted primarily in a reduction of phase leads that characterize low-frequency VOR during earth-vertical axis rotations. Both of these effects are the result of an internally generated head angular velocity signal of otolithic origin that is coupled through a low-pass filter to the VOR. No change in either VOR gain or phase was observed at stimulus frequencies larger than 0.1 Hz. 4. The dynamic otolith contribution to low-frequency angular VOR exhibited three-dimensional response characteristics with some quantitative differences in the different response components. For

  18. Maximal dynamic grip force and wrist torque: the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity, and wrist angle.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jonathan L; Jung, Myung-Chul; Bashford, Gregory R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender, exertion direction, angular velocity and wrist angle on simultaneous grip force and wrist torque under the isokinetic condition. The study used 20 participants (10 males and 10 females) and included 6 angular velocities (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees /s) and 2 wrist exertion directions (flexion and extension) over the wrist range of motion of 70 degrees flexion to 60 degrees extension in 5 degrees increments. Similar to other studies, males and flexion exertion produced larger forces than females and extension exertion, respectively. However, the largest forces were generated at near extreme flexion of the wrist and the dependent variable of angular velocity was not practically significant. These results can contribute to the evaluation of cumulative trauma syndromes, but there is a need for more research on the dynamic measures of the hand and wrist complex and for standard development for dynamic force measurement. PMID:16442072

  19. Investigations of an integrated angular velocity measurement and attitude control system for spacecraft using magnetically suspended double-gimbal CMGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiqiang; Han, Bangcheng

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated angular velocity measurement and attitude control system of spacecraft using magnetically suspended double-gimbal control moment gyros (MSDGCMGs). The high speed rotor of MSDGCMG is alleviated by a five-degree-of-freedom permanent magnet biased AMB control system. With this special rotor supported manner, the MSDGCMG has the function of attitude rate sensing as well as attitude control. This characteristic provides a new approach to a compact light-weight spacecraft design, which can combine these two functions into a single device. This paper discusses the principles and implementations of AMB-based angular velocity measurement. Spacecraft dynamics with DGMSCMG actuators, including the dynamics of magnetically suspended high-speed rotor, the dynamics of inner gimbal and outer gimbal, as well as the determination method of spacecraft angular velocity are modeled, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed integrated system is also validated numerically and experimentally.

  20. Closed formulae to determine the angular velocity of a body-segment based on 3D measurements.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, L; Béda, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper suggests a simple method to determine the global coordinates of the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of a body segment determined by the coordinates of minimum three markers. There are commonly used calculations for the angular quantities basing on the "hypothesis" of planar motion. The usage of approximate methods can result in quantitative and qualitative errors that may completely disort the reality. The method mentioned here is theoretically absolutely correct and can be well used for smoothing noisy data. PMID:11811842

  1. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassett, J. P.; Taube, J. S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal.

  2. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J P; Taube, J S

    2001-08-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal. PMID:11466446

  3. Detecting absolute human knee angle and angular velocity using accelerometers and rate gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R; Andrews, B J

    2001-05-01

    Knee joint angle and angular velocity were calculated in real time during standing up and sitting down. Two small modules comprising rate gyroscopes and accelerometers were attached to the thigh and shank of two able-bodied volunteers and one T5 ASIA(A) paraplegic assisted by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The offset and drift of the rate gyroscopes was compensated for by auto-resetting and auto-nulling algorithms. The tilt of the limb segments was calculated by combining the signals of the accelerometer and the rate gyroscope. The joint angle was calculated as the difference in tilt of the segments. The modules were also tested on a two-dimensional model. The mean differences between the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system and the reference goniometer for the model, able-bodied and paraplegic standing trials were 2.1 degrees, 2.4 degrees and 2.3 degrees respectively for knee angle and 2.3 degrees s(-1), 5.0 degrees s(-1) and 11.8 degrees s(-1) respectively for knee velocity. The rate gyroscope-accelerometer system was more accurate than using the accelerometer as a tilt meter, possibly due to the greater bandwidth of the rate gyroscope-accelerometer system. PMID:11465883

  4. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  5. Angular velocity: a new method to improve prediction of ventricular fibrillation duration.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lawrence D; Flagg, Aron; Callaway, Clifton W; Menegazzi, James J; Hsieh, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a leading cause of sudden death. Electrical defibrillation is the primary modality of treatment, but evidence is accumulating that its use in the late stage of VF prior to providing ventilation, chest compressions and the administration of appropriate medication is detrimental. In VF of <5 min duration a 'shock first' strategy is effective. In VF of 5> min duration a 'perfuse first' approach is more effective. Because of the difficulty in determining the duration of VF in the clinical setting we have sought to develop method which analyze 5 s intervals of VF waveform and quickly provide an estimate of duration. Such methods would be useful in directing clinical interventions. Using methods of nonlinear dynamics and fractal geometry we have previously derived a quantitative measure of VF duration, namely the scaling exponent (ScE). In this study we report on a novel method also based on nonlinear dynamics, the angular velocity (AV). By constructing a flat, circular disk-shaped structure in a three-dimensional phase space and measuring the velocity of rotation of the position vector over time, a statistic is developed which rises from 58 rad/s at 1 min to 79 rad/s at 4 min and then decreases in a linear manner to 32 rad/s at 12.5 min. Using ScE and AV probability density estimated, VF of <5 min duration can be identified with 90% sensitivity on the basis of a single 5 s recording of the waveform. The combination of ScE and AV can be used in developing strategies for the treatment of VF during the different clinical phases of VF. PMID:15002486

  6. Azimuthal velocity profiles in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow and implied axial angular momentum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsiek, Freja; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-07-01

    We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor-Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of $\\eta = 0.716$, an aspect-ratio of $\\Gamma = 11.74$, and the plates closing the cylinders in the axial direction are attached to the outer cylinder. We investigate angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. The regime is linearly stable and is characterized by radially increasing specific angular momentum. We present several Rayleigh-stable profiles for shear Reynolds numbers $Re_S \\sim O(10^5) \\,$, both for $\\Omega_i > \\Omega_o > 0$ (quasi-Keplerian regime) and $\\Omega_o > \\Omega_i > 0$ (sub-rotating regime) where $\\Omega_{i,o}$ is the inner/outer cylinder rotation rate. None of the velocity profiles matches the non-vortical laminar Taylor-Couette profile. The deviation from that profile increased as solid-body rotation is approached at fixed $Re_S$. Flow super-rotation, an angular velocity greater than that of both cylinders, is observed in the sub-rotating regime. The velocity profiles give lower bounds for the torques required to rotate the inner cylinder that were larger than the torques for the case of laminar Taylor-Couette flow. The quasi-Keplerian profiles are composed of a well mixed inner region, having approximately constant angular momentum, connected to an outer region in solid-body rotation with the outer cylinder and attached axial boundaries. These regions suggest that the angular momentum is transported axially to the axial boundaries. Therefore, Taylor-Couette flow with closing plates attached to the outer cylinder is an imperfect model for accretion disk flows, especially with regard to their stability.

  7. Energetics of a Kerr blackhole in electromagnetic fields Role of the relative angular velocity of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Dhurandhar, S. V.; Dadhich, N.

    1985-06-01

    The authors consider a rotating black hole in an external dipole magnetic field. By defining the relative angular velocity parameter Ω they analyse the various contributions due to electromagnetic fields and rotation to the effective potential. It turns out that the magnetic field contribution is in general related to Ω. An interesting case of prescribing the orbit for a locally nonrotating observer (LNRO) by a particle of appropriate charge and angular momentum parameters is considered. For such an orbit Ω = 0, stationarity is built in and is ensured by the Lorentz force in contrast to the usual LNRO orbit where it has to be maintained by externally providing proper outward radial acceleration.

  8. High-Velocity Angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation to Position Error Signals

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Matthew; Schubert, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vestibular rehabilitation strategies including gaze stabilization exercises have been shown to increase gain of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) using a retinal slip error signal (ES). The identification of additional ESs capable of promoting substitution strategies or aVOR adaptation is an important goal in the management of vestibular hypofunction. Position ESs have been shown to increase both aVOR gain and recruitment of compensatory saccades (CSs) during passive whole body rotation. This may be a useful compensatory strategy for gaze instability during active head rotation as well. In vestibular rehabilitation, the imaginary target exercise is often prescribed to improve gaze stability. This exercise uses a position ES; however, the mechanism for its effect has not been investigated. We compared aVOR gain adaptation using 2 types of small position ES: constant versus incremental. Methods Ten subjects with normal vestibular function were assessed with unpredictable and active head rotations before and after a 20-minute training session. Subjects performed 9 epochs of 40 active, high-velocity head impulses using a position ES stimulus to increase aVOR gain. Results Five subjects demonstrated significant aVOR gain increases with the constant-position ES (mean, 2%; range, −18% to 12%) compared with another 5 subjects showing significant aVOR gain increases to the incremental-position ES (mean, 3.7%; range, −2% to 22.6%). There was no difference in aVOR gain adaptation or CS recruitment between the 2 paradigms. Discussion and Conclusion These findings suggest that some subjects can increase their aVOR gain in response to high-velocity active head movement training using a position ES. The primary mechanism for this seems to be aVOR gain adaptation because CS use was not modified. The overall low change in aVOR gain adaptation with position ES suggests that retinal slip is a more powerful aVOR gain modifier. PMID:20588093

  9. Velocity spectra and angular distributions of evaporation residues from sup 32 S + sup 12 C at 145 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino', S.; Figuera, P.; Pirrone, S.; Porto, F.; Sambataro, S. )

    1991-11-01

    Velocity spectra and angular and mass distributions for the evaporation residues of the {sup 32}S+{sup 12}C system at {ital E}{sup 32}S=145 MeV in the angular range 3{degree}{le}{var theta}{sub {ital L}}{le}12{degree} have been measured. In order to separate compound nucleus evaporation residues from other heavy reaction products, a kinematic analysis based on simple statistical assumptions relative to the velocity spectra was performed. The structures in the mass distribution are compared with the LILITA code predictions. The fusion excitation function of the existing results is compared with theoretical models. The total reaction cross section has been extracted by means of the modified sum of differences method.

  10. ECG denoising using angular velocity as a state and an observation in an Extended Kalman Filter framework.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Mahsa; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian; Coppa, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an efficient filtering procedure based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) has been proposed. The method is based on a modified nonlinear dynamic model, previously introduced for the generation of synthetic ECG signals. The proposed method considers the angular velocity of ECG signal, as one of the states of an EKF. We have considered two cases for observation equations, in one case we have assumed a corresponding observation to angular velocity state and in the other case, we have not assumed any observations for it. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed algorithm on the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NSRDB) shows that an average SNR improvement of 8 dB is achieved for an input signal of -4 dB. PMID:23366530

  11. Microneurographically recorded Ia discharge from the tibial nerve mainly transmits the angular velocity of the ankle joint in humans.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Iwase, S; Mano, T; Fukuda, H; Mochida, J

    2004-08-01

    Investigations of the Ia afferent discharge in clarifying problems in disused and malused skeletal muscles have been carried out mainly in muscles of the upper extremities. However, such problems actually occur more frequently in the antigravity muscles of the lower extremities, such as the triceps surae muscle. An analysis of microneurographically recorded Ia discharges from the tibial nerve innervating the triceps surae muscle during dynamic movement of the ankle joint indicated that they mainly transmitted information on the angular velocity of the joint. However, the information on the position sense of the joint was not as well transmitted through Ia discharges. There was no correlation between the joint angle and the static response. However, the dynamic response of a Ia afferent was well correlated to the angular velocity. It is concluded that the human proprioception of the triceps surae muscle was not dependent on the position of the ankle joint, but largely on its movement by the stretching of the muscle. PMID:15631694

  12. Reference-free method for forming a three-dimensional image and determining the angular velocity of a remote object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrosov, V. I.

    2012-07-01

    We propose a reference-free method for forming a threedimensional image and for determining the angular velocity of a remote nonplanar object. The method is based on probing an object by laser radiation with a coherence length that is smaller or larger than the size of the object and on the use of a screen with radial holes in the centres of which photodetectors are located, the screen being mounted in the region of the flat image of the object. A threedimensional image of the object is constructed using the visibility of the interference fringes formed behind the screen due to radiation beams scattered by the object which pass through various pairs of holes (one of the holes is fixed). The three components of the angular velocity vector of the object are determined by the power spectrum of the electric signal produced during the movement of interference fringes on a photodetector mounted behind the screen.

  13. Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: the influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; De Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Koffes, Fabiana De Carvalho; Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52 males), were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The H/Q isokinetic peak torque ratios were calculated at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ and 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by gender, female soccer players produced lower H/Q peak torque ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than males involved in the same sport. However, when H/Q peak torque ratio was assessed at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹, there were no significant differences between the sexes. In the analysis by sport, there were no differences among females at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹. In contrast, male soccer players had significantly higher H/Q peak torque ratios than judokas (66 ± 12% vs. 57 ± 14%, respectively). Female handball players produced significantly lower peak torque ratios at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ than judokas or soccer players, whereas males presented no ratio differences among sports At 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by velocity, women's muscular ratios assessed at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ were significantly lower than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ for all sports; among men, only judokas presented lower ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. The present results suggest that sport modality and angular velocity influence the isokinetic strength profiles of men and women. PMID:22364375

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Radial Velocity Generation for Extending Bandwidth of Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor at Low Frequency.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yue; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth. PMID:26694393

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Radial Velocity Generation for Extending Bandwidth of Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor at Low Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yue; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS) has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth. PMID:26694393

  16. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used. PMID:20226465

  17. Inference of the angular velocity of plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere from the sweepback of magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1993-01-01

    The averaged angular velocity of plasma from magnetic observations is evaluated using plasma outflow rate as a parameter. New techniques are developed to calculate the normal and azimuthal components of the magnetic field in and near to the plasma sheet in a plasma sheet coordinate system. The revised field components differ substantially from the quantities used in previous analyses. With the revised field values, it appears that during the Voyager 2 flyby for an outflow rate of 2.5 x 10 exp 29 amu/s, the observed magnetic torque may be sufficient to keep the plasma in corotation to radial distances of 50 Rj in the postmidnight quadrant.

  18. Smooth-particle applied mechanics: Conservation of angular momentum with tensile stability and velocity averaging.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Wm G; Hoover, Carol G; Merritt, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    Smooth-particle applied mechanics (SPAM) provides several approaches to approximate solutions of the continuum equations for both fluids and solids. Though many of the usual formulations conserve mass, (linear) momentum, and energy, the angular momentum is typically not conserved by SPAM. A second difficulty with the usual formulations is that tensile stress states often exhibit an exponentially fast high-frequency short-wavelength instability, "tensile instability." We discuss these twin defects of SPAM and illustrate them for a rotating elastic body. We formulate ways to conserve angular momentum while at the same time delaying the symptoms of tensile instability for many sound-traversal times. These ideas should prove useful in more general situations. PMID:14995750

  19. Post-Glitch Relaxation of Pulsar Angular Velocity in the Context of an Inverse Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, M. V.; Baghdasaryan, D.

    2015-06-01

    The motion of the neutron-proton vortex system in neutron stars is examined taking pinning and depinning of the vortices into account. The relaxation solution of the equations for the dynamics of pulsar rotation after glitches is compared with observational data on the Vela pulsar. It is shown that the angular rotation relaxation parameters are related both to the appearance of a "density wave" of neutron vortices during a glitch and to features of the motion of the vortices between successive glitches.

  20. Correcting a Widespread Error concerning the Angular Velocity of a Rotating Rigid Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubner, C.

    1981-01-01

    Since many texts use an incorrect argument in obtaining the instantaneous velocity of a rotating body, a correct and concise derivation of this quantity for a rather general case is given. (Author/SK)

  1. Smearing model and restoration of star image under conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-03-10

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. High dynamic performance is becoming its major restriction, and requires immediate focus and promotion. A star image restoration approach based on the motion degradation model of variable angular velocity is proposed in this paper. This method can overcome the problem of energy dispersion and signal to noise ratio (SNR) decrease resulting from the smearing of the star spot, thus preventing failed extraction and decreased star centroid accuracy. Simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted to verify the proposed methods. The restoration results demonstrate that the described method can recover the star spot from a long motion trail to the shape of Gaussian distribution under the conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time. The energy of the star spot can be concentrated to ensure high SNR and high position accuracy. These features are crucial to the subsequent star extraction and the whole performance of the star tracker. PMID:24663937

  2. The comparative analysis of the Earth seismic activity and the variation of the Earth rotation angular velocity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2013-04-01

    It was shown [Levin, Sasorova 2012], that a cyclic increase and decrease of the seismic activity in different time intervals was observed in spatial-temporal distributions of the earthquakes (EQ) (1900-2012) with magnitude M≥7 in northwest part of the Pacific region. The spatial-temporal analysis revealed the periodic changing of the seismic activity and the depth distributions of the strong events in different time intervals. The Earth rotation angular velocity varies with time. Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of instability leads to small pulsations of the Earth surface. The Earth crust in polar areas is compressing with increasing of angular velocity of rotating planet, and it is extensible in the equator zone. The decreasing of rotation velocity leads to opposite result. The objectives of this work is the comparative spatial-temporal analysis of the seismicity regime variation (events with M>=7.0) on the whole Earth and in the Pacific region from 1900 up to date and the Earth rotation instability. The two subsets of the worldwide NEIC (USGS) catalog were used (USGS/NEIC from 1973 up to 2012 and Significant Worldwide Earthquakes (2150 B.C. - 1994 A.D.)). The preliminary standardization of magnitudes and removal of aftershocks was fulfilled for the first mentioned above subset of events. In both cases the entire range of observations was subdivided into several 5-year intervals. The temporal EQ distributions were calculated separately for six latitudinal intervals (belts): 45°-30°N, 30°-15°N, 15°-0°N, 0°-15°S, 15°-30°S, 30°-45°S. The high latitudes do not take in consideration because of very low seismic activity in these latitudes. Separately were analyzed: the EQs with M>=8 for time interval 1900-2012, and the EQs with M>=6 for time interval 1700-1900. The data base (http

  3. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR BEAM SURFACE SCATTERING APPARATUS FOR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ceyer, S. T.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-11-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalyticsurfacereactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a funcion of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D{sub 2}O on a Pt(lll) crystal surface are presented.

  4. Older men are more fatigable than young when matched for maximal power and knee extension angular velocity is unconstrained.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian H; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R; Rice, Charles L

    2015-06-01

    The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque-power relationships were constructed prior to and following both fatiguing tasks and during short-term recovery. Contractile properties were recorded from 9 old (~75 years) and 11 young (~25 years) men during three testing sessions. In the first session, maximal power was assessed, and sessions 2 and 3 involved an isokinetic or an isotonic concentric fatigue task performed until maximal power was reduced by 40 %. Compared with young, the older men performed the same number of contractions to task failure for the isokinetic task (~45 contractions), but 20 % fewer for the isotonic task (p < 0.05). Regardless of age and task, maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, angular velocity, and power were reduced by ~30, ~13, and ~25 %, respectively, immediately following task failure, and only isometric torque was not recovered fully by 10 min. In conclusion, older men are more fatigable than the young when performing a repetitive maximal dynamic task at a relative resistance (isotonic) but not an absolute velocity (isokinetic), corresponding to maximal power. PMID:25943700

  5. Glancing angle metal evaporation synthesis of catalytic swimming Janus colloids with well defined angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Archer, R J; Campbell, A I; Ebbens, S J

    2015-09-14

    The ability to control the degree of spin, or rotational velocity, for catalytic swimming devices opens up the potential to access well defined spiralling trajectories, enhance cargo binding rate, and realise theoretically proposed behaviour such as chiral diffusion. Here we assess the potential to impart a well-defined spin to individual catalytic Janus swimmers by using glancing angle metal evaporation onto a colloidal crystal to break the symmetry of the catalytic patch due to shadowing by neighbouring colloids. Using this approach we demonstrate a well-defined relationship between the glancing angle and the ratio of rotational to translational velocity. This allows batches of colloids with well-defined spin rates in the range 0.25 to 2.5 Hz to be produced. With reference to the shape and thickness variations across the catalytically active shapes, and their propulsion mechanism we discuss the factors that can lead to the observed variations in rotational propulsion. PMID:26234424

  6. The angular velocity of Nubia relative to Somalia and the location of the Nubia-Somalia-Antarctica triple junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner-Johnson, Benjamin C.; Gordon, Richard G.; Cowles, Sara M.; Argus, Donald F.

    2005-07-01

    A new analysis of geologically current plate motion across the Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) and of the current location of the Nubia-Antarctica-Somalia triple junction is presented. Spreading rates averaged over the past 3.2 Myr are estimated from 103 well-distributed, nearly ridge-perpendicular profiles that cross the SWIR. All available bathymetric data are evaluated to estimate the azimuths and uncertainties of transform faults; six are estimated from multibeam data and 12 from precision depth recorder (PDR) data. If both the Nubian and Somalian component plates are internally rigid near the SWIR and if the Nubia-Somalia boundary is narrow where it intersects the SWIR, that intersection lies between ~26°E and ~32°E. Thus, the boundary is either along the spreading ridge segment just west of the Andrew Bain transform fault complex (ABTFC) or along some of the transform fault complex itself. These limits are narrower than and contained within limits of ~24°E to ~33°E previously found by Lemaux et al. from an analysis of the locations of magnetic anomaly 5. The data are consistent with a narrow boundary, but also consistent with a diffuse boundary as wide as ~700 km. The new Nubia-Somalia pole of rotation lies ~10° north of the Bouvet triple junction, which places it far to the southwest of southern Africa. The new angular velocity determined only from data along the SWIR indicates displacement rates of Somalia relative to Nubia of 3.6 +/- 0.5 mm yr-1 (95 per cent confidence limits) towards 176° (S04° E) between Somalia and Nubia near the SWIR, and of 8.3 +/- 1.9 mm yr-1 (95 per cent confidence limits) towards 121° (S59° E) near Afar. The new Nubia-Somalia angular velocity differs significantly from the Nubia-Somalia angular velocity estimated from Gulf of Aden and Red sea data. This significant difference has three main alternative explanations: (i) that the plate motion data have substantial unmodelled systematic errors, (ii) that the Nubian component

  7. An equatorial solar wind model with angular momentum conservation and nonradial magnetic fields and flow velocities at an inner boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnim, S.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-06-01

    An analytic, self-consistent, theoretical model for the solar wind is developed that generalizes previous models to include all of the following: conservation of angular momentum, frozen-in magnetic fields, both radial (r) and azimuthal (ϕ) components of the magnetic field (Br and Bϕ) and velocity (vr and vϕ) from the inner boundary rs to 1 AU, and the detailed tracing back of observations at 1 AU to the inner boundary and all intervening (r,ϕ). The new model applies near the solar equatorial plane, assumes constant radial wind speed at each heliolongitude, and enforces corotation at the inner boundary. It is shown that the new theoretical model can be reduced to the previous models in the appropriate limits. We apply the model to two solar rotations of Wind spacecraft data, one near solar minimum (1-27 August 2010) and one near solar maximum (1-27 July 2002). The model analytically predicts the Alfvénic critical radius ra from the radial Alfvénic Mach number observed at 1 AU. Typically, the values are less than 15 solar radii, in agreement with some recent observations, and vary with longitude. Values of vϕ(r,ϕ) are predicted from the model, being always in the sense of corotation but varying in magnitude with r and ϕ. Reasonable and self-consistent results are found for Br(r,ϕ), Bϕ(r,ϕ), vϕ(r,ϕ), and n(r,ϕ) from rs to 1 AU. Both the azimuthal and radial magnetic fields at rs vary with time by more than an order of magnitude and usually |Br(rs,ϕs)|≥|Bϕ(rs,ϕs)|. Typically, though not always, magnetic contributions to the total angular momentum are small. Interestingly, however, the azimuthal flow velocities observed at 1 AU are not always in the corotation direction and usually have much larger magnitudes than predicted by the model. Conservation of angular momentum alone cannot explain these azimuthal velocities and the standard interpretation involving stream-stream interactions and dynamical behavior seems reasonable. Issues regarding the

  8. Angular and Frequency-Dependent Wave Velocity and Attenuation in Fractured Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Gurevich, Boris; Santos, Juan E.; Picotti, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow generates a dominant attenuation mechanism in porous media. It consists of energy loss due to P-wave conversion to Biot (diffusive) modes at mesoscopic-scale inhomogeneities. Fractured poroelastic media show significant attenuation and velocity dispersion due to this mechanism. The theory has first been developed for the symmetry axis of the equivalent transversely isotropic (TI) medium corresponding to a poroelastic medium containing planar fractures. In this work, we consider the theory for all propagation angles by obtaining the five complex and frequency-dependent stiffnesses of the equivalent TI medium as a function of frequency. We assume that the flow direction is perpendicular to the layering plane and is independent of the loading direction. As a consequence, the behaviour of the medium can be described by a single relaxation function. We first consider the limiting case of an open (highly permeable) fracture of negligible thickness. We then compute the associated wave velocities and quality factors as a function of the propagation direction (phase and ray angles) and frequency. The location of the relaxation peak depends on the distance between fractures (the mesoscopic distance), viscosity, permeability and fractures compliances. The flow induced by wave propagation affects the quasi-shear (qS) wave with levels of attenuation similar to those of the quasi-compressional (qP) wave. On the other hand, a general fracture can be modeled as a sequence of poroelastic layers, where one of the layers is very thin. Modeling fractures of different thickness filled with CO2 embedded in a background medium saturated with a stiffer fluid also shows considerable attenuation and velocity dispersion. If the fracture and background frames are the same, the equivalent medium is isotropic, but strong wave anisotropy occurs in the case of a frameless and highly permeable fracture material, for instance a suspension of solid particles in the fluid.

  9. High-Q microsphere resonators for angular velocity sensing in gyroscopes

    SciTech Connect

    An, Panlong; Zheng, Yongqiu; Yan, Shubin Xue, Chenyang Liu, Jun; Wang, Wanjun

    2015-02-09

    A resonator gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect is proposed using a core unit that is generated by water-hydrogen flame melting. The relationship between the quality factor Q and diameter D is revealed. The Q factor of the spectral lines of the microsphere cavity coupling system, which uses tapered fibers, is found to be 10{sup 6} or more before packaging with a low refractive curable ultraviolet polymer, although it drops to approximately 10{sup 5} after packaging. In addition, a rotating test platform is built, and the transmission spectrum and discriminator curves of a microsphere cavity with Q of 3.22×10{sup 6} are measured using a semiconductor laser (linewidth less than 1 kHz) and a real-time proportional-integral circuit tracking and feedback technique. Equations fitting the relation between the voltage and angular rotation rate are obtained. According to the experimentally measured parameters, the sensitivity of the microsphere-coupled system can reach 0.095{sup ∘}/s.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. The development includes an analysis of the estimator stability given errors in the measured attitude. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given, including scenarios with erroneous measured attitudes. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a non-linear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) attitude and rates are necessary to achieve the capture of HST by the Hubble Robotic Vehicle (HRV). The attitude and rates must be determined without the HST gyros or HST attitude estimates. The HRV will be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is based on more traditional Extended Kalman filter techniques. Simulation test results for both methods are given.

  13. High-Q microsphere resonators for angular velocity sensing in gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Panlong; Zheng, Yongqiu; Yan, Shubin; Xue, Chenyang; Wang, Wanjun; Liu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    A resonator gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect is proposed using a core unit that is generated by water-hydrogen flame melting. The relationship between the quality factor Q and diameter D is revealed. The Q factor of the spectral lines of the microsphere cavity coupling system, which uses tapered fibers, is found to be 106 or more before packaging with a low refractive curable ultraviolet polymer, although it drops to approximately 105 after packaging. In addition, a rotating test platform is built, and the transmission spectrum and discriminator curves of a microsphere cavity with Q of 3.22 ×106 are measured using a semiconductor laser (linewidth less than 1 kHz) and a real-time proportional-integral circuit tracking and feedback technique. Equations fitting the relation between the voltage and angular rotation rate are obtained. According to the experimentally measured parameters, the sensitivity of the microsphere-coupled system can reach 0.095∘/s .

  14. Evaluation system for minor nervous dysfunction by pronation and supination of forearm using wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensors.

    PubMed

    Iramina, Keiji; Kamei, Yuuichiro; Katayama, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    We developed a simple, portable and easy system to the motion of pronation and supination of the forearm. This motion was measured by wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensor. The aim of this system is evaluation of minor nervous dysfunction. It is for the screening of the developmental disorder child. In this study, in order to confirm the effectiveness of this system, the reference curve of the neuromotor development was experimentally obtained. We studied 212 participants (108 males, 104 females) aged 7 to 12 years attending the kindergarten school. We could obtain the reference curve of the neuromotor development using this system. We also investigated the difference of neuromotor function between normally developed children and a ADHD child. There is a possibility that abnormality of the minor nervous dysfunction can be detected by using this system. PMID:22256040

  15. Angular velocity and head direction signals recorded from the dorsal tegmental nucleus of gudden in the rat: implications for path integration in the head direction cell circuit.

    PubMed

    Sharp, P E; Tinkelman, A; Cho, J

    2001-06-01

    When a rat navigates through space, head direction (HD) cells provide an ongoing signal of the rat's directional heading. It is thought that these cells rely, in part, on angular path integration of the rat's head movements. This integration requires that the HD cell system receive information about angular head movements and that this information be combined with the current directional signal, to generate the next "predicted" direction. Recent data suggest that the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN) may play a critical role in helping to generate the HD cell signal. To test this, recordings were made from cells in the DTN in freely moving rats. The following cell types were found: (a) "classic" HD cells, (b) angular velocity cells, and (c) cells that fired as a function of both head direction and angular velocity. Thus, DTN cells exhibit firing characteristics that are critical to the neural circuit hypothesized for generation of the HD cell signal. PMID:11439447

  16. Knee muscle strength at varying angular velocities and associations with gross motor function in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n=17) or level II (n=16) according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels. All children underwent curl-up test and isokinetic tests of the knee extensor and flexor muscle. Children with CP underwent the gross motor function assessments, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and the gross motor subtests of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The hamstring-quadriceps ratio (HQ ratio) was calculated as 100%×(isokinetic peak torque of hamstring (knee flexor)/isokinetic peak torque of quadriceps (knee extensor)). Children with GMFCS level II had lower BOTMP and GMFM-66 scores, curl-up scores, HQ ratio, and knee muscle strength, especially knee flexor, compared to those with GMFCS level I. The regression analysis showed that knee flexor torques at 60 and 90°/s are mainly related to balance (r(2)=0.167, p=0.011) and strength (r(2)=0.243, p=0.002) while knee flexor torques at 120°/s mainly contribute to running speed and agility (r(2)=0.372, p<0.001). These findings suggest that children with CP had knee strength deficits, especially knee flexor. Postural muscle (knee flexor) strength dominated gross motor function than antigravity muscle strength (knee extensor). The knee flexor strength at different angular velocities was associated with various gross motor tasks. The HQ ratio may be used as a potential biomarker to probe the therapeutic effectiveness for muscle strengthening in these children. These data may allow clinician for formulating effective muscle strengthening strategies for these children. PMID:22853889

  17. A modeling and computer simulation approach to determine optimal lower extremity joint angular velocities based on a criterion to maximize individual muscle power.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D

    1994-03-01

    A computer program was developed in conjunction with a musculoskeletal modeling scheme to determine lower extremity joint angular velocity profiles which allow specific muscles, if activated tetanically, to generate their greatest power. As input the program requires subject anthropometric and joint configuration data. Muscle-tendon (MT) attachment location data and a straight line MT model are used to calculate MT lengths for each joint configuration. The shortening velocity which allows an active muscle to generate its greatest power is calculated based on muscle architecture and a relationship between power and shortening velocity. A finite difference technique is used to calculate the time between sequential joint configurations which will produce the optimal muscle shortening velocity. This time is then used to calculate optimal joint angular velocities for each muscle and and for each joint configuration. The utility of this program is demonstrated by calculating optimal joint angular velocities for fifteen muscles and comparing calculated knee extension velocities with experimental results cited in the literature. PMID:8062553

  18. Determining whether a ball will land behind or in front of you: not just a combination of expansion and angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; López-Moliner, Joan; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2006-02-01

    We propose and evaluate a source of information that ball catchers may use to determine whether a ball will land behind or in front of them. It combines estimates for the ball's horizontal and vertical speed. These estimates are based, respectively, on the rate of angular expansion and vertical velocity. Our variable could account for ball catchers' data of Oudejans et al. [The effects of baseball experience on movement initiation in catching fly balls. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 587-595], but those data could also be explained by the use of angular expansion alone. We therefore conducted additional experiments in which we asked subjects where simulated balls would land under conditions in which both angular expansion and vertical velocity must be combined for obtaining a correct response. Subjects made systematic errors. We found evidence for the use of angular velocity but hardly any indication for the use of angular expansion. Thus, if catchers use a strategy that involves combining vertical and horizontal estimates of the ball's speed, they do not obtain their estimates of the horizontal component from the rate of expansion alone. PMID:16271742

  19. Angular and velocity distributions of secondary particles emitted in interaction of 3. 6-GeV/nucleon. cap alpha. particles and lead nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Galitskii, V.M.; Grigor'yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Kuz'min, E.A.; Man'ko, V.I.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Paramonov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1980-04-01

    The technique is described and results presented of measurements of the velocity and angular distributions of pions, protons, and deuterons, and tritons emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.6 GeV/nucleon.

  20. Effects of eccentric training on torque-angular velocity-power characteristics of elbow flexor muscles in older women.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Rouji, M; Pousson, M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of eccentric training to improve elbow flexor muscle power in elderly subjects. Fourteen older female volunteers (age range 60-78 years) were randomly assigned into either a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). For the TG, the 21-session 7-week eccentric training program consisted of 5x6 eccentric muscle actions at 60-100% of concentric three maximal repetitions. Before and after training, maximal elbow flexions were performed against increasing inertia. Maximal isokinetic elbow flexions at four angular velocities (eccentric actions, -60 degrees s(-1), -30 degrees rads(-1); concentric actions, 30, 60 degrees s(-1)) and maximal isometric actions were also performed. Maximal power (Pmax) and an index of maximal shortening velocity (VImax)were determined. For all action conditions, the myoelectric activities of the biceps and the triceps brachii muscles were recorded and quantified as a root mean square (RMS) value. In the TG, maximal torque developed under isometric, isokinetic and inertial conditions increased significantly after training (ranging from 11 to 19%). Pmax and VImax also increased significantly (31.3 and 25.9%, respectively). These parameters remained unchanged in the CG. The RMS activity of the biceps and triceps muscles was not affected by eccentric training for all action conditions excepting the eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the RMS activity of the biceps increased significantly. The gains in maximal torque, Pmax and VImax observed after training would result more from intramuscular modifications than from changes in muscular activity, except for eccentric condition at -30 degrees s(-1) where the torque gains could also be partly explained by a reduction in inhibition of the motor unit pool. PMID:15036395

  1. Maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity: model development and application to the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of human strength can be important during analyses of physical activities. Such measurements have often taken the form of the maximum voluntary torque at a single joint angle and angular velocity. However, the available strength varies substantially with joint position and velocity. When examining dynamic activities, strength measurements should account for these variations. A model is presented of maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity. The model is based on well-known physiological relationships between muscle force and length and between muscle force and velocity and was tested by fitting it to maximum voluntary joint torque data from six different exertions in the lower limb. Isometric, concentric and eccentric maximum voluntary contractions were collected during hip extension, hip flexion, knee extension, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Model parameters are reported for each of these exertion directions by gender and age group. This model provides an efficient method by which strength variations with joint angle and angular velocity may be incorporated into comparisons between joint torques calculated by inverse dynamics and the maximum available joint torques. PMID:17485097

  2. Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR)

    PubMed Central

    Naqui, Jordi; Coromina, Jan; Karami-Horestani, Ali; Fumeaux, Christophe; Martín, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range. PMID:25915590

  3. Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Coplanar Waveguides (CPWs) Loaded with S-Shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRR).

    PubMed

    Naqui, Jordi; Coromina, Jan; Karami-Horestani, Ali; Fumeaux, Christophe; Martín, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, angular displacement and angular velocity sensors based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines and S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs) are presented. The sensor consists of two parts, namely a CPW and an S-SRR, both lying on parallel planes. By this means, line-to-resonator magnetic coupling arises, the coupling level being dependent on the line-to-resonator relative angular orientation. The line-to-resonator coupling level is the key parameter responsible for modulating the amplitude of the frequency response seen between the CPW ports in the vicinity of the S-SRR fundamental resonance frequency. Specifically, an amplitude notch that can be visualized in the transmission coefficient is changed by the coupling strength, and it is characterized as the sensing variable. Thus, the relative angular orientation between the two parts is measured, when the S-SRR is attached to a rotating object. It follows that the rotation angle and speed can be inferred either by measuring the frequency response of the S-SRR-loaded line, or the response amplitude at a fixed frequency in the vicinity of resonance. It is in addition shown that the angular velocity can be accurately determined from the time-domain response of a carrier time-harmonic signal tuned at the S-SRR resonance frequency. The main advantage of the proposed device is its small size directly related to the small electrical size of the S-SRR, which allows for the design of compact angular displacement and velocity sensors at low frequencies. Despite the small size of the fabricated proof-of-concept prototype (electrically small structures do not usually reject signals efficiently), it exhibits good linearity (on a logarithmic scale), sensitivity and dynamic range. PMID:25915590

  4. Estimations of relative effort during sit-to-stand increase when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare three methods of determining relative effort during sit-to-stand (STS). Fourteen young (mean 19.6+/-SD 1.2 years old) and 17 older (61.7+/-5.5 years old) adults completed six STS trials at three speeds: slow, normal, and fast. Sagittal plane joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated through inverse dynamics. Isometric and isokinetic maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) for the hip, knee, and ankle were collected and used for model parameters to predict the participant-specific maximum voluntary joint torque. Three different measures of relative effort were determined by normalizing STS joint torques to three different estimates of maximum voluntary torque. Relative effort at the hip, knee, and ankle were higher when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity (hip=26.3+/-13.5%, knee=78.4+/-32.2%, ankle=27.9+/-14.1%) compared to methods which do not account for these variations (hip=23.5+/-11.7%, knee=51.7+/-15.0%, ankle=20.7+/-10.4%). At higher velocities, the difference in calculating relative effort with respect to isometric MVC or incorporating joint angle and angular velocity became more evident. Estimates of relative effort that account for the variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity may provide higher levels of accuracy compared to methods based on measurements of maximal isometric torques. PMID:17720539

  5. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  6. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  7. Synthesis of a correcting filter with phase stabilization of the angular velocity of a synchronous motor by the feedback system method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazlauskas, K. A.; Kurlavichus, A. I.

    1973-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a synchronous electric motor are discussed. A system of phase stabilization of the instantaneous angular velocity of rotation of a synchronous-reaction motor is diagrammed. A mathematical model is developed to show the parameters which affect the operation of the motor. The selection of a correcting filter to use with the motor in order to reduce the reaction of the system to interference is explained.

  8. Two-photon state selection and angular momentum polarization probed by velocity map imaging: application to H atom photofragment angular distributions from the photodissociation of two-photon state selected HCl and HBr.

    PubMed

    Manzhos, Sergei; Romanescu, Constantin; Loock, Hans-Peter; Underwood, Jonathan G

    2004-12-15

    A formalism for calculating the angular momentum polarization of an atom or a molecule following two-photon excitation of a J-selected state is presented. This formalism is used to interpret the H atom photofragment angular distributions from single-photon dissociation of two-photon rovibronically state selected HCl and HBr prepared via a Q-branch transition. By comparison of the angular distributions measured using the velocity map imaging technique with the theoretical model it is shown that single-photon dissociation of two-photon prepared states can be used for pathway identification, allowing for the identification of the virtual state symmetry in the two-photon absorption and/or the symmetry of the dissociative state. It is also shown that under conditions of excitation with circularly polarized light, or for excitation via non-Q-branch transitions with linearly polarized light the angular momentum polarization is independent of the dynamics of the two-photon transition and analytically computable. PMID:15634144

  9. Extreme-mass-ratio inspiral corrections to the angular velocity and redshift factor of a mass in circular orbit about a Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Abhay G.; Friedman, John L.; Keidl, Tobias S.

    2012-10-01

    This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle of mass m moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity H≔(1)/(2)hαβuαuβ, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; here, hαβ is the metric perturbation, uα the particle’s 4-velocity. We find the related order m correction to the particle’s angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity), each of which can be written in terms of H. The radiative part of the metric perturbation is constructed from a Hertz potential that is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion T. S. Keidl , Phys. Rev. D 82, 124012 (2010). We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics Yℓms and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in L=ℓ+1/2 to the large-L behavior of the expression for H. The nonradiative parts of the perturbed metric associated with changes in mass and angular momentum are calculated in the Kerr gauge.

  10. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Matthew R.; Shelhamer, Mark J.; Schubert, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways—any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs. PMID:21113582

  11. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew R; Shelhamer, Mark J; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-02-01

    Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways-any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. Significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs. PMID

  12. Measurement and analysis of instantaneous torque and angular velocity variations of a low speed two stroke diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Espadafor, Francisco J.; A. Becerra Villanueva, José; Palomo Guerrero, Daniel; Torres García, Miguel; Carvajal Trujillo, Elisa; Fernández Vacas, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the potential of using direct measurement of engine torque for diagnostic purposes in large engines - in this case applied to power generation. The procedures for measuring and analyzing the instantaneous torque, the angular displacement on the generator output end and the angular displacement on its free end for a ten-cylinder, low speed two stroke diesel engine are presented. Angular speed oscillations are frequently used for combustion engine diagnostics although they cannot be used to measure engine power directly. In addition, and for engines with huge inertia generators such as those used in power plants, speed oscillations are very low and this reduces the signal to noise ratio and makes the evaluation of the instantaneous angular speed very noisy. In the work described here, torque and angular displacement measurements carried out at the same point and with the same engine conditions are compared and the superior performance of torque is demonstrated. Harmonic analysis of instantaneous torque allowed the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the power train of the diesel group and clearly suggests that this signal can be used as a diagnostic tool for excitation, combustion malfunctions, or for the mechanical characteristics of the system and crankshaft stiffness. The torque distortion introduced by the generator due to the discontinuity imposed by the pole pairs is also observed in the torque signal, suggesting that the torque signal can be used to identify generator malfunction.

  13. Bending and shear stresses developed by the instantaneous arrest of the root of a cantilever beam rotating with constant angular velocity about a transverse axis through the root

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schwartz, Edward B; Houbolt, John C

    1945-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was made of the behavior of a cantilever beam in rotational motion about a transverse axis through the root determining the stresses, the deflections, and the accelerations that occur in the beam as a result of the arrest of motion. The equations for bending and shear stress reveal that, at a given percentage of the distance from root to tip and at a given trip velocity, the bending stresses for a particular mode are independent of the length of the beam and the shear stresses vary inversely with the length. When examined with respect to a given angular velocity instead of a given tip velocity, the equations reveal that the bending stress is proportional to the length of the beam whereas the shear stress is independent of the length. Sufficient experimental verification of the theory has previously been given in connection with another problem of the same type.

  14. Perception of the upright and susceptibility to motion sickness as functions of angle of tilt and angular velocity in off-vertical rotation. [human tolerance to angular accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    Motion sickness susceptibility of four normal subjects was measured in terms of duration of exposure necessary to evoke moderate malaise (MIIA) as a function of velocity in a chair rotated about a central axis tilted 10 deg with respect to gravitational upright. The subjects had little or no susceptibility to this type of rotation at 2.5 and 5.0 rpm, but with further increases in rate, the MIIA endpoint was always reached and with ever shorter test durations. Minimal provocative periods for all subjects were found at 15 or 20 rpm. Higher rotational rates dramatically reversed the vestibular stressor effect, and the subjects as a group tended to reach a plateau of relatively low susceptibility at 40 and 45 rpm. At these higher velocities, furthermore, the subjects essentially lost their sensation of being tilted off vertical. In the second half of the study, the effect of tilt angle was varied while the rotation rate was maintained at a constant 17.5 rpm. Two subjects were completely resistant to symptoms of motion sickness when rotated at 2.5 deg off vertical; with greater off-vertical angles, the susceptibility of all subjects increased sharply at first, then tapered off in a manner reflecting a Fechnerian function.

  15. A velocity map ion-imaging study on ketene photodissociation at 208 and 213 nm: Rotational dependence of product angular anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Fengyan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Xueming

    2005-03-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of ketene following excitation at 208.59 and 213.24 nm have been investigated using the velocity map ion-imaging method. Both the angular distribution and translational energy distribution of the CO products at different rotational and vibrational states have been obtained. No significant difference in the translational energy distributions for different CO rotational state products has been observed at both excitation wavelengths. The anisotropy parameter beta is, however, noticeably different for different CO rotational state products at both excitation wavelengths. For lower rotational states of the CO product, beta is smaller than zero, while beta is larger than zero for CO at higher rotational states. The observed rotational dependence of angular anisotropy is interpreted as the dynamical influence of a peculiar conical intersection between the (1)B(1) excited state and (1)A(2) state along the C(S)-I coordinate. PMID:15836317

  16. Angular spectrum approach for the computation of group and phase velocity surfaces of acoustic waves in anisotropic materials

    PubMed

    Pluta; Schubert; Jahny; Grill

    2000-03-01

    The decomposition of an acoustic wave into its angular spectrum representation creates an effective base for the calculation of wave propagation effects in anisotropic media. In this method, the distribution of acoustic fields is calculated in arbitrary planes from the superposition of the planar components with proper phase shifts. These phase shifts depend on the ratio of the distance between the planes to the normal component of the phase slowness vector. In anisotropic media, the phase shifts depend additionally on the changes of the slowness with respect to the direction of the propagation vector and the polarization. Those relations are obtained from the Christoffel equation. The method employing the fast Fourier transformation algorithm is especially suited for volume imaging in anisotropic media, based on holographic detection in transmission of acoustic waves generated by a point source. This technique is compared with measurements on crystals performed by phase-sensitive scanning acoustic microscopy. PMID:10829665

  17. Anisotropy of the Elastic Properties of Normal and Pathological Myocardium: Angular Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscatter, Attenuation, and Velocity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdonk, Edward Dennis

    The focus of this thesis is the measurement of anisotropies in the ultrasonic parameters of soft tissues. The goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the physics which underlies the interaction of ultrasonic waves with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. Broadband measurements using a piezoelectric transducer are reported for investigations of excised specimens of human and canine myocardial tissue. Emphasis is placed on identifying the effect that the muscle fiber orientation, relative to the direction of insonification, has on the propagation and scattering properties of ultrasonic waves. Results of the anisotropy of backscatter, the anisotropy of attenuation, and the anisotropy of quasilongitudinal velocity are presented for data obtained in 2^ circ increments through the full 360 ^circ relative to the myofibers. Measured velocities are used in conjunction with measured specimen densities to determine the elastic stiffness constants c_{11} and c_ {33} and to estimate specific mechanical moduli for thin layers of myocardium.

  18. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  19. Aging curve of neuromotor function by pronation and supination of forearms using three-dimensional wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensors.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Okui, H; Hirakawa, G; Ishinishi, H; Katayama, Y; Iramina, K

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an evaluation system for pronation and supination of forearms. The motion of pronation and supination of the forearm is used as a diagnosis method of developmental disability, etc. However, this diagnosis method has a demerit in which diagnosis results between doctors are not consistent. It is hoped that a more quantitative and simple evaluation method is established. Moreover it is hoped a diagnostic criteria obtained from healthy subjects can be established to diagnose developmental disorder patients. We developed a simple and portable evaluation system for pronation and supination of forearms. Three-dimensional wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensors are used for this system. In this study, pronation and supination of forearms of 570 subjects (subjects aged 6-12, 21-100) were examined. We could obtain aging curves in the neuromotor function of pronation and supination. These aging curves obtained by our developed system, has the potential to become diagnostic criteria for a developmental disability, etc. PMID:23366971

  20. Velocity-tunable slow beams of cold O2 in a single spin-rovibronic state with full angular-momentum orientation by multistage Zeeman deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederkehr, A. W.; Schmutz, H.; Motsch, M.; Merkt, F.

    2012-08-01

    Cold samples of oxygen molecules in supersonic beams have been decelerated from initial velocities of 390 and 450 m s-1 to final velocities in the range between 150 and 280 m s-1 using a 90-stage Zeeman decelerator. (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced-multiphoton-ionization (REMPI) spectra of the 3sσ g 3Π g (C) ? two-photon transition of O2 have been recorded to characterize the state selectivity of the deceleration process. The decelerated molecular sample was found to consist exclusively of molecules in the J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational component of the X ? ground state of O2. Measurements of the REMPI spectra using linearly polarized laser radiation with polarization vector parallel to the decelerator axis, and thus to the magnetic-field vector of the deceleration solenoids, further showed that only the ? magnetic sublevel of the N‧‧ = 1, J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational level is populated in the decelerated sample, which therefore is characterized by a fully oriented total-angular-momentum vector. By maintaining a weak quantization magnetic field beyond the decelerator, the polarization of the sample could be maintained over the 5 cm distance separating the last deceleration solenoid and the detection region.

  1. Characterizing the Velocity Profile of a Swirling Gas Experiment by Particle Imaging Velocimetry to Study Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greess, Samuel; Ji, Hantao; Merino, Enrique; Berrios, William

    2013-10-01

    The method by which angular momentum transfers between different sections of accretion disks is a matter of ongoing debate. One suggested answer is Magnetorotational instability (MRI), which would facilitate this transfer through the magnetic interactions between particles at different distances from the center of the disk. While ongoing experiments with MRI have focused on the use of liquid metals to test the effects of magnetic fields, we are developing a swirling gas experiment to study effects beyond incompressible hydrodynamics, including compressible gas dynamics and plasma effects when gas is ionized. A second-generation prototype swirling gas experiment has been built to test the principle and to establish favorable rotation profiles using a chamber of swirling fog to simulate the formation and movement of accretion disks about some gravitational center. The paths of the visible fog particles can then be analyzed with Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) techniques; these velocity measurements can then be organized by a Python program. Anticipated results include a radial profile of velocities at different times during the gas injection process, as well as further refinement of the fog chamber design to improve the accuracy in controlling the profile.

  2. Relationship between the velocity of illusory hand movement and strength of MEG signals in human primary motor cortex and left angular gyrus.

    PubMed

    Casini, Laurence; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    We studied the relationship between the velocity of movement illusion and the activity level of primary motor area (M1) and of the left angular gyrus (AG) in humans. To induce illusory movement perception, we applied co-vibration at different frequencies on tendons of antagonistic muscle groups. Since it is well established that the velocity of illusory movement is related to the difference in vibration frequency applied to two antagonistic muscles, we compared magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals recorded in two conditions of co-vibration: in the "fast illusion" condition a frequency difference of 80 Hz was applied on the tendons of the right wrist extensor and flexor muscle groups, whereas in the "slow illusion" condition a frequency difference of 40 Hz was applied on the same muscle groups. The dipole strength, reflecting the activity level of structures, was measured over M1 and the left AG in two different time-periods: 0-400 and 400-800 ms in each condition. Our results showed that the activity level of the AG was similar in both conditions whatever the time-period, whereas the activity level of M1 was higher in the "fast illusion" condition compared to the "slow illusion" condition from 400 ms after the vibration onset only. The data suggest that the two structures differently contributed to the perception of illusory movements. Our hypothesis is that M1 would be involved in the coding of cinematic parameters of the illusory movement but not the AG. PMID:18317743

  3. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  4. A Model for an Angular Velocity-Tuned Motion Detector Accounting for Deviations in the Corridor-Centering Response of the Bee

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Chelsea; Gurney, Kevin; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal) on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee’s behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer. PMID:27148968

  5. A Model for an Angular Velocity-Tuned Motion Detector Accounting for Deviations in the Corridor-Centering Response of the Bee.

    PubMed

    Cope, Alex J; Sabo, Chelsea; Gurney, Kevin; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A R

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel neurally based model for estimating angular velocity (AV) in the bee brain, capable of quantitatively reproducing experimental observations of visual odometry and corridor-centering in free-flying honeybees, including previously unaccounted for manipulations of behaviour. The model is fitted using electrophysiological data, and tested using behavioural data. Based on our model we suggest that the AV response can be considered as an evolutionary extension to the optomotor response. The detector is tested behaviourally in silico with the corridor-centering paradigm, where bees navigate down a corridor with gratings (square wave or sinusoidal) on the walls. When combined with an existing flight control algorithm the detector reproduces the invariance of the average flight path to the spatial frequency and contrast of the gratings, including deviations from perfect centering behaviour as found in the real bee's behaviour. In addition, the summed response of the detector to a unit distance movement along the corridor is constant for a large range of grating spatial frequencies, demonstrating that the detector can be used as a visual odometer. PMID:27148968

  6. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  7. The relationship of the global seismic activity with variations in the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation for 1720 - 2014 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2016-04-01

    It is known that the seismic activity (SA) of the Earth is unstable both in time and in space. Periods of increase in seismic activity alternate with periods of its decrease. The objective of this work is to analyze the spatial-temporal the distributions of the density of seismic events and relationship between the global CA and variations in the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation (AVER). A density of the observed seismic events in the 1700-1895 years is several times less than in the period 1895-2014, so we carried out a separate analysis for both periods. To construct the spatial distributions of earthquake sources, we subdivided the Earth's surface into 18 latitudinal belts of 10° in extent. To analyze the temporal distribution, the entire observation period was subdivided into 5-year intervals and total number of events within each 5-year interval was calculated. To prepare the working catalog of strong earthquakes for the period of 1700-1895, we used the catalog of considerable earthquakes on Earth since 2150 B.C. compiled by NEIC from the NOAA database. We extracted events with M>=7.5. The total number of events is equal to 72 (38 in the Northern Hemisphere and 34 in the Southern one). Scatterplot for selected events (for latitude and time) and temporal distribution of events in five-year intervals were built. It is found that earthquakes to the north of latitude 60N and to the south of latitude 60S latitude were not observed. The Earth's SA has clearly expressed bimodal latitudinal distribution: two peaks in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (40°N-50°N) and the Southern Hemisphere (10°S-30°S), and the local minimum near the Equator. The same analysis was carried out for period 1890-2014 years (period of instrumental observations) and the similar bimodal distributions were obtained. The working catalog for the AVER for period 1720-2014 years was compiled on the basis of the world-known database IERS and data presented in the work [Mc

  8. 3-DIMENSIONAL MEASURED AND SIMULATED FLOW FOR SCOUR NEAR SPUR DIKES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve understanding of the flow and scour processes associated with spur dikes more fully, 3-dimensional flow velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at a closely spaced grid over a fixed flat bed with a submerged spur dike. Some 2592 three-dimensional velocities around a...

  9. Modeling of the rotational motion of a dispersed phase using the equations of transfer of the second and third moments of pulsations of the translational and angular velocities of particles

    SciTech Connect

    B.B. Rokhman

    2007-09-15

    This article considers the Eulerian continuum description of turbulent transfer of momentum and moment of momentum in a solid phase on the basis of the equations of transfer of the second and third moments of pulsations of the linear and angular velocities of particles. The pulsating characteristics of a gas are computed using the two-parameter model of turbulence generalized to the case of gas-dispersed turbulent flows.

  10. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  11. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  12. On the information content of natural frequency spectra associated with different angular numbers. [acoustic velocity in vibrating fluid sphere model of earth structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, V.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of inferring the speed of sound in a contained spherically symmetric fluid solely from its natural frequencies of vibration is considered. An investigation of the case in which the data consist of the two spectra associated with the angular numbers 0 and 1, suggests the possibility that a one-parameter family of slowness profiles can be constructed. These profiles are compatible with the data, up to first order in the non-uniformity of the fluid. It is conjectured that for other angular numbers, the loss of information increases as the difference between them increases.

  13. Biochemical Applications Of 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Marc J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the 3-dimensional fluorescence of complex mixtures of bioloquids such as human serum, serum ultrafiltrate, human urine, and human plasma low density lipoproteins. The total fluorescence of human serum can be divided into a few peaks. When comparing fluorescence topograms of sera, from normal and cancerous subjects, we found significant differences in tryptophan fluorescence. Although the total fluorescence of human urine can be resolved into 3-5 distinct peaks, some of them. do not result from single fluorescent urinary metabolites, but rather from. several species having similar spectral properties. Human plasma, low density lipoproteins possess a native fluorescence that changes when submitted to in-vitro autoxidation. The 3-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated the presence of 7 fluorophores in the lipid domain, and 6 fluorophores in the protein. dovain- The above results demonstrated that 3-dimensional fluorescence can resolve the spectral properties of complex ,lxtures much better than other methods. Moreover, other parameters than excitation and emission wavelength and intensity (for instance fluorescence lifetime, polarization, or quenchability) may be exploited to give a multidl,ensio,a1 matrix, that is unique for each sample. Consequently, 3-dimensio:Hhal fluorescence as such, or in combination with separation techniques is therefore considered to have the potential of becoming a useful new H.ethod in clinical chemistry and analytical biochemistry.

  14. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  15. Hip and knee joints are more stabilized than driven during the stance phase of gait: an analysis of the 3D angle between joint moment and joint angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Dumas, R; Cheze, L

    2008-08-01

    Joint power is commonly used in orthopaedics, ergonomics or sports analysis but its clinical interpretation remains controversial. Some basic principles on muscle actions and energy transfer have been proposed in 2D. The decomposition of power on 3 axes, although questionable, allows the same analysis in 3D. However, these basic principles have been widely criticized, mainly because bi-articular muscles must be considered. This requires a more complex computation in order to determine how the individual muscle force contributes to drive the joint. Conversely, with simple 3D inverse dynamics, the analysis of both joint moment and angular velocity directions is essential to clarify when the joint moment can contribute or not to drive the joint. The present study evaluates the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity and investigates when the hip, knee and ankle joints are predominantly driven (angle close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees ) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ) during gait. The 3D angle curves show that the three joints are never fully but only partially driven and that the hip and knee joints are mainly stabilized during the stance phase. The notion of stabilization should be further investigated, especially for subjects with motion disorders or prostheses. PMID:18206375

  16. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  17. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  18. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  19. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  20. Angular Cheilitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the mouth. Overview Angular cheilitis (perlèche) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the corners of the mouth. Usually associated with a fungal ( Candidal ) or bacterial ( Staphylococcal ) infection, those ... people of all ages. Chronic pooling of saliva encourages fungal and bacterial growth, ...

  1. Angular Momentum Ejection and Recoil*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohia, O.; Coppi, B.

    2009-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation phenomenon observed in axisymmetric magnetically confined plasmas has been explained by the ``accretion theory'' [1] that considers the plasma angular momentum as gained from its interaction with the magnetic field and the surrounding material wall. The ejection of angular momentum to the wall, and the consequent recoil are attributed to modes excited at the edge while the transport of the (recoil) angular momentum from the edge toward the center is attributed to a different kind of mode. The toroidal phase velocity of the edge mode, to which the sign of the ejected angular momentum is related, is considered to change its direction in the transition from the H-regime to the L-regime. For the latter case, edge modes with phase velocity in the direction of vdi are driven by the temperature gradient of a cold ion population at the edge and damped on the ``hot'' ion population. The ``balanced'' double interaction [2] of the mode with the two populations, corresponding to a condition of marginal stability, leads to ejection of hot ions and loss of angular momentum in the direction of vdi while the cold population acquires angular momentum in the opposite direction. In the H-regime resistive ballooning modes with phase velocities in the direction of vde are viewed as the best candidates for the excited edge modes. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. [1] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fusion 42, 1 (2002) [2] B. Coppi and F. Pegoraro, Nucl. Fusion 17, 969 (1977)

  2. Visualization of 3 Dimensional Seismic Vector Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, E.; Chourasia, A.; Minster, J. H.; Schulze, J.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake simulations produce vast amounts of surface and volumetric temporal data. We have implemented methods to visualize scalar and vector data that allows comprehension of the large amount of information. We leverage advances in graphics processors to draw oriented and textured geometry interactively. We have developed four glyphs to depict the underlying vector data: spheres, ellipsoids, lines, and voxels. The glyphs can be switched interactively and offer multiple visual representations where each glyph enhances different underlying property. Additionally, we have developed highlighting mechanisms to enhance comprehension of direction of vector data. For instance, a sphere would ordinarily not provide directional cues but with our method of highlight the sphere can indicate the direction. We have also developed interactively tunable methods to resolve occlusion of volumetric data. We present multimodal visual representations that provide an array of interactive and flexible visualization techniques to the scientists for scientific investigation through visualization. The visualization tool can be run on a laptop, desktop or virtual reality (VR) environment. We are leveraging one such state-of-the-art system called “StarCAVE”. The StarCAVE surrounds the user with seamless, immersive and stereoscopic virtual environment. This VR environment provides the capability to view the volumetric data from inside the volume in an immersive manner, which is similar to witnessing the earthquake event from inside earth from any vantage point. Interactive visualization of the Terashake simulation allows scientists to flexibly explore existing data intuitively. This is a crop of the Terashake simulation containing the San Andreas near San Bernadino. Color represents velocity magnitude, while direction is that of the displacement vector.

  3. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  4. Creating 3-dimensional Models of the Photosphere using the SIR Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonhofer, S.; Utz, D.; Jurčák, J.; Pauritsch, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lemmerer, B.

    A high-resolution 3-dimensional model of the photospheric magnetic field is essential for the investigation of magnetic features such as sunspots, pores or smaller elements like single flux tubes seen as magnetic bright points. The SIR code is an advanced inversion code that retrieves physical quantities, e.g. magnetic field, from Stokes profiles. Based on this code, we developed a program for automated inversion of Hinode SOT/SP data and for storing these results in 3-dimensional data cubes in the form of fits files. We obtained models of the temperature, magnetic field strength, magnetic field angles and LOS-velocity in a region of the quiet sun. We will give a first discussion of those parameters in regards of small scale magnetic fields and what we can obtain and learn in the future.

  5. Angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-12-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.

  6. A 3-dimensional Analysis of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isensee, Karl

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the nearby supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Easily resolvable supernova remnants such as Cas A provide a unique opportunity to test supernova explosion models. Additionally, we can observe key processes in the interstellar medium as the ejecta from the initial explosion encounter Cas A's powerful shocks. In order to accomplish these science goals, we used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to create a high resolution spectral map of select regions of Cas A, allowing us to make a Doppler reconstruction of its 3-dimensional structure structure. In the center of the remnant, we find relatively pristine ejecta that have not yet reached Cas A's reverse shock or interacted with the circumstellar environment. We observe O, Si, and S emission. These ejecta can form both sheet-like structures as well as filaments. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers of the star, are observed to be coincident in some regions, and separated by >500 km s -1 in others. Observed ejecta traveling toward us are, on average, ˜800 km s -1 slower than the material traveling away from us. We compare our observations to recent supernova explosion models and find that no single model can simultaneously reproduce all the observed features. However, models of different supernova explosions can collectively produce the observed geometries and structures of the emission interior to Cas A's reverse shock. We use the results from the models to address the conditions during the supernova explosion, concentrating on asymmetries in the shock structure. We also predict that the back surface of Cassiopeia A will begin brightening in ∼30 years, and the front surface in ˜100 years. We then used similar observations from 3 regions on Cas A's reverse shock in order to create more 3-dimensional maps. In these regions, we observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the

  7. From 2-dimensional cephalograms to 3-dimensional computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2005-05-01

    Computed tomography is entering the orthodontic specialty as a mainstream diagnostic modality. Radiation exposure and cost have decreased significantly, and the diagnostic value is very high compared with traditional radiographic options. However, 3-dimensional data present new challenges and need a different approach from traditional viewing of static images to make the most of the available possibilities. Advances in computer hardware and software now enable interactive display of the data on personal computers, with the ability to selectively view soft or hard tissues from any angle. Transfer functions are used to apply transparency and color. Cephalometric measurements can be taken by digitizing points in 3-dimensional coordinates. Application of 3-dimensional data is expected to increase significantly soon and might eventually replace many conventional orthodontic records that are in use today. PMID:15877045

  8. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  9. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  10. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, C.

    2009-03-01

    A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive features, and fracture zones (and wedge-shaped sites

  11. Coupling Between Velocities in a Radial Supercharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlechko, V. N.; Petrov, O. A.

    2014-03-01

    We have analyzed the velocities of the medium and impeller in a radial supercharger with consideration of the Coriolis acceleration. We have derived an expression for determining the angular velocity of the medium that differs from the angular velocity of the impeller. Dependences have been obtained to determine the velocity of the medium at the exit from the impeller on the inclination angle of the supercharger blades and their coupling with the circumferential velocity of the impeller in the absence of energy losses. Graphical dependences of velocities on the inclination angle of the blades at different ratios of inside radius to outside radius have been constructed.

  12. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  13. Theory of relativistic Brownian motion: the (1+3) -dimensional case.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2005-09-01

    A theory for (1+3) -dimensional relativistic Brownian motion under the influence of external force fields is put forward. Starting out from a set of relativistically covariant, but multiplicative Langevin equations we describe the relativistic stochastic dynamics of a forced Brownian particle. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equations are studied in the laboratory frame coordinates. In particular, the stochastic integration prescription--i.e., the discretization rule dilemma--is elucidated (prepoint discretization rule versus midpoint discretization rule versus postpoint discretization rule). Remarkably, within our relativistic scheme we find that the postpoint rule (or the transport form) yields the only Fokker-Planck dynamics from which the relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is recovered as the stationary solution. The relativistic velocity effects become distinctly more pronounced by going from one to three spatial dimensions. Moreover, we present numerical results for the asymptotic mean-square displacement of a free relativistic Brownian particle moving in 1+3 dimensions. PMID:16241514

  14. Reaction dynamics of Al + O₂ → AlO + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique: vib-rotational state selected angular-kinetic energy distribution.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru

    2014-06-01

    Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Σ(+) transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O((3)P(J)) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period. PMID:24908005

  15. Reaction dynamics of Al + O2 → AlO + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique: Vib-rotational state selected angular-kinetic energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru

    2014-06-01

    Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D2Σ+-X2Σ+ transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O(3PJ) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period.

  16. 3-Dimensional Imaging Modalities for Phenotyping Genetically Engineered Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powell, K. A.; Wilson, D.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of 3-dimensional (3D) digital imaging modalities are available for whole-body assessment of genetically engineered mice: magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT), optical projection tomography (OPT), episcopic and cryoimaging, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Embryo and adult mouse phenotyping can be accomplished at microscopy or near microscopy spatial resolutions using these modalities. MRM and microCT are particularly well-suited for evaluating structural information at the organ level, whereas episcopic and OPT imaging provide structural and functional information from molecular fluorescence imaging at the cellular level. UBM can be used to monitor embryonic development longitudinally in utero. Specimens are not significantly altered during preparation, and structures can be viewed in their native orientations. Technologies for rapid automated data acquisition and high-throughput phenotyping have been developed and continually improve as this exciting field evolves. PMID:22146851

  17. Protalign: a 3-dimensional protein alignment assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Meads, D; Hansen, M D; Pang, A

    1999-01-01

    Protein fold recognition (sometimes called threading) is the prediction of a protein's 3-dimensional shape based on its similarity to a protein of known structure. Fold predictions are low resolution; that is, no effort is made to rotate the protein's component amino acid side chains into their correct spatial orientations. The goal is simply to recognize the protein family member that most closely resembles the target sequence of unknown structure and to create a sensible alignment of the target to the known structure (i.e., a structure-sequence alignment). To facilitate this type of structure prediction, we have designed a low resolution molecular graphics tool. ProtAlign introduces the ability to interact with and edit alignments directly in the 3-dimensional structure as well as in the usual 2-dimensional layout. It also contains several functions and features to help the user assess areas within the alignment. ProtAlign implements an open pipe architecture to allow other programs to access its molecular graphics capabilities. In addition, it is capable of "driving" other programs. Because amino acid side chain orientation is not relevant in fold recognition, we represent amino acid residues as abstract shapes or glyphs much like Lego (tm) blocks and we borrow techniques from comparative flow visualization using streamlines to provide clean depictions of the entire protein model. By creating a low resolution representation of protein structure, we are able to at least double the amount of information on the screen. At the same time, we create a view that is not as busy as the corresponding representations using traditional high resolution visualization methods which show detailed atomic structure. This eliminates distracting and possibly misleading visual clutter resulting from the mapping of protein alignment information onto a high resolution display of the known structure. This molecular graphics program is implemented in Open GL to facilitate porting to

  18. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  19. On Angular Momentum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schwinger, J.

    1952-01-26

    The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.

  20. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, C.

    2010-03-01

    A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4+27 kg m2 s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies revealed by geoid anomalies of the degree 4-10 packet of the Earth's spherical harmonic coefficients. These linear positive geoid anomalies underlie plate subduction zones and are presumed due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant

  1. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  2. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  3. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  4. Angular Acceleration Without Torque?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.2

  5. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  6. Contributing factors for increased bat swing velocity.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; DeRenne, Coop; Spaniol, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Bat swing velocity is an important characteristic of successful hitters in baseball and softball. The purpose of this literature review is threefold. First, before describing what components and training methods have been investigated to improve bat swing velocity, it is necessary to discuss the importance of bat swing velocity and batted-ball velocity. The second purpose is to discuss bat weight during on-deck circle warm-up, bat weight during resistance training, resistance training with an overload of force, performance of additional supplemental resistance exercises, the relationship between strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and bat swing velocity, and the relationship between improvements in strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and improvements in bat swing velocity. The third purpose of this review is to recommend some practical applications based on research results. PMID:19528868

  7. Video Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Video-Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and testing video-based sensors for automated spacecraft guidance for several years, and the next generation of video sensor will have tracking rates up to 100 Hz and will be able to track multiple reflectors and targets. The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) developed over the past several years has performed well in testing and met the objective of being used as the terminal guidance sensor for an automated rendezvous and capture system. The first VGS was successfully tested in closed-loop 3-degree-of-freedom (3- DOF) tests in 1989 and then in 6-DOF open-loop tests in 1992 and closed-loop tests in 1993-4. Development and testing continued, and in 1995 approval was given to test the VGS in an experiment on the Space Shuttle. The VGS flew in 1997 and in 1998, performing well for both flights. During the development and testing before, during, and after the flight experiments, numerous areas for improvement were found. The VGS was developed with a sensor head and an electronics box, connected by cables. The VGS was used in conjunction with a target that had wavelength-filtered retro-reflectors in a specific pattern, The sensor head contained the laser diodes, video camera, and heaters and coolers. The electronics box contained a frame grabber, image processor, the electronics to control the components in the sensor head, the communications electronics, and the power supply. The system works by sequentially firing two different wavelengths of laser diodes at the target and processing the two images. Since the target only reflects one wavelength, it shows up well in one image and not at all in the other. Because the target's dimensions are known, the relative positions and attitudes of the target and the sensor can be computed from the spots reflected from the target. The system was designed to work from I

  8. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  9. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  10. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  11. Magnetic field and angular momentum evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, F.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic field in young stellar object is clearly the most important component when one dealing with the angular momentum evolution of solar-like stars. It controls this latter one from the pre-main sequence, during the ``disk locking'' phase where the stars magnetically interact with their surrounding disk, to the main-sequence through powerful stellar winds that remove angular momentum from the stellar surface. We present new models for the rotational evolution of solar-like stars between 1 Myr and 10 Gyr with the aim to reproduce the distributions of rotational periods observed for star forming regions and young open clusters within this age range. Our simulations are produced by a recent model dedicated to the study of the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars. This model include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetized stellar winds and a specific dynamo and mass-loss prescription are used to link the angular momentum loss-rate to angular velocity evolution. The model additionally allows for a core/envelope decoupling with an angular momentum transfer between these two regions. Since this former model didn't include any physical star/disk interaction description, two star/disk interaction processes are eventually added to it in order to reproduce the apparent small angular velocities to which the stellar surface is subject during the disk accretion phase. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow, median and fast rotators including two star/disk interaction scenarios that are the magnetospheric ejection and the accretion powered stellar winds processes. The models appear to fail at reproducing the rotational behaviour of solar-type stars except when a more intense magnetic field is used during the disk accretion phase.

  12. Blending Velocities In Task Space In Computing Robot Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Blending of linear and angular velocities between sequential specified points in task space constitutes theoretical basis of improved method of computing trajectories followed by robotic manipulators. In method, generalized velocity-vector-blending technique provides relatively simple, common conceptual framework for blending linear, angular, and other parametric velocities. Velocity vectors originate from straight-line segments connecting specified task-space points, called "via frames" and represent specified robot poses. Linear-velocity-blending functions chosen from among first-order, third-order-polynomial, and cycloidal options. Angular velocities blended by use of first-order approximation of previous orientation-matrix-blending formulation. Angular-velocity approximation yields small residual error, quantified and corrected. Method offers both relative simplicity and speed needed for generation of robot-manipulator trajectories in real time.

  13. Reliability of Aortic Stenosis Severity Classified by 3-Dimensional Echocardiography in the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kimi; Seo, Yoshihiro; Ishizu, Tomoko; Nakajima, Hideki; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Izumo, Masaki; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Otsuji, Yutaka; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of aortic valve area (AVA) by Doppler echocardiography-derived left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) remains controversial. We hypothesized that AVA estimated from directly measured LVSV by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) on the continuity equation might be more accurate in classifying aortic stenosis (AS) severity. We retrospectively enrolled 265 patients with moderate-to-severe AS with preserved ejection fraction. Indexed AVA (iAVA) was calculated using LVSV derived by 2D Doppler (iAVADop), Simpson's method (iAVASimp), and 3DE (iAVA3D). During a median follow-up period of 397 days (interquartile range 197 to 706 days), 135 patients experienced the composite end point (cardiac death 9%, aortic valve replacement 24%, and cardiovascular event 27%). Estimated iAVA3D and iAVASimp were significantly smaller than iAVADop and moderately correlated with peak aortic jet velocity. Upper septal hypertrophy was a major cause of discrepancy between iAVADop and iAVA3D methods. Based on the optimal cut-off point of iAVA for predicting peak aortic jet velocity >4.0 m/s, 141 patients (53%) were classified as severe AS and 124 patients (47%) as moderate AS by iAVADop. Indexed AVA3D classified 118 patients (45%) as severe and 147 patients (55%) as moderate AS. Of the 124 patients with moderate AS by iAVADop, 22 patients (18%) were reclassified as severe AS by iAVA3D and showed poor prognosis (hazard ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.0; p = 0.001). In conclusion, 3DE might be superior in classifying patients with AS compared with Doppler method, particularly in patients with upper septal hypertrophy. PMID:27287062

  14. 3-Dimensional simulations of storm dynamics on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2000-10-01

    The formation and evolution of convective clouds in the atmosphere of Saturn is investigated using an anelastic three-dimensional time-dependent model with parameterized microphysics. The model is designed to study the development of moist convection on any of the four giant planets and has been previously used to investigate the formation of water convective storms in the jovian atmosphere. The role of water and ammonia in moist convection is investigated with varying deep concentrations. Results imply that most of the convective activity observed at Saturn may occur at the ammonia cloud deck while the formation of water moist convection may happen only when very strong constraints on the lower troposphere are met. Ammonia storms can ascend to the 300 mb level with vertical velocities around 30 ms-1. The seasonal effect on the thermal profile at the upper troposphere may have important effects on the development of ammonia storms. In the cases where water storms can develop they span many scale heights with peak vertical velocities around 160 ms-1 and cloud particles can be transported up to the 150 mb level. These predicted characteristics are similar to the Great White Spots observed in Saturn which, therefore, could be originated at the water cloud base level. This work has been supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 1997-34. R. Hueso acknowledges a PhD fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  15. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  16. Angular width of the Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Visible Cherenkov radiation can offer a method of the measurement of the velocity of charged particles. The angular width of the radiation is important since it determines the resolution of the velocity measurement. In this article, the angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering is calculated through the path-integral method, and the analytical expressions are presented. The condition that multiple scattering processes dominate the angular distribution is obtained.

  17. Ultrafast coherent control of angular momentum during a one-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D. A.; Eppink, A. T. J. B.; Meerts, W. L.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der

    2011-10-15

    The subpicosecond dynamics of angular momentum transfer in the excited rubidium 5p state is studied in real time by observing photoelectron angular distributions with velocity map imaging. Retrieving the populations of the degenerate Zeeman levels and reconstructing the angular momentum, we show that in the case of resonant excitation the angular momentum does not follow the momentary helicity of the electric field of the pulse. This is in contrast with off-resonant excitation where the angular momentum and pulse helicity are fully correlated. Our study shows how to generate and shape ultrashort pulses of orbital and spin angular momentum in a controllable way.

  18. Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2006-11-15

    Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of matter and gravitational radiation. This identifies the transverse-normal block of an effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor, whose normal-normal block was recently identified in a corresponding energy conservation law. Angular momentum and energy are dual, respectively, to the axial vector and a previously identified vector, the conservation equations taking the same form. Including charge conservation, the three conserved quantities yield definitions of an effective energy, electric potential, angular velocity and surface gravity, satisfying a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons, resolving an ambiguity in taking the null limit.

  19. Angular momentum radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thidé, B.; Tamburini, F.; Then, H.; Someda, C. G.; Mari, Elletra; Parisi, G.; Spinello, F.; Romanato, Fra

    2014-02-01

    Wireless communication amounts to encoding information onto physical observables carried by electromagnetic (EM) fields, radiating them into surrounding space, and detecting them remotely by an appropriate sensor connected to an informationdecoding receiver. Each observable is second order in the fields and fulfills a conservation law. In present-day radio only the EM linear momentum observable is fully exploited. A fundamental physical limitation of this observable, which represents the translational degrees of freedom of the charges (typically an oscillating current along a linear antenna) and the fields, is that it is single-mode. This means that a linear-momentum radio communication link comprising one transmitting and one receiving antenna, known as a single-input-single-output (SISO) link, can provide only one transmission channel per frequency (and polarization). In contrast, angular momentum, which represents the rotational degrees of freedom, is multi-mode, allowing an angular-momentum SISO link to accommodate an arbitrary number of independent transmission channels on one and the same frequency (and polarization). We describe the physical properties of EM angular momentum and how they can be exploited, discuss real-world experiments, and outline how the capacity of angular momentum links may be further enhanced by employing multi-port techniques, i.e., the angular momentum counterpart of linear-momentum multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO).

  20. Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yichen; Ye, Dexin; Wang, Li; Celanovic, Ivan; Ran, Lixin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each effective anisotropic layer is constructed from a multilayered metamaterial. We show that by simply changing the structure of the metamaterials, the selective angle can be tuned to a broad range of angles; and, by increasing the number of stacks, the angular transmission window can be made as narrow as desired. As a proof of principle, we realize the idea experimentally in the microwave regime. The angular selectivity and tunability we report here can have various applications such as in directional control of electromagnetic emitters and detectors.

  1. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  2. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure. PMID:24656273

  3. Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handlykken, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

  4. Detection of a spinning object using light's orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Martin P J; Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J

    2013-08-01

    The linear Doppler shift is widely used to infer the velocity of approaching objects, but this shift does not detect rotation. By analyzing the orbital angular momentum of the light scattered from a spinning object, we observed a frequency shift proportional to product of the rotation frequency of the object and the orbital angular momentum of the light. This rotational frequency shift was still present when the angular momentum vector was parallel to the observation direction. The multiplicative enhancement of the frequency shift may have applications for the remote detection of rotating bodies in both terrestrial and astronomical settings. PMID:23908234

  5. Turbulent equipartition and homogenization of plasma angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Gürcan, O D; Diamond, P H; Hahm, T S

    2008-04-01

    A physical model of turbulent equipartition (TEP) of plasma angular momentum is developed. We show that using a simple, model insensitive ansatz of conservation of total angular momentum, a TEP pinch of angular momentum can be obtained. We note that this term corresponds to a part of the pinch velocity previously calculated using quasilinear gyrokinetic theory. We observe that the nondiffusive TEP flux is inward, and therefore may explain the peakedness of the rotation profiles observed in certain experiments. Similar expressions for linear toroidal momentum and flow are computed and it is noted that there is an additional effect due the radial profile of moment of inertia density. PMID:18517961

  6. Angular momentum and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, P. A.

    The present investigation is mainly concerned with the importance of high angular resolution observations in studies of star formation and, in particular, with elucidating the role which angular momentum plays in the process. A brief report is included on recent high angular resolution observations made with the Steward Observatory speckle camera system. A consideration of the angular momentum in interstellar clouds indicates that rotation precludes quasi-spherical contraction. A number of solutions to this angular momentum problem are examined, taking into account questions concerning the help provided by high angular resolution observations for an elucidation of the various possible scenarios of star formation. Technical aspects involved in obtaining suitable data are investigated. It is concluded that high angular resolution observations hold considerable promise for solving at least some of the problems associated with the role of angular momentum in star formation.

  7. Angular momentum projected semiclassics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasse, Rainer W.

    1987-06-01

    By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle-one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space ( r, r') the relevant quantities depend on |r-r'| instead of | r- r'| and in Wigner space ( R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(| R × P|/ h̵-l) and δ( R × P) z/ h̵-m) . As applications we calculate the single-particle and one-particle-one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction.

  8. Satellite Angular Rate Estimation From Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the angular rate vector of a satellite which is based on the time derivatives of vector measurements expressed in a reference and body coordinate. The computed derivatives are fed into a spacial Kalman filter which yields an estimate of the spacecraft angular velocity. The filter, named Extended Interlaced Kalman Filter (EIKF), is an extension of the Kalman filter which, although being linear, estimates the state of a nonlinear dynamic system. It consists of two or three parallel Kalman filters whose individual estimates are fed to one another and are considered as known inputs by the other parallel filter(s). The nonlinear dynamics stem from the nonlinear differential equation that describes the rotation of a three dimensional body. Initial results, using simulated data, and real Rossi X ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data indicate that the algorithm is efficient and robust.

  9. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  10. Global Plate Velocities from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Philipsen, Steven

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed 204 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the global GPS network spanning January 1991 through March 1996. On the basis of these GPS coordinate solutions, we have estimated velocities for 38 sites, mostly located on the interiors of the Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, Nazca, North America, Pacific, and South America plates. The uncertainties of the horizontal velocity components range from 1.2 to 5.0 mm/yr. With the exception of sites on the Pacific and Nazca plates, the GPS velocities agree with absolute plate model predictions within 95% confidence. For most of the sites in North America, Antarctica, and Eurasia, the agreement is better than 2 mm/yr. We find no persuasive evidence for significant vertical motions (less than 3 standard deviations), except at four sites. Three of these four were sites constrained to geodetic reference frame velocities. The GPS velocities were then used to estimate angular velocities for eight tectonic plates. Absolute angular velocities derived from the GPS data agree with the no net rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1A model within 95% confidence except for the Pacific plate. Our pole of rotation for the Pacific plate lies 11.5 deg west of the NNR NUVEL-1A pole, with an angular speed 10% faster. Our relative angular velocities agree with NUVEL-1A except for some involving the Pacific plate. While our Pacific-North America angular velocity differs significantly from NUVEL-1A, our model and NUVEL-1A predict very small differences in relative motion along the Pacific-North America plate boundary itself. Our Pacific-Australia and Pacific- Eurasia angular velocities are significantly faster than NUVEL-1A, predicting more rapid convergence at these two plate boundaries. Along the East Pacific Pise, our Pacific-Nazca angular velocity agrees in both rate and azimuth with NUVFL-1A.

  11. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  12. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  13. Uniaxial angular accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, A. V.; Shvab, I. A.

    1985-05-01

    The basic mechanical components of an angular accelerometer are the sensor, the damper, and the transducer. Penumatic dampers are simplest in construction, but the viscosity of air is very low and, therefore, dampers with special purpose oils having a high temperature stability (synthetic silicon or organosilicon oils) are most widely used. The most common types of viscous dampers are lamellar with meshed opposed arrays of fixed and movable vanes in the dashpot, piston dampers regulated by an adjustable-length capillary tube, and dampers with paddle wheel in closed tank. Another type of damper is an impact-inertial one with large masses absorbing the rotational energy upon collision with the sensor. Conventional measuring elements are resistive, capacitive, electromagnetic, photoelectric, and penumatic or hydraulic. Novel types of angular accelerometers are based on inertia of gas jets, electron beams, and ion beams, the piezoelectric effect in p-n junctions of diode and transistors, the electrokinetic effect in fluids, and cryogenic suspension of the sensor.

  14. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. PMID:27162278

  15. 3-Dimensional Terraced NAND (3D TNAND) Flash Memory-Stacked Version of Folded NAND Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Gil Sung; Park, Il Han; Lee, Jong Duk; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    We propose a 3-dimensional terraced NAND flash memory. It has a vertical channel so it is possible to make a long enough channel in 1F2 size. And it has 3-dimensional structure whose channel is connected vertically along with two stairs. So we can obtain high density as in the stacked array structure, without silicon stacking process. We can make NAND flash memory with 3F2 cell size. Using SILVACO ATLAS simulation, we study terraced NAND flash memory characteristics such as program, erase, and read. Also, its fabrication method is proposed.

  16. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  17. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  18. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  19. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  20. Angular bias errors in three-component laser velocimeter measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.Y.; Kim, P.J.; Walker, D.T.

    1996-09-01

    For three-component laser velocimeter systems, the change in projected area of the coincident measurement volume for different flow directions will introduce an angular bias in naturally sampled data. In this study, the effect of turbulence level and orientation of the measurement volumes on angular bias errors was examined. The operation of a typical three-component laser velocimeter was simulated using a Monte Carlo technique. Results for the specific configuration examined show that for turbulence levels less than 10% no significant bias errors in the mean velocities will occur and errors in the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities will be less than 3% for all orientations. For turbulence levels less than 30%, component mean velocity bias errors less than 5% of the mean velocity vector magnitude can be attained with proper orientation of the measurement volume; however, the r.m.s. velocities may be in error as much as 10%. For turbulence levels above 50%, there is no orientation which will yield accurate estimates of all three mean velocities; component mean velocity errors as large as 15% of the mean velocity vector magnitude may be encountered.

  1. Demonstrating the Conservation of Angular Momentum Using Model Cars Moving along a Rotating Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an exciting non-traditional experiment for our introductory physics laboratories to help students to understand the principle of conservation of angular momentum. We used electric toy cars moving along a long rotating rod. As the cars move towards the centre of the rod, the angular velocity of this system increases.…

  2. Measurement of the angular-motion parameters of a base by a dynamically adjustable gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbrutskii, A. V.

    1986-04-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and errors of a balanced dynamically adjustable gyroscope as a sensor of the angular deviations and angular velocities of the base. Attention is given to measurements made under conditions of uniform and uniformly accelerated rotation of the base.

  3. Optical angular momentum in a rotating frame.

    PubMed

    Speirits, Fiona C; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M

    2014-05-15

    It is well established that light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be used to induce a mechanical torque causing an object to spin. We consider the complementary scenario: will an observer spinning relative to the beam axis measure a change in OAM as a result of their rotational velocity? Remarkably, although a linear Doppler shift changes the linear momentum of a photon, the angular Doppler shift induces no change in the angular momentum. Further, we examine the rotational Doppler shift in frequency imparted to the incident light due to the relative motion of the beam with respect to the observer and consider what must happen to the measured wavelength if the speed of light c is to remain constant. We show specifically that the OAM of the incident beam is not affected by the rotating observer and that the measured wavelength is shifted by a factor equal and opposite to that of the frequency shift induced by the rotational Doppler effect. PMID:24978243

  4. Orbital angular momentum microlaser.

    PubMed

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-29

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299

  5. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  6. 3-dimensional root phenotyping with a novel imaging and software platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of 3-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform’s capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and ...

  7. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  8. Characterization of Students' Reasoning and Proof Abilities in 3-Dimensional Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Angel; Pegg, John; Lawrie, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on a research aimed to identify and characterize secondary school students' reasoning and proof abilities when working with 3-dimensional geometric solids. We analyze students' answers to two problems asking them to prove certain properties of prisms. As results of this analysis, we get, on the one side, a characterization…

  9. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  10. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  11. Differentially Rotating Structures and Angular Momentum Transport in the Prevalent Gravity of a Central Object*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, F.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    The presence of angular momentum transport associated with an accretion process in an axisymmetric differentially rotating structure affects the equilibrium configuration that this can take and can introduce a toroidal Lorentz force with the associated poloidal current densities. All three components (vertical, radial and toroidal) of the total momentum conservation equation are considered. A sequence of ring solutions can be found by making use of the inequalities vNJvelocity, cs is the sound velocity and vNJ is a velocity related to the difference between the outward transport velocity of angular momentum transport and the inward accretion velocity. The outward angular momentum transport is considered as resulting from processes involving smaller scale lengths than those characterizing the described equilibrium configurations. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. B. Coppi and F. Rousseau Ap. J. 641 (1), 458 (2006)

  12. Angular signal radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  13. The Angular Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530

  14. Irrotational and zero angular momentum ellipsoids in the Dirichlet problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratev, B. P.

    1986-05-01

    Two classes of new exact solutions are found in the Dirichlet problem of the oscillations of a self-gravitating fluid ellipsoidal mass with linear velocity field. These solutions describe irrotational ellipsoids and ellipsoids with zero angular momentum (which are adjoint in the sense of a theorem due to Dedekind). For elliposoids with stationary boundary surface it is established that irrotational and zero angular momentum figures exist not only when the ellipsoids rotate around the central symmetry axis (Chandrasekhar considered this special case) but also for an inclined position of the rotation axis.

  15. Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially

  16. Conditioned Media From Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Accelerates Healing in 3-Dimensional Skin Cultures.

    PubMed

    Collawn, Sherry S; Mobley, James A; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Chow, Louise T

    2016-04-01

    Wound healing involves a number of factors that results in the production of a "closed" wound. Studies have shown, in animal models, acceleration of wound healing with the addition of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC). The cause for the positive effect which these cells have on wound healing has not been elucidated. We have previously shown that addition of ADSC to the dermal equivalent in 3-dimensional skin cultures accelerates reepithelialization. We now demonstrate that conditioned media (CM) from cultured ADSC produced a similar rate of healing. This result suggests that a feedback from the 3-dimensional epithelial cultures to ADSC was not necessary to effect the accelerated reepithelialization. Mass spectrometry of CM from ADSC and primary human fibroblasts revealed differences in secretomes, some of which might have roles in the accelerating wound healing. Thus, the use of CM has provided some preliminary information on a possible mode of action. PMID:26954733

  17. Towards non-AdS holography in 3-dimensional higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Michael; Grumiller, Daniel; Rashkov, Radoslav

    2012-03-01

    We take the first steps towards non-AdS holography in higher spin gravity. Namely, we propose a variational principle for generic 3-dimensional higher spin gravity that accommodates asymptotic backgrounds beyond AdS, like asymptotically Schrödinger, Lifshitz or warped AdS spacetimes. As examples we study in some detail the four sl(2) embeddings of spin-4 gravity and provide associated geometries, including an asymptotic Lifshitz black hole.

  18. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  19. Measuring angular diameter distances of strong gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The distance-redshift relation plays a fundamental role in constraining cosmological models. In this paper, we show that measurements of positions and time delays of strongly lensed images of a background galaxy, as well as those of the velocity dispersion and mass profile of a lens galaxy, can be combined to extract the angular diameter distance of the lens galaxy. Physically, as the velocity dispersion and the time delay give a gravitational potential (GM/r) and a mass (GM) of the lens, respectively, dividing them gives a physical size (r) of the lens. Comparing the physical size with the image positions of a lensed galaxy gives the angular diameter distance to the lens. A mismatch between the exact locations at which these measurements are made can be corrected by measuring a local slope of the mass profile. We expand on the original idea put forward by Paraficz and Hjorth, who analyzed singular isothermal lenses, by allowing for an arbitrary slope of a power-law spherical mass density profile, an external convergence, and an anisotropic velocity dispersion. We find that the effect of external convergence cancels out when dividing the time delays and velocity dispersion measurements. We derive a formula for the uncertainty in the angular diameter distance in terms of the uncertainties in the observables. As an application, we use two existing strong lens systems, B1608+656 (zL=0.6304) and RXJ1131-1231 (zL=0.295), to show that the uncertainty in the inferred angular diameter distances is dominated by that in the velocity dispersion, σ2, and its anisotropy. We find that the current data on these systems should yield about 16% uncertainty in DA per object. This improves to 13% when we measure σ2 at the so-called sweet-spot radius. Achieving 7% is possible if we can determine σ2 with 5% precision.

  20. Electromagnetically induced angular Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Yang, Guojian

    2015-12-01

    The discrete angular spectrum (angular Talbot effect) of a periodic grating illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front has been observed recently (Azaña and Chatellus 2104 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 213902). In this paper we study the possibility of such a phenomenon being realized with a medium that has no macroperiodic structure itself. Tunable electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) could be such a kind of medium. We obtain an EIG based on the periodically modulated strong susceptibility due to the third-order nonlinear effect generated in a double Λ-type four-level atomic system, and show the angular Talbot effect of an amplitude EIG, as well as a hybrid EIG, as the condition of the discrete phase-modulation shift of the illumination light front is satisfied. EIG parameters are tunable and the EIG-based angular Talbot effect may have the same potential applications as its periodic grating counterpart has.

  1. Transverse angular momentum of photons

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, Andrea

    2010-05-15

    We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasiparaxial photon beams in vacuum and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular-momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular-momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.

  2. Angular Momentum Transport in Turbulent Flow between Independently Rotating Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, M. S.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2011-01-14

    We present measurements of the angular momentum flux (torque) in Taylor-Couette flow of water between independently rotating cylinders for all regions of the ({Omega}{sub 1}, {Omega}{sub 2}) parameter space at high Reynolds numbers, where {Omega}{sub 1} ({Omega}{sub 2}) is the inner (outer) cylinder angular velocity. We find that the Rossby number Ro=({Omega}{sub 1}-{Omega}{sub 2})/{Omega}{sub 2} fully determines the state and torque G as compared to G(Ro={infinity}){identical_to}G{sub {infinity}.} The ratio G/G{sub {infinity}} is a linear function of Ro{sup -1} in four sections of the parameter space. For flows with radially increasing angular momentum, our measured torques greatly exceed those of previous experiments [Ji et al., Nature (London), 444, 343 (2006)], but agree with the analysis of Richard and Zahn [Astron. Astrophys. 347, 734 (1999)].

  3. Nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, N. Dinh; Hung, N. Quang

    2009-01-28

    We propose an approach to nuclear pairing at finite temperature and angular momentum. This approach includes the effects due to the quasiparticle-number fluctuation and dynamic coupling to pair vibrations within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The pairing gaps, total energies, and heat capacities are calculated within a doubly folded multilevel model as well as several realistic nuclei. The results obtained show that, in the region of moderate and strong couplings, the sharp transition between the superconducting and normal phases is smoothed out. This is manifested in a thermal pairing gap, which does not collapse at a critical temperature predicted by the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's (BCS) theory, but has a tail extended to high temperatures. Moreover, this approach also predicts the appearance of a thermally assisted pairing at finite angular momentum. The effect of backbending of the momentum of inertia as a function of the square of angular velocity is also discussed.

  4. EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Meng Xiangcun E-mail: yangwuming@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-03-10

    The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 {approx}< t/t{sub MS} {approx}< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.

  5. Axions and the galactic angular momentum distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, N.; Sikivie, P.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the behavior of axion dark matter before it falls into a galactic gravitational potential well. The axions thermalize sufficiently fast by gravitational self-interactions that almost all go to their lowest-energy state consistent with the total angular momentum acquired from tidal torquing. That state is a state of rigid rotation on the turnaround sphere. It predicts the occurrence and detailed properties of the caustic rings of dark matter for which observational evidence had been found earlier. We show that the vortices in the axion Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are attractive, unlike those in superfluid He4 and dilute gases. We expect that a large fraction of the vortices in the axion BEC join into a single big vortex along the rotation axis of the galaxy. The resulting enhancement of caustic rings explains the typical size of the rises in the Milky Way rotation curve attributed to caustic rings. We show that baryons and ordinary cold dark matter particles are entrained by the axion BEC and acquire the same velocity distribution. The resulting baryonic angular momentum distribution gives a good qualitative fit to the distributions observed in dwarf galaxies. We give estimates of the minimum fraction of dark matter that is composed of axions.

  6. Uncertainty principle for angular position and angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Eric; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles

    2004-08-01

    The uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on the accuracy with which we are able to measure the values of different physical quantities (Heisenberg 1949 The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (New York: Dover); Robertson 1929 Phys. Rev. 34 127). This has profound effects not only on the microscopic but also on the macroscopic level of physical systems. The most familiar form of the uncertainty principle relates the uncertainties in position and linear momentum. Other manifestations include those relating uncertainty in energy to uncertainty in time duration, phase of an electromagnetic field to photon number and angular position to angular momentum (Vaccaro and Pegg 1990 J. Mod. Opt. 37 17; Barnett and Pegg 1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 3427). In this paper, we report the first observation of the last of these uncertainty relations and derive the associated states that satisfy the equality in the uncertainty relation. We confirm the form of these states by detailed measurement of the angular momentum of a light beam after passage through an appropriate angular aperture. The angular uncertainty principle applies to all physical systems and is particularly important for systems with cylindrical symmetry.

  7. The Angular Momentum of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Babiker, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Preface D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 1. Light beams carrying orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 2. Vortex transformation and vortex dynamics in optical fields G. Molina-Terriza; 3. Vector beams in free space E. J. Galvez; 4. Optical beams with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear media A. S. Desyatnikov and Y. S. Kivshar; 5. Ray optics, wave optics and quantum mechanics G. Nienhuis; 6. Quantum formulation of angle and orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 7. Dynamic rotational frequency shift I. Bialynicki-Birula and Z. Bialynicka-Birula; 8. Spin-orbit interactions of light in isotropic media K. Y. Bliokh, A. Aiello and M. A. Alonso; 9. Quantum electrodynamics, angular momentum and chirality D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 10. Trapping of charged particles by Bessel beams I. Bialynicki-Birula, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and N. Drozd; 11. Theory of atoms in twisted light M. Babiker, D. L. Andrews and V. E. Lembessis; 12. An experimentalist's introduction to orbital angular momentum for quantum optics J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold and M. J. Padgett; 13. Measurement of light's orbital angular momentum M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett; 14. Efficient generation of optical twisters using helico-conical beams V. R. Daria, D. Palima and J. Glückstad; 15. Self similar modes of coherent diffusion with orbital angular momentum O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch and N. Davidson; 16. Dimensionality of azimuthal entanglement M. van Exter, E. Eliel and H. Woerdman; Index.

  8. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:21989708

  9. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  10. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  11. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  12. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  13. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  14. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  15. Zebra tape identification for the instantaneous angular speed computation and angular resampling of motorbike valve train measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco

    2014-02-01

    An experimental test campaign was performed on the valve train of a racing motorbike engine in order to get insight into the dynamic of the system. In particular the valve motion was acquired in cold test conditions by means of a laser vibrometer able to acquire displacement and velocity signals. The valve time-dependent measurements needed to be referred to the camshaft angular position in order to analyse the data in the angular domain, as usually done for rotating machines. To this purpose the camshaft was fitted with a zebra tape whose dark and light stripes were tracked by means of an optical probe. Unfortunately, both manufacturing and mounting imperfections of the employed zebra tape, resulting in stripes with slightly different widths, precluded the possibility to directly obtain the correct relationship between camshaft angular position and time. In order to overcome this problem, the identification of the zebra tape was performed by means of the original and practical procedure that is the focus of the present paper. The method consists of three main steps: namely, an ad-hoc test corresponding to special operating conditions, the computation of the instantaneous angular speed, and the final association of the stripes with the corresponding shaft angular position. The results reported in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the simple procedure for the zebra tape identification performed with the final purpose to implement a computed order tracking technique for the data analysis.

  16. Phenomenology of preequilibrium angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbach, C.; Mann, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    The systematics of continuum angular distributions from a wide variety of light ion nuclear reactions have been studied. To first order, the shape of the angular distributions have been found to depend only on the energy of the outgoing particle and on the division of the cross section into multi-step direct and multi-step compound parts. The angular distributions can be described in terms of Legendre polynomials with the reduced polynomial coefficients exhibiting a simple dependence on the outgoing particle energy. Two integer and four continuous parameters with universal values are needed to describe the coefficients for outgoing energies of 2 to 60 MeV in all the reaction types studied. This parameterization combined with a modified Griffin model computer code permits the calculation of double differential cross sections for light ion continuum reactions where no data is available.

  17. Variations in atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.

  18. Interferometric measurement of angular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10-11 rad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.

  19. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  20. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities.

    PubMed

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2011-07-15

    Songbirds are well known for their ability to learn their vocalizations by imitating conspecific adults. This uncommon skill has led to many studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological processes involved in vocal learning. Canaries display a variable, seasonally dependent, vocal behavior throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize the number of detectable brain regions, including most of the areas involved in song perception, learning, and production. The brain atlas can readily be used to determine the stereotactic location of delineated brain areas at any desirable head angle. Alternatively the brain data can be used to determine the ideal orientation of the brain for stereotactic injections, electrophysiological recordings, and brain sectioning. The 3-dimensional canary brain atlas presented here is freely available and is easily adaptable to support many types of neurobiological studies, including anatomical, electrophysiological, histological, explant, and tracer studies. PMID:21565273

  1. Realization of integral 3-dimensional image using fabricated tunable liquid lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Muyoung; Kim, Junoh; Kim, Cheol Joong; Lee, Jin Su; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting has been widely studied for various optical applications such as optical switch, sensor, prism, and display. In this study, vari-focal liquid lens array is developed using electrowetting principle to construct integral 3-dimensional imaging. The electrowetting principle that changes the surface tension by applying voltage has several advantages to realize active optical device such as fast response time, low electrical consumption, and no mechanical moving parts. Two immiscible liquids that are water and oil are used for forming lens. By applying a voltage to the water, the focal length of the lens could be tuned as changing contact angle of water. The fabricated electrowetting vari-focal liquid lens array has 1mm diameter spherical lens shape that has 1.6mm distance between each lens. The number of lenses on the panel is 23x23 and the focal length of the lens array is simultaneously tuned from -125 to 110 diopters depending on the applied voltage. The fabricated lens array is implemented to integral 3-dimensional imaging. A 3D object is reconstructed by fabricated liquid lens array with 23x23 elemental images that are generated by 3D max tools. When liquid lens array is tuned as convex state. From vari-focal liquid lens array implemented integral imaging system, we expect that depth enhanced integral imaging can be realized in the near future.

  2. Morphological Control of Cells on 3-Dimensional Multi-Layer Nanotopographic Structures.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Noh, Young-Mu; Song, Hwan-Moon; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) environment is known to play an important role in the process of various cell regulatory mechanisms. We have investigated the ability of 3-dimensional ECM geometries to induce morphological changes in cells. Bi-layer polymeric structures with submicron scale stripe patterns were fabricated using a two-step nano-imprinting technique, and the orientation angle (θ(α)) of the upper layer was controlled by changing its alignment with respect to the orientation of the bottom layer. When cells were grown on the mono-layer stripe structure with a single orientation, they elongated along the direction of the stripe pattern. On bi-layer polymer structures, the cell morphologies gradually changed and became rounded, with an increase of θα up to 90 degrees, but the polarities of these cells were still aligned along the orientation of the upper layer. As a result, we show that the polarity and the roundness of cells can be independently regulated by adjusting the orientation of 3-dimensional hierarchical ECM topography. PMID:26505024

  3. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  4. Contribution of irregular semicircular canal afferents to the horizontal vestibuloocular response during constant velocity rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of constant anodal currents (100 microA) delivered bilaterally to both labyrinths on the horizontal vestibuloocular response (VOR) were studied in squirrel monkeys during steps of angular velocity in the dark. We report that bilateral anodal currents decreased eye velocity approximately 30-50% during the period of galvanic stimulation without a change in the time constant of VOR. The decrease in eye velocity, present during steps of angular velocity, was not observed during sinusoidal head rotation at 0.2, 0.5, and 1 Hz. The results suggest that responses from irregular vestibular afferents influence VOR amplitude during constant velocity rotation.

  5. Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf

  6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-15

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow

  7. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  8. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  9. Characterization of the bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  10. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  11. The lunar angular momentum problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Formation of the Moon by classical Darwin-type fission of a rapidly spinning proto-Earth is discussed. The relationship of angular momentum to accretion disks is examined. The co-accretion scenario and Darwin-type fission are compared and evaluated.

  12. Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)

  13. Processing of 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar Terrain Images Generated From an Airborne Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Busch, George; Vanek, Michael; Reisse, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Data from the first Flight Test of the NASA Langley Flash Lidar system have been processed. Results of the analyses are presented and discussed. A digital elevation map of the test site is derived from the data, and is compared with the actual topography. The set of algorithms employed, starting from the initial data sorting, and continuing through to the final digital map classification is described. The accuracy, precision, and the spatial and angular resolution of the method are discussed.

  14. In vivo maximal fascicle-shortening velocity during plantar flexion in humans.

    PubMed

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Guilhem, Gaël; Rabita, Giuseppe; Dorel, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    Interindividual variability in performance of fast movements is commonly explained by a difference in maximal muscle-shortening velocity due to differences in the proportion of fast-twitch fibers. To provide a better understanding of the capacity to generate fast motion, this study aimed to 1) measure for the first time in vivo the maximal fascicle-shortening velocity of human muscle; 2) evaluate the relationship between angular velocity and fascicle-shortening velocity from low to maximal angular velocities; and 3) investigate the influence of musculo-articular features (moment arm, tendinous tissues stiffness, and muscle architecture) on maximal angular velocity. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis were obtained from 31 participants during maximal isokinetic and light-loaded plantar flexions. A strong linear relationship between fascicle-shortening velocity and angular velocity was reported for all subjects (mean R(2) = 0.97). The maximal shortening velocity (V(Fmax)) obtained during the no-load condition (NLc) ranged between 18.8 and 43.3 cm/s. V(Fmax) values were very close to those of the maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), which was extrapolated from the F-V curve (the Hill model). Angular velocity reached during the NLc was significantly correlated with this V(Fmax) (r = 0.57; P < 0.001). This finding was in agreement with assumptions about the role of muscle fiber type, whereas interindividual comparisons clearly support the fact that other parameters may also contribute to performance during fast movements. Nevertheless, none of the biomechanical features considered in the present study were found to be directly related to the highest angular velocity, highlighting the complexity of the upstream mechanics that lead to maximal-velocity muscle contraction. PMID:26429868

  15. 3-dimensional interactive space (3DIS); A new dimension in asset protection

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, S. ); Veitch, J. ); West, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 3DIS security system which uses standard CCTV cameras to create 3-Dimensional detection zones around valuable assets within protected areas. An intrusion into a zone changes light values and triggers an alarm that is annunciated, while images from multiple cameras are recorded. 3DIS lowers nuisance alarm rates and provides superior automated surveillance capability. Performance is improved over 2-D systems because activity around, above or below the zone does to cause an alarm. Invisible 3-D zones protect assets as small as a pin or as large as a 747 jetliner. Detection zones are created by excising subspaces from the overlapping fields of view of two or more video cameras. Hundred of zones may co-exist, operating simultaneously. Intrusion into any 3-D zone will cause a coincidental change in light values, triggering an alarm specific to that space.

  16. Tracking Error analysis of Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Total 3-Dimensional Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2011-12-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) operating simulator for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module using triple-junction solar cell was developed. By connecting 3D equivalent circuit simulation for triple-junction solar cell and ray-trace simulation for optics model, the operating characteristics of CPV module were calculated. A typical flat Fresnel lens and homogenizer were adapted to the optics model. The influence of tracking error on the performance of CPV module was calculated. There was the correlation between the optical efficiency and Isc. However, Pm was not correlated with these values, and was strongly dependent on FF. We can use this total simulator for the evaluation and optimization from the light incidence to operating characteristic of CPV modules.

  17. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  18. Investigation of Asymmetries in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Reactors Using a 3-Dimensional Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.; Grapperhaus, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) reactors have the potential for scaling to large area substrates while maintaining azimuthal symmetry or side-to-side uniformity across the wafer. Asymmetric etch properties in these devices have been attributed to transmission line properties of the coil, internal structures (such as wafer clamps) and non-uniform gas injection or pumping. To investigate the origins of asymmetric etch properties, a 3-dimensional hybrid model has been developed. The hybrid model contains electromagnetic, electric circuit, electron energy equation, and fluid modules. Continuity and momentum equations are solved in the fluid module along with Poisson's equation. We will discuss results for ion and radical flux uniformity to the substrate while varying the transmission line characteristics of the coil, symmetry of gas inlets/pumping, and internal structures. Comparisons will be made to expermental measurements of etch rates. ^*Work supported by SRC, NSF, ARPA/AFOSR and LAM Research.

  19. PROMALS3D: multiple protein sequence alignment enhanced with evolutionary and 3-dimensional structural information

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is an essential tool with many applications in bioinformatics and computational biology. Accurate MSA construction for divergent proteins remains a difficult computational task. The constantly increasing protein sequences and structures in public databases could be used to improve alignment quality. PROMALS3D is a tool for protein MSA construction enhanced with additional evolutionary and structural information from database searches. PROMALS3D automatically identifies homologs from sequence and structure databases for input proteins, derives structure-based constraints from alignments of 3-dimensional structures, and combines them with sequence-based constraints of profile-profile alignments in a consistency-based framework to construct high-quality multiple sequence alignments. PROMALS3D output is a consensus alignment enriched with sequence and structural information about input proteins and their homologs. PROMALS3D web server and package are available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/PROMALS3D. PMID:24170408

  20. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  1. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  2. Evaluation of the 3-Dimensional, Weight-bearing Orientation of the Normal Adult Knee

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Denis; Shah, Ritesh R.; Nunley, Ryan M.; Barrack, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional, weight-bearing images corrected for rotation to establish normative data of limb alignment and joint line orientation in asymptomatic, adult knees. One hundred adults (200 lower extremities) were recruited to receive weight-bearing, simultaneous biplanar imaging of both lower extremities. Multiple radiographic parameters were measured from 3D images, corrected for limb rotation. 70.0% of knees were in neutral, 19.5% in varus, and 10.5% in valgus overall alignment. Only 31 % of knees possessed both a neutral mechanical axis and the absence of joint line obliquity. There was substantial agreement between the 2D and 3D images for overall mechanical alignment (κ=0.77), but only a moderate agreement for joint line obliquity (κ=0.58). A substantial portion of asymptomatic adults possess either a varus or valgus mechanical alignment and joint line obliquity, PMID:24315446

  3. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  4. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Hata, Yuki; Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Hosokawa, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed) using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast. PMID:25878927

  5. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Kenji; Hata, Yuki; Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Hosokawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed) using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast. PMID:25878927

  6. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  7. S2PLOT: a Straightforward Library for Advanced 3-dimensional Scientific Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    S2PLOT is a user-oriented programming library for generating and exploring 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific plots and diagrams. It provides a lightweight interface---inspired by the simple yet widely-used PGPLOT---to produce hardware-accelerated visualisations of point, line, image and volumetric data. S2PLOT provides C and FORTRAN interfaces, and supports monoscopic, stereoscopic and curved (eg. dome) display devices. PGPLOT-savvy astronomers can usually write their first S2PLOT program in less than ten minutes. In this paper, we introduce the latest S2PLOT version and highlight major new additions to the library, including volume rendering and isosurfacing of astronomical data. We describe a simple extension that enables the embedding of large-area FITS images directly into S2PLOT programs using standard World Coordinate Systems, and we introduce the Python interface to S2PLOT.

  8. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  9. Generation and 3-Dimensional Quantitation of Arterial Lesions in Mice Using Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Wu, Junxi; Miller, Eileen; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and analysis of vascular lesions in appropriate animal models is a cornerstone of research into cardiovascular disease, generating important information on the pathogenesis of lesion formation and the action of novel therapies. Use of atherosclerosis-prone mice, surgical methods of lesion induction, and dietary modification has dramatically improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and the potential of new treatments. Classically, analysis of lesions is performed ex vivo using 2-dimensional histological techniques. This article describes application of optical projection tomography (OPT) to 3-dimensional quantitation of arterial lesions. As this technique is non-destructive, it can be used as an adjunct to standard histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Neointimal lesions were induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery whilst atherosclerotic lesions were generated by administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesions were examined using OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission followed by complementary histological and immunohistochemical analysis. OPT clearly distinguished lesions from the underlying vascular wall. Lesion size was calculated in 2-dimensional sections using planimetry, enabling calculation of lesion volume and maximal cross-sectional area. Data generated using OPT were consistent with measurements obtained using histology, confirming the accuracy of the technique and its potential as a complement (rather than alternative) to traditional methods of analysis. This work demonstrates the potential of OPT for imaging atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. It provides a rapid, much needed ex vivo technique for the routine 3-dimensional quantification of vascular remodelling. PMID:26067588

  10. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  11. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  12. Selection of massive bone allografts using shape-matching 3-dimensional registration

    PubMed Central

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Cartiaux, Olivier; Cornu, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Massive bone allografts are used when surgery causes large segmental defects. Shape-matching is the primary criterion for selection of an allograft. The current selection method, based on 2-dimensional template comparison, is inefficient for 3-dimensional complex bones. We have analyzed a 3-dimensional (3-D) registration method to match the anatomy of the allograft with that of the recipient. Methods 3-D CT-based registration was performed to match the shapes of both bones. We used the registration to align the allograft volume onto the recipient's bone. Hemipelvic allograft selection was tested in 10 virtual recipients with a panel of 10 potential allografts, including one from the recipient himself (trap graft). 4 observers were asked to visually inspect the superposition of allograft over the recipient, to classify the allografts into 4 categories according to the matching of anatomic zones, and to select the 3 best matching allografts. The results obtained using the registration method were compared with those from a previous study on the template method. Results Using the registration method, the observers systematically detected the trap graft. Selections of the 3 best matching allografts performed using registration and template methods were different. Selection of the 3 best matching allografts was improved by the registration method. Finally, reproducibility of the selection was improved when using the registration method. Interpretation 3-D CT registration provides more useful information than the template method but the final decision lies with the surgeon, who should select the optimal allograft according to his or her own preferences and the needs of the recipient. PMID:20175643

  13. 3 Dimensional Diagnosis Unravelling Prognosis of Multiple Impacted Teeth – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Adusumilli; Reddy, Naveen Admala; Rohra, Mayur G

    2013-01-01

    Impaction of teeth results from the interplay between nature and nurture. Radiographs play an important role in assessment of both the location and the typing of impacted teeth. In general, periapical, occlusal, and/or panoramic radiographs are sufficient for providing the information required by the clinician. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging enables to visualize , diagnose and prognose the treatment outcome of the impacted teeth. This case report discusses the value of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for evaluation of the critical parameters like bone thickness , tooth position and tooth morphology of multiple impacted teeth by 3 dimensional radiography – CBCT. In this report, we present a case of 27-year-old male patient with multiple missing teeth. Radiographs revealed multiple impacted permanent teeth, though medical and family history along with physical examination was not suggestive of any syndromes. Intraoral periapical radiograph, Orthopantomograph, Occlusal radiograph, Cone beam computed tomography were taken for the same patient to determine the exact position of multiple impacted teeth and prognose the treatment plan with the associated factors to impacted teeth. Cone beam computed tomography is an accurate modality to localize and determine the prognosing factors associated with multiple impacted teeth. Three-dimensional volumetric imaging might provide information for improved diagnosis and treatment plans, and ultimately result in more successful treatment outcomes and better care for patients. How to cite this article: Gopinath A, Reddy NA, Rohra MG. 3 Dimensional Diagnosis Unravelling Prognosis of Multiple Impacted Teeth – A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):78-83. PMID:24155625

  14. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  15. Angular Motion Estimation Using Dynamic Models in a Gyro-Free Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Edwan, Ezzaldeen; Knedlik, Stefan; Loffeld, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU). The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU) that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV) composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements' produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters. PMID:22778586

  16. Pore Velocity Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devary, J. L.; Doctor, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    Geostatistical data analysis techniques were used to stochastically model the spatial variability of groundwater pore velocity in a potential waste repository site. Kriging algorithms were applied to Hanford Reservation data to estimate hydraulic conductivities, hydraulic head gradients, and pore velocities. A first-order Taylor series expansion for pore velocity was used to statistically combine hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head gradient, and effective porosity surfaces and uncertainties to characterize the pore velocity uncertainty. Use of these techniques permits the estimation of pore velocity uncertainties when pore velocity measurements do not exist. Large pore velocity estimation uncertainties were found to be located in the region where the hydraulic head gradient relative uncertainty was maximal.

  17. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. IV. Evolution of rotational velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Royer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. In previous works of this series, we have shown that late B- and early A-type stars have genuine bimodal distributions of rotational velocities and that late A-type stars lack slow rotators. The distributions of the surface angular velocity ratio Ω/Ωcrit (Ωcrit is the critical angular velocity) have peculiar shapes according to spectral type groups, which can be caused by evolutionary properties. Aims: We aim to review the properties of these rotational velocity distributions in some detail as a function of stellar mass and age. Methods: We have gathered vsini for a sample of 2014 B6- to F2-type stars. We have determined the masses and ages for these objects with stellar evolution models. The (Teff,log L/L⊙)-parameters were determined from the uvby-β photometry and the HIPPARCOS parallaxes. Results: The velocity distributions show two regimes that depend on the stellar mass. Stars less massive than 2.5 M⊙ have a unimodal equatorial velocity distribution and show a monotonical acceleration with age on the main sequence (MS). Stars more massive have a bimodal equatorial velocity distribution. Contrarily to theoretical predictions, the equatorial velocities of stars from about 1.7 M⊙ to 3.2 M⊙ undergo a strong acceleration in the first third of the MS evolutionary phase, while in the last third of the MS they evolve roughly as if there were no angular momentum redistribution in the external stellar layers. The studied stars might start in the ZAMS not necessarily as rigid rotators, but with a total angular momentum lower than the critical one of rigid rotators. The stars seem to evolve as differential rotators all the way of their MS life span and the variation of the observed rotational velocities proceeds with characteristic time scales δt ≈ 0.2 tMS, where tMS is the time spent by a star in the MS. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  18. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  19. Neoclassical Angular Momentum Flux Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. K.; Chan, V. S.

    2004-11-01

    The toroidal angular momentum flux in neoclassical transport theory of small rotations depends on the second order (in ion poloidal gyroradius over plasma scale length) ion distribution function. Owing to the complexity of the calculation, the result obtained a long time ago for circular cross-section tokamak plasmas in the banana regime [M.N. Rosenbluth, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1971), Vol. 1, p. 495] has never been reproduced. Using a representation of the angular momentum flux based on the solution of an adjoint equation to the usual linearized drift kinetic equation, and performing systematically a large-aspect-ratio expansion, we have obtained the flux for flux surfaces of arbitrary shape. We have found the same analytic form for the temperature gradient driven part of the flux, but the overall numerical multiplier is different and has the opposite sign. Implications for rotations in discharges with no apparent momentum input will be discussed.

  20. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-01

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  1. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  2. NUCLEI AT HIGH ANGULAR MOMENTUM

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.

    1980-06-01

    It appears that most nuclei show a compromise between purely collective and purely non-collective behavior at very high spins.non~collective behavior in nuclei has been seen only as high as 36 or 37{bar h}, at which point a more collective structure seems to develop. The concepts underlying the study of high angular momentum states are discussed. The factors that limit angular momentum in nuclei are considered. The currently emerging state of physics of very high spin states is reviewed. The detailed calculations currently made for high spin states are described, focusing not on the calculations themselves, but on the physical input to them and results that come out. Production of high-spin states using heavy-ion reactions is reviewed. Studies of {gamma}-rays de-exciting the evaporation residues from heavy-ion reactions are covered. Two types of {gamma} rays occur: those that cool the nucleus to or toward the yrast line, called "statistical," and those that are more or less parallel to the yrast line and remove the angular momentum, called "yrast~like." Collective rotation, in simplest form the motion of a deformed nucleus around an axis perpendicular to its symmetry axis, is also covered.

  3. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed.

  4. Magnetized galactic haloes and velocity lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Irwin, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas (not with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height z. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, r.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF MOTION CORRECTED WIND VELOCITY USING AN AEROSTAT LOFTED SONIC ANEMOMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerostat-lofted, sonic anemometer was used to determine instantaneous 3 dimensional wind velocities at altitudes relevant to fire plume dispersion modeling. An integrated GPS, inertial measurement unit, and attitude heading and reference system corrected the wind data for th...

  6. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Prasad; Pujari, B. S.; Becker, Peter A.

    2004-03-01

    We reexamine arguments advanced by Hayashi & Matsuda (2001), who claim that several simple, physically motivated derivations based on mean free path theory for calculating the viscous torque in a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi & Matsudawould radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, which is a central feature of accretion disk theory. However, in this paper we point out several fallacies in their arguments and show that there indeed exists a simple derivation based on mean free path theory that yields an expression for the viscous torque that is proportional to the radial derivative of the angular velocity in the accretion disk, as expected. The derivation is based on the analysis of the epicyclic motion of gas parcels in adjacent eddies in the disk.

  7. The Investigation of Accuracy of 3 Dimensional Models Generated From Point Clouds with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumus, Kutalmis; Erkaya, Halil

    2013-04-01

    In Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) applications, it is necessary to take into consideration the conditions that affect the scanning process, especially the general characteristics of the laser scanner, geometric properties of the scanned object (shape, size, etc.), and its spatial location in the environment. Three dimensional models obtained with TLS, allow determining the geometric features and relevant magnitudes of the scanned object in an indirect way. In order to compare the spatial location and geometric accuracy of the 3-dimensional model created by Terrestrial laser scanning, it is necessary to use measurement tools that give more precise results than TLS. Geometric comparisons are performed by analyzing the differences between the distances, the angles between surfaces and the measured values taken from cross-sections between the data from the 3-dimensional model created with TLS and the values measured by other measurement devices The performance of the scanners, the size and shape of the scanned objects are tested using reference objects the sizes of which are determined with high precision. In this study, the important points to consider when choosing reference objects were highlighted. The steps up to processing the point clouds collected by scanning, regularizing these points and modeling in 3 dimensions was presented visually. In order to test the geometric correctness of the models obtained by Terrestrial laser scanners, sample objects with simple geometric shapes such as cubes, rectangular prisms and cylinders that are made of concrete were used as reference models. Three dimensional models were generated by scanning these reference models with Trimble Mensi GS 100. The dimension of the 3D model that is created from point clouds was compared with the precisely measured dimensions of the reference objects. For this purpose, horizontal and vertical cross-sections were taken from the reference objects and generated 3D models and the proximity of

  8. Successful Parenchyma-Sparing Anatomical Surgery by 3-Dimensional Reconstruction of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Combined with Anatomic Variation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qihong; Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The combination of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and anatomic variation constitutes a rare and complicated condition. Precise understanding of 3-dimensional position of tumor in the intrahepatic structure in such cases is important for operation planning and navigation. We report a case of a 61-year woman presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Anatomic variation and tumor location were well depicted on preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction as the right posterior segmental duct drained to left hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct, biliary confluence, right anterior segmental duct, and right anterior branch of portal vein were involved by the tumor (Bismuth IIIa). After carefully operation planning, we successfully performed a radical parenchyma-sparing anatomical surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Liver segmentectomy (segments 5 and 8) and caudate lobectomy. MDCTcombined with 3-dimensional reconstruction is a reliable non-invasive modality for preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27376205

  9. Two-dimensional angular filter array for angular domain imaging with 3D printed angular filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Eldon; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) is a technique that is capable of generating two dimensional shadowgrams of attenuating targets embedded in a scattering medium. In ADI, an angular filter array (AFA) is positioned between the sample and the detector to distinguish between quasi-ballistic photons and scattered photons. An AFA is a series of micro-channels with a high aspect ratio. Previous AFAs from our group were constructed by micro-machining the micro-channels into a silicon wafer, limiting the imaging area to a one dimensional line. Two dimensional images were acquired via scanning. The objective of this work was to extend the AFA design to two dimensions to allow for two dimensional imaging with minimal scanning. The second objective of this work was to perform an initial characterization of the imaging capabilities of the 2D AFA. Our approach was to use rapid 3D prototyping techniques to generate an array of micro-channels. The imaging capabilities were then evaluated by imaging a 0.9 mm graphite rod submerged in a scattering media. Contrast was observed to improve when a second angular filter array was placed in front of the sample to mask the incoming light.

  10. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications. PMID:26344279

  11. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  12. A 3-dimensional DTI MRI-based model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Patel, Vishal; Wen, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most aggressive intra-axial brain tumor, with a notoriously poor prognosis. To improve this prognosis, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of GBM growth, response to treatment and recurrence. The present study presents a mathematical diffusion-proliferation model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy based on diffusion tensor (DTI) MRI imaging. This represents an important advance because it allows 3-dimensional tumor modeling in the anatomical context of the brain. Specifically, tumor infiltration is guided by the direction of the white matter tracts along which glioma cells infiltrate. This provides the potential to model different tumor growth patterns based on location within the brain, and to simulate the tumor's response to different radiation therapy regimens. Tumor infiltration across the corpus callosum is simulated in biologically accurate time frames. The response to radiation therapy, including changes in cell density gradients and how these compare across different radiation fractionation protocols, can be rendered. Also, the model can estimate the amount of subthreshold tumor which has extended beyond the visible MR imaging margins. When combined with the ability of being able to estimate the biological parameters of invasiveness and proliferation of a particular GBM from serial MRI scans, it is shown that the model has potential to simulate realistic tumor growth, response and recurrence patterns in individual patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a DTI-based GBM growth and radiation therapy treatment model. PMID:27572745

  13. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC. PMID:26046692

  14. EEG Control of a Virtual Helicopter in 3-Dimensional Space Using Intelligent Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Audrey S.; Doud, Alexander J.; Rose, Minn L.

    2011-01-01

    Films like Firefox, Surrogates, and Avatar have explored the possibilities of using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to control machines and replacement bodies with only thought. Real world BCIs have made great progress toward that end. Invasive BCIs have enabled monkeys to fully explore 3-dimensional (3D) space using neuroprosthetics. However, non-invasive BCIs have not been able to demonstrate such mastery of 3D space. Here, we report our work, which demonstrates that human subjects can use a non-invasive BCI to fly a virtual helicopter to any point in a 3D world. Through use of intelligent control strategies, we have facilitated the realization of controlled flight in 3D space. We accomplished this through a reductionist approach that assigns subject-specific control signals to the crucial components of 3D flight. Subject control of the helicopter was comparable when using either the BCI or a keyboard. By using intelligent control strategies, the strengths of both the user and the BCI system were leveraged and accentuated. Intelligent control strategies in BCI systems such as those presented here may prove to be the foundation for complex BCIs capable of doing more than we ever imagined. PMID:20876032

  15. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor. PMID:26810827

  16. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures. PMID:27137437

  17. Real-time Interpolation for True 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Image Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    We compared trilinear interpolation to voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms for fast and accurate processing of true 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) image volumes. In this study, the computational efficiency and interpolation accuracy of the 3 methods were compared on the basis of a simulated 3DUS image volume, 34 clinical 3DUS image volumes from 5 patients, and 2 experimental phantom image volumes. We show that trilinear interpolation improves interpolation accuracy over both the voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms yet achieves real-time computational performance that is comparable to the voxel nearest neighbor algrorithm (1–2 orders of magnitude faster than the distance-weighted algorithm) as well as the fastest pixel-based algorithms for processing tracked 2-dimensional ultrasound images (0.035 seconds per 2-dimesional cross-sectional image [76,800 pixels interpolated, or 0.46 ms/1000 pixels] and 1.05 seconds per full volume with a 1-mm3 voxel size [4.6 million voxels interpolated, or 0.23 ms/1000 voxels]). On the basis of these results, trilinear interpolation is recommended as a fast and accurate interpolation method for rectilinear sampling of 3DUS image acquisitions, which is required to facilitate subsequent processing and display during operating room procedures such as image-guided neurosurgery. PMID:21266563

  18. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  19. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  20. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  1. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  2. Fabrication of a 3-dimensional nanostructured binary colloidal crystal within a confined channel.

    PubMed

    Gorey, Brian; Smyth, Malcolm R; Morrin, Aoife; White, Blánaid

    2014-12-15

    The reproducible fabrication of nanostructured 3Dimensional (3D) binary colloidal crystal (bCC) in a defined geometric space through a simple one step process is detailed. This method allows for the potential fabrication of a bCC in a sealed μchip within a defined area or channel by capillary forces, unlike other bCC formation methods such as dip-drawing, where the substrate must be submerged in a suspension to form a bCC, or bCC monolayers, which are fabricated at the water air interface. Through simple variation in volume fraction ratio (VF(S/L)) of nano-(denoted small, S) and macro-sized (denoted large, L) polystyrene (PS) spheres and diameter size ratio (D(S/L)), the manipulation of bCC structures was also achieved. Variation of nano-sized PS sphere number within the interstitial voids formed between neighbouring macro-sized spheres enabled the reproducible fabrication of LS2 and LS6 structures, which contain 1 and 3 nano-spheres respectively in each interstitial void. It must be noted that while VF(S/L) allows for control of the final LSn structure, thickness of bCC formation in this manner is independent of VFS/L. PMID:25268825

  3. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-01-01

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  4. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear. PMID:27124876

  5. Simultaneous PET and Multispectral 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Optical Tomography Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changqing; Yang, Yongfeng; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated PET and 3-dimensional (3D) fluorescence optical tomography (FOT) imaging has unique and attractive features for in vivo molecular imaging applications. We have designed, built, and evaluated a simultaneous PET and 3D FOT system. The design of the FOT system is compatible with many existing small-animal PET scanners. Methods The 3D FOT system comprises a novel conical mirror that is used to view the whole-body surface of a mouse with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera when a collimated laser beam is projected on the mouse to stimulate fluorescence. The diffusion equation was used to model the propagation of optical photons inside the mouse body, and 3D fluorescence images were reconstructed iteratively from the fluorescence intensity measurements measured from the surface of the mouse. Insertion of the conical mirror into the gantry of a small-animal PET scanner allowed simultaneous PET and 3D FOT imaging. Results The mutual interactions between PET and 3D FOT were evaluated experimentally. PET has negligible effects on 3D FOT performance. The inserted conical mirror introduces a reduction in the sensitivity and noise-equivalent count rate of the PET system and increases the scatter fraction. PET–FOT phantom experiments were performed. An in vivo experiment using both PET and FOT was also performed. Conclusion Phantom and in vivo experiments demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous PET and 3D FOT imaging. The first in vivo simultaneous PET–FOT results are reported. PMID:21810591

  6. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  7. Fabrication and selective surface modification of 3-dimensionally textured biomedical polymers from etched silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Kapur, R; Spargo, B J; Chen, M S; Calvert, J M; Rudolph, A S

    1996-01-01

    A new method is described for producing biomedically relevant polymers with precisely defined micron scale surface texture in the x, y, and z planes. Patterned Si templates were fabricated using photolithography to create a relief pattern in photoresist with lateral dimensions as small as 1 micron. Electroless Ni was selectively deposited in the trenches of the patterned substrate. The Ni served as a resilient mask for transferring the patterns onto the Si substrate to depths of up to 8.5 microns by anisotropic reactive ion etching with a fluorine-based plasma. The 3-dimensional (3-D) textured silicon substrates were used as robust, reusable molds for pattern transfer onto poly (dimethyl siloxane), low density poly (ethylene), poly (L-lactide), and poly (glycolide) by either casting or injection molding. The fidelity of the pattern transfer from the silicon substrates to the polymers was 90 to 95% in all three planes for all polymers for more than 60 transfers from a single wafer, as determined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Further, the 3-D textured polymers were selectively modified to coat proteins either in the trenches or on the mesas by capillary modification or selective coating techniques. These selectively patterned 3-D polymer substrates may be useful for a variety of biomaterial applications. PMID:8953387

  8. Cerebral Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revealed by 3-Dimensional Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee-Hong; Emery, Derek; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction. Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS. PMID:27064416

  9. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  10. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  11. 3-DIMENSIONAL Numerical Modeling on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel in Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenming; An, Hui; Amin, Maghbouli; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    A 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling is conducted on a direct injection diesel engine fueled by biodiesel using multi-dimensional software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN. To accurately predict the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated agents of the biodiesel fuel, a multicomponent advanced combustion model consisting of 69 species and 204 reactions combined with detailed oxidation pathways of methyl decenoate (C11H22O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2) and n-heptane (C7H16) is employed in this work. In order to better represent the real fuel properties, the detailed chemical and thermo-physical properties of biodiesel such as vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid viscosity and surface tension were calculated and compiled into the KIVA4 fuel library. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) formation mechanisms were also embedded. After validating the numerical simulation model by comparing the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate curves with experimental results, further studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of combustion chamber design on flow field, subsequently on the combustion process and performance of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. Research has also been done to investigate the impact of fuel injector location on the performance and emissions formation of diesel engine.

  12. The 3-dimensional, 4-channel model of human visual sensitivity to grayscale scrambles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andrew E; Chubb, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Previous research supports the claim that human vision has three dimensions of sensitivity to grayscale scrambles (textures composed of randomly scrambled mixtures of different grayscales). However, the preattentive mechanisms (called here "field-capture channels") that confer this sensitivity remain obscure. The current experiments sought to characterize the specific field-capture channels that confer this sensitivity using a task in which the participant is required to detect the location of a small patch of one type of grayscale scramble in an extended background of another type. Analysis of the results supports the existence of four field-capture channels: (1) the (previously characterized) "blackshot" channel, sharply tuned to the blackest grayscales; (2) a (previously unknown) "gray-tuned" field-capture channel whose sensitivity is zero for black rising sharply to maximum sensitivity for grayscales slightly darker than mid-gray then decreasing to half-height for brighter grayscales; (3) an "up-ramped" channel whose sensitivity is zero for black, increases linearly with increasing grayscale reaching a maximum near white; (4) a (complementary) "down-ramped" channel whose sensitivity is maximal for black, decreases linearly reaching a minimum near white. The sensitivity functions of field-capture channels (3) and (4) are linearly dependent; thus, these four field-capture channels collectively confer sensitivity to a 3-dimensional space of histogram variations. PMID:24932891

  13. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene. PMID:21811148

  14. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how ...

  15. Uncertainty relations for angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammeier, Lars; Schwonnek, René; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we study various notions of uncertainty for angular momentum in the spin-s representation of SU(2). We characterize the ‘uncertainty regions’ given by all vectors, whose components are specified by the variances of the three angular momentum components. A basic feature of this set is a lower bound for the sum of the three variances. We give a method for obtaining optimal lower bounds for uncertainty regions for general operator triples, and evaluate these for small s. Further lower bounds are derived by generalizing the technique by which Robertson obtained his state-dependent lower bound. These are optimal for large s, since they are saturated by states taken from the Holstein-Primakoff approximation. We show that, for all s, all variances are consistent with the so-called vector model, i.e., they can also be realized by a classical probability measure on a sphere of radius \\sqrt{s(s+1)}. Entropic uncertainty relations can be discussed similarly, but are minimized by different states than those minimizing the variances for small s. For large s the Maassen-Uffink bound becomes sharp and we explicitly describe the extremalizing states. Measurement uncertainty, as recently discussed by Busch, Lahti and Werner for position and momentum, is introduced and a generalized observable (POVM) which minimizes the worst case measurement uncertainty of all angular momentum components is explicitly determined, along with the minimal uncertainty. The output vectors for the optimal measurement all have the same length r(s), where r(s)/s\\to 1 as s\\to ∞ .

  16. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  17. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  18. Angular rate optimal design for the rotary strapdown inertial navigation system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Sun, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of high precision for a long duration, the rotary strapdown inertial navigation system (RSINS) has been widely used in submarines and surface ships. Nowadays, the core technology, the rotating scheme, has been studied by numerous researchers. It is well known that as one of the key technologies, the rotating angular rate seriously influences the effectiveness of the error modulating. In order to design the optimal rotating angular rate of the RSINS, the relationship between the rotating angular rate and the velocity error of the RSINS was analyzed in detail based on the Laplace transform and the inverse Laplace transform in this paper. The analysis results showed that the velocity error of the RSINS depends on not only the sensor error, but also the rotating angular rate. In order to minimize the velocity error, the rotating angular rate of the RSINS should match the sensor error. One optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS was also proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results verified the validity and superiority of this optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS. PMID:24759115

  19. Angular Rate Optimal Design for the Rotary Strapdown Inertial Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Sun, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of high precision for a long duration, the rotary strapdown inertial navigation system (RSINS) has been widely used in submarines and surface ships. Nowadays, the core technology, the rotating scheme, has been studied by numerous researchers. It is well known that as one of the key technologies, the rotating angular rate seriously influences the effectiveness of the error modulating. In order to design the optimal rotating angular rate of the RSINS, the relationship between the rotating angular rate and the velocity error of the RSINS was analyzed in detail based on the Laplace transform and the inverse Laplace transform in this paper. The analysis results showed that the velocity error of the RSINS depends on not only the sensor error, but also the rotating angular rate. In order to minimize the velocity error, the rotating angular rate of the RSINS should match the sensor error. One optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS was also proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results verified the validity and superiority of this optimal design method for the rotating rate of the RSINS. PMID:24759115

  20. 3-D Coupled FE Analysis and Experimental Validation of Restrained Welding to Control Angular Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damale, A. V.; Nandurkar, K. N.

    2012-10-01

    Welding induced distortion is one of the critical defects in the welded structures. Angular distortion is most pronounced which badly affects the welded structures. Non-uniform heating during welding develops this angular distortion. Various methods are available to control/minimize the welding distortions. One of the methods available to control this distortion is restraining, in which clamping pressure is applied on the deforming edges of the plates. In the present study, a 3-dimensional coupled transient thermal analysis is done for simulating the restraining phenomenon of welding. The developed transient thermal heat source was used to simulate the arc welding phenomenon. The element birth and death technique was used for simulating filler material deposition. Thermal model was verified by comparing the macrograph of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model and the weld and verification of structural model was done by comparing the measured and predicted angular distortions. Experimental and Finite Element (FE) analysis is done for both conventional welding and welding under restraining pressure. Transient thermal and non-linear structural analyses were carried out in order to predict angular distortions. The Finite Element Method analysis and experimental verification is done for manual metal arc welding process.

  1. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.; Fluss, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described.

  2. Dust particle velocity measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielman, L. O.

    1976-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to measure the velocity distributions for particles entering a vacuum chamber from the atmosphere through calibrated leaks. The relative number of particles per velocity interval was obtained for particulates of three size distributions and two densities passing through six different leak geometries. The velocity range 15 to 320 meters per second was investigated. Peak particle velocities were found to occur in the 15 to 150 meters per second range depending upon type of particle and leak geometry. A small fraction of the particles were found to have velocities in the 150 to 320 meters per second range.

  3. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Threat object identification performance for LADAR imagery: comparison of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Matthew A.; Driggers, Ronald G.; Redman, Brian; Krapels, Keith A.

    2006-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the change in human observer range performance when LADAR imagery is presented in stereo 3D vice 2D. It compares the ability of observers to correctly identify twelve common threatening and non-threatening single-handed objects (e.g. a pistol versus a cell phone). Images were collected with the Army Research Lab/Office of Naval Research (ARL/ONR) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging LADAR. A perception experiment, utilizing both military and civilian observers, presented subjects with images of varying angular resolutions. The results of this experiment were used to create identification performance curves for the 2D and 3D imagery, which show probability of identification as a function of range. Analysis of the results indicates that there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in performance between 2D and 3D imagery.

  5. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831

  6. Spheroid-based 3-dimensional culture models: Gene expression and functionality in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marianne; Scholz, Claus-Juergen; Polednik, Christine; Roller, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    In the present study a panel of 12 head and neck cancer (HNSCC) cell lines were tested for spheroid formation. Since the size and morphology of spheroids is dependent on both cell adhesion and proliferation in the 3-dimensional (3D) context, morphology of HNSCC spheroids was related to expression of E-cadherin and the proliferation marker Ki67. In HNSCC cell lines the formation of tight regular spheroids was dependent on distinct E-cadherin expression levels in monolayer cultures, usually resulting in upregulation following aggregation into 3D structures. Cell lines expressing only low levels of E-cadherin in monolayers produced only loose cell clusters, frequently decreasing E-cadherin expression further upon aggregation. In these cell lines no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upregulation occurred and proliferation generally decreased in spheroids/aggregates independent of E-cadherin expression. In a second approach a global gene expression analysis of the larynx carcinoma cell line HLaC78 monolayer and the corresponding spheroids was performed. A global upregulation of gene expression in HLaC78 spheroids was related to genes involved in cell adhesion, cell junctions and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. Downregulation was associated with genes controlling cell cycle, DNA-replication and DNA mismatch repair. Analyzing the expression of selected genes of each functional group in monolayer and spheroid cultures of all 12 cell lines revealed evidence for common gene expression shifts in genes controlling cell junctions, cell adhesion, cell cycle and DNA replication as well as genes involved in the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:26797047

  7. Effect of decompression on cystic lesions of the mandible: 3-dimensional volumetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, I S; Park, H S; Seo, B M; Lee, J H; Kim, M J

    2015-11-01

    Decompression is effective in reducing both the size of cystic lesions on jaws and the associated morbidity of resection. However, quantitative measurement of reduced volume after decompression among different cystic diseases has not been fully investigated. We have retrospectively investigated the difference in reduction in volume among keratocystic odontogenic tumours (n=17), unicystic ameloblastomas (n=10), and dentigerous cysts (n=10) of the posterior mandible using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT). Various other influential factors such as age, sex, the presence of impacted teeth, and the number of drains were also recorded. There was no significant difference in the speed of shrinkage among the 3 groups, but there was a significant correlation (p<0.01) between the initial detected volume of the lesion and the absolute speed of shrinkage in each type of cyst. Initial volume was also significantly associated (p<0.01) with reduction of total volume in each type of cyst. Age may correlate negatively with the rate of reduction in dentigerous cysts, which means that the older the patient is, the less the reduction. Treatment seemed to last longer as the speed of shrinkage lessened in the keratocystic tumours and dentigerous cysts (p<0.05) as multiple regression has shown. The relative speed of shrinkage of unicystic ameloblastomas seemed to be slower when an impacted tooth was involved in the lesion (p=0.019). However, the sample size was too small to make any definite statistical statement. These results suggest that the rate of reduction of volume was related to the original size of the lesion. Despite the need for a second operation and longer duration of treatment compared with excision alone, decompression is a valuable way of reducing the size of large cystic lesions, with low morbidity and recurrence rate. There was no difference in the rate of reduction according to the underlying histopathological picture. PMID:26212420

  8. A Customized Bolus Produced Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient’s skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. Methods We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. Results The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. Conclusions A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses. PMID:25337700

  9. An Explicit 3-Dimensional Model for Reactive Transport of Nitrogen in Tile Drained Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Hudson, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Midwest because of its link to surface water eutrophication, especially in the Gulf of Mexico. The vast majority of this nitrate is the product of biologically mediated transformation of fertilizers containing ammonia in the vadose zone of agricultural fields. For this reason, it is imperative that mathematical models, which can serve as useful tools to evaluate both the impact of agricultural fertilizer applications and nutrient-reducing management practices, are able to specifically address transport in the vadose zone. The development of a 3-dimensional explicit numerical model to simulate the movement and transformation of nitrogen species through the subsurface on the scale of an individual farm plot will be presented. At this scale, nitrogen fate and transport is controlled by a complex coupling among hydrologic, agricultural and biogeochemical processes. The nitrogen model is a component of a larger modeling effort that focuses upon conditions typical of those found in agricultural fields in Illinois. These conditions include non-uniform, multi-dimensional, transient flow in both saturated and unsaturated zones, geometrically complex networks of tile drains, coupled surface-subsurface-tile flow, and dynamic levels of dissolved oxygen in the soil profile. The advection-dispersion-reaction equation is solved using an operator-splitting approach, which is a flexible and straightforward strategy. Advection is modeled using a total variation diminishing scheme, dispersion is modeled using an alternating direction explicit method, and reactions are modeled using rate law equations. The model's stability and accuracy will be discussed, and test problems will be presented.

  10. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  11. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  12. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  13. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:24649670

  14. Basement membrane proteins promote progression of intraepithelial neoplasia in 3-dimensional models of human stratified epithelium.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Frank; Garfield, Jackie; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2004-01-20

    We have developed novel 3-dimensional in vitro and in vivo tissue models that mimic premalignant disease of human stratified epithelium in order to analyze the stromal contribution of extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins to the progression of intraepithelial neoplasia. Three-dimensional, organotypic cultures were grown either on a de-epidermalized human dermis with pre-existing basement membrane components on its surface (AlloDerm), on a Type I collagen gel that lacked basement membrane proteins or on polycarbonate membranes coated with purified extracellular matrix proteins. When tumor cells (HaCaT-II4) were mixed with normal keratinocytes (4:1/normals:HaCaT-II4), tumor cells selectively attached, persisted and proliferated at the dermal-epidermal interface in vitro and generated dysplastic tissues when transplanted to nude mice only when grown in the presence of the AlloDerm substrate. This stromal interface was permissive for tumor cell attachment due to the rapid assembly of structured basement membrane. When tumor cells were mixed with normal keratinocytes and grown on polycarbonate membranes coated with individual extracellular matrix or basement membrane components, selective attachment and significant intraepithelial expansion occurred only on laminin 1 and Type IV collagen-coated membranes. This preferential adhesion of tumor cells restricted the synthesis of laminin 5 to basal cells where it was deposited in a polarized distribution. Western blot analysis revealed that tumor cell attachment was not due to differences in the synthesis or processing of laminin 5. Thus, intraepithelial progression towards premalignant disease is dependent on the selective adhesion of cells with malignant potential to basement membrane proteins that provide a permissive template for their persistence and expansion. PMID:14648700

  15. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  16. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  17. TAF4 Inactivation Reveals the 3 Dimensional Growth Promoting Activities of Collagen 6A3

    PubMed Central

    Duluc, Isabelle; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4−/− MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4−/− MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4−/− MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4−/− MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth. PMID:24498316

  18. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  19. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  20. Effect of Watching 3-Dimensional Television on Refractive Error in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. Results The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Conclusions Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children. PMID:25646061

  1. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  2. Reproducibility of 3-dimensional ultrasound readings of volume of carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Malte; Zielinski, Tomasz; Schremmer, Dieter; Stumpe, Klaus O

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-invasive 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) has emerged as the predominant approach for evaluating the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and its response to treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of a central reading procedure concerning plaque volume (PV), measured by 3D US in a multinational US trial. Methods Two data sets of 45 and 60 3D US patient images of plaques (mean PV, 71.8 and 39.8 μl, respectively) were used. PV was assessed by means of manual planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was applied to determine reader variabilities. The repeatability coefficient (RC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to investigate the effect of number of slices (S) in manual planimetry and plaque size on measurement variability. Results Intra-reader variability was small as reflected by ICCs of 0.985, 0.967 and 0.969 for 3 appointed readers. The ICC value generated between the 3 readers was 0.964, indicating that inter-reader variability was small, too. Subgroup analyses showed that both intra- and inter-reader variabilities were lower for larger than for smaller plaques. Mean CVs were similar for the 5S- and 10S-methods with a RC of 4.7 μl. The RC between both methods as well as the CVs were comparatively lower for larger plaques. Conclusion By implementing standardised central 3D US reading protocols and strict quality control procedures highly reliable ultrasonic re-readings of plaque images can be achieved in large multicentre trials. PMID:18727816

  3. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery. PMID:23254802

  4. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Wientjes, Michael G.; Yeung, Bertrand Z.; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity.Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30 mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,1-20 mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44 mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30 mol% DOTAP and ≤10 mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposomesize increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomessuggestsconcentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135 nm diameter, -49 to +44 mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10 mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoralsubcompartments within spheroids. PMID:24995948

  5. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  6. A demonstration of the conservation of the orbital angular momentum of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, Leonardo J.; Mayochi, Mariano G.; Ciocci Brazzano, Ligia; Pedrosa, Susana E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple but quantitative experiment to demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum. We measure the correlation of the apparent radius and angular velocity of the Sun with respect to the stars, due to the conservation of the angular momentum of Earth in its orbit. We also determine the direction of Earth's angular momentum vector and show that it is conserved. The experiment can be performed using a small telescope and a digital camera. It is conceptually simple, allowing students to get direct physical insight from the data. The observations are performed near the resolution limit imposed by the atmosphere, and in the presence of strong competing effects. These effects necessitate a careful experimental setup and allow students to improve their skills in experimentation.

  7. Reconstruction of a 3-dimensional transonic rotor flow field from holographic interferogram data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. H.; Kittleson, J. K.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic interferometry and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) are used to determine the transonic velocity field of a model rotor blade in hover. A pulsed ruby laser recorded 40 interferograms with a 2-ft-diam view field near the model rotor-blade tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. After digitizing the interferograms and extracting fringe-order functions, the data are transferred to a CAT code. The CAT code then calculates the perturbation velocity in seeral planes above the blade surface. The values from the holography-CAT method compare favorably with previously obtained numerical computations in most locations near the blade tip. The results demonstrate the technique's potential for three-dimensional transonic rotor flow studies.

  8. Relative Effects of Angularity, Grain Size, and Sorting on Auto-Acoustic Compaction in Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    There are thought to be three main rheological regimes exhibited within granular media in the presence of shear stress, each dependent on a dimensionless number, I, representing the relative values of collisional stress between grains and confining stress. At slow shear rates, when I<<1, the granular flow is in the quasi-static regime, and shear stress is supported elastically through multi-grain networks (force-chains). At high shear rates, when I>>1, the flow is in the grain-inertial regime, and shear stress is supported through the transfer of momentum occurring in grain-to-grain collisions. Experiments conducted using a torsional rheometer found that at intermediate shear velocities, where I approaches 1, force-chain collapse in angular sand samples produces sound waves capable of vibrating the shear zone enough to cause compaction (van der Elst et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2007). Whether or not a granular mixture exhibits this auto-acoustic compaction effect during flow has been observed to be dependent on angularity, grain size, sorting, and mineral strength: more angular grains produce more noise and compact more at intermediate shear velocities than spherical grains do, and smaller angular grains produce more noise and compact more than larger angular grains. We use the same experimental set up to explore the relative importance of the effects of angularity and grain size, comparing various grain sizes and sorting in both spherical and angular granular mixtures. Accurate assessment of the effect of angularity and grain size on rheology of granular flow will serve as a helpful predictive tool for modeling granular processes including landslides, rockslides, fault ruptures, and desert dune migrations. Grain size and shape can vary greatly system-to-system but are also often easy to observe in the field. We hope to be able to use these types of small scale grain observations to form predictions about the behavior of the larger scale process of which they are a

  9. Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditchburn, R. J.; Smith, G. B.

    1991-03-01

    A useful magnitude of angular selective transmittance of incident unpolarized light is demonstrated in obliquely deposited aluminum. Required deposition procedures and anisotropic optical properties are discussed. Angular selectivity is very strong at visible wavelengths but both experiment and theory indicate that a single oblique layer with well defined columns gives high transmittance at near-infrared wavelengths compared with normal films. There are ways of reducing this to enhance the energy control capability. Both solar and luminous angular selectivity are reported.

  10. The Angular Momentum of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong

    2016-05-01

    The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.

  11. Configuration interaction calculations with infinite angular = expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, S.P.; Glickman, T.

    1996-05-01

    The Modified Configuration Interaction (MCI) method improves the angular convergence of Configuration Interaction (CI) calculations by several orders of magnitude by mixing a priori a large number of angular basis functions. With MCI one can therefore use basis functions with very large angular momentum quantum numbers, overcoming an important limitation of conventional CI. Although this is desirable given the excellent convergence obtained, the large number of angular integrations and the calculation of n-j symbols with large values of l to high accuracy, make the angular calculations lengthy. In this work a new angular representation for CI calculations is presented that is much more efficient and powerful. Instead of the large number of angular functions of MCI the authors use a basis set containing an infinite linear combination of angular functions. All the necessary integrations involving these infinite expansions are done in closed form and are actually easy and fast to compute. The linear coefficients in the angular expansion are optimized in terms of a few non-linear parameters. Several examples will be presented with applications to two-electron systems.

  12. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  13. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  14. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  15. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Nicola; Kisiswa, Lilian; Prashar, Ankush; Faulkner, Stuart; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Singh, Krish; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Guggenheim, Jez; Halfter, Willi; Wride, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 microm to 117.2 microm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment

  16. Contributions of the Musculus Uvulae to Velopharyngeal Closure Quantified With a 3-Dimensional Multimuscle Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Lin, Kant Y; Perry, Jamie L; Blemker, Silvia S

    2016-02-01

    The convexity of the dorsal surface of the velum is critical for normal velopharyngeal (VP) function and is largely attributed to the levator veli palatini (LVP) and musculus uvulae (MU). Studies have correlated a concave or flat nasal velar surface to symptoms of VP dysfunction including hypernasality and nasal air emission. In the context of surgical repair of cleft palates, the MU has been given relatively little attention in the literature compared with the larger LVP. A greater understanding of the mechanics of the MU will provide insight into understanding the influence of a dysmorphic MU, as seen in cleft palate, as it relates to VP function. The purpose of this study was to quantify the contributions of the MU to VP closure in a computational model. We created a novel 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the VP mechanism from magnetic resonance imaging data collected from an individual with healthy noncleft VP anatomy. The model components included the velum, posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW), LVP, and MU. Simulations were based on the muscle and soft tissue mechanical properties from the literature. We found that, similar to previous hypotheses, the MU acts as (i) a space-occupying structure and (ii) a velar extensor. As a space-occupying structure, the MU helps to nearly triple the midline VP contact length. As a velar extensor, the MU acting alone without the LVP decreases the VP distance 62%. Furthermore, activation of the MU decreases the LVP activation required for closure almost 3-fold, from 20% (without MU) to 8% (with MU). Our study suggests that any possible salvaging and anatomical reconstruction of viable MU tissue in a cleft patient may improve VP closure due to its mechanical function. In the absence or dysfunction of MU tissue, implantation of autologous or engineered tissues at the velar midline, as a possible substitute for the MU, may produce a geometric convexity more favorable to VP closure. In the future, more complex models will

  17. Carotid-Sparing TomoHelical 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chae-Seon; Oh, Dongryul; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Yong Chan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jin Sung; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). Conclusion TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage. PMID:25761477

  18. Novel 3-dimensional virtual hepatectomy simulation combined with real-time deformation

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Yukio; Yano, Hiroaki; Mitani, Jun; Kim, Sangtae; Kim, Jaejeong; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop a novel 3-dimensional (3D) virtual hepatectomy simulation software, Liversim, to visualize the real-time deformation of the liver. METHODS: We developed a novel real-time virtual hepatectomy simulation software program called Liversim. The software provides 4 basic functions: viewing 3D models from arbitrary directions, changing the colors and opacities of the models, deforming the models based on user interaction, and incising the liver parenchyma and intrahepatic vessels based on user operations. From April 2010 through 2013, 99 patients underwent virtual hepatectomies that used the conventional software program SYNAPSE VINCENT preoperatively. Between April 2012 and October 2013, 11 patients received virtual hepatectomies using the novel software program Liversim; these hepatectomies were performed both preoperatively and at the same that the actual hepatectomy was performed in an operating room. The perioperative outcomes were analyzed between the patients for whom SYNAPSE VINCENT was used and those for whom Liversim was used. Furthermore, medical students and surgical residents were asked to complete questionnaires regarding the new software. RESULTS: There were no obvious discrepancies (i.e., the emergence of branches in the portal vein or hepatic vein or the depth and direction of the resection line) between our simulation and the actual surgery during the resection process. The median operating time was 304 min (range, 110 to 846) in the VINCENT group and 397 min (range, 232 to 497) in the Liversim group (P = 0.30). The median amount of intraoperative bleeding was 510 mL (range, 18 to 5120) in the VINCENT group and 470 mL (range, 130 to 1600) in the Liversim group (P = 0.44). The median postoperative stay was 12 d (range, 6 to 100) in the VINCENT group and 13 d (range, 9 to 21) in the Liversim group (P = 0.36). There were no significant differences in the preoperative outcomes between the two groups. Liversim was not found to be clinically

  19. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  20. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  1. A Variational Property of the Velocity Distribution in a System of Material Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siboni, S.

    2009-01-01

    A simple variational property concerning the velocity distribution of a set of point particles is illustrated. This property provides a full characterization of the velocity distribution which minimizes the kinetic energy of the system for prescribed values of linear and angular momentum. Such a characterization is applied to discuss the kinetic…

  2. About measuring velocity dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellhauer, M.

    A lot of our knowledge about the dynamics and total masses of pressure dominated stellar systems relies on measuring the internal velocity disper- sion of the system. We assume virial equilibrium and that we are able to measure only the bound stars of the system without any contamination. This article shows how likely it is to measure the correct velocity dispersion in reality. It will show that as long as we have small samples of velocity mea- surements the distribution of possible outcomes can be very large and as soon as we have a source of error the velocity dispersion can wrong by several standard deviations especially in large samples.

  3. Whole-core comet solutions to a 3-dimensional PWR benchmark problem with gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with gadolinium was used to determine the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport method COMET. The benchmark problem contains 193 square fuel assemblies. The COMET solution (eigenvalue, assembly averaged and fuel pin averaged fission density distributions) was compared with those obtained from the corresponding Monte Carlo reference solution using the same 2-group material cross section library. The comparison showed that both the core eigenvalue and fission density distribution averaged over each assembly and fuel pin predicated by COMET agree very well with the corresponding MCNP reference solution if the incident flux response expansion used in COMET is truncated at 2nd order in the two spatial and the two angular variables. The benchmark calculations indicate that COMET has Monte Carlo accuracy. In, particular, the eigenvalue difference between the codes ranged from 17 pcm to 35 pcm, being within 2 standard deviations of the calculational uncertainty. The mean flux weighted relative differences in the assembly and fuel pin fission densities were 0.47% and 0.65%, respectively. It was also found that COMET's full (whole) core computational speed is 30,000 times faster than MCNP in which only 1/8 of the core is modeled. It is estimated that COMET would have been about over 6 orders of magnitude faster than MCNP if the full core were also modeled in MCNP. (authors)

  4. Velocities of rotation of chemically peculiar stars

    SciTech Connect

    Klochkova, V.G.; Kopylov, I.M.

    1985-10-01

    An analysis of the velocities of rotation of 77 peculiar stars, members of open clusters and associations in the age range log t = 6.4-8.7, was made based on observations with the OZSP spectrograph of the 6-m telescope. It was concluded that there is no loss of angular momentum by peculiar stars in the process of gravitational contraction as they approach the zero-age main sequence and in the stage of evolution within the main sequence. A statistically significant difference was obtained in the velocities of rotation of peculiar stars in different zones of the Scorpio-Centaurus association: Stars of the core (t = 4 million yr) rotate faster on the average than stars in the outer zones of the association (t = 12 million yr). 25 references.

  5. Statistical mechanics of collisionless orbits. IV. Distribution of angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens; Wojtak, Radosław E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown in previous work that DARKexp, which is a theoretically derived, maximum entropy, one shape parameter model for isotropic collisionless systems, provides very good fits to simulated and observed dark matter halos. Specifically, it fits the energy distribution, N(E), and the density profiles, including the central cusp. Here, we extend DARKexp N(E) to include the distribution in angular momentum, L {sup 2}, for spherically symmetric systems. First, we argue, based on theoretical, semi-analytical, and simulation results, that while dark matter halos are relaxed in energy, they are not nearly as relaxed in angular momentum, which precludes using maximum entropy to uniquely derive N(E, L {sup 2}). Instead, we require that when integrating N(E, L {sup 2}) over squared angular momenta one retrieves the DARKexp N(E). Starting with a general expression for N(E, L {sup 2}) we show how the distribution of particles in L {sup 2} is related to the shape of the velocity distribution function, VDF, and velocity anisotropy profile, β(r). We then demonstrate that astrophysically realistic halos, as judged by the VDF shape and β(r), must have linear or convex distributions in L {sup 2}, for each separate energy bin. The distribution in energy of the most bound particles must be nearly flat, and become more tilted in favor of radial orbits for less bound particles. These results are consistent with numerical simulations and represent an important step toward deriving the full distribution function for spherically symmetric dark matter halos.

  6. High Velocity Outflows in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Nestor, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    High velocity (HV) outflows are important components of SMBH growth and evolution. The ability of SMBHs to accrete matter and light up as AGN probably requires that outflows are present to carry away angular momentum. Outflows during the luminous AGN phase might also play a critical role in ``unveiling" young dust-enshrouded AGN and in ``polluting" the intergalactic medium with metals at high redshifts. Nonetheless, AGN outflows remain poorly understood. We have begun a program to study a nearly unexplored realm of AGN outflow parameter space: HV winds with v> 10,000 km/s up to v~ 0.2c but small velocity dispersions (narrow absorption lines), such that v/(Delta) v ≫ 1. These extreme outflows have been detected so far in just a few quasars, but they might be ubiquitous if, as expected, the flows subtend a small solid angle as seen from the central engine. Narrow-line HV flows merit specific attention because they pose unique challenges for theoretical models of the wind acceleration, mass loss rates, launch radii, etc. They might also comprise a significant fraction of absorbers previously attributed to unrelated (interveinng) gas or galaxies. We have compiled a list of bright quasars with candidate HV outflow lines (CIV 1550 A) in existing SDSS spectra. We now propose to observe ~50 of these candidates with the 2.1m GoldCam to i) identify/confirm some of the true outflow systems (based on line variability), ii) place a firm lower limit on the fraction of quasars with narrow-line HV outflows, iii) compile a short list of confirmed HV outflow sources for future study, and iv) use the combined SDSS and GoldCam data to measure or constrain basic outflow properties, such as the kinematics, locations, and physical conditions.

  7. Exploring Granular Flows at Intermediate Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; van der Elst, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical and geomorphological flows often encompass a wide range of strain rates. Landslides accelerate from nearly static conditions to velocities in the range of meters/seconds. The rheology of granular flows for the end-members is moderately well-understood, but the constitutive low at intermediate velocities is largely unexplored. Here we present evidence that granular flows transition through a regime in which internally generated acoustic waves play a critical role in controlling rheology. In laboratory experiments on natural sand under shear in a commercial rheometer, we observe that the steady-state flows at intermediate velocities are compacted relative to the end members. In a confined volume, this compaction results in a decrease in stress on the boundaries. We establish the key role of the acoustic waves by measuring the noise generated by the shear flows with an accelerometer and then exciting the flow with similar amplitude noise under lower shear rate conditions. The observed compaction for a given amplitude noise is the same in both cases, regardless of whether the noise is generated internally by the grains colliding or artificially applied externally. The boundaries of this acoustically controlled regime can be successfully predicted through non-dimensional analysis balancing the overburden, acoustic pressure and granular inertial terms. In our laboratory experiments, this regime corresponds to 0.1 to 10 cm/s. The controlling role of acoustic waves in intermediate velocities is significant because: (1) Geological systems must pass through this regime on their route to instability. (2) Acoustic waves are much more efficiently generated by angular particles, likely to be found in natural samples, than by perfectly spherical particles, which are more tractable for laboratory and theoretical studies. Therefore, this regime is likely to be missed in many analog and computational approaches. (3) Different mineralogies and shapes result in different

  8. Angular Momentum in Giant Molecular Clouds. I. The Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imara, Nia; Blitz, Leo

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis comparing the velocity fields in molecular clouds and the atomic gas that surrounds them in order to address the origin of the gradients. To that end, we present first-moment intensity-weighted velocity maps of the molecular clouds and surrounding atomic gas. The maps are made from high-resolution 13CO observations and 21 cm observations from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic H I Survey. We find that (1) the atomic gas associated with each molecular cloud has a substantial velocity gradient—ranging from 0.02 to 0.07 km s-1 pc-1—whether or not the molecular cloud itself has a substantial linear gradient. (2) If the gradients in the molecular and atomic gas were due to rotation, this would imply that the molecular clouds have less specific angular momentum than the surrounding H I by a factor of 1-6. (3) Most importantly, the velocity gradient position angles in the molecular and atomic gas are generally widely separated—by as much as 130° in the case of the Rosette molecular cloud. This result argues against the hypothesis that molecular clouds formed by simple top-down collapse from atomic gas.

  9. ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Imara, Nia; Blitz, Leo

    2011-05-10

    We present a detailed analysis comparing the velocity fields in molecular clouds and the atomic gas that surrounds them in order to address the origin of the gradients. To that end, we present first-moment intensity-weighted velocity maps of the molecular clouds and surrounding atomic gas. The maps are made from high-resolution {sup 13}CO observations and 21 cm observations from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Galactic H I Survey. We find that (1) the atomic gas associated with each molecular cloud has a substantial velocity gradient-ranging from 0.02 to 0.07 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1}-whether or not the molecular cloud itself has a substantial linear gradient. (2) If the gradients in the molecular and atomic gas were due to rotation, this would imply that the molecular clouds have less specific angular momentum than the surrounding H I by a factor of 1-6. (3) Most importantly, the velocity gradient position angles in the molecular and atomic gas are generally widely separated-by as much as 130 deg. in the case of the Rosette molecular cloud. This result argues against the hypothesis that molecular clouds formed by simple top-down collapse from atomic gas.

  10. The effect of the parameters of a dynamically tunable gyroscope on the accuracy of a compensating angular accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliusar, V. M.

    The effect of the parameters of a dynamically tunable gyroscope on the steady-state error of a two-component compensating angular accelerometer is analyzed for the dynamic mode of operation. It is shown that the position and velocity errors of the angular accelerometer in dynamic mode can be effectively reduced by using the integral law of the formation of balancing moments in the cross-feedback circuit.

  11. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. PMID:26743416

  12. Latitudinal Transport of Angular Momentum by Cellular Flows Observed with MDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Gilman, Peter A.; Beck, John G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed Doppler velocity images from the MDI instrument on SOHO to determine the latitudinal transport of angular momentum by the cellular photospheric flows. Doppler velocity images from 60-days in May to July of 1996 were processed to remove the p-mode oscillations, the convective blue shift, the axisymmetric flows, and any instrumental artifacts. The remaining cellular flows were examined for evidence of latitudinal angular momentum transport. Small cells show no evidence of any such transport. Cells the size of supergranules (30,000 km in diameter) show strong evidence for a poleward transport of angular momentum. This would be expected if supergranules are influenced by the Coriolis force, and if the cells are elongated in an east-west direction. We find good evidence for just such an east-west elongation of the supergranules. This elongation may be the result of differential rotation shearing the cellular structures. Data simulations of this effect support the conclusion that elongated supergranules transport angular momentum from the equator toward the poles, Cells somewhat larger than supergranules do not show evidence for this poleward transport. Further analysis of the data is planned to determine if the direction of angular momentum transport reverses for even larger cellular structures. The Sun's rapidly rotating equator must be maintained by such transport somewhere within the convection zone.

  13. Ice crystal terminal velocities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated, using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and almost any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The 'general' equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The 'specific' equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  14. Stepwise shockwave velocity determinator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Timothy E.; Beeson, Harold

    1992-01-01

    To provide an uncomplicated and inexpensive method for measuring the far-field velocity of a surface shockwave produced by an explosion, a stepwise shockwave velocity determinator (SSVD) was developed. The velocity determinator is constructed of readily available materials and works on the principle of breaking discrete sensors composed of aluminum foil contacts. The discrete sensors have an average breaking threshold of approximately 7 kPa. An incremental output step of 250 mV is created with each foil contact breakage and is logged by analog-to-digital instrumentation. Velocity data obtained from the SSVD is within approximately 11 percent of the calculated surface shockwave velocity of a muzzle blast from a 30.06 rifle.

  15. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  16. Mean Angular Momenta of Primary Photofission Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bezshyyko, O.A.; Kadenko, I.M.; Plujko, V.A.; Yermolenko, R.V.; Mazur, V.M.; Strilchuk, N.V.; Vishnevsky, I.M.; Zheltonozhsky, V.A.

    2005-05-24

    Isomer ratios and mean angular momenta for photofission products of 237Np and 238U are obtained. The technique of gamma-ray spectrometry for isomeric ratio determination was used. Fissionable nuclei were irradiated by bremsstrahlung spectrum of microtron M-30 with electron energy 16 MeV. Calculations of mean angular momenta were performed by modified version of the EMPIRE II code.

  17. Orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Gerald T.

    2010-05-15

    Analysis of the measured value of the integrated d-bar-u-bar asymmetry (I{sub fas} = 0.147 +- 0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.

  18. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlgans, Stephanie; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden ; Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  19. A Simple 3-Dimensional Printed Aid for a Corrective Palmar Opening Wedge Osteotomy of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Honigmann, Philipp; Thieringer, Florian; Steiger, Regula; Haefeli, Mathias; Schumacher, Ralf; Henning, Julia

    2016-03-01

    The reconstruction of malunited distal radius fractures is often challenging. Virtual planning techniques and guides for drilling and resection have been used for several years to achieve anatomic reconstruction. These guides have the advantage of leading to better operative results and faster surgery. Here, we describe a technique using a simple implant independent 3-dimensional printed drill guide and template to simplify the surgical reconstruction of a malunited distal radius fracture. PMID:26787406

  20. Manufacturing models of fetal malformations built from 3-dimensional ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography scan data.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Dos Santos, Jorge Roberto Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Technological innovations accompanying advances in medicine have given rise to the possibility of obtaining better-defined fetal images that assist in medical diagnosis and contribute toward genetic counseling offered to parents during the prenatal period. In this article, we show our innovative experience of diagnosing fetal malformations through correlating 3-dimensional ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography, which are accurate techniques for fetal assessment, with a fetal image reconstruction technique to create physical fetal models. PMID:24901782

  1. Optimum instantaneous impulsive orbital injection to attain a specified asymptotic velocity vector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    A nalysis of the necessary conditions of Battin for instantaneous orbital injection, with consideration of the uniqueness of his solution, and of the further problem which arises in the degenerate case when radius vector and asymptotic vector are separated by 180 deg. It is shown that when the angular separation between radius vector and asymptotic velocity vector satisfies theta not equal to 180 deg, there are precisely two insertion-velocity vectors which permit attainment of the target asymptotic velocity vector, one yielding posigrade, the other retrograde motion. When theta equals to 180 deg, there is a family of insertion-velocity vectors which permit attainment of a specified asymptotic velocity vector with a unique insertion-velocity vector for every arbitrary orientation of a target unit angular momentum vector.

  2. Water uptake by a maize root system - An explicit numerical 3-dimensional simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Daniel; Schnepf, Andrea; Klepsch, Sabine; Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for plant growth and function. An accurate modelling of the unsaturated flow is not only substantial to predict water uptake but also important to describe nutrient movement regarding water saturation and transport. In this work we present a model for water uptake. The model includes the simultaneous flow of water inside the soil and inside the root network. Water saturation in the soil volume is described by the Richards equation. Water flow inside the roots' xylem is calculated using the Poiseuille law for water flow in a cylindrical tube. The water saturation in the soil as well as water uptake of the root system is calculated numerically in three dimensions. We study water uptake of a maize plant in a confined pot under different supply scenarios. The main improvement of our approach is that the root surfaces act as spatial boundaries of the soil volume. Therefore water influx into the root is described by a surface flux instead of a volume flux, which is commonly given by an effective sink term. For the numerical computation we use the following software: The 3-dimensional maize root architecture is created by a root growth model based on L-Systems (Leitner et al 2009). A mesh of the surrounding soil volume is created using the meshing software DistMesh (Persson & Strang 2004). Using this mesh the partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a. Modelling results are related to accepted water uptake models from literature (Clausnitzer & Hopmans 1994, Roose & Fowler 2004, Javaux et al 2007). This new approach has several advantages. By considering the individual roots it is possible to analyse the influence of overlapping depletion zones due to inter root competition. Furthermore, such simulations can be used to estimate the influence of simplifying assumptions that are made in the development of effective models. The model can be easily combined with a nutrient

  3. Quantification of mitral apparatus dynamics in functional and ischemic mitral regurgitation using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Federico; Corsi, Cristiana; Sugeng, Lissa; Caiani, Enrico G; Weinert, Lynn; Mor-Avi, Victor; Cerutti, Sergio; Lamberti, Claudio; Lang, Roberto M

    2008-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) and MR in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ISC-MR) usually occurs as a result of mitral annulus (MA) dilatation and papillary muscle displacement secondary to global left ventricle remodelling. We propose a method to determine MA area and motion throughout the cardiac cycle and to define papillary muscle position in 3-dimensional space using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 24 healthy individuals, and in 30 patients with DCM-MR (n = 15) or ISC-MR (n = 15). Significant intergroup differences were noted in MA surface area (control: 6.4 +/- 1.7 cm(2); DCM-MR: 11.1 +/- 2.6 cm(2); ISC-MR: 9.0 +/- 2.0 cm(2)) and in peak MA motion (control: 8.7 +/- 3.0 mm; DCM-MR: 3.4 +/- 1.7 mm; ISC-MR: 4.9 +/- 1.5 mm). In patients with DCM-MR, papillary muscle symmetry was preserved, whereas in patients with ISC-MR, papillary tethering lengths were unequal as a result of wall-motion abnormalities. Our methodology for dynamic volumetric measurements of the mitral apparatus allows better understanding of MR mechanisms. PMID:17681731

  4. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values.

  5. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values. 21 refs.

  6. Three-dimensional transonic potential flow about complex 3-dimensional configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhner, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis has been developed and a computer code written to predict three-dimensional subsonic or transonic potential flow fields about lifting or nonlifting configurations. Possible condfigurations include inlets, nacelles, nacelles with ground planes, S-ducts, turboprop nacelles, wings, and wing-pylon-nacelle combinations. The solution of the full partial differential equation for compressible potential flow written in terms of a velocity potential is obtained using finite differences, line relaxation, and multigrid. The analysis uses either a cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate system. The computational mesh is not body fitted. The analysis has been programmed in FORTRAN for both the CDC CYBER 203 and the CRAY-1 computers. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurement are presented. Descriptions of the program input and output formats are included.

  7. Two-component LDV investigation of 3-dimensional shock/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, C. C.; Holt, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mean-velocity and turbulence measurements obtained by two-component laser Doppler velocimetry are presented, together with numerical predictions, for the shock-related separation of a turbulent boundary layer at Mach 2.85. The basic geometry, a 30 deg half-angle flare mounted on a long cylinder, is made three-dimensional by tipping the flare at an angle of attack, alpha. The separation length and general upstream influence increase with alpha. A recirculating vortex in the separated zone becomes stronger as three-dimensionality increases. A large-scale unsteadiness of the separation shock wave and surrounding flowfields grows in amplitude with alpha, and appears to strongly influence the amplification of turbulence correlations ahead of detachment. Scaling of the streamwise coordinate by separation length causes two-dimensional and three-dimensional data profiles on the cylinder to collapse for most measured quantities.

  8. Absolute plate velocities from seismic anisotropy: Importance of correlated errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard G.; Kreemer, Corné

    2014-09-01

    The errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are shown to be correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. Our preferred set of angular velocities, SKS-MORVEL, is determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25 ± 0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ = 19.2°) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ = 21.6°). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ = 7.4°) than for continental lithosphere (σ = 14.7°). Two of the slowest-moving plates, Antarctica (vRMS = 4 mm a-1, σ = 29°) and Eurasia (vRMS = 3 mm a-1, σ = 33°), have two of the largest within-plate dispersions, which may indicate that a plate must move faster than ≈ 5 mm a-1 to result in seismic anisotropy useful for estimating plate motion. The tendency of observed azimuths on the Arabia plate to be counterclockwise of plate motion may provide information about the direction and amplitude of superposed asthenospheric flow or about anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle.

  9. Cephalometric Angular Measurements of the Mandible Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Scans in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Kang, Seok Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this study to analyze the values of the key cephalometric angular measurements of the mandible using 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography scans. Methods In the 106 enrolled patients, a 3D cephalometric analysis was performed to measure the angular variables of the mandible. These values were compared between the two sides and between the two sexes. Results The frontal measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the left (Lt) side (right [Rt], 141.24±7.54; Lt, 142.68±6.94; P=0.002) and the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P<0.001). The sagittal measurements showed that the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P>0.05). Further, the transverse measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 140.28±7.05; Lt, 137.56±6.23; P<0.001). Conclusions These results provide an average of the mandibular angular measurements for the Korean population, establishing a standard for determining surgical patient groups and outcome evaluations in the field of mandible contour surgery. PMID:26848443

  10. Predicting inelastic rovibrational state distributions from an energy constrained angular momentum mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, R. J.; McCaffery, A. J.

    2001-06-01

    We present a quantitative version of the velocity-angular momentum plots of Besley et al. that we have used extensively to represent the key processes at work in collisional transfer mechanisms. Rotational state distributions are obtained by incorporating probability distributions of the relevant variables, and the Monte Carlo (MC) trajectory technique is used to sample these distributions. The method is illustrated with the case of weakly quasi-resonant vibration rotation transfer in A( 1Σ u+) Li2+ Ne collisions. The results show excellent agreement with published experimental data, indicating the apparent dominance of the factors governing angular momentum (AM) conversion in shaping rovibrational distributions.

  11. FAME Radial Velocity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.; Gould, A.

    2000-12-01

    Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) belongs to a new generation of astrometry satellites and will probe the surrounding space some 20 times deeper than its predecessor Hipparcos. As a result we will acquire precise knowledge of 5 out of 6 components of phase-space for millions of stars. The remaining coordinate, radial velocity, will remain unknown. In this study, we look at how the knowledge of radial velocity affects the determination of the structure of the Galaxy, and its gravitational potential. We therefore propose a radial velocity survey of FAME stars, and discuss its feasibility and technical requirements.

  12. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  13. Investigation of Slipstream Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1925-01-01

    These experiments were made at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to investigate the velocity of the air in the slipstream in horizontal and climbing flight to determine the form of expression giving the slipstream velocity in terms of the airspeed of the airplane. The method used consisted in flying the airplane both on a level course and in climb at full throttle and measuring the slipstream velocity at seven points in the slipstream for the whole speed range of the airplane in both conditions. In general the results show that for both condition, horizontal and climbing flights, the slipstream velocity v subscript 3 and airspeed v can be represented by straight lines and consequently the equations are of the form: v subscript s = mv+b where m and b are constant. (author)

  14. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  15. Velocity of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method for the determination of the velocity of sound using a dual oscilloscope on which is displayed the sinusoidal input into a loudspeaker and the signal picked up by a microphone. (GS)

  16. Lift distributions for a 3-dimensional steady blade-vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Norman, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of a horizontally mounted V23010-1.58 semispan airfoil (simulating a helicopter rotor blade) with a tip vortex shed by a vertically mounted upstream vortex-generating wing (VGW) is investigated experimentally at 60 m/s (dynamic pressure 2.2 kPa, Reynolds number 850,000, and Mach number 0.17) in the NASA Ames 7 x 10-ft wind tunnel. The velocity field near the blade is determined using a three-dimensional zoom LDV; the spanwise lift distribution is measured by strain gages; and the results are compared with the predictions of the panel computer code VSAERO (Maskew, 1982) in graphs. Features noted include localized loss of lift due to the presence of residual VGW wake, loss of lift far inboard on the blade (indicating the large domain of VGW vorticity), little change in total lift with variations in vortex strength, and good agreement between VSAERO and experiment in overall lift distribution but not in all geometric variations).

  17. Development of a liquid jet model for implementation in a 3-dimensional Eularian analysis tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschman, Francis X., III

    The ability to model the thermal behavior of a nuclear reactor is of utmost importance to the reactor designer. Condensation is an important phenomenon when modeling a reactor system's response to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). Condensation is even more important with the use of passive safety systems which rely on condensation heat transfer for long term cooling. The increasing use of condensation heat transfer, including condensation on jets of water, in safety systems puts added pressure to correctly model this phenomenon with thermal-hydraulic system and sub-channel analysis codes. In this work, a stand alone module with which to simulate condensation on a liquid jet was developed and then implemented within a reactor vessel analysis code to improve that code's handling of jet condensation. It is shown that the developed liquid jet model vastly improves the ability of COBRA-TF to model condensation on turbulent liquid jets. The stand alone jet model and the coupled liquid jet COBRA-TF have been compared to experimental data. Jet condensation heat transfer experiments by Celata et al. with a variety of jet diameters, velocities, and subcooling were utilized to evaluate the models. A sensitivity study on the effects of noncondensables on jet condensation was also carried out using the stand alone jet model.

  18. Broadband measurement of translational and angular vibrations using a single continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Sabra, Karim G

    2012-09-01

    A continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry (CSLDV) technique is used to measure the low frequency broadband vibrations associated with human skeletal muscle vibrations (typically f < 100 Hz) by continuously varying the orientation of laser beam over distances that are short compared to the characteristic wavelengths of the vibrations. The high frequency scan (compared to the vibration frequency) enables the detection of broadband translational and angular velocities at a single point using amplitude demodulation of the CSDLV signal. For instance, linear scans allow measurement of the normal surface velocity and one component of angular velocity vector, while circular scans allow measurement of an additional angular velocity component. This CSLDV technique is first validated here using gel samples mimicking soft tissues and then applied to measure multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) of a subject's hand exhibiting fatigue-induced tremor. Hence this CSLDV technique potentially provides a means for measuring multiple DOF of small human body parts (e.g., fingers, tendons, small muscles) for various applications (e.g., haptic technology, remote surgery) when the use of skin-mounted sensors (e.g. accelerometers) can be problematic due to mass-loading artifacts or tethering issues. PMID:22978867

  19. Evidence for Infalling Gas of Low Angular Momentum toward the L1551 NE Keplerian Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Lim, Jeremy; Saigo, Kazuya

    2013-10-01

    We report follow-up C18O(3-2) line observations of the Class I binary protostellar system L1551 NE with the Submillimeter Array in its compact and subcompact configurations. Our previous observations at a higher angular resolution in the extended configuration revealed a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion. The combined data, with more extensive spatial coverage (~140-2000 AU), verify the presence of a Keplerian circumbinary disk and reveal for the first time a distinct low-velocity (lsim ± 0.5 km s-1 from the systemic velocity) component that displays a velocity gradient along the minor axis of the circumbinary disk. Our simple model that reproduces the main features seen in the position-velocity diagrams comprises a circumbinary disk exhibiting Keplerian motion out to a radius of ~300 AU, beyond which the gas exhibits pure infall at a constant velocity of ~0.6 km s-1. This velocity is significantly smaller than the expected free-fall velocity of ~2.2 km s-1 onto the L1551 NE protostellar mass of ~0.8 M ⊙ at ~300 AU, suggesting that the infalling gas is decelerated as it moves into regions of high gas pressure in the circumbinary disk. The discontinuity in angular momenta between the outer infalling gas and the inner Keplerian circumbinary disk implies an abrupt transition in the effectiveness at which magnetic braking is able to transfer angular momentum outward, a result perhaps of the different plasma β values and the ionization fractions between the outer and inner regions of the circumbinary disk.

  20. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  1. Stellar Angular Diameter Relations for Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; von Braun, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Determining the physical properties of microlensing events depends on having accurate angular radii of the source star. Using long-baseline optical interferometry we are able to determine the angular sizes of nearby stars with uncertainties less than 2 percent. We present empirical estimates of angular diameters for both dwarfs/subgiants and giant stars as functions of five color indices which are relevant to planned microlensing surveys. We find in all considered colors that metallicity does not play a statistically significant role in predicting stellar size for the samples of stars considered.

  2. Angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.; Dines, E.L.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Lisle, J.C.; Schmitt, R.P.; Majka, Z.; Nebbia, G.

    1987-12-01

    The angular momentum dependence of large fragment production in long-lived reactions is studied by measurements of fragment cross sections from reactions with substantially different angular momentum distributions and the coincident ..gamma..-ray multiplicity distributions. The results indicate that the primary l-wave distributions move to larger mean values and decrease in width and skewness with increasing mass symmetry in the decay channel. The results also confirm that the partition of angular momentum kinetic energy relaxed heavy-ion reactions is that expected for a rigidly rotating intermediate.

  3. Optical Mixing of Rydberg Angular Momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, J.D.; Stroud, C.R., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    When optical frequency fields are used to couple a ground state to a Rydberg state, the resonant dipole coupling is to a low angular momentum state. Higher angular momentum states are typically thought not to play a role in the excitation. The extremely large dipole matrix elements coupling Rydberg states of the same n but differing l , however, allow optical fields of modest strengths to produce Rabi frequencies larger than optical frequencies. We demonstrate that these optical fields can therefore readily excite the higher angular momentum states, and we examine the consequences of this coupling. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatori, W.; Mai, P. M.

    2013-02-01

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth's crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0-10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2-5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5-10 per cent range

  5. Discretising the velocity distribution for directional dark matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.

    2015-07-01

    Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed v within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins N and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only N=3 angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around 01-30% in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing N. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter.

  6. Discretising the velocity distribution for directional dark matter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.

    2015-07-13

    Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed v within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins N and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only N=3 angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around 10–30% in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing N. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter.

  7. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  8. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  9. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  10. Calculates Angular Quadrature Weights and Cosines.

    1988-02-18

    DSNQUAD calculates the angular quadrature weights and cosines for use in CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL. The subroutines in DSNQUAD were lifted from the XSDRN-PM code, which is supplied with the CCC-475/ SCALIAS-77 package.

  11. Development of 3-dimensional time-dependent density functional theory and its application to gas diffusion in nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu

    2016-05-11

    I developed a novel time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and applied it to complicated 3-dimensional systems for the first time. Superior to conventional TDDFT, the diffusion coefficient is modeled as a function of density profile, which is self-determined by the entropy scaling rule instead using an input parameter. The theory was employed to mimic gas diffusion in a nanoporous material. The TDDFT prediction on the transport diffusivity was reasonable compared to simulations. Moreover, the time-dependent density profiles gave an insight into the microscopic mechanism of the diffusion process. PMID:27121986

  12. 3-dimensional local field polarization vector mapping of a focused radially polarized beam using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J S; Kihm, H W; Kihm, J E; Kim, D S; Lee, K G

    2009-02-16

    We have measured local electric field polarization vectors in 3-dimensional space on the nanoscale. A radial polarized light is generated by using a radial polarization converter and focused by an objective lens. Gold nanoparticle functionalized tips are used to scatter the focused field into the far-field region. Two different methods, rotational analyzer ellipsometry and Stokes parameters, are used in determining the polarization state of the scattered light. Two methods give consistent results with each other. Three dimensional local polarization vectors could be reconstructed by applying back transformation of the fully characterized polarizability tensor of the tip. PMID:19219131

  13. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  14. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm. PMID:27587137

  15. A Method for Creating Thermal and Angular Momentum Fluxes in Nonperiodic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Kelsey M; Gezelter, J Daniel

    2014-05-13

    We present a new reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method that can be used with nonperiodic simulation cells. This method applies thermal and/or angular momentum fluxes between two arbitrary regions of the simulation and is capable of creating stable temperature and angular velocity gradients while conserving total energy and angular momentum. One particularly useful application is the exchange of kinetic energy between two concentric spherical regions, which can be used to generate thermal transport between nanoparticles and the solvent that surrounds them. The rotational couple to the solvent (a measure of interfacial friction) is also available via this method. As tests of the new method, we have computed the thermal conductivities of gold nanoparticles and water clusters, the interfacial thermal conductivity (G) of a solvated gold nanoparticle, and the interfacial friction of a variety of solvated gold nanostructures. PMID:26580518

  16. Anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a harmonic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-08-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate an anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams in a harmonic potential. We pick noncentrosymmetric beams of common interest that carry orbital angular momentum. The examples studied include superposed Bessel-Gauss (BG), Laguerre-Gauss (LG), and circular Airy (CA) beams. For the BG beams, periodic inversion, phase transition, and rotation with periodic angular velocity are demonstrated during propagation. For the LG and CA beams, periodic inversion and variable rotation are still there but not the phase transition. On the whole, the "center of mass" and the orbital angular momentum of a beam exhibit harmonic motion, but the motion of the beam intensity distribution in detail is subject to external and internal torques and forces, causing it to be anharmonic. Our results are applicable to other superpositions of finite circularly asymmetric beams. PMID:26274660

  17. Angular performance measure for tighter uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Hradil, Z.; Rehacek, J.; Klimov, A. B.; Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

    2010-01-15

    The uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which we can measure conjugate quantities. However, the fluctuations of these variables can be assessed in terms of different estimators. We propose an angular performance that allows for tighter uncertainty relations for angle and angular momentum. The differences with previous bounds can be significant for particular states and indeed may be amenable to experimental measurement with the present technology.

  18. Angular wander measurements of maser clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutel, Robert L.

    Angular wander measurements of the relative positions of closely spaced maser features provides a powerful probe of interstellar turbulence associated with regions of star formation. Differential angular wander is easily measured in a maser complex and can strongly distinguish between shallow and steep power-law turbulence. The best candidates for such measurements appear to be the 6 and 12 GHz type II methanol masers.

  19. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during northward IMF conditions: Global 3-Dimensional MHD simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    double-vortex sheet, with vortex trains propagating along the inner and outer edges of the boundary layer. The double-vortex sheet is most apparent in the simulation past the terminator plane, but is transient and appears to be unstable, and is most likely a consequence of non-linear development of the velocity shear layer with a finite width. We compute the salient characteristics of the KH waves, including phase speeds, spectra and growth rates. The latter are compared with linear theory and found to be in excellent agreement. Finally, we find that the plasma compressibility is a key factor in controlling the growth rate of the KHI at the magnetosphere flanks in our simulations.

  20. Geometric absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konz, C.; Benford, Gregory

    2003-10-01

    Circularly polarized electromagnetic fields carry both energy and angular momentum. We investigate the conditions under which a circularly polarized wave field transfers angular momentum to a perfectly conducting macroscopic object, using exact electromagnetic wave theory in a steady-state calculation. We find that axisymmetric perfect conductors cannot absorb or radiate angular momentum when illuminated. However, any asymmetry allows absorption. A rigorous, steady-state solution of the boundary value problem for the reflection from a perfectly conducting infinite wedge shows that waves convey angular momentum at the edges of asymmetries. Conductors can also radiate angular momentum, so their geometric absorption coefficient for angular momentum can be negative. Such absorption or radiation depends solely on the specific geometry of the conductor. The geometric absorption coefficient can be as high as 0.8, and the coefficient for radiation can be -0.4, larger than typical material absorption coefficients. We apply the results to recent experiments which spun roof-shaped aluminum sheets with polarized microwave beams. Applications of geometric, instead of material, absorption can be quite varied. Though experiments testing these ideas will be simpler at microwavelengths, the ideas work for optical ones as well.

  1. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James N; McCall, Benjamin J

    2016-05-14

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined. PMID:27179476

  2. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  3. The Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2016-05-01

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean (λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large (λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  4. Orbital angular momentum loss in PSR 1957 + 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banit, Menashe; Shaham, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that the companion winds, excited by the radiation from the neutron star in PSR 1957 + 20 form only through the combined action of the radiation heat on the companion's atmosphere and the radiation force on the slowly lifting wind. Ballistic simulations suggest that these winds leave only from selected areas of the illuminated surface of the companion; surface currents channel into these regions relatively hot (but altogether cooler than the companion escape velocity) 'coronal' matter from the whole illuminated area. Under suitable conditions, wind particles spend some time trailing the companion at close distances before taking off to escape from the system. This can torque the binary into angular momentum loss that will be as efficient as the one recently observed in PSR 1957 + 20 if the companion is bloated to dimensions close to that of the Roche lobe.

  5. The Evershed Effect with 0.2 arcsec Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Bonet, J. A.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2006-12-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of penumbral spectra observed with unprecedented angular resolution (0.2 arcsec) using the new Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. The use of a non-magnetic line allows us to measure Doppler shifts without magnetic contamination. The observed Doppler shifts depend on the part of the line used for measuring, indicating that the velocity structure of penumbrae remains unresolved even with our resolution. We find a correlation between upflows and bright filaments. This association is not specific of the outer penumbra but it also occurs in the inner penumbra. The existence of such correlation was originally reported by tet{m1 BS69}, and it is suggestive of energy transport by convection in penumbrae.

  6. A detection system with broad angular acceptance for particle identification and angular distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    A new detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements has been designed and constructed. This device is composed by an ionization chamber with a segmented-grid anode and three position-sensitive silicon detectors. This particular arrangement allows identifying reaction products emitted within a 30° wide angular range with better than 1° angular resolution. As a demonstration of its capabilities, angular distributions of the elastic scattering cross-section and the production of alpha particles in the 7Li+27Al system, at an energy above the Coulomb barrier, are presented.

  7. Angular momentum exchange in white dwarf binaries accreting through direct impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sepinsky, J. F.; Kalogera, V. E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu

    2014-04-20

    We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, as well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected numbers of

  8. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Shoulder Complex Kinematics in Individuals With and Without Shoulder Pain, Part 2: Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    LAWRENCE, REBEKAH L.; BRAMAN, JONATHAN P.; STAKER, JUSTIN L.; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.; LUDEWIG, PAULA M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To compare differences in glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals during shoulder motion performed in 3 planes of humerothoracic elevation. BACKGROUND Numerous clinical theories have linked abnormal glenohumeral kinematics, including decreased glenohumeral external rotation and increased superior translation, to individuals with shoulder pain and impingement diagnoses. However, relatively few studies have investigated glenohumeral joint angular motion and linear translations in this population. METHODS Transcortical bone pins were inserted into the scapula and humerus of 12 a symptomatic and 10 symptomatic participants for direct bone-fixed tracking using electromagnetic sensors. Glenohumeral joint angular positions and linear translations were calculated during active shoulder flexion, abduction, and scapular plane abduction. RESULTS Differences between groups in angular positions were limited to glenohumeral elevation, coinciding with a reduction in scapulothoracic upward rotation. Symptomatic participants demonstrated 1.4 mm more anterior glenohumeral translation between 90° and 120° of shoulder flexion and an average of 1 mm more inferior glenohumeral translation throughout shoulder abduction. CONCLUSION Differences in glenohumeral kinematics exist between symptomatic and a symptomatic individuals. The clinical implications of these differences are not yet understood, and more research is needed to understand the relationship between abnormal kinematics, shoulder pain, and pathoanatomy. PMID:25103132

  9. MSE velocity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimd, C.; Courtois, H.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    A huge velocity survey based on the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer facility (MSE) is proposed, aiming at investigating the structure and dynamics of the cosmic web over 3π steradians up to ˜1 Gpc and at unprecedented spatial resolution, its relationship with the galaxy formation process, and the bias between galaxies and dark matter during the last three billions years. The cross-correlation of velocity and density fields will further allow the probe any deviation from General Relativity by measuring the the linear-growth rate of cosmic structures at precision competitive with high-redshift spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  10. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  11. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  12. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  13. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  14. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  15. Open and disconnected magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections in the solar wind: Evidence for 3-dimensional reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Birn, J.; McComas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Hesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of suprathermal electron fluxes in the solar wind at energies greater than approximatley 80 eV indicate that magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections. CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, a preliminary reexamination of events previously identified as CMEs in the ISEE 3 data reveals that about 1/4 of all such events contain limited regions where field lines appear to be either connected to the Sun at only one end or connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends. Similar intervals of open and disconnected field lines within CMEs have been identified in the Ulysses observations. We believe that these anomalous field topologies within CMEs are most naturally interpreted in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation both for the flux rope topology of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration solar soft X ray events. Although detailed numerical simulations of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs are not yet available, such simulations have been done for the qualitatively similar geometry that prevails within the geomagnetic tail. Those simulations of plasmoid formation in the geomagnetic tail do produce the mixture of field topologies within plasmoids discussed here for CMEs.

  16. Angular and spectral distribution of infrared synchrotron radiation emitted by an undulator and its edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucara, Alessandro; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela; Marcouille, Oliver; Roy, Pascale; Calvani, Paolo; Giura, P.; Paolone, A.; Mathis, Yves-Laurent

    1999-10-01

    Both the angular and the spectral distribution of the Infrared Synchrotron Radiation emitted by an undulator of Super-ACO have been measured. Structures due to undulator edges, as well as contributions from the edge emission of a bending magnet placed behind the undulator, have been observed. Detailed calculations including all these sources are in excellent agreement with the measurements, provided that both velocity and acceleration terms are considered.

  17. Visual reaction times during prolonged angular acceleration parallel the subjective perception of rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.

  18. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  19. Signal processing related to the vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined angular rotation and linear translation of the head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrea, R. A.; Chen-Huang, C.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The contributions of vestibular nerve afferents and central vestibular pathways to the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflex were studied in squirrel monkeys during fixation of near and far targets. Irregular vestibular afferents did not appear to be necessary for the LVOR, since when they were selectively silenced with galvanic currents the LVOR was essentially unaffected during both far- and near-target viewing. The linear translation signals generated by secondary AVOR neurons in the vestibular nuclei were, on average, in phase with head velocity, inversely related to viewing distance, and were nearly as strong as AVOR-related signals. We suggest that spatial-temporal transformation of linear head translation signals to angular eye velocity commands is accomplished primarily by the addition of viewing distance multiplied, centrally integrated, otolith regular afferent signals to angular VOR pathways.

  20. Angular relationships regulate coordination tendencies of performers in attacker-defender dyads in team sports.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro T; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Davids, Keith; Esteves, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the continuous interpersonal interactions of performers in dyadic systems in team sports, as a function of changing information constraints. As a task vehicle, we investigated how attackers attained success in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball by exploring angular relations with immediate opponents and the basket. We hypothesized that angular relations would convey information for the attackers to dribble past defenders. Four basketball players performed as an attacker and defender in 1v1 sub-phases of basketball, in which the co-positioning and orientation of participants relative to the basket was manipulated. After video recording performance behaviors, we digitized participant movement displacement trajectories and categorized trials as successful or unsuccessful (from the attackers' viewpoint). Results revealed that, to successfully dribble past a defender, attackers tended to explore the left hand side of the space by defenders by increasing their angular velocity and decreasing their angular variability, especially in the center of the court. Interpersonal interactions and goal-achievement in attacker-defender dyads appear to have been constrained by the angular relations sustained between participants relative to the scoring target. Results revealed the functionality of exploratory behaviors of participants attempting re-align spatial relations with an opponent in 1v1 sub-phases of team games. PMID:25625811